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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432877/maternal-low-protein-diet-decreases-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-expression-in-the-brains-of-the-neonatal-rat-offspring
#1
Gurdeep Marwarha, Kate Claycombe-Larson, Jared Schommer, Othman Ghribi
Prenatal exposure to a maternal low-protein (LP) diet has been known to cause cognitive impairment, learning and memory deficits. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been identified. Herein, we demonstrate that a maternal LP diet causes, in the brains of the neonatal rat offspring, an attenuation in the basal expression of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a neurotrophin indispensable for learning and memory. Female rats were fed either a 20% normal protein (NP) diet or an 8% LP 3 weeks before breeding and during the gestation period...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432781/cognitive-functioning-and-emotion-processing-in-breast-cancer-survivors-and-controls-an-erp-pilot-study
#2
Janine Wirkner, Mathias Weymar, Andreas Löw, Carmen Hamm, Anne-Marie Struck, Clemens Kirschbaum, Alfons O Hamm
Diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer is a very emotionally aversive and stressful life event, which can lead to impaired cognitive functioning and mental health. Breast cancer survivors responding with repressive emotion regulation strategies often show less adaptive coping and adverse outcomes. We investigated cognitive functioning and neural correlates of emotion processing using ERPs. Self-report measures of depression, anxiety, and fatigue, as well as hair cortisol as an index of chronic stress, were assessed...
April 22, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432779/nmdar-independent-hippocampal-long-term-depression-impairment-after-status-epilepticus-in-a-lithium-pilocarpine-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#3
Andrey D Ivanov, Aleksey V Zaitsev
Temporal lobe epilepsy is usually associated with cognitive decline and memory deficits. Despite numerous existing studies on various animal models, the mechanisms of these deficits remain largely unclear. A specific form of long-term synaptic efficacy changes - long-term depression (LTD) - is thought to play an important role in memory formation and learning. However, extremely little is known about the possible alteration of LTD induction and dynamics after a status epilepticus (SE). In the present work we investigated the acute and delayed effects of lithium-pilocarpine-induced SE on NMDAR-dependent and NMDAR-independent hippocampal LTD in vitro...
April 22, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432773/transition-of-the-functional-brain-network-related-to-increasing-cognitive-demands
#4
Karolina Finc, Kamil Bonna, Monika Lewandowska, Tomasz Wolak, Jan Nikadon, Joanna Dreszer, Włodzisław Duch, Simone Kühn
Network neuroscience provides tools that can easily be used to verify main assumptions of the global workspace theory (GWT), such as the existence of highly segregated information processing during effortless tasks performance, engagement of multiple distributed networks during effortful tasks and the critical role of long-range connections in workspace formation. A number of studies support the assumptions of GWT by showing the reorganization of the whole-brain functional network during cognitive task performance; however, the involvement of specific large scale networks in the formation of workspace is still not well-understood...
April 22, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432568/the-musos-music-software-system-toolkit-a-computer-based-open-source-application-for-testing-memory-for-melodies
#5
M Rainsford, M A Palmer, G Paine
Despite numerous innovative studies, rates of replication in the field of music psychology are extremely low (Frieler et al., 2013). Two key methodological challenges affecting researchers wishing to administer and reproduce studies in music cognition are the difficulty of measuring musical responses, particularly when conducting free-recall studies, and access to a reliable set of novel stimuli unrestricted by copyright or licensing issues. In this article, we propose a solution for these challenges in computer-based administration...
April 21, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432138/inhibition-of-drp1-ameliorates-synaptic-depression-a%C3%AE-deposition-and-cognitive-impairment-in-alzheimer-s-disease-model
#6
Seung-Hyun Baek, So Jung Park, Jae In Jeong, Sung Hyun Kim, Jihoon Han, Jae Won Kyung, Sang-Ha Baik, Yuri Choi, Bo-Youn Choi, Jinsu Park, Gahee Bahn, Ji Hyun Shin, Doo Sin Jo, Joo-Yong Lee, Choon-Gon Jang, Thiruma V Arumugam, Jongpil Kim, Jeung-Whan Han, Jae-Young Koh, Dong-Hyung Cho, Dong-Gyu Jo
Excessive mitochondrial fission is a prominent early event, and contributes to mitochondrial dysfunction, synaptic failure and neuronal cell death in the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it remains to be determined whether inhibition of excessive mitochondrial fission is beneficial in mammal models of AD. To determine whether dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), a key regulator of mitochondrial fragmentation, can be a disease-modifying therapeutic target for AD, we examine the effects of Drp1 inhibitor on mitochondrial and synaptic dysfunctions induced by oligomeric β-amyloid (Aβ) in neurons, and neuropathology and cognitive functions in APP/PS1 double transgenic AD mice...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432010/exposure-to-an-enriched-environment-facilitates-motor-recovery-and-prevents-short-term-memory-impairment-and-reduction-of-striatal-bdnf-in-a-progressive-pharmacological-model-of-parkinsonism-in-mice
#7
Clarissa L C Campêlo, José R Santos, Anatildes F Silva, Aline L Dierschnabel, André Pontes, Jeferson S Cavalcante, Alessandra M Ribeiro, Regina H Silva
Previous studies showed that the repeated administration with a low dose of reserpine (RES) induces a gradual appearance of motor signs and cognitive deficits compatible with parkinsonism in rodents. Environmental stimulation has neuroprotective effects in animal models of neurodegenerative damage, including acutely induced PD. We investigated the effects of exposure to an enriched environment (EE) on motor, cognitive and neuronal (levels of tyrosine hydroxylase, TH and brain derived neurotrophic factor, BDNF) deficits induced by a progressive model of PD in mice...
April 18, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431691/sensorimotor-activity-measured-via-oscillations-of-eeg-mu-rhythms-in-speech-and-non-speech-discrimination-tasks-with-and-without-segmentation-demands
#8
David Thornton, Ashley W Harkrider, David Jenson, Tim Saltuklaroglu
Better understanding of the role of sensorimotor processing in speech and non-speech segmentation can be achieved with more temporally precise measures. Twenty adults made same/different discriminations of speech and non-speech stimuli pairs, with and without segmentation demands. Independent component analysis of 64-channel EEG data revealed clear sensorimotor mu components, with characteristic alpha and beta peaks, localized to premotor regions in 70% of participants.Time-frequency analyses of mu components from accurate trials showed that (1) segmentation tasks elicited greater event-related synchronization immediately following offset of the first stimulus, suggestive of inhibitory activity; (2) strong late event-related desynchronization in all conditions, suggesting that working memory/covert replay contributed substantially to sensorimotor activity in all conditions; (3) stronger beta desynchronization in speech versus non-speech stimuli during stimulus presentation, suggesting stronger auditory-motor transforms for speech versus non-speech stimuli...
April 18, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431515/the-effectiveness-of-creating-an-online-life-story-book-on-persons-with-early-dementia-and-their-informal-caregivers-a-protocol-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Teuntje R Elfrink, Sytse U Zuidema, Miriam Kunz, Gerben J Westerhof
BACKGROUND: Dementia has a high burden for patients, informal caregivers and society. Given changes in care systems, more persons with dementia will live longer at home. However, living at home (with dementia) with a good quality of life is not easy to achieve. Dementia is often accompanied by neuropsychiatric symptoms like apathy, agitation, depression, and anxiety, which have a negative impact on quality of life. Whereas cognitive deterioration can hardly be influenced, it is possible to reduce neuropsychiatric symptoms...
April 21, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431294/exploring-the-experience-of-episodic-past-future-and-counterfactual-thinking-in-younger-and-older-adults-a-study-of-a-colombian-sample
#10
Felipe De Brigard, Diana Carolina Rodriguez, Patricia Montañés
Although extant evidence suggests that many neural and cognitive mechanisms underlying episodic past, future, and counterfactual thinking overlap, recent results have uncovered differences among these three processes. However, the extent to which there may be age-related differences in the phenomenological characteristics associated with episodic past, future and counterfactual thinking remains unclear. This study used adapted versions of the Memory Characteristics Questionnaire and the Autobiographical Interview in younger and older adults to investigate the subjective experience of episodic past, future and counterfactual thinking...
April 17, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431036/effects-of-delay-duration-on-the-wms-logical-memory-performance-of-older-adults-with-probable-alzheimer-s-disease-probable-vascular-dementia-and-normal-cognition
#11
Valencia Montgomery, Katie Harris, Anthony Stabler, Lisa H Lu
Objective: To examine how the duration of time delay between Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) Logical Memory I and Logical Memory II (LM) affected participants' recall performance. Method: There are 46,146 total Logical Memory administrations to participants diagnosed with either Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD), or normal cognition in the National Alzheimer's Disease Coordinating Center's Uniform Data Set. Results: Only 50% of the sample was administered the standard 20-35 min of delay as specified by WMS-R and WMS-III...
May 1, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431034/effects-of-sleep-loss-on-subjective-complaints-and-objective-neurocognitive-performance-as-measured-by-the-immediate-post-concussion-assessment-and-cognitive-testing
#12
Ryan P J Stocker, Hassen Khan, Luke Henry, Anne Germain
Objective: This study examined the effects of total and partial sleep deprivation on subjective symptoms and objective neurocognitive performance, as measured by the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) in a sample of healthy adults. Method: One-hundred and two, right-handed, healthy participants (between ages 18 and 30 years old) completed three consecutive nights in the sleep laboratory with concurrent continuous polysomnography monitoring...
May 1, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431032/neuropsychology-and-rehabilitation-services-in-the-united-states-brief-report-from-a-survey-of-clinical-neuropsychologists
#13
Cady Block, Octavio A Santos, Yvonne Flores-Medina, Diego Fernando Rivera Camacho, Juan Carlos Arango-Lasprilla
Objective: To provide a brief presentation of preliminary data on rehabilitation services provided by clinical neuropsychologists within the United States. Method: This survey utilized data extracted from a larger international research study conducted in 39 countries including N = 173 professionals who reported to engage in neuropsychological rehabilitative services within the past year (63.6% female, 44.36 ± 11.83 years of age) took part in the study. Results: Neuropsychologists providing rehabilitation services in the United States in the past year were more likely to provide individual versus group therapy, likely to employ technology (e...
May 1, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431029/the-chinese-version-of-the-brief-assessment-of-cognition-in-schizophrenia-data-of-a-large-scale-mandarin-speaking-population
#14
Liang-Jen Wang, Yu-Chi Huang, Chi-Fa Hung, Chih-Ken Chen, Yi-Chih Chen, Pei-Yi Lee, Si-Ming Wang, Ming-Hsiung Liu, Chia-Ju Lin, Su-Ting Hsu
Objective: The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) is a cognitive assessment tool used to measure the broad aspects of cognition that are most frequently impaired in patients with schizophrenia. This study aims to develop the normative data of the Chinese version of the BACS among the Mandarin-speaking population. Method: This cross-sectional study included 382 healthy participants (age range: 19-79 years; mean age: 48.0 ± 16.7 years, 47.6% men) in Taiwan, who were evaluated with the BACS...
May 1, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430880/cerebral-abscess-associated-with-odontogenic-bacteremias-hypoxemia-and-iron-loading-in-immunocompetent-patients-with-right-to-left-shunting-through-pulmonary-arteriovenous-malformations
#15
E J Boother, S Brownlow, H C Tighe, K B Bamford, J E Jackson, C L Shovlin
Background: Cerebral abscess is a recognised complication of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) that allow systemic venous blood to bypass the pulmonary capillary bed through anatomic right-to-left shunts. Broader implications and mechanisms remain poorly explored. Methods: Between June 2005 and December 2016, at a single institution, 445 consecutive adult patients with CT-scan confirmed PAVMs (including 403 (90.5%) with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia) were recruited to a prospective series...
April 19, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430849/performance-and-symptom-validity-testing-as-a-function-of-medical-board-evaluation-in-u-s-military-service-members-with-a-history-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#16
Patrick Armistead-Jehle, Wesley R Cole, Robert L Stegman
Objective: The study was designed to replicate and extend pervious findings demonstrating the high rates of invalid neuropsychological testing in military service members (SMs) with a history of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) assessed in the context of a medical evaluation board (MEB). Method: Two hundred thirty-one active duty SMs (61 of which were undergoing an MEB) underwent neuropsychological assessment. Performance validity (Word Memory Test) and symptom validity (MMPI-2-RF) test data were compared across those evaluated within disability (MEB) and clinical contexts...
April 20, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430628/critical-role-of-matrix-metallopeptidase-9-in-postoperative-cognitive-dysfunction-and-age-dependent-cognitive-decline
#17
Jiangjiang Bi, Weiran Shan, Ailin Luo, Zhiyi Zuo
BACKGROUND: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a significant clinical syndrome. Neuroinflammation is an important pathological process for POCD. However, it is not clear how systemic inflammation induced by surgery on peripheral tissues or organs is transmitted into the brain. We determined whether matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9), a protein that can increase blood-brain barrier permeability, is critical in this transmission. The role of MMP9 in age-dependent cognitive decline was also determined...
February 20, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430533/new-directions-in-the-rational-design-of-electrical-and-magnetic-seizure-therapies-individualized-low-amplitude-seizure-therapy-ilast-and-magnetic-seizure-therapy-mst
#18
Thomas Radman, Sarah H Lisanby
Electroconvulsive therapy remains a key treatment option for severe cases of depression, but undesirable side-effects continue to limit its use. Innovations in the design of novel seizure therapies seek to improve its risk benefit ratio through enhanced control of the focality of stimulation. The design of seizure therapies with increased spatial precision is motivated by avoiding stimulation of deep brain structures implicated in memory retention, including the hippocampus. The development of two innovations in seizure therapy-individualized low-amplitude seizure therapy (iLAST) and magnetic seizure therapy (MST), are detailed...
April 21, 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429909/association-between-maternal-vitamin-d-status-during-pregnancy-and-offspring-cognitive-function-during-childhood-and-adolescence
#19
Sargoor R Veena, Ghattu V Krishnaveni, Krishnamachari Srinivasan, Kotrangada P Thajna, Bhavya G Hegde, Catharine R Gale, Caroline Hd Fall
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Animal studies have demonstrated poor cognitive outcomes in offspring in relation to maternal vitamin D deficiency before and/or during pregnancy. Human studies linking maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy with offspring cognitive function are limited. We aimed to test the hypothesis that lower maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy is associated with poor offspring cognitive ability in an Indian population. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Cognitive function was assessed in children from the Mysore Parthenon birth cohort during childhood (age 9-10 years; n=468) and adolescence (age 13-14 years; n=472) using 3 core tests from the Kaufman Assessment Battery for children and additional tests measuring learning, long-term retrieval/ storage, short-term memory, reasoning, verbal fluency, visuo-spatial ability, and attention and concentration...
May 2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429801/the-dizzy-patient-don-t-forget-disorders-of-the-central-vestibular-system
#20
REVIEW
Thomas Brandt, Marianne Dieterich
Vertigo and dizziness are among the most common complaints in neurology clinics, and they account for about 13% of the patients entering emergency units. In this Review, we focus on central vestibular disorders, which are mostly attributable to acute unilateral lesions of the bilateral vestibular circuitry in the brain. In a tertiary interdisciplinary outpatient dizziness unit, central vestibular disorders, including vestibular migraine, comprise about 25% of the established diagnoses. The signs and symptoms of these disorders can mimic those of peripheral vestibular disorders with sustained rotational vertigo...
April 21, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
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