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neuropeptide S receptor

R Lin, Q Wang, B Qi, Y Huang, G Yang
Neuromedin S (NMS), a 36-amino acid neuropeptide, has been found to be involved in the regulation of the endocrine activity. It has been also detected in immune tissues in mammals, what suggests that NMS may play an important role in the regulation of immune response. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the presence of NMS receptor 1 (NMU1R) and effect of NMS in pig splenic lymphocytes (SPLs) and pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs). The presence of NMU1R in pig SPLs and PAMs was respectively confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blot analysis and immunocytochemical methods...
September 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
Virginia Mela, Sara Jimenez, Alejandra Freire-Regatillo, Vicente Barrios, Eva-María Marco, Ana-Belén Lopez-Rodriguez, Jesús Argente, María-Paz Viveros, Julie A Chowen
The neonatal leptin surge, occurring from postnatal day (PND) 5 to 13 and peaking at PND9 in rodents, is important for the development of neuroendocrine circuits involved in metabolic control and reproductive function. We previously demonstrated that treatment with a leptin antagonist from PND 5 to 9, coincident with peak leptin levels in the neonatal surge, modified trophic factors and markers of cell turnover and neuronal maturation in the hypothalamus of peri-pubertal rats. The kisspeptin system and metabolic neuropeptide and hormone levels were also modified...
October 14, 2016: Peptides
Youn Yi Jo, Ji Yeon Lee, Chul-Kyu Park
The neuropeptide substance P (SP) is expressed in primary sensory neurons and is commonly regarded as a "pain" neurotransmitter. Upon peripheral inflammation, SP activates the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor and potentiates activity of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1), which is coexpressed by nociceptive neurons. Therefore, SP functions as an important neurotransmitter involved in the hypersensitization of inflammatory pain. Resolvin E1 (RvE1), derived from omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, inhibits TRPV1 activity via activation of the chemerin 23 receptor (ChemR23)-an RvE1 receptor located in dorsal root ganglion neurons-and therefore exerts an inhibitory effect on inflammatory pain...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
Linnet Ramos, Callum Hicks, Alex Caminer, Kalliu Couto, Rajeshwar Narlawar, Michael Kassiou, Iain S McGregor
In laboratory rats, peripheral administration of the neuropeptides oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) induces similar prosocial effects (i.e. increased adjacent lying) to the party drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), which are sensitive to vasopressin V1A receptor (V1AR) antagonism. Here, we employed a social preference paradigm to further compare the prosocial effects of OT, AVP and MDMA. We also investigated the possible involvement of the V1AR and oxytocin receptor (OTR) in rodent social preference...
October 7, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Masaru Ishibashi, Iryna Gumenchuk, Kenichi Miyazaki, Takafumi Inoue, William N Ross, Christopher S Leonard
UNLABELLED: Orexins (hypocretins) are neuropeptides that regulate multiple homeostatic processes, including reward and arousal, in part by exciting serotonergic dorsal raphe neurons, the major source of forebrain serotonin. Here, using mouse brain slices, we found that, instead of simply depolarizing these neurons, orexin-A altered the spike encoding process by increasing the postspike afterhyperpolarization (AHP) via two distinct mechanisms. This orexin-enhanced AHP (oeAHP) was mediated by both OX1 and OX2 receptors, required Ca(2+) influx, reversed near EK, and decayed with two components, the faster of which resulted from enhanced SK channel activation, whereas the slower component decayed like a slow AHP (sAHP), but was not blocked by UCL2077, an antagonist of sAHPs in some neurons...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Shunyu Gao, Jiannan Zhang, Chen He, Fengyan Meng, Guixian Bu, Guoqiang Zhu, Juan Li, Yajun Wang
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptors and its ligands, NPY, peptide YY (PYY) and pancreatic polypeptide (PP), are suggested to regulate many physiological processes including food intake in birds. However, our knowledge regarding this avian NPY system remains rather limited. Here, we examined the tissue expression of NPY, PYY and PP and the gene structure, expression and signaling of three NPY receptors (cY1, cY4 and cY6) in chickens. The results showed that 1) NPY is widely expressed in chicken tissues with abundance noted in the hypothalamus via quantitative real-time PCR, whereas PYY is highly expressed in the pancreas, gastrointestinal tract and various brain regions, and PP is expressed almost exclusively in the pancreas; 2) cY1, cY4 and cY6 contain novel non-coding exon(s) at their 5'-UTR; 3) The wide tissue distribution of cY1 and cY4 and cY6 were detected in chickens by quantitative real-time PCR and their expression is controlled by the promoter near exon 1, which displays strong promoter activity in DF-1 cells as demonstrated by Dual-luciferase reporter assay; 4) Monitored by luciferase reporter assays, activation of cY1 and cY4 expressed in HEK293 cells by chicken NPY1-36, PYY1-37, and PP1-36 treatment inhibits cAMP/PKA and activates MAPK/ERK signaling pathways, while cY6-expressing cells show little response to peptide treatment, indicating that cY1 and cY4, and not cY6, can transmit signals in vitro...
September 15, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
S Imbrogno, R Mazza, C Pugliese, M Filice, T Angelone, Y P Loh, B Tota, M C Cerra
Chromogranin A (CgA) is an acidic protein co-stored with catecholamines, hormones and neuropeptides in the secretory granules of endocrine, neuronal and other cell types (including cardiomyocytes). Proteolytic cleavage in the C terminus of CgA generates a 2.9kDa peptide named serpinin (Serp; Ala26Leu) that can be modified at its N terminus to form a pyroglutamate residue (pGlu-Serp). In the rat heart, both peptides increase contractility and relaxation through a β-adrenergic-like action mechanism. Accordingly, Serp and pGlu-Serp were proposed as novel myocardial sympatho-adrenergic modulators in mammals...
September 12, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Oishi Chatterjee, Krutika Patil, Apeksha Sahu, Lathika Gopalakrishnan, Praseeda Mol, Jayshree Advani, Srabani Mukherjee, Rita Christopher, T S Keshava Prasad
Oxytocin, a nine amino acid long neuropeptide hormone, is synthesized in the hypothalamus and stored and released from the neural lobe of the pituitary gland. Although commonly known for its central role in the regulation of parturition and lactation, oxytocin signaling also plays a key role in modulating social behavior, evoking contentment, initiating maternal behavior, inducing trust, generosity and bonding in humans and animals. Oxytocin signaling can prove to be of great importance in therapeutics and drug targeting because of its diverse range of actions...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
Karen P Briski, Fahaad S H Alenazi, Manita Shakya, Paul W Sylvester
Estradiol (E) mitigates acute and postacute adverse effects of 12 hr-food deprivation (FD) on energy balance. Hindbrain 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulates hyperphagic and hypothalamic metabolic neuropeptide and norepinephrine responses to FD in an E-dependent manner. Energy-state information from AMPK-expressing hindbrain A2 noradrenergic neurons shapes neural responses to metabolic imbalance. Here we investigate the hypothesis that FD causes divergent changes in A2 AMPK activity in E- vs...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Devin P Merullo, Caroline S Angyal, Sharon A Stevenson, Lauren V Riters
Some animals, including songbirds, vocalize at high rates when alone or in large groups. In songbirds, vocal behavior in these contexts is important for song learning and group cohesion. It is not obviously targeted at any particular individual and is described as 'undirected'. Studies suggest a role for dopamine (DA) in undirected song. The neuropeptide neurotensin (NT) can enhance dopaminergic signaling upon binding to the NT receptor 1 (NTR1) and is found in regions where DA can influence song, including the ventral tegmental area (VTA), septum, and the song control nucleus Area X...
September 10, 2016: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Julie-Ann P De Bond, Kristen P Tolson, Chanond Nasamran, Alexander S Kauffman, Jeremy T Smith
Kisspeptin controls reproduction by stimulating GnRH neurons via its receptor Kiss1r. Kiss1r is also expressed other brain areas and in peripheral tissues, suggesting additional non-reproductive roles. We recently determined that Kiss1r knockout (KO) mice develop an obese and diabetic phenotype. Here, we investigated whether Kiss1r KOs develop this metabolic phenotype due to alterations in the expression of metabolic genes involved in the appetite regulating system of the hypothalamus, including neuropeptide Y (Npy) and pro-opiomelanocortin (Pomc), as well as leptin receptor (Lepr), ghrelin receptor (Ghsr), and melanocortin receptor 3 and 4 (Mc3r, Mc4r)...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Jigna Rajesh Kumar, Ramamoorthy Rajkumar, Tharindunee Jayakody, Subhi Marwari, Jia Mei Hong, Sherie Ma, Andrew L Gundlach, Mitchell K P Lai, Gavin S Dawe
Relaxin-3 has been proposed to modulate emotional-behavioural functions such as arousal and behavioural activation, appetite regulation, stress responses, anxiety, memory, sleep and circadian rhythm. The nucleus incertus (NI), in the midline tegmentum close to the fourth ventricle, projects widely throughout the brain and is the primary site of relaxin-3 neurons. Over recent years, a number of preclinical studies have explored the function of the NI and relaxin-3 signalling, including reports of mRNA or peptide expression changes in the NI in response to behavioural or pharmacological manipulations, effects of lesions or electrical or pharmacological manipulations of the NI, effects of central microinfusions of relaxin-3 or related agonist or antagonist ligands on physiology and behaviour, and the impact of relaxin-3 gene deletion or knockdown...
September 6, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Shannon B Z Stephens, Navdeep Chahal, Nagambika Munaganuru, Ruby A Parra, Alexander S Kauffman
The neuropeptide kisspeptin, encoded by Kiss1, regulates reproduction by stimulating GnRH secretion. Neurons synthesizing kisspeptin are predominantly located in the hypothalamic anteroventral periventricular (AVPV) and arcuate nuclei, but smaller kisspeptin neuronal populations also reside in extrahypothalamic brain regions, such as the medial amygdala (MeA). In adult rodents, estradiol (E2) increases Kiss1 expression in the MeA, as in the AVPV. However, unlike AVPV and arcuate nuclei kisspeptin neurons, little else is currently known about the development, regulation, and function of MeA Kiss1 neurons...
October 2016: Endocrinology
Ravi D Nath, Elly S Chow, Han Wang, Erich M Schwarz, Paul W Sternberg
The genetic basis of sleep regulation remains poorly understood. In C. elegans, cellular stress induces sleep through epidermal growth factor (EGF)-dependent activation of the EGF receptor in the ALA neuron. The downstream mechanism by which this neuron promotes sleep is unknown. Single-cell RNA sequencing of ALA reveals that the most highly expressed, ALA-enriched genes encode neuropeptides. Here we have systematically investigated the four most highly enriched neuropeptides: flp-7, nlp-8, flp-24, and flp-13...
September 26, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Joon S Kim, Colin H Brown, Greg M Anderson
Neuropeptide FF receptors (NPFFR1 and NPFFR2) have been proposed to possess anti-opioid properties, and be involved in the development of opiate tolerance and dependence. However, there is no evidence to date supporting such opioid effects at the cellular level in vivo. Using in vivo electrophysiological recordings from vasopressin and oxytocin neurons in the supraoptic nucleus, we aimed to determine the effects of NPFFRs on opiate inhibition, tolerance, and dependence at a cellular level. Both vasopressin and oxytocin neurons are acutely inhibited by opioids and develop opiate tolerance...
October 2016: Endocrinology
Mathieu Nadeau-Vallée, Amarilys Boudreault, Kelycia Leimert, Xin Hou, Dima Obari, Ankush Madaan, Raphael Rouget, Tang Zhu, Lydia Belarbi, Marie-Ève Brien, Alexandra Beaudry-Richard, David M Olson, Sylvie Girard, Sylvain Chemtob
Uterine labor requires the conversion of a quiescent (pro-pregnancy) uterus into an activated (pro-labor) uterus, with increased sensitivity to endogenous uterotonic molecules. This activation is induced by stressors, particularly inflammation in term and preterm labor. Neuromedin U (NmU) is a neuropeptide known for its utero-contractile effects in rodents. The objective of the study was to assess the expression and function of neuromedin U receptor 2 (NmU-R2) and its ligands NmU and the more potent neuromedin S (NmS) in gestational tissues and the possible implication of inflammatory stressors in triggering this system...
August 10, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
K Lim, B Barzel, S Burke, G Head
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is closely associated with a greater risk of developing hypertension and strong link exist between bodyweight gain and greater blood pressure (BP). Plasma leptin levels correlate with BP and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). The central effects of leptin are mediated primarily through the arcuate (ARC) nucleus of the hypothalamus. Dense projections of both Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) containing neurons ascend from the ARC and terminate in several hypothalamic nuclei such as the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) which are the key centres of energy homeostasis, hemodynamics and sympathetic tone to brown adipose and renal vasculature...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Pawel K Olszewski, Oscar A Klockars, Anica Klockars, Allen S Levine
Butorphanol tartrate (BT), a mixed µ/κ/δ opioid receptor agonist, is one of the most potent orexigens known to date. The central mechanisms through which BT causes hyperphagia are largely unknown. Interestingly, BT suppresses meal-end activation of neurons synthesizing anorexigenic neuropeptide, oxytocin (OT), which suggests that BT promotes hyperphagia by silencing OT-derived satiety signaling. As OT terminates consumption by acting by distinct hindbrain and forebrain circuits, we investigated whether stimulation of the OT receptor in the forebrain or the hindbrain [through lateral ventricular (LV) and fourth ventricular (4V) OT injections] leads to termination of food intake induced by BT...
September 28, 2016: Neuroreport
João A B Pedroso, Marina A Silveira, Leandro B Lima, Isadora C Furigo, Thais T Zampieri, Angela M Ramos-Lobo, Daniella C Buonfiglio, Pryscila D S Teixeira, Renata Frazão, Jose Donato
Weight regain frequently follows interventions that reduce body weight, leading to a failure in long-term obesity treatment. Inhibitory proteins of the leptin signaling pathway, such as the suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), have been studied in conditions that predispose animals to obesity. However, whether SOCS3 modulates postrestriction hyperphagia and weight regain remains unknown. Mice lacking SOCS3 protein specifically in leptin receptor (LepR)-expressing cells (LepR SOCS3 knockout [KO]) were generated and studied in fasting and refeeding conditions...
October 2016: Endocrinology
Nicholas S Reed
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this article will be to review neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) of the gynaecological tract. NETs are generally considered to be uncommon and primary tumours in the gynaecological tract on arrival rare or very rare. It is important to distinguish true primary tumours from metastatic as the management is very different. These tumours ranged from highly aggressive small cell carcinomas (SCCs) sometimes associated with secretion of neuropeptides that may be functional and cause distinctive syndromes...
September 2016: Current Opinion in Oncology
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