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galanin receptor

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987550/implication-of-galanin-gene-rs948854-polymorphism-in-depressive-symptoms-in-adolescents
#1
Fernanda da Conceição Machado, Livia Victorino de Souza, Marina Rangel, Zaira Palomino Jara, Maria do Carmo Franco
Genetic, social, and environmental conditions contribute to the development of depression, but the pathophysiological mechanisms are still unclear. Data accumulated in recent years provide significant evidence for a direct role of galanin (GAL). This study aimed to investigate the relation between SNPs in the galaninergic system and depressive symptoms in adolescents. A total of112 adolescents aged 10-18years participated in this study. The Children Depression Inventory (CDI) was used to evaluate depressive symptoms...
October 13, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901800/changes-in-expression-of-neuropeptides-and-their-receptors-in-the-hypothalamus-and-gastrointestinal-tract-of-calorie-restricted-hens
#2
Ádám Simon, János Oláh, István Komlósi, András Jávor, József Németh, Zoltán Szilvássy, Dóra Reglődi, Andrea Tamás, Levente Czeglédi
The list of orexigenic and anorexigenic peptides, those are known to alter feed intake, is continuously growing. However, most of them are studied in mammalian species. We aimed to investigate plasma level and mRNA expression of the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), gene expression of its receptor (PAC1), furthermore the gene expression of galanin (GAL), neuromedin U (NMU), and its two receptors (NMUR1 and NMUR2) in the hypothalamus, proventriculus, and jejunum of hens exposed to 40% calorie restriction...
September 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852050/neurotransmitters-and-neuropeptides-in-gonadal-steroid-receptor-expressing-cells-in-medial-preoptic-area-subregions-of-the-male-mouse
#3
Yousuke Tsuneoka, Sachine Yoshida, Kenkichi Takase, Satoko Oda, Masaru Kuroda, Hiromasa Funato
Testosterone is involved in male sexual, parental and aggressive behaviors through the androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptor (ER) α expressed in the brain. Although several studies have demonstrated that ERα and AR in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) are required for exhibiting sexual and aggressive behaviors of male mice, the molecular characteristics of ERα- and AR-expressing cells in the mouse MPOA are largely unknown. Here, we performed in situ hybridization for neurotransmitters and neuropeptides, combined with immunohistochemistry for ERα and AR to quantitate and characterize gonadal steroid receptor-expressing cells in the MPOA subregions of male mice...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844939/lack-of-galanin-receptor-3-alleviates-psoriasis-by-altering-vascularization-immune-cell-infiltration-and-cytokine-expression
#4
Felix Locker, Silvia Vidali, Barbara S Holub, Julia Stockinger, Susanne M Brunner, Sabine Ebner, Andreas Koller, Andrea Trost, Herbert A Reitsamer, David Schwarzenbacher, Roland Lang, Barbara Kofler
The neuropeptide galanin is distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and in non-neuronal peripheral organs, including the skin. Galanin acts via three G protein-coupled receptors which, except galanin receptor 1, are expressed in various skin structures. The galanin system has been associated with inflammatory processes of the skin and of several other organs. Psoriasis is an inflammatory skin disease with increased neo-vascularization, keratinocyte hyperproliferation, a pro-inflammatory cytokine milieu, and immune cell infiltration...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805559/effect-of-stress-on-the-expression-of-galanin-receptors-in-rat-heart
#5
J Šípková, P Šída, N Kaspříková, I Kramáriková, S Hynie, V Klenerová
Neuropeptide galanin, galanin-like peptide and galanin receptors 1, 2 and 3 are a crucial part of the so-called galaninergic system. Our previous studies have shown the possible role of this system in mood modulation, especially regarding stress. So far, the galanin receptors have been found in different tissues including brain and heart. Our study deals with changes in expression of galanin receptor subtypes in the heart of Wistar rats exposed to three different types of stress. Galanin receptor subtypes were determined in fluorescently labelled samples using specific primary antibodies, and all sections were analysed in an immunofluorescent microscope and microphotographs...
2017: Folia Biologica (Praha)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730831/the-galanin-and-galanin-receptor-subtypes-its-regulatory-role-in-the-biological-and-pathological-functions
#6
J Šípková, I Kramáriková, S Hynie, V Klenerová
The multitalented neuropeptide galanin was first discovered 30 years ago but initially no biologic activity was found. Further research studies discovered the presence of galanin in the brain and some peripheral tissues, and galanin was identified as a modulator of neurotransmission in the central and peripheral nervous system. Over the last decade there were performed very intensive studies of the neuronal actions and also of nonneuronal actions of galanin. Other galanin family peptides have been described, namely galanin, galanin-like peptide, galanin-message associated peptide and alarin...
July 18, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729853/role-of-melatonin-galanin-and-rfamide-neuropeptides-qrfp26-and-qrfp43-in-the-neuroendocrine-control-of-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-function
#7
REVIEW
Iacopo Gesmundo, Tania Villanova, Dana Banfi, Giacomo Gamba, Riccarda Granata
Glucose homeostasis is finely regulated by a number of hormones and peptides released mainly from the brain, gastrointestinal tract, and muscle, regulating pancreatic secretion through cellular receptors and their signal transduction cascades. The endocrine function of the pancreas is controlled by islets within the exocrine pancreatic tissue that release hormones like insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, pancreatic polypeptide, and ghrelin. Moreover, both exocrine and endocrine pancreatic functions are regulated by a variety of hormonal and neural mechanisms, such as ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, or the inhibitory peptide somatostatin...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725181/impact-of-proestrus-on-gene-expression-in-the-medial-preoptic-area-of-mice
#8
Csaba Vastagh, Zsolt Liposits
The antero-ventral periventricular zone (AVPV) and medial preoptic area (MPOA) have been recognized as gonadal hormone receptive regions of the rodent brain that-via wiring to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons-contribute to orchestration of the preovulatory GnRH surge. We hypothesized that neural genes regulating the induction of GnRH surge show altered expression in proestrus. Therefore, we compared the expression of 48 genes obtained from intact proestrous and metestrous mice, respectively, by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) method...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720509/the-neuropeptide-galanin-promotes-an-anti-thrombotic-phenotype-on-endocardial-endothelial-cells-from-heart-failure-patients
#9
Christina Tyrrell, Amanda Toyooka, Faiza Khan, Kent L Thornburg, James O Mudd, Wohaib Hasan
Thromboembolic complications are a significant cause of mortality and re-hospitalization in heart failure (HF) patients. One source of thrombi is the ventricular endocardial surface that becomes increasingly pro-thrombotic as HF progresses. Anticoagulation comes with bleeding risks so identifying therapeutic agents for improving cardiac endothelial health are of critical clinical importance. Endocardial endothelial cells are closely apposed to cardiac sympathetic nerves. In HF, cardiac sympathetic nerves are dysregulated and promote disease progression...
September 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648499/light-dependent-regulation-of-sleep-and-wake-states-by-prokineticin-2-in-zebrafish
#10
Shijia Chen, Sabine Reichert, Chanpreet Singh, Grigorios Oikonomou, Jason Rihel, David A Prober
Light affects sleep and wake behaviors by providing an indirect cue that entrains circadian rhythms and also by inducing a direct and rapid regulation of behavior. While circadian entrainment by light is well characterized at the molecular level, mechanisms that underlie the direct effect of light on behavior are largely unknown. In zebrafish, a diurnal vertebrate, we found that both overexpression and mutation of the neuropeptide prokineticin 2 (Prok2) affect sleep and wake behaviors in a light-dependent but circadian-independent manner...
July 5, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636888/responsiveness-of-pituitary-to-galanin-throughout-the-reproductive-cycle-of-male-european-sea-bass-dicentrarchus-labrax
#11
P Pinto, Z Velez, C Sousa, S Santos, A Andrade, M V Alvarado, A Felip, S Zanuy, A V M Canário
The neuropeptide galanin (Gal) is a putative factor regulating puberty onset and reproduction through its actions on the pituitary. The present study investigated the pituitary responsiveness to galanin and the patterns of galanin receptors (Galrs) expression throughout the reproductive cycle of two years old male European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), an important aquaculture species. Quantitative analysis of pituitary and hypothalamus transcript expression of four galr subtypes revealed differential regulation according to the testicular developmental stage, with an overall decrease in expression from the immature stage to the mid-recrudescence stage...
June 19, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580231/hormones-and-neuropeptide-receptor-heteromers-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area-targets-for-the-treatment-of-loss-of-control-of-food-intake-and-substance-use-disorders
#12
REVIEW
Sergi Ferré
Hormones and neuropeptides represent biological correlates of internal homeostatic signals detected and integrated in the hypothalamus, which establishes a robust functional connection with the ventral tegmental area (VTA). The hypothalamus-VTA connection determines the ability of these signals to influence central dopaminergic neurotransmission and, therefore, their ability to increase responsiveness to their reward-associated stimuli and to establish appropriate associative learning. The hypothalamus also provides the main source of the multiple neuropeptides that are released in the VTA...
2017: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540352/dataset-on-galanin-receptor-3-mutants-that-improve-recombinant-receptor-expression-and-stability-in-an-agonist-and-antagonist-bound-form
#13
Thao T Ho, Jasmine T Nguyen, Juping Liu, Pawel Stanczak, Aaron A Thompson, Yingzhuo G Yan, Jasmine Chen, Charles K Allerston, Charles L Dillard, Hao Xu, Nicholas J Shoger, Jill S Cameron, Mark E Massari, Kathleen Aertgeerts
Galanin Receptor 3 (GALR3) is a G-protein-coupled receptor with a widespread distribution in the brain and plays a role in a variety of physiologic processes including cognition/memory, sensory/pain processing, hormone secretion, and feeding behavior. Therefore, GALR3 is considered an attractive CNS drug target (Freimann et al., 2015) [1]. This dataset contains GALR3 point mutants that improve recombinant protein expression and thermal stability of the receptor contained in virus-like particles (VLPs) or obtained by detergent-purification of baculovirus-infected insect cells...
June 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525358/galanin-suppresses-proliferation-of-human-u251-and-t98g-glioma-cells-via-its-subtype-1-receptor
#14
REVIEW
Zhu Mei, Yutao Yang, Yun Li, Feiya Yang, Junfa Li, Nianzeng Xing, Zhi-Qing David Xu
Galanin is a neuropeptide with a widespread distribution throughout the nervous and endocrine systems, and recent studies have shown an anti-proliferative effect of galanin on several types of tumors. However, whether and how galanin and its receptors are involved in the regulation of cell proliferation in glioma cells remains unclear. In this study, the roles of galanin and its subtype 1 receptor (GAL1) in the proliferation of human U251 and T98G glioma cells were investigated. We found that galanin significantly suppressed the proliferation of U251 and T98G cells as well as tumor growth in nude mice...
September 26, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434790/short-n-terminal-galanin-fragments-are-occurring-naturally-in-vivo
#15
Robert Ihnatko, Elvar Theodorsson
The galanin family currently consists of four peptides, namely galanin, galanin-message associated peptide, galanin-like peptide and alarin. Unlike galanin that signals through three different G protein-coupled receptors; GAL1, GAL2, and GAL3, binding at its N-terminal end, the cognate receptors for other members of the galanin family are currently unknown. Research using short N-terminal galanin fragments generated either by enzymatic cleavage or solid-phase synthesis has revealed differences in their receptor binding properties exerting numerous biological effects distinct from galanin(1-29) itself...
April 7, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431685/galr3-mediates-galanin-proliferative-effects-on-postnatal-hippocampal-precursors
#16
D Khan, M Khan, Johan Runesson, M Zaben, W P Gray
Galanin, a neuropeptide co-released from noradrenergic and serotonergic projection neurons to the dentate gyrus, has recently emerged as an important mediator for signaling neuronal activity to the subgranular neurogenic stem cell niche supporting adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Galanin and its receptors appear to play key roles in depression-like behavior, and effects on hippocampal neurogenesis are relevant to pharmacological strategies for treating depression, which in part appear to rely on restoring altered neurogenesis...
April 5, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422162/a-comparative-analysis-of-human-and-mouse-islet-g-protein-coupled-receptor-expression
#17
Stefan Amisten, Patricio Atanes, Ross Hawkes, Inmaculada Ruz-Maldonado, Bo Liu, Fariborz Parandeh, Min Zhao, Guo Cai Huang, Albert Salehi, Shanta J Persaud
G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are essential for islet function, but most studies use rodent islets due to limited human islet availability. We have systematically compared the GPCR mRNA expression in human and mouse islets to determine to what extent mouse islets can be used as surrogates for human islets to study islet GPCR function, and we have identified species-specific expression of several GPCRs. The A3 receptor (ADORA3) was expressed only in mouse islets and the A3 agonist MRS 5698 inhibited glucose-induced insulin secretion from mouse islets, with no effect on human islets...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382595/preclinical-analgesic-and-safety-evaluation-of-the-galr2-preferring-analog-nax-810-2
#18
Cameron S Metcalf, Misty D Smith, Brian D Klein, Daniel R McDougle, Liuyin Zhang, Grzegorz Bulaj
The potential clinical utility of galanin peptidic analogs has been hindered by poor metabolic stability, lack of brain penetration, and hyperglycemia. In addition to possessing potent anticonvulsant efficacy, galanin analogs are analgesic in various assays. The purpose of these studies was to evaluate the lead galanin receptor type 2 (GalR2)-preferring analog, NAX 810-2, in various pain assays, as well as determine any potential for insulin inhibition, growth hormone stimulation, and cognitive impairment. NAX 810-2 was evaluated in mouse (carrageenan, formalin, tail flick, plantar incision) and rat pain models (partial sciatic nerve ligation)...
July 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378856/involvement-of-galanin-and-galanin-receptor-2-in-nociceptive-modulation-in-anterior-cingulate-cortex-of-normal-rats-and-rats-with-mononeuropathy
#19
Meng-Lin Zhang, Hong-Bo Wang, Feng-Hua Fu, Long-Chuan Yu
The present study was performed to explore the role of galanin and galanin receptor 2 in nociceptive modulation in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) of normal rats and rats with mononeuropathy. Intra-ACC injection of galanin induced significant increases in hindpaw withdrawal latencies (HWLs) to thermal and mechanical stimulations in both normal rats and rats with mononeuropathy, the increased HWLs were attenuated significantly by intra-ACC injection of galanin receptor 2 antagonist M871, indicating an involvement of galanin receptor 2 in nociceptive modulation in ACC...
April 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288814/galanin-1-15-enhancement-of-the-behavioral-effects-of-fluoxetine-in-the-forced-swimming-test-gives-a-new-therapeutic-strategy-against-depression
#20
Antonio Flores-Burgess, Carmelo Millón, Belén Gago, Manuel Narváez, Dasiel O Borroto-Escuela, Guadalupe Mengod, José Angel Narváez, Kjell Fuxe, Luis Santín, Zaida Díaz-Cabiale
The pharmacological treatment of major depression is mainly based on drugs elevating serotonergic (5-HT) activity. Specifically, selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitors, including Fluoxetine (FLX), are the most commonly used for treatment of major depression. However, the understanding of the mechanism of action of FLX beyond its effect of elevating 5-HT is limited. The interaction between serotoninergic system and neuropeptides signaling could be a key aspect. We examined the ability of the neuropeptide Galanin(1-15) [GAL(1-15)] to modulate the behavioral effects of FLX in the forced swimming test (FST) and studied feasible molecular mechanisms...
May 15, 2017: Neuropharmacology
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