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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732235/medication-takeovers-covert-druggings-and-behavioral-control-in-alzheimer-s
#1
Brandon Berry, Ester Carolina Apesoa-Varano
Older adults consume the most prescription medication in the U.S. For those who develop Alzheimer's disease, risk of medication misuse increases with the progression of the disease. Family members commonly intervene to lessen risks by taking over the management and administering of a medication regimen. Despite the potential for grave harm around the misuse of powerful drugs, few studies provide insight into the household social context of medication use for this disease. Drawing on 60 in-depth interviews conducted in four waves over 2...
July 6, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732130/abnormalities-in-the-24-hour-rhythm-of-skin-temperature-in-cirrhosis-sleep-wake-and-general-clinical-implications
#2
Maria Garrido, Desy Saccardo, Michele De Rui, Elia Vettore, Alberto Verardo, Paolo Carraro, Nicola Di Vitofrancesco, Ali R Mani, Paolo Angeli, Massimo Bolognesi, Sara Montagnese
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Sleep preparation/onset are associated with peripheral vasodilatation and a decrease in body temperature. The hyperdynamic syndrome exhibited by patients with cirrhosis may impinge on sleep preparation, thus contributing to their difficulties falling asleep. The aim of this study was the assessment of skin temperature, in relation to sleep-wake patterns, in patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: Fifty three subjects were initially recruited, and 46 completed the study...
July 21, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730970/healthy-diet-and-reduction-of-chronic-disease-risks-of-night-shift-workers
#3
Giovanni M Ferri, Domenica Cavone, Graziana Intranuovo, Linda Macinagrossa
BACKGROUND: The large increase in epidemiological studies on night shift work is due to the important effects of night shift work on workers' health and psychophysical wellbeing. The short-term effects-insomnia, difficulties in managing work and private life, lower work performance, and more work and extra-work accidents-are easily studied. However, there are several long-term effects that are difficult to study because of the need for detailed exposure assessment and the long latency periods of these diseases...
July 20, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729827/lateral-hypothalamic-control-of-the-ventral-tegmental-area-reward-evaluation-and-the-driving-of-motivated-behavior
#4
REVIEW
Susan M Tyree, Luis de Lecea
The lateral hypothalamus (LH) plays an important role in many motivated behaviors, sleep-wake states, food intake, drug-seeking, energy balance, etc. It is also home to a heterogeneous population of neurons that express and co-express multiple neuropeptides including hypocretin (Hcrt), melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and neurotensin (NT). These neurons project widely throughout the brain to areas such as the locus coeruleus, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the amygdala and the ventral tegmental area (VTA)...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729826/sleep-dependent-oscillatory-synchronization-a-role-in-fear-memory-consolidation
#5
Michael S Totty, Logan A Chesney, Phillip A Geist, Subimal Datta
Sleep plays an important role in memory consolidation through the facilitation of neuronal plasticity; however, how sleep accomplishes this remains to be completely understood. It has previously been demonstrated that neural oscillations are an intrinsic mechanism by which the brain precisely controls neural ensembles. Inter-regional synchronization of these oscillations is also known to facilitate long-range communication and long-term potentiation (LTP). In the present study, we investigated how the characteristic rhythms found in local field potentials (LFPs) during non-REM and REM sleep play a role in emotional memory consolidation...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724876/treatment-with-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-and-diurnal-and-nocturnal-serum-melatonin-concentration-in-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#6
Małgorzata Barnaś, Marta Maskey-Warzęchowska, Piotr Bielicki, Marta Kumor, Ryszarda Chazan
INTRODUCTION    Melatonin secretion, one of the main factors controlling the sleep-wake rhythm, may be disrupted in subjects with sleep disorders. OBJECTIVES    To evaluate the profile of circadian melatonin secretion in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and to assess the impact of a 2 day and a 3-month period of treatment with continuous airway pressure (CPAP) on diurnal and nocturnal serum melatonin. PATIENTS AND METHODS    Serum melatonin was evaluated in 71 untreated OSA patients and 18 healthy controls at six time points: 10 am, 2 pm, 6 pm, 10 pm, 2 am, 6 am...
July 10, 2017: Polish Archives of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724246/health-consequences-of-electric-lighting-practices-in-the-modern-world-a-report-on-the-national-toxicology-program-s-workshop-on-shift-work-at-night-artificial-light-at-night-and-circadian-disruption
#7
REVIEW
Ruth M Lunn, David E Blask, Andrew N Coogan, Mariana G Figueiro, Michael R Gorman, Janet E Hall, Johnni Hansen, Randy J Nelson, Satchidananda Panda, Michael H Smolensky, Richard G Stevens, Fred W Turek, Roel Vermeulen, Tania Carreón, Claire C Caruso, Christina C Lawson, Kristina A Thayer, Michael J Twery, Andrew D Ewens, Sanford C Garner, Pamela J Schwingl, Windy A Boyd
The invention of electric light has facilitated a society in which people work, sleep, eat, and play at all hours of the 24-hour day. Although electric light clearly has benefited humankind, exposures to electric light, especially light at night (LAN), may disrupt sleep and biological processes controlled by endogenous circadian clocks, potentially resulting in adverse health outcomes. Many of the studies evaluating adverse health effects have been conducted among night- and rotating-shift workers, because this scenario gives rise to significant exposure to LAN...
July 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721811/moving-to-the-rhythm-with-clock-circadian-genes-autophagy-mtor-and-sirt1-in-degenerative-disease-and-cancer
#8
Kenneth Maiese
BACKGROUND: The mammalian circadian clock and its associated clock genes are increasingly be recognized as critical components for a number of physiological and disease processes that extend beyond hormone release, thermal regulation, and sleep-wake cycles. New evidence suggests that clinical behavior disruptions that involve prolonged shift work and even space travel may negatively impact circadian rhythm and lead to multi-system disease. METHODS: In light of the significant role circadian rhythm can hold over the body's normal physiology as well as disease processes, we examined and discussed the impact circadian rhythm and clock genes hold over lifespan, neurodegenerative disorders, and tumorigenesis...
July 17, 2017: Current Neurovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717201/cognitive-brain-responses-during-circadian-wake-promotion-evidence-for-sleep-pressure-dependent-hypothalamic-activations
#9
Carolin F Reichert, Micheline Maire, Virginie Gabel, Antoine U Viola, Thomas Götz, Klaus Scheffler, Markus Klarhöfer, Christian Berthomier, Werner Strobel, Christophe Phillips, Eric Salmon, Christian Cajochen, Christina Schmidt
The two-process model of sleep-wake regulation posits that sleep-wake-dependent homeostatic processes interact with the circadian timing system to affect human behavior. The circadian timing system is fundamental to maintaining stable cognitive performance, as it counteracts growing homeostatic sleep pressure during daytime. Using magnetic resonance imaging, we explored brain responses underlying working memory performance during the time of maximal circadian wake-promotion under varying sleep pressure conditions...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712436/association-of-symptoms-of-insomnia-and-sleep-parameters-among-kidney-transplant-recipients
#10
Katalin Z Ronai, Andras Szentkiralyi, Alpar S Lazar, Zsolt I Lazar, Istvan Papp, Ferenc Gombos, Rezso Zoller, Maria E Czira, Anett V Lindner, Istvan Mucsi, Robert Bodizs, Miklos Z Molnar, Marta Novak
OBJECTIVE: Insomnia complaints are frequent among kidney transplant (kTx) recipients and are associated with fatigue, depression, lower quality of life and increased morbidity. However, it is not known if subjective insomnia symptoms are associated with objective parameters of sleep architecture. Thus, we analyze the association between sleep macrostructure and EEG activity versus insomnia symptoms among kTx recipients. METHODS: Participants (n1=100) were selected from prevalent adult transplant recipients (n0=1214) followed at a single institution...
August 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711776/sleep-wake-profiles-and-circadian-rhythms-of-core-temperature-and-melatonin-in-young-people-with-affective-disorders
#11
Joanne S Carpenter, Rébecca Robillard, Daniel F Hermens, Sharon L Naismith, Christopher Gordon, Elizabeth M Scott, Ian B Hickie
While disturbances of the sleep-wake cycle are common in people with affective disorders, the characteristics of these disturbances differ greatly between individuals. This heterogeneity is likely to reflect multiple underlying pathophysiologies, with different perturbations in circadian systems contributing to the variation in sleep-wake cycle disturbances. Such disturbances may be particularly relevant in adolescents and young adults with affective disorders as circadian rhythms undergo considerable change during this key developmental period...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711512/seasonality-in-affective-disorders
#12
REVIEW
Anna Wirz-Justice
Humans retain neurobiological responses to circadian day-night cycles and seasonal changes in daylength in spite of a life-style usually independent of dawn-dusk signals. Seasonality has been documented in many functions, from mood to hormones to gene expression. Research on seasonal affective disorder initiated the first use of timed bright light as therapy, a treatment since extended to non-seasonal major depression and sleep-wake cycle disturbances in many psychiatric and medical illnesses. The growing recognition that sufficient light is important for psychological and somatic well-being is leading to the development of novel lighting solutions in architecture as well as focus on a more conscious exposure to natural daylight...
July 12, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709078/insomnia-in-people-with-epilepsy-a-review-of-insomnia-prevalence-risk-factors-and-associations-with-epilepsy-related-factors
#13
REVIEW
Philippe Joaquim Oliveira Menezes Macêdo, Pedro Sudbrack de Oliveira, Nancy Foldvary-Schaefer, Marleide da Mota Gomes
BACKGROUND: Insomnia is a common sleep complaint in the general population, and sleep loss may be a trigger for epileptic seizures. OBJECTIVES: To conduct a comprehensive review of the literature of insomnia symptoms and insomnia disorder, their prevalence and epilepsy-related risk factors in people with epilepsy (PWE). METHODS: A PUBMED search was performed for articles indexed to June 2016 involving human subjects, excluding papers in languages other than English, Spanish and Portuguese and case reports...
June 3, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707143/clinical-sleep-wake-disorders-ii-focus-on-insomnia-and-circadian-rhythm-sleep-disorders
#14
Kai Spiegelhalder, Christoph Nissen, Dieter Riemann
Insomnia and circadian rhythm sleep disorders affect large proportions of the population and have pronounced effects on quality of life and daytime performance. While the neurobiology of insomnia is not yet fully understood, circadian rhythm sleep disorders are assumed to be caused by a mismatch between the individual circadian phase position and the desired sleep-wake schedule. Benzodiazepines and non-benzodiazepine positive allosteric GABAA receptor modulators improve sleep onset and maintenance in the short-term treatment of insomnia...
July 14, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704052/discovery-and-kinetic-profiling-of-7-aryl-1-2-4-triazolo-4-3-a-pyridines-positive-allosteric-modulators-of-the-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-2
#15
Maarten L J Doornbos, José María Cid, Jordi Haubrich, Alexandro Nunes, Jasper W van de Sande, Sophie C Vermond, Thea Mulder-Krieger, Andrés A Trabanco, Abdellah Ahnaou, Wilhelmus H Drinkenburg, Hilde Lavreysen, Laura H Heitman, Adriaan P IJzerman, Gary Tresadern
We report the synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of 7-aryl-1,2,4-triazolo[4,3-a]pyridines with mGlu2 positive allosteric modulator (PAM) activity and affinity. Besides traditional in vitro parameters of potency and affinity, kinetic parameters kon, koff and residence time (RT) were determined. The PAMs showed various kinetic profiles; kon values ranged over two orders of magnitude, whereas RT values were within a 10-fold range. Association rate constant kon was linearly correlated to affinity. Evaluation of a short, medium and long RT compound in a label-free assay indicated a correlation between RT and functional effect...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694772/connexin-dependent-neuroglial-networking-as-a-new-therapeutic-target
#16
REVIEW
Mathieu Charvériat, Christian C Naus, Luc Leybaert, Juan C Sáez, Christian Giaume
Astrocytes and neurons dynamically interact during physiological processes, and it is now widely accepted that they are both organized in plastic and tightly regulated networks. Astrocytes are connected through connexin-based gap junction channels, with brain region specificities, and those networks modulate neuronal activities, such as those involved in sleep-wake cycle, cognitive, or sensory functions. Additionally, astrocyte domains have been involved in neurogenesis and neuronal differentiation during development; they participate in the "tripartite synapse" with both pre-synaptic and post-synaptic neurons by tuning down or up neuronal activities through the control of neuronal synaptic strength...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676745/bottom-up-and-top-down-mechanisms-of-general-anesthetics-modulate-different-dimensions-of-consciousness
#17
George A Mashour, Anthony G Hudetz
There has been controversy regarding the precise mechanisms of anesthetic-induced unconsciousness, with two salient approaches that have emerged within systems neuroscience. One prominent approach is the "bottom up" paradigm, which argues that anesthetics suppress consciousness by modulating sleep-wake nuclei and neural circuits in the brainstem and diencephalon that have evolved to control arousal states. Another approach is the "top-down" paradigm, which argues that anesthetics suppress consciousness by modulating the cortical and thalamocortical circuits involved in the integration of neural information...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671110/alterations-of-clock-gene-rna-expression-in-brain-regions-of-a-triple-transgenic-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Francesco Bellanti, Giuseppina Iannelli, Maria Blonda, Rosanna Tamborra, Rosanna Villani, Adele Romano, Silvio Calcagnini, Gianluigi Mazzoccoli, Manlio Vinciguerra, Silvana Gaetani, Anna Maria Giudetti, Gianluigi Vendemiale, Tommaso Cassano, Gaetano Serviddio
A disruption to circadian rhythmicity and the sleep/wake cycle constitutes a major feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The maintenance of circadian rhythmicity is regulated by endogenous clock genes and a number of external Zeitgebers, including light. This study investigated the light induced changes in the expression of clock genes in a triple transgenic model of AD (3×Tg-AD) and their wild type littermates (Non-Tg). Changes in gene expression were evaluated in four brain areas¾suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), hippocampus, frontal cortex and brainstem¾of 6- and 18-month-old Non-Tg and 3×Tg-AD mice after 12 h exposure to light or darkness...
June 24, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648359/evidence-for-the-efficacy-of-melatonin-in-the-treatment-of-primary-adult-sleep-disorders
#19
REVIEW
Fiona Auld, Emily L Maschauer, Ian Morrison, Debra J Skene, Renata L Riha
Melatonin is a physiological hormone involved in sleep timing and is currently used exogenously in the treatment of primary and secondary sleep disorders with empirical evidence of efficacy, but very little evidence from randomised, controlled studies. The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the evidence base for the therapeutic effects of exogenous melatonin in treating primary sleep disorders. An electronic literature review search of MEDLINE (1950-present) Embase (1980- present), PsycINFO (1987- present), and Scopus (1990- present), along with a hand-searching of key journals was performed in July 2013 and then again in May 2015...
July 20, 2016: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642284/excitation-of-gabaergic-neurons-in-the-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-triggers-immediate-transition-from-non-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-to-wakefulness-in-mice
#20
Shota Kodani, Shingo Soya, Takeshi Sakurai
Emotionally salient situations usually trigger arousal along with autonomic and neuroendocrine reactions. To examine whether the extended amygdala plays a role in sleep/wakefulness regulation, we examined the effects of optogenetic and pharmacogenetic excitation of GABAergic neurons in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (GABA(BNST) neurons). Acute optogenetic excitation of these cells during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep resulted in immediate state transition to wakefulness, while stimulation during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep showed no effect on sleep/wakefulness states in male mice...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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