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galanin receptor

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288814/galanin-1-15-enhancement-of-the-behavioral-effects-of-fluoxetine-in-the-forced-swimming-test-gives-a-new-therapeutic-strategy-against-depression
#1
Antonio Flores-Burgess, Carmelo Millón, Belen Gago, Manuel Narváez, Dasiel O Borroto-Escuela, Guadalupe Mengod, José Angel Narváez, Kjell Fuxe, Luis Santín, Zaida Díaz-Cabiale
The pharmacological treatment of major depression is mainly based on drugs elevating serotonergic (5-HT) activity. Specifically, selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitors, including Fluoxetine (FLX), are the most commonly used for treatment of major depression. However, the understanding of the mechanism of action of FLX beyond its effect of elevating 5-HT is limited. The interaction between serotoninergic system and neuropeptides signalling could be a key aspect. We examined the ability of the neuropeptide Galanin(1-15) [GAL(1-15)] to modulate the behavioral effects of FLX in the forced swimming test (FST) and studied feasible molecular mechanisms...
March 10, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274821/the-galanin-3-receptor-antagonist-snap-37889-suppresses-alcohol-drinking-and-morphine-self-administration-in-mice
#2
Karlene J Scheller, Spencer J Williams, Andrew J Lawrence, Elvan Djouma
The neuropeptide, galanin, is widely expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and is involved in a range of different functions including nociception, neurogenesis, hormone release, reproduction, cognitive function and appetite. Given the overlap between galanin expression and reward circuitry in the brain, galanin has been targeted for alcohol use disorder (AUD) and opioid dependency. Furthermore, the galanin-3 receptor (GAL3) specifically regulates emotional states and plays a role in motivation, reward and drug-seeking behaviour...
March 6, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270751/understanding-the-role-of-gpcr-heteroreceptor-complexes-in-modulating-the-brain-networks-in-health-and-disease
#3
REVIEW
Dasiel O Borroto-Escuela, Jens Carlsson, Patricia Ambrogini, Manuel Narváez, Karolina Wydra, Alexander O Tarakanov, Xiang Li, Carmelo Millón, Luca Ferraro, Riccardo Cuppini, Sergio Tanganelli, Fang Liu, Malgorzata Filip, Zaida Diaz-Cabiale, Kjell Fuxe
The introduction of allosteric receptor-receptor interactions in G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) heteroreceptor complexes of the central nervous system (CNS) gave a new dimension to brain integration and neuropsychopharmacology. The molecular basis of learning and memory was proposed to be based on the reorganization of the homo- and heteroreceptor complexes in the postjunctional membrane of synapses. Long-term memory may be created by the transformation of parts of the heteroreceptor complexes into unique transcription factors which can lead to the formation of specific adapter proteins...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203483/galanin-protects-from-caspase-8-12-initiated-neuronal-apoptosis-in-the-ischemic-mouse-brain-via-galr1
#4
Yun Li, Zhu Mei, Shuiqiao Liu, Tong Wang, Hui Li, Xiao-Xiao Li, Song Han, Yutao Yang, Junfa Li, Zhi-Qing David Xu
Galanin (GAL) plays key role in many pathophysiological processes, but its role in ischemic stroke remains unclear. Here, the models of 1 h middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)/1-7 d reperfusion (R)-induced ischemic stroke and in vitro cell ischemia of 1 h oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)/24 h reoxygenation in primary cultured cortical neurons were used to explore GAL's effects and its underlying mechanisms. The results showed significant increases of GAL protein levels in the peri-infarct region (P) and infarct core (I) within 48 h R of MCAO mice (p<0...
February 2017: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196718/the-neuropeptide-galanin-is-up-regulated-during-cholestasis-and-contributes-to-cholangiocyte-proliferation
#5
Matthew McMillin, Gabriel Frampton, Stephanie Grant, Sharon DeMorrow
During the course of cholestatic liver diseases, mitotically dormant cholangiocytes proliferate and subsequently acquire a neuroendocrine phenotype. Galanin is a neuroendocrine factor responsible for regulation of physiological responses, such as feeding behavior and mood, and has been implicated in the development of fatty liver disease, although its role in biliary hyperplasia is unknown. Biliary hyperplasia was induced in rats via bile duct ligation (BDL) surgery, and galanin was increased in serum and liver homogenates from BDL rats...
February 11, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196617/the-neuropeptides-galanin-and-galanin-1-15-in-depression-like-behaviours
#6
REVIEW
Carmelo Millón, Antonio Flores-Burgess, Manuel Narváez, Dasiel O Borroto-Escuela, Belén Gago, Luis Santín, Estela Castilla-Ortega, José Ángel Narváez, Kjell Fuxe, Zaida Díaz-Cabiale
Galanin is a 29 amino acid neuropeptide widely distributed in neurons within the central nervous system. Galanin exerts its biological activities through three different G protein-receptors and participates in a number of functions, including mood regulation. Not only Galanin but also Galanin N-terminal fragments like Galanin(1-15) are active at the central level. In this work, we review the latest findings in studies on Galanin and Galanin(1-15) in depression-related behaviours. Our focus is on animal models for depression, and we pay some attention to research data obtained in human studies...
January 31, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178884/improved-post-thaw-function-and-epigenetic-changes-in-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-cryopreserved-using-multicomponent-osmolyte-solutions
#7
Kathryn Pollock, Rebekah M Samsonraj, Amel Dudakovic, Roman Thaler, Aron Stumbras, David H McKenna, Peter I Dosa, Andre J van Wijnen, Allison Hubel
Current methods for freezing mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) result in poor post-thaw function, which limits the clinical utility of these cells. This investigation develops a novel approach to preserve MSCs using combinations of sugars, sugar alcohols, and small-molecule additives. MSCs frozen using these solutions exhibit improved post-thaw attachment and a more normal alignment of the actin cytoskeleton compared to cells exposed to dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). Osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation assays show that cells retain their mesenchymal lineage properties...
March 15, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098336/preclinical-evaluation-of-intravenous-nax-810-2-a-novel-galr2-preferring-analog-for-anticonvulsant-efficacy-and-pharmacokinetics
#8
Cameron S Metcalf, Brian D Klein, Daniel R McDougle, Liuyin Zhang, Dan Kaufmann, Grzegorz Bulaj, H Steve White
OBJECTIVE: Potential clinical utility of galanin or peptidic analogs has been hindered by poor metabolic stability, lack of brain penetration, and hyperglycemia due to galanin receptor subtype 1 (GalR1) activation. NAX 810-2, a galanin receptor subtype 2 (GalR2)-preferring galanin analog, possesses 15-fold greater affinity for GalR2 over GalR1 and protects against seizures in the mouse 6 Hz, corneal kindling, and Frings audiogenic seizure models. The purpose of these studies was to further evaluate the preclinical efficacy and pharmacokinetics of NAX 810-2 in mice...
February 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079752/changes-in-dorsal-root-ganglion-gene-expression-in-response-to-spinal-cord-stimulation
#9
Dana M Tilley, David L Cedeño, Courtney A Kelley, Margaret DeMaegd, Ramsin Benyamin, Ricardo Vallejo
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been shown to influence pain-related genes in the spinal cord directly under the stimulating electrodes. There is limited information regarding changes occurring at the dorsal root ganglion (DRG). This study evaluates gene expression in the DRG in response to SCS therapy. METHODS: Rats were randomized into experimental or control groups (n = 6 per group). Experimental animals underwent spared-nerve injury, implantation of lead, and continuous SCS (72 hours)...
March 2017: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062253/spinal-neuropeptide-expression-and-neuropathic-behavior-in-the-acute-and-chronic-phases-after-spinal-cord-injury-effects-of-progesterone-administration
#10
María F Coronel, Marcelo J Villar, Pablo R Brumovsky, Susana L González
Patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) develop chronic pain that severely compromises their quality of life. We have previously reported that progesterone (PG), a neuroprotective steroid, could offer a promising therapeutic strategy for neuropathic pain. In the present study, we explored temporal changes in the expression of the neuropeptides galanin and tyrosine (NPY) and their receptors (GalR1 and GalR2; Y1R and Y2R, respectively) in the injured spinal cord and evaluated the impact of PG administration on both neuropeptide systems and neuropathic behavior...
February 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035367/redistribution-of-adrenomedullary-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-subunits-and-the-effect-on-circulating-epinephrine-levels-in-a-murine-model-of-acute-asthma
#11
Xi Chen, Juntao Feng, Chengping Hu, Qingwu Qin, Yuanyuan Li, Ling Qin
The lack of circulating epinephrine (EPI) in the pathogenesis of asthma has long been attributed to the lack of adrenergic nerves in human airways. However, in this study we considered that EPI levels are regulated by EPI release in addition to synthesis. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have been shown to control EPI release, and we hypothesized that redistribution of nAChR subunits modulates EPI release and circulating EPI levels. Using a mouse model of asthma, circulating EPI levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays...
February 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028605/neuropeptide-systems-and-new-treatments-for-nicotine-addiction
#12
REVIEW
Adriaan W Bruijnzeel
RATIONALE: The mildly euphoric and cognitive enhancing effects of nicotine play a role in the initiation of smoking, while dysphoria and anxiety associated with smoking cessation contribute to relapse. After the acute withdrawal phase, smoking cues, a few cigarettes (i.e., lapse), and stressors can cause relapse. Human and animal studies have shown that neuropeptides play a critical role in nicotine addiction. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this paper is to describe the role of neuropeptide systems in the initiation of nicotine intake, nicotine withdrawal, and the reinstatement of extinguished nicotine seeking...
December 28, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013000/galanin-contributes-to-monoaminergic-dysfunction-and-to-dependent-neurobehavioral-comorbidities-of-epilepsy
#13
Jesus-Servando Medel-Matus, Don Shin, Raman Sankar, Andrey Mazarati
Status epilepticus (SE) in rats, along with chronic epilepsy, leads to the development of behavioral impairments resembling depressive disorder and/or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), thus reflecting respective comorbidities in epilepsy patients. Suppressed neurotransmitter tone in the raphe nucleus (RN)-prefrontal cortex (PFC) serotonergic pathway and in the locus coeruleus (LC)-PFC noradrenergic pathway underlies depressive- and impulsive-like behavioral deficits respectively. We examined possible mechanisms leading to the monoamine dysfunction in brainstem efferents, namely modulatory effects of the neuropeptide galanin on serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) signaling...
March 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007761/functional-%C3%AE-opioid-galanin-receptor-heteromers-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area
#14
Estefanía Moreno, César Quiroz, William Rea, Ning-Sheng Cai, Josefa Mallol, Antoni Cortés, Carme Lluís, Enric I Canela, Vicent Casadó, Sergi Ferré
The neuropeptide galanin has been shown to interact with the opioid system. More specifically, galanin counteracts the behavioral effects of the systemic administration of μ-opioid receptor (MOR) agonists. Yet the mechanism responsible for this galanin-opioid interaction has remained elusive. Using biophysical techniques in mammalian transfected cells, we found evidence for selective heteromerization of MOR and the galanin receptor subtype Gal1 (Gal1R). Also in transfected cells, a synthetic peptide selectively disrupted MOR-Gal1R heteromerization as well as specific interactions between MOR and Gal1R ligands: a negative cross talk, by which galanin counteracted MAPK activation induced by the endogenous MOR agonist endomorphin-1, and a cross-antagonism, by which a MOR antagonist counteracted MAPK activation induced by galanin...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002640/activation-of-galanin-and-cholecystokinin-receptors-in-the-lumbosacral-spinal-cord-is-required-for-ejaculation-in-male-rats
#15
Natalie Kozyrev, Lique M Coolen
The spinal ejaculation generator is comprised of lumbar spinothalamic (LSt) cells and their axonal projections to autonomic and motor neurons in the lumbosacral spinal cord. LSt cells regulate ejaculatory reflexes by release of neuropeptides that are co-expressed in their axons, as previously demonstrated for gastrin-releasing peptide and enkephalin. Here, the role of two other neuropeptides co-expressed in LSt cells for ejaculatory reflexes is demonstrated: galanin and cholecystokinin (CCK). Adult male rats were anesthetized, spinalized, and received intrathecal infusions of galanin receptor antagonist Galantide (1 or 10 nmol) or CCK receptor antagonist proglumide (71 or 714 nmol)...
December 21, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993710/antinociception-induced-by-galanin-in-anterior-cingulate-cortex-in-rats-with-acute-inflammation
#16
Meng-Lin Zhang, Feng-Hua Fu, Long-Chuan Yu
The present study was performed to explore the role of galanin in nociceptive modulation in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) of rats with acute inflammation, and the changes in galanin and galanin receptor 2 (Gal R2) expressions in rats with acute inflammation. Intra-ACC injection of galanin induced antinociception in rats with acute inflammation, the antinociceptive effects induced by galanin were attenuated significantly by intra-ACC injection of the Gal R2 antagonist M871, indicating an involvement of Gal R2 in nociceptive modulation in ACC in rats with acute inflammation...
December 16, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940914/alterations-in-the-neuropeptide-galanin-system-in-major-depressive-disorder-involve-levels-of-transcripts-methylation-and-peptide
#17
Swapnali Barde, Joelle Rüegg, Josée Prud'homme, Tomas J Ekström, Miklos Palkovits, Gustavo Turecki, Gyorgy Bagdy, Robert Ihnatko, Elvar Theodorsson, Gabriella Juhasz, Rochellys Diaz-Heijtz, Naguib Mechawar, Tomas G M Hökfelt
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a substantial burden to patients, families, and society, but many patients cannot be treated adequately. Rodent experiments suggest that the neuropeptide galanin (GAL) and its three G protein-coupled receptors, GAL1-3, are involved in mood regulation. To explore the translational potential of these results, we assessed the transcript levels (by quantitative PCR), DNA methylation status (by bisulfite pyrosequencing), and GAL peptide by RIA of the GAL system in postmortem brains from depressed persons who had committed suicide and controls...
December 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914762/distribution-of-the-neuro-regulatory-peptide-galanin-in-the-human-eye
#18
Alexandra Kaser-Eichberger, Andrea Trost, Clemens Strohmaier, Barbara Bogner, Christian Runge, Daniela Bruckner, Bettina Hohberger, Anselm Jünemann, Barbara Kofler, Herbert A Reitsamer, Falk Schrödl
Galanin (GAL) is a neuro-regulatory peptide involved in many physiological and pathophysiological processes. While data of GAL origin/distribution in the human eye are rather fragmentary and since recently the presence of GAL-receptors in the normal human eye has been reported, we here systematically search for sources of ocular GAL in the human eye. Human eyes (n=14) were prepared for single- and double-immunohistochemistry of GAL and neurofilaments (NF). Cross- and flat-mount sections were achieved; confocal laser-scanning microscopy was used for documentation...
November 25, 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913310/targeted-disruption-of-the-orphan-receptor-gpr151-does-not-alter-pain-related-behaviour-despite-a-strong-induction-in-dorsal-root-ganglion-expression-in-a-model-of-neuropathic-pain
#19
Fiona E Holmes, Niall Kerr, Ying-Ju Chen, Penny Vanderplank, Craig A McArdle, David Wynick
BACKGROUND: Gpr151 is an orphan GPCR whose function is unknown. The restricted pattern of neuronal expression in the habenula, dorsal horn of the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion plus homology with the galanin family of receptors imply a role in nociception. RESULTS: Real-time quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated a 49.9±2.9 fold highly significant (P<0.001) increase in Gpr151 mRNA expression in the dorsal root ganglion 7days after the spared nerve injury model of neuropathic pain...
January 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907151/changes-in-galanin-systems-in-a-rat-model-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-ptsd
#20
Karen Barnabas, Lin Zhang, Huiying Wang, Gilbert Kirouac, Maria Vrontakis
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a chronic syndrome triggered by exposure to trauma and a failure to recover from a normal negative emotional reaction to traumatic stress. The neurobiology of PTSD and the participation of neuropeptides in the neural systems and circuits that control fear and anxiety are not fully understood. The long-term dysregulation of neuropeptide systems contributes to the development of anxiety disorders, including PTSD. The neuropeptide galanin (Gal) and its receptors participate in anxiety-like and depression-related behaviors via the modulation of neuroendocrine and monoaminergic systems...
2016: PloS One
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