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galanin receptor

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608654/the-ventrolateral-medulla-and-medullary-raphe-in-sudden-unexpected-death-in-epilepsy
#1
Smriti Patodia, Alyma Somani, Megan O'Hare, Ranjana Venkateswaran, Joan Liu, Zuzanna Michalak, Matthew Ellis, Ingrid E Scheffer, Beate Diehl, Sanjay M Sisodiya, Maria Thom
Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is a leading cause of premature death in patients with epilepsy. One hypothesis proposes that sudden death is mediated by post-ictal central respiratory depression, which could relate to underlying pathology in key respiratory nuclei and/or their neuromodulators. Our aim was to investigate neuronal populations in the ventrolateral medulla (which includes the putative human pre-Bötzinger complex) and the medullary raphe. Forty brainstems were studied comprising four groups: 14 SUDEP, six epilepsy controls, seven Dravet syndrome cases and 13 non-epilepsy controls...
March 28, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596063/neuronal-hypothalamic-regulation-of-body-metabolism-and-bone-density-is-galanin-dependent
#2
Anna Idelevich, Kazusa Sato, Kenichi Nagano, Glenn Rowe, Francesca Gori, Roland Baron
In the brain, the ventral hypothalamus (VHT) regulates energy and bone metabolism. Whether this regulation uses the same or different neuronal circuits is unknown. Alteration of AP1 signaling in the VHT increases energy expenditure, glucose utilization, and bone density, yet the specific neurons responsible for each or all of these phenotypes are not identified. Using neuron-specific genetically targeted AP1 alterations as a tool in adult mice, we found that AgRP- or POMC- expressing neurons, predominantly present in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) within the VHT, stimulate whole body energy expenditure, glucose utilization and bone formation and density, although their effects on bone resorption differed...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550465/galanin-administration-partially-restores-erectile-function-after-cavernous-nerve-injury-and-mediates-endogenous-nitrergic-nerve-outgrowth-in-vitro
#3
Emmanuel Weyne, Johanna L Hannan, Thomas Gevaert, Yodi Soebadi, Hotaka Matsui, Fabio Castiglione, Koenraad van Renterghem, Dirk De Ridder, Frank Van der Aa, Trinity J Bivalacqua, Maarten Albersen
BACKGROUND: Previously, we found that the neuropeptide galanin was strongly upregulated soon after bilateral cavernous nerve injury (BCNI) and that galanin and its receptors were expressed in nitrergic erectile innervation. Galanin has been observed to exert neuroregenerative effects in dorsal root ganglion neurons, but evidence for these effects in the major pelvic ganglion (MPG) after BCNI is lacking. AIM: To evaluate the neurotropic effects of galanin receptor agonists and antagonists in vitro in nitrergic neurons and MPG and in vivo in rats after BCNI...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500446/significance-of-risk-polymorphisms-for-depression-depends-on-stress-exposure
#4
Xenia Gonda, Gabor Hullam, Peter Antal, Nora Eszlari, Peter Petschner, Tomas Gm Hökfelt, Ian Muir Anderson, John Francis William Deakin, Gabriella Juhasz, Gyorgy Bagdy
Depression is a polygenic and multifactorial disorder where environmental effects exert a significant impact, yet most genetic studies do not consider the effect of stressors which may be one reason for the lack of replicable results in candidate gene studies, GWAS and between human studies and animal models. Relevance of functional polymorphisms in seven candidate genes previously implicated in animal and human studies on a depression-related phenotype given various recent stress exposure levels was assessed with Bayesian relevance analysis in 1682 subjects...
March 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499176/dorsal-hippocampal-galanin-modulates-anxiety-like-behaviours-in-rats
#5
V R Funck, M P Fracalossi, A P P Vidigal, V Beijamini
Galanin, a peptide expressed in mammalian brain regions, has been implicated in anxiety and depression. Galanin signalling occurs through three G protein-linked receptors (GAL1 , GAL2 and GAL3 ). Galanin regulates the release of neurotransmitters in some brain regions related to anxiety, including the hippocampus. GAL2 is the most abundant galanin receptor in the dorsal hippocampus. In this study, we evaluated whether galanin administered in the dorsal hippocampus affected anxiety-like behaviours of rats. We also investigated if GAL2 receptors are involved in the anxiogenic-like effect of galanin using a GAL2 antagonist, M871...
February 27, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485883/enhanced-delivery-of-galanin-conjugates-to-the-brain-through-bioengineering-of-the-anti-transferrin-receptor-antibody-ox26
#6
George Thom, Matthew Burrell, Arsalan S Haqqani, Alvaro Yogi, Etienne Lessard, Eric Brunette, Christie Delany, Ewa Baumann, Deborah Callaghan, Natalia Rodrigo, Carl I Webster, Danica B Stanimirovic
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a formidable obstacle for brain delivery of therapeutic antibodies. However, antibodies against the transferrin receptor (TfR), enriched in brain endothelial cells, have been developed as delivery carriers of therapeutic cargos into the brain via a receptor-mediated transcytosis pathway. In vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that either a low-affinity or mono-valent binding of these antibodies to the TfR improves their release on the abluminal side of the BBB and target engagement in brain parenchyma...
February 27, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462183/galanin-is-an-epigenetically-silenced-tumor-suppressor-gene-in-gastric-cancer-cells
#7
Daseul Yoon, Kieun Bae, Min-Kyeong Lee, Jin Hee Kim, Kyong-Ah Yoon
Galanin is a 30 amino-acid active neuropeptide that acts via three G-protein coupled galanin receptors, GALR1, GALR2 and GALR3. Recently, GALR1 was also suggested as a tumor suppressor gene that was frequently silenced in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma; moreover, galanin and GALR1 were reported to inhibit human oral cancer cell proliferation. However, the exact role of galanin in gastric cancer is unclear. Here, we describe the epigenetic silencing of galanin in human gastric cancer. Five gastric cancer cell lines (SNU-1, SNU-601, SNU-638, KATOIII, and AGS) showed a significant reduction in galanin expression that was restored by the demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355530/spexin-as-a-neuroendocrine-signal-with-emerging-functions
#8
REVIEW
Ani Ma, Jin Bai, Mulan He, Anderson O L Wong
Spexin (SPX), a novel peptide coevolved with the galanin/kisspeptin family, was first identified by bioinformatics prior to its protein purification/functional studies. Its mature peptide is highly conserved among different vertebrate classes. Based on the studies in mammals and fish models, SPX was found to be widely distributed at tissue level, secreted into systemic circulation, identified at notable levels in central nervous system and peripheral tissues, and has been confirmed/implicated in multiple functions in different tissues/organs, suggesting that SPX may serve as a neuroe​ndocrine signal with pleotropic functions...
January 20, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307711/recurrent-circuitry-for-balancing-sleep-need-and-sleep
#9
Jeffrey M Donlea, Diogo Pimentel, Clifford B Talbot, Anissa Kempf, Jaison J Omoto, Volker Hartenstein, Gero Miesenböck
Sleep-promoting neurons in the dorsal fan-shaped body (dFB) of Drosophila are integral to sleep homeostasis, but how these cells impose sleep on the organism is unknown. We report that dFB neurons communicate via inhibitory transmitters, including allatostatin-A (AstA), with interneurons connecting the superior arch with the ellipsoid body of the central complex. These "helicon cells" express the galanin receptor homolog AstA-R1, respond to visual input, gate locomotion, and are inhibited by AstA, suggesting that dFB neurons promote rest by suppressing visually guided movement...
January 17, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275211/up-regulation-of-pomc-and-cart-mrnas-by-intermittent-hypoxia-via-gata-transcription-factors-in-human-neuronal-cells
#10
Ryogo Shobatake, Ken Takasawa, Hiroyo Ota, Asako Itaya-Hironaka, Akiyo Yamauchi, Sumiyo Sakuramoto-Tsuchida, Tomoko Uchiyama, Mai Makino, Kazuma Sugie, Shin Takasawa, Satoshi Ueno
Sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) is characterized by intermittent hypoxia (IH) during sleep. SAS and obesity are strongly related to each other. Here, we investigated the effect of IH on the expression of major appetite regulatory genes in human neuronal cells. We exposed NB-1, SH-SY5Y, and SK-N-SH human neuronal cells to IH (64 cycles of 5 min hypoxia and 10 min normoxia), normoxia, or sustained hypoxia for 24 h and measured the mRNA levels of proopiomelanocortin (POMC), cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), galanin, galanin-like peptide, ghrelin, pyroglutamylated RFamide peptide, agouti-related peptide, neuropeptide Y, and melanocortin 4 receptor by real-time RT-PCR...
February 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210146/central-administration-of-galanin-n-terminal-fragment-1-15-decreases-the-voluntary-alcohol-intake-in-rats
#11
Carmelo Millón, Antonio Flores-Burgess, Estela Castilla-Ortega, Belén Gago, María García-Fernandez, Antonia Serrano, Fernando Rodriguez de Fonseca, José Angel Narváez, Kjell Fuxe, Luis Santín, Zaida Díaz-Cabiale
Alcohol consumption is considered a major risk factor for disease and mortality worldwide. In the absence of effective treatments in alcohol use disorders, it is important to find new biological targets that could modulate alcohol consumption. We tested the role of the N-terminal galanin fragment (1-15) [GAL(1-15)] in voluntary ethanol consumption in rats using the two-bottle choice paradigm as well as compare the effects of GAL(1-15) with the whole molecule of GAL. We describe for the first time that GAL(1-15), via central mechanisms, induces a strong reduction in preference and ethanol consumption in rats...
December 6, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183756/activiated-galanin-receptor-2-attenuates-insulin-resistance-in-skeletal-muscle-of-obese-mice
#12
Penghua Fang, Lei Zhang, Mei Yu, Zhongqi Sheng, Mingyi Shi, Yan Zhu, Zhenwen Zhang, Ping Bo
The results of our and other's studies showed that activation of galanin receptor 1 could mitigate insulin resistance via promoting glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) expression and translocation in the skeletal muscle of rats. But no literature are available regarding the effect of galanin receptor 2 (GALR2) on insulin resistance in skeletal muscle of type 2 diabetes. Herein, in this study we intended to survey the effect of GALR2 and its signal mechanisms in the mice with high fat diet-induced obese. The mice were intraperitoneally injected with vehicle, GALR2 agonist M1145 and antagonist M871 respectively once a day for continuous 21 days...
January 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127424/involvement-of-galanin-and-galanin-receptor-1-in-nociceptive-modulation-in-the-central-nucleus-of-amygdala-in-normal-and-neuropathic-rats
#13
Shi-Yang Li, Mei-Ling Huo, Xu-Yang Wu, Yu-Qing Huang, Lei Wang, Xin Zhang, Yan-Mei Jiang, Meng-Lin Zhang, Lin-Lin Wang, Long-Chuan Yu
The present study was performed to explore the role of galanin and galanin receptor 1 (GalR 1) in nociceptive modulation in the central nucleus of amygdala (CeA) in normal rats and rats with neuropathy, and the involvement of GalR 1 and PKC was also investigated. The hindpaw withdrawal latencies (HWLs) to thermal and mechanical stimulations were increased in a dose-dependent manner after intra-CeA injection of galanin in both normal rats and rats with neuropathy. The increased HWLs were significantly attenuated by intra-CeA injection of galanin receptor antagonist M40, indicating an involvement of galanin receptor in nociceptive modulation in CeA...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066557/neuromedin-b-expression-defines-the-mouse-retrotrapezoid-nucleus
#14
Yingtang Shi, Ruth L Stornetta, Daniel S Stornetta, Suna Onengut-Gumuscu, Emily A Farber, Stephen D Turner, Patrice G Guyenet, Douglas A Bayliss
The retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) consists, by definition, of Phox2b-expressing, glutamatergic, non-catecholaminergic, noncholinergic neurons located in the parafacial region of the medulla oblongata. An unknown proportion of RTN neurons are central respiratory chemoreceptors and there is mounting evidence for biochemical diversity among these cells. Here, we used multiplexed in situ hybridization and single-cell RNA-Seq in male and female mice to provide a more comprehensive view of the phenotypic diversity of RTN neurons...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987550/implication-of-galanin-gene-rs948854-polymorphism-in-depressive-symptoms-in-adolescents
#15
Fernanda da Conceição Machado, Livia Victorino de Souza, Marina Rangel, Zaira Palomino Jara, Maria do Carmo Franco
Genetic, social, and environmental conditions contribute to the development of depression, but the pathophysiological mechanisms are still unclear. Data accumulated in recent years provide significant evidence for a direct role of galanin (GAL). This study aimed to investigate the relation between SNPs in the galaninergic system and depressive symptoms in adolescents. A total of112 adolescents aged 10-18years participated in this study. The Children Depression Inventory (CDI) was used to evaluate depressive symptoms...
January 2018: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901800/changes-in-expression-of-neuropeptides-and-their-receptors-in-the-hypothalamus-and-gastrointestinal-tract-of-calorie-restricted-hens
#16
Ádám Simon, János Oláh, István Komlósi, András Jávor, József Németh, Zoltán Szilvássy, Dóra Reglődi, Andrea Tamás, Levente Czeglédi
The list of orexigenic and anorexigenic peptides, those are known to alter feed intake, is continuously growing. However, most of them are studied in mammalian species. We aimed to investigate plasma level and mRNA expression of the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), gene expression of its receptor (PAC1), furthermore the gene expression of galanin (GAL), neuromedin U (NMU), and its two receptors (NMUR1 and NMUR2) in the hypothalamus, proventriculus, and jejunum of hens exposed to 40% calorie restriction...
September 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852050/neurotransmitters-and-neuropeptides-in-gonadal-steroid-receptor-expressing-cells-in-medial-preoptic-area-subregions-of-the-male-mouse
#17
Yousuke Tsuneoka, Sachine Yoshida, Kenkichi Takase, Satoko Oda, Masaru Kuroda, Hiromasa Funato
Testosterone is involved in male sexual, parental and aggressive behaviors through the androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptor (ER) α expressed in the brain. Although several studies have demonstrated that ERα and AR in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) are required for exhibiting sexual and aggressive behaviors of male mice, the molecular characteristics of ERα- and AR-expressing cells in the mouse MPOA are largely unknown. Here, we performed in situ hybridization for neurotransmitters and neuropeptides, combined with immunohistochemistry for ERα and AR to quantitate and characterize gonadal steroid receptor-expressing cells in the MPOA subregions of male mice...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844939/lack-of-galanin-receptor-3-alleviates-psoriasis-by-altering-vascularization-immune-cell-infiltration-and-cytokine-expression
#18
Felix Locker, Silvia Vidali, Barbara S Holub, Julia Stockinger, Susanne M Brunner, Sabine Ebner, Andreas Koller, Andrea Trost, Herbert A Reitsamer, David Schwarzenbacher, Roland Lang, Barbara Kofler
The neuropeptide galanin is distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and in non-neuronal peripheral organs, including the skin. Galanin acts via three G protein-coupled receptors which, except galanin receptor 1, are expressed in various skin structures. The galanin system has been associated with inflammatory processes of the skin and of several other organs. Psoriasis is an inflammatory skin disease with increased neovascularization, keratinocyte hyperproliferation, a proinflammatory cytokine milieu, and immune cell infiltration...
January 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805559/effect-of-stress-on-the-expression-of-galanin-receptors-in-rat-heart
#19
J Šípková, P Šída, N Kaspříková, I Kramáriková, S Hynie, V Klenerová
Neuropeptide galanin, galanin-like peptide and galanin receptors 1, 2 and 3 are a crucial part of the so-called galaninergic system. Our previous studies have shown the possible role of this system in mood modulation, especially regarding stress. So far, the galanin receptors have been found in different tissues including brain and heart. Our study deals with changes in expression of galanin receptor subtypes in the heart of Wistar rats exposed to three different types of stress. Galanin receptor subtypes were determined in fluorescently labelled samples using specific primary antibodies, and all sections were analysed in an immunofluorescent microscope and microphotographs...
2017: Folia Biologica (Praha)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730831/the-galanin-and-galanin-receptor-subtypes-its-regulatory-role-in-the-biological-and-pathological-functions
#20
J Šípková, I Kramáriková, S Hynie, V Klenerová
The multitalented neuropeptide galanin was first discovered 30 years ago but initially no biologic activity was found. Further research studies discovered the presence of galanin in the brain and some peripheral tissues, and galanin was identified as a modulator of neurotransmission in the central and peripheral nervous system. Over the last decade there were performed very intensive studies of the neuronal actions and also of nonneuronal actions of galanin. Other galanin family peptides have been described, namely galanin, galanin-like peptide, galanin-message associated peptide and alarin...
November 24, 2017: Physiological Research
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