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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231463/neural-circuitry-of-wakefulness-and-sleep
#1
REVIEW
Thomas E Scammell, Elda Arrigoni, Jonathan O Lipton
Sleep remains one of the most mysterious yet ubiquitous animal behaviors. We review current perspectives on the neural systems that regulate sleep/wake states in mammals and the circadian mechanisms that control their timing. We also outline key models for the regulation of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and non-REM sleep, how mutual inhibition between specific pathways gives rise to these distinct states, and how dysfunction in these circuits can give rise to sleep disorders.
February 22, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229310/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-non-24-h-sleep-wake-disorder-in-the-blind
#2
REVIEW
Jonathan S Emens, Charmane I Eastman
Non-24-h sleep-wake disorder (non-24) is a circadian rhythm disorder occurring in 55-70% of totally blind individuals (those lacking conscious light perception) in which the 24-h biological clock (central, hypothalamic, circadian pacemaker) is no longer synchronized, or entrained, to the 24-h day. Instead, the overt rhythms controlled by the biological clock gradually shift progressively earlier or later (free run) in accordance with the clock's near-24-h period, resulting in a recurrent pattern of daytime hypersomnolence and night-time insomnia...
February 22, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228241/neuropeptide-s-reduces-propofol-or-ketamine-induced-slow-wave-states-through-activation-of-cognate-receptors-in-the-rat
#3
Xiang-Pan Kong, Can Wang, Jun-Fan Xie, Peng Zhao, Li-Rong Dai, Yu-Feng Shao, Jian-Sheng Lin, Yi-Ping Hou
Intracerebroventricular injection of NPS reduces the duration of the ketamine- or thiopental-induced loss of the righting reflex in rats. But the specific EEG activities are unknown. We therefore sought to examine the effects of the NPS-NPSR system on anesthetic-induced characteristics of EEG power spectra and sleep-wake profiles. NPS alone or together with an NPSR antagonist was injected intracerebroventricularly, whereas the propofol (50mg/kg) or ketamine (100mg/kg) was administrated intraperitoneally. NPS (1 or 2nmol) significantly reduced the amount of propofol-induced EEG delta activity and slow wave states (SWS)...
February 14, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228148/the-effect-of-melatonin-on-depressive-symptoms-anxiety-circadian-and-sleep-disturbances-in-patients-after-acute-coronary-syndrome-medacis-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Michael Tvilling Madsen, Anders Isbrand, Ulla Overgaard Andersen, Lars Juel Andersen, Mustafa Taskiran, Erik Simonsen, Ismail Gögenur
BACKGROUND: Depression following acute coronary syndrome (ACS) constitutes a serious and debilitating problem. Approximately one in five patients will develop significant depression following ACS and less severe depressive symptoms are even more frequent. Furthermore, anxiety symptoms and sleep-wake disturbances are frequent. The objective of the MEDACIS trial is to investigate whether prophylactic treatment with melatonin has a preventive effect on depression, depressive and anxiety symptoms, sleep, and circadian disturbances following ACS...
February 23, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227110/bioradiolocation-based-sleep-stage-classification
#5
Alexander Tataraidze, Lyudmila Korostovtseva, Lesya Anishchenko, Mikhail Bochkarev, Yurii Sviryaev, Sergey Ivashov, Alexander Tataraidze, Lyudmila Korostovtseva, Lesya Anishchenko, Mikhail Bochkarev, Yurii Sviryaev, Sergey Ivashov, Mikhail Bochkarev, Yurii Sviryaev, Lesya Anishchenko, Lyudmila Korostovtseva, Sergey Ivashov, Alexander Tataraidze
This paper presents a method for classifying wakefulness, REM, light and deep sleep based on the analysis of respiratory activity and body motions acquired by a bioradar. The method was validated using data of 32 subjects without sleep-disordered breathing, who underwent a polysomnography study in a sleep laboratory. We achieved Cohen's kappa of 0.49 in the wake-REM-light-deep sleep classification, 0.55 for the wake-REM-NREM classification and 0.57 for the sleep/wakefulness determination. The results might be useful for the development of unobtrusive sleep monitoring systems for diagnostics, prevention, and management of sleep disorders...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226828/a-mathematical-model-of-ultradian-sleep-wake-regulation-in-rodents
#6
Hao Wang, Farid Yaghouby, Sridhar Sunderam, Hao Wang, Farid Yaghouby, Sridhar Sunderam, Sridhar Sunderam, Farid Yaghouby, Hao Wang
Rodent models are widely used for the experimental analysis of sleep. While this is motivated by similarities in brain circuitry and electrophysiological rhythms, unlike the circadian sleep-wake cycle in humans, rodent sleep is polyphasic, containing multiple bouts of sleep and wake minutes to hours in duration over the course of a day. Each sleep bout is punctuated by several brief arousals several seconds to minutes long. Physiologically motivated mathematical models replicate the shorter timescale of arousal within sleep, but not the longer one representing prolonged wakefulness...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223099/transient-knock-down-of-kcna2-reduces-sleep-in-larval-zebrafish
#7
S Srdanovic, H Þorsteinsson, Þ FriÐriksson, S Ó Pétursson, V H Maier, K Æ Karlsson
In the current study we set out to determine the effects of morpholino oligonucleotide (MO) knock-down of kcna2 on sleep-wake cycles in zebrafish. The results were compared to a non-overlapping MO injection, Dec2, whós mutant is also linked with a short sleep phenotype. Four groups of fish were used in the experiment: naïve fish, and fish injected with either control, kcna2, or Dec2 MO. All groups underwent 24-hour behavioral monitoring of sleep-wake cycles at four and seven days-post-fertilization (dpf)...
February 18, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218891/blood-transcriptome-based-biomarkers-for-human-circadian-phase
#8
Emma E Laing, Carla S Möller-Levet, Norman Poh, Nayantara Santhi, Simon N Archer, Derk-Jan Dijk
Diagnosis and treatment of circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders both require assessment of circadian phase of the brain's circadian pacemaker. The gold-standard univariate method is based on collection of a 24-hr time series of plasma melatonin, a suprachiasmatic nucleus-driven pineal hormone. We developed and validated a multivariate whole-blood mRNA-based predictor of melatonin phase which requires few samples. Transcriptome data were collected under normal, sleep-deprivation and abnormal sleep-timing conditions to assess robustness of the predictor...
February 20, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217760/sleep-in-alzheimer-s-disease-beyond-amyloid
#9
Jerrah Holth, Tirth Patel, David M Holtzman
Sleep disorders are prevalent in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and a major cause of institutionalization. Like AD pathology, sleep abnormalities can appear years before cognitive decline and may be predictive of dementia. A bidirectional relationship between sleep and amyloid β (Aβ) has been well established with disturbed sleep and increased wakefulness leading to increased Aβ production and decreased Aβ clearance; whereas Aβ deposition is associated with increased wakefulness and sleep disturbances. Aβ fluctuates with the sleep wake cycle and is higher during wakefulness and lower during sleep...
January 2017: Neurobiology of Sleep and Circadian Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215256/the-association-between-chronotype-and-sleep-problems-in-preschool-children
#10
Nur K Jafar, Elaine K H Tham, Derric Z H Eng, Daniel Y T Goh, Oon-Hoe Teoh, Yung S Lee, Lynette Pei-Chi Shek, Fabian Yap, Yap Seng Chong, Michael J Meaney, Joshua J Gooley, Birit F P Broekman
OBJECTIVE: Adolescents and adults who are evening-types exhibit shorter sleep duration and more sleep problems than individuals with an earlier chronotype. We hypothesized that already at a preschool age, evening-types would exhibit more sleep problems relative to children who are morning or intermediate chronotypes. The aim of this study was to examine the association between chronotype and sleep problems among preschool children. METHODS: We studied a subset of typically-developing 4...
February 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215246/regional-gray-matter-changes-in-shift-workers-a-voxel-based-morphometry-study
#11
Jung Bin Kim, Ji Hyun Kim
OBJECTIVE: Previous neuroimaging studies have shown subtle structural changes of the brain in various sleep disorders, suggesting detrimental effects of disrupted sleep-wake cycle on brain structures. We aimed to identify structural changes in shift workers relative to day workers. We hypothesized that brain structures belonging to sleep-wake modulation may be altered in shift workers. METHODS: Nineteen male shift workers (median age, 21 years) and 19 male day workers (median age, 21 years) voluntarily participated in the current study...
February 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215242/impact-of-a-modest-delay-in-school-start-time-in-hong-kong-school-adolescents
#12
Ngan Yin Chan, Jihui Zhang, Mandy Wai Man Yu, Siu Ping Lam, Shirley Xin Li, Alice Pik Shan Kong, Albert Martin Li, Yun Kwok Wing
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of a modest delay (15 min) in school start time (SST) on adolescent sleep patterns, mood, and behaviors. METHODS: Two secondary schools in Hong Kong with a total of 1173 students (intervention: n = 617; comparison school n = 556) completed both baseline and follow-up questionnaires. School start time was delayed by 15 min, from 7:45 a.m. to 8:00 a.m., in the intervention school. The comparison school maintained their regular SST at 7:55 a...
February 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215235/personality-differences-in-patients-with-delayed-sleep-wake-phase-disorder-and-non-24-h-sleep-wake-rhythm-disorder-relative-to-healthy-sleepers
#13
Gorica Micic, Nicole Lovato, Michael Gradisar, Leon C Lack
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Delayed sleep-wake phase disorder (DSWPD) is associated with a delayed timing of circadian rhythms, and this delay is suggested to be the basis of the disorder. However, this has been questioned due to frequent relapses following treatment based on this aetiology. Recent studies have emerged suggesting personality factors may contribute to sleep patterns in DSWPD. The aim of this study was to further investigate circadian and personality factors in DSWPD patients as well as patients with non-24-h sleep-wake rhythm disorder (N24SWD) relative to control sleepers...
February 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215031/orexin-a-missing-link-between-sleep-disorders-and-heart-failure
#14
REVIEW
Stephen Pan, Carolina S Cabral, Euan A Ashley, Marco V Perez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sleep disorders represent a significant comorbidity in the heart failure population, and there is mounting evidence that treatment of sleep disorders such as obstructive sleep apnea can significantly improve cardiac function. However, the link between these two disorders is still not entirely clear. RECENT FINDINGS: Recently, a novel neurohormonal pathway has been elucidated involving signaling molecules now collectively known as the orexins, which have been implicated in regulating autonomic function during sleep/wake cycles...
February 18, 2017: Current Heart Failure Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181718/segmented-sleep-in-a-nonelectric-small-scale-agricultural-society-in-madagascar
#15
David R Samson, Melissa B Manus, Andrew D Krystal, Efe Fakir, James J Yu, Charles L Nunn
OBJECTIVES: We studied sleep in a rural population in Madagascar to (i) characterize sleep in an equatorial small-scale agricultural population without electricity, (ii) assess whether sleep is linked to noise levels in a dense population, and (iii) examine the effects of experimentally introduced artificial light on sleep timing. METHODS: Using actigraphy, sleep-wake patterns were analyzed for both daytime napping and nighttime wakefulness in 21 participants for a sum total of 292 days...
February 9, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178395/characteristics-of-sleep-wake-cycle-and-sleep-duration-in-japanese-type-2-diabetic-patients-with-visceral-fat-accumulation
#16
Shiro Fukuda, Ayumu Hirata, Hitoshi Nishizawa, Hirofumi Nagao, Takekazu Kimura, Yuya Fujishima, Masaya Yamaoka, Junji Kozawa, Akihisa Imagawa, Tohru Funahashi, Norikazu Maeda, Iichiro Shimomura
Sleep pattern has been shown to associate with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Here, we investigated the difference in bedtime, waking time, and estimated sleep duration in T2DM patients with or without visceral fat accumulation, using questionnaire on sleep patterns. The study subjects were 59 Japanese T2DM patients (males/females = 34/25, age 64.5 ± 12.1 years, mean ± SD). Visceral fat accumulation was defined as estimated visceral fat area ≥100cm(2) . The patients with visceral fat accumulation (N=40) showed significantly later bedtime (23:51 ± 1:27 in (+) group vs 22:49 ± 1:23 in (-) group) and shorter estimated sleep duration (6...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173758/sleep-wake-movement-velocities-trajectories-and-micro-arousals-during-maturation-in-rats
#17
Gideon Gradwohl, Nadja Olini, Reto Huber
BACKGROUND: Sleep is regulated by two main processes. The circadian process provides a 24-h rhythm and the homeostatic process reflects sleep pressure, which increases in the course of wakefulness and decreases during sleep. Both of these processes undergo major changes during development. For example, sleep homeostasis, measured by means of electroencephalogram (EEG) slow-wave activity (SWA, EEG power between 0.5 and 4.5 Hz), peaks around puberty and decreases during adolescence. In humans and rats these changes have been related to cortical maturation...
February 7, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169087/adolescents-at-clinical-high-risk-for-psychosis-circadian-rhythm-disturbances-predict-worsened-prognosis-at-1-year-follow-up
#18
Jessica R Lunsford-Avery, Bruno da Silva Brandão Gonçalves, Elisa Brietzke, Rodrigo A Bressan, Ary Gadelha, Randy P Auerbach, Vijay A Mittal
BACKGROUND: Individuals with psychotic disorders experience disruptions to both the sleep and circadian components of the sleep/wake cycle. Recent evidence has supported a role of sleep disturbances in emerging psychosis. However, less is known about how circadian rhythm disruptions may relate to psychosis symptoms and prognosis for adolescents with clinical high-risk (CHR) syndromes. The present study examines circadian rest/activity rhythms in CHR and healthy control (HC) youth to clarify the relationships among circadian rhythm disturbance, psychosis symptoms, psychosocial functioning, and the longitudinal course of illness...
February 4, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160289/melanopsin-expressing-human-retinal-ganglion-cells-subtypes-distribution-and-intraretinal-connectivity
#19
Jens Hannibal, Anders Tolstrup Christensen, Steffen Heegaard, Jan Fahrenkrug, Jens Folke Kiilgaard
Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) expressing the photopigment melanopsin belong to a heterogenic population of RGCs which regulate the circadian clock, masking behavior, melatonin suppression, the pupillary light reflex and sleep/wake cycles. The different functions seem to be associated to different subtypes of melanopsin cells. In rodents, subtype classification has associated subtypes to function. In primate and human retina such classification has so far, not been applied. In the present study using antibodies against N- and C-terminal parts of human melanopsin, confocal microscopy and 3D reconstruction of melanopsin immunoreactive (-ir) RGCs, we applied the criteria used in mouse on human melanopsin-ir RGCs...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160224/examining-the-behavioural-sleep-wake-rhythm-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-no-comorbid-intellectual-disability
#20
Emma K Baker, Amanda L Richdale
This study aimed to examine the behavioural sleep-wake rhythm in 36 adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and to determine the prevalence of circadian sleep-wake rhythm disorders compared to age- and sex-matched controls. Participants completed an online questionnaire battery, a 14-day sleep-wake diary and 14-day actigraphy assessment. The results indicated that a higher proportion of adults with ASD met criteria for a circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorder compared to control adults. In particular, delayed sleep-wake phase disorder was particularly common in adults with ASD...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
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