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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909991/the-role-of-orexins-hypocretins-in-alcohol-use-and-abuse
#1
Leigh C Walker, Andrew J Lawrence
Addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder characterized by compulsive drug seeking and drug taking despite negative consequences. Alcohol abuse and addiction have major social and economic consequences and cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Currently available therapeutics are inadequate, outlining the need for alternative treatments. Detailed knowledge of the neurocircuitry and brain chemistry responsible for aberrant behavior patterns should enable the development of novel pharmacotherapies to treat addiction...
December 2, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909987/orexin-ox2-receptor-antagonists-as-sleep-aids
#2
Laura H Jacobson, Sui Chen, Sanjida Mir, Daniel Hoyer
The discovery of the orexin system represents the single major progress in the sleep field of the last three to four decades. The two orexin peptides and their two receptors play a major role in arousal and sleep/wake cycles. Defects in the orexin system lead to narcolepsy with cataplexy in humans and dogs and can be experimentally reproduced in rodents. At least six orexin receptor antagonists have reached Phase II or Phase III clinical trials in insomnia, five of which are dual orexin receptor antagonists (DORAs) that target both OX1 and OX2 receptors (OX2Rs)...
December 2, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905361/-heterogeneity-of-excessive-daytime-sleepiness-in-parkinson-s-disease
#3
O V Babkina, M G Poluektov, O S Levin
For the recent years, a special attention is given to the non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease, including sleep/wake disorders representing one of the leading symptoms. Daytime sleepiness occurs in 30-55% of patients depending on duration and stage of the disease, leading to severe maladjustment. This symptom seems to be multifactorial by nature and identification of it's causes could have a great importance for the therapy. The main factors of the development of daytime sleepiness in Parkinson's disease and key points of the pathogenesis of «primary» daytime sleepiness are discussed...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903128/postoperative-outcome-of-body-core-temperature-rhythm-and-sleep-wake-cycle-in-third-ventricle-craniopharyngiomas
#4
Matteo Zoli, Luisa Sambati, Laura Milanese, Matteo Foschi, Marco Faustini-Fustini, Gianluca Marucci, Dario de Biase, Giovanni Tallini, Annagrazia Cecere, Francesco Mignani, Carmelo Sturiale, Giorgio Frank, Ernesto Pasquini, Pietro Cortelli, Diego Mazzatenta, Federica Provini
OBJECTIVE One of the more serious risks in the treatment of third ventricle craniopharyngiomas is represented by hypothalamic damage. Recently, many papers have reported the expansion of the indications for the endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) to be used for these tumors as well. The aim of this study was to assess the outcome of sleep-wake cycle and body core temperature (BCT), both depending on hypothalamic control, in patients affected by craniopharyngiomas involving the third ventricle that were surgically treated via an EEA...
December 2016: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899291/dynamic-changes-in-sleep-pattern-during-post-partum-in-normal-pregnancy-in-rat-model
#5
Neelima Sivadas, Arathi Radhakrishnan, B S Aswathy, Velayudhan Mohan Kumar, Kamalesh K Gulia
To develop an animal model for studies on peri-partum sleep disorders, sleep patterns in female Wistar rats during pregnancy, post-partum and after weaning, were assessed and associated adaptive changes in their anxiety were examined. Adult nulliparous female rats, maintained in standard laboratory conditions with ad libitum food and water, were surgically implanted with electroencephalogram and electromyogram electrodes under anaesthesia for objective assessment of sleep-wakefulness (S-W). After post-surgical recovery, three control recordings of S-W were taken for 24h before the animals were kept for mating...
November 26, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896948/acute-partial-sleep-deprivation-due-to-environmental-noise-increases-weight-gain-by-reducing-energy-expenditure-in-rodents
#6
Jennifer B Parrish, Jennifer A Teske
OBJECTIVE: Chronic partial sleep deprivation (SD) by environmental noise exposure increases weight gain and feeding in rodents, which contrasts weight loss after acute SD by physical methods. This study tested whether acute environmental noise exposure reduced sleep and its effect on weight gain, food intake, physical activity, and energy expenditure (EE). It was hypothesized that acute exposure would (1) increase weight gain and feeding and (2) reduce sleep, physical activity, and EE (total and individual components); and (3) behavioral changes would persist throughout recovery from SD...
November 29, 2016: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895820/sleep-circadian-dysrhythmia-obesity-and-diabetes
#7
REVIEW
Gumpeny Ramachandra Sridhar, Narasimhadevara Santhi Nirmala Sanjana
Synchrony of biological processes with environmental cues developed over millennia to match growth, reproduction and senescence. This entails a complex interplay of genetic, metabolic, chemical, light, hormonal and hedonistic factors across life forms. Sleep is one of the most prominent rhythms where such a match is established. Over the past 100 years or so, it has been possible to disturb the synchrony between sleep-wake cycle and environmental cues. Development of electric lights, shift work and continual accessibility of the internet has disrupted this match...
November 15, 2016: World Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891111/editorial-brain-oscillations-and-predictive-coding-in-the-context-of-different-conscious-states-and-sleep-wake-cycle-implications-for-decision-making-and-psychopathology
#8
EDITORIAL
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886007/sleep-wake-profile-in-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-alzheimer-s-disease-and-normal-aging
#9
Annachiara Cagnin, Federica Fragiacomo, Giulia Camporese, Matteo Turco, Cinzia Bussè, Mario Ermani, Sara Montagnese
BACKGROUND: Alterations of the sleep-wake cycle are common features of neurodegenerative dementia. OBJECTIVES: To study differences in sleep-wake profiles in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and healthy controls. METHODS: 30 DLB and 32 AD patients, and 33 healthy elderly participants were studied. Patients were evaluated for global cognitive impairment, extrapyramidal signs, fluctuations of attention, and behavioral disorders...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884682/sleep-metabolism-the-multitasking-ability-of-lateral-hypothalamic-inhibitory-circuitries
#10
REVIEW
Carolina Gutierrez Herrera, Alexey Ponomarenko, Tatiana Korotkova, Denis Burdakov, Antoine Adamantidis
The anatomical and functional mapping of lateral hypothalamic circuits has been limited by the numerous cell types and complex, yet unclear, connectivity. Recent advances in functional dissection of input-output neurons in the lateral hypothalamus have identified subset of inhibitory cells as crucial modulators of both sleep-wake states and metabolism. Here, we summarize these recent studies and discuss the multi-tasking functions of hypothalamic circuitries in integrating sleep and metabolism in the mammalian brain...
November 21, 2016: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883169/association-between-continuous-wearable-activity-monitoring-and-self-reported-functioning-in-assisted-living-facility-and-nursing-home-residents
#11
J Merilahti, I Korhonen
BACKGROUND: Physical functioning is a key factor in independent living, and its preclinical state assessment and monitoring during the subject's normal life would be beneficial. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study is to analyse associations between ambulatory measured physical activity behaviour and sleep patterns (wrist actigraphy) and self-reported difficulties in performing activities of daily living. Participants, setting and design: 36 residents in assisted living facilities and nursing homes (average age=80...
2016: Journal of Frailty & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882644/sleep-wake-cycle-phenotypes-in-young-people-with-familial-and-non-familial-mood-disorders
#12
Jan Scott, Sharon Naismith, Ashlee Grierson, Joanne Carpenter, Daniel Hermens, Elizabeth Scott, Ian Hickie
OBJECTIVES: Converging evidence identifies that the offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (BD), individuals at clinical high risk of BD, and young people with recent onset BD may differ from other clinical cases or healthy controls in terms of sleep-wake profiles. However, it is possible that these differences may reflect current mental state, subtype of mood disorder, or familial traits. This study aimed to determine objective and subjective sleep-wake profiles in individuals aged 15-25 years with a current major depressive episode, in relation to familial traits...
November 24, 2016: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855749/nocturnal-dynamics-of-sleep-wake-transitions-in-patients-with-narcolepsy
#13
Xiaozhe Zhang, Jan W Kantelhardt, Xiao Song Dong, Dagmar Krefting, Jing Li, Han Yan, Frank Pillmann, Ingo Fietze, Thomas Penzel, Long Zhao, Fang Han
STUDY OBJECTIVES: We investigate how characteristics of sleep-wake dynamics in humans are modified by narcolepsy, a clinical condition that is supposed to destabilize sleep-wake regulation. Subjects with and without cataplexy are considered separately. Differences in sleep scoring habits as a possible confounder have been examined. METHODS: Four groups of subjects are considered: narcolepsy patients from China with (n=88) and without (n=15) cataplexy, healthy controls from China (n=110) and from Europe (n=187, two nights each)...
November 14, 2016: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853537/global-field-synchronization-reveals-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-as-most-synchronized-brain-state-in-the-human-eeg
#14
Peter Achermann, Thomas Rusterholz, Roland Dürr, Thomas König, Leila Tarokh
Sleep is characterized by a loss of consciousness, which has been attributed to a breakdown of functional connectivity between brain regions. Global field synchronization (GFS) can estimate functional connectivity of brain processes. GFS is a frequency-dependent measure of global synchronicity of multi-channel EEG data. Our aim was to explore and extend the hypothesis of disconnection during sleep by comparing GFS spectra of different vigilance states. The analysis was performed on eight healthy adult male subjects...
October 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853240/modulation-of-light-driven-arousal-by-lim-homeodomain-transcription-factor-apterous-in-large-pdf-positive-lateral-neurons-of-the-drosophila-brain
#15
Naoto Shimada, Show Inami, Shoma Sato, Toshihiro Kitamoto, Takaomi Sakai
Apterous (Ap), the best studied LIM-homeodomain transcription factor in Drosophila, cooperates with the cofactor Chip (Chi) to regulate transcription of specific target genes. Although Ap regulates various developmental processes, its function in the adult brain remains unclear. Here, we report that Ap and Chi in the neurons expressing PDF, a neuropeptide, play important roles in proper sleep/wake regulation in adult flies. PDF-expressing neurons consist of two neuronal clusters: small ventral-lateral neurons (s-LNvs) acting as the circadian pacemaker and large ventral-lateral neurons (l-LNvs) regulating light-driven arousal...
November 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845651/non-contact-pressure-based-sleep-wake-discrimination
#16
Lorcan Walsh, Sean McLoone, Joesph Ronda, Jeanne F Duffy, Charles A Czeisler
Poor sleep is increasingly being recognised as an important prognostic parameter of health. For those with suspected sleep disorders, patients are referred to sleep clinics which guide treatment. However, sleep clinics are not always a viable option due to their high cost, a lack of experienced practitioners, lengthy waiting lists and an unrepresentative sleeping environment. A home-based non-contact sleep/wake monitoring system may be used as a guide for treatment potentially stratifying patients by clinical need or highlighting longitudinal changes in sleep and nocturnal patterns...
October 25, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845162/neuropeptide-glutamic-acid-isoleucine-nei-induced-paradoxical-sleep-in-rats
#17
Moe Fujimoto, Satoru Fukuda, Hidetoshi Sakamoto, Junko Takata, Shigehito Sawamura
Neuropeptideglutamic acid-isoleucine (NEI) as well as melanin concentrating hormone (MCH) is cleaved from the 165 amino acid protein, prepro-melanin concentrating hormone (prepro-MCH). Among many physiological roles of MCH, we demonstrated that intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of MCH induced increases in REM sleep episodes as well as in non REM sleep episodes. However, there are no studies on the effect of NEI on the sleep-wake cycle. As for the sites of action of MCH for induction of REM sleep, the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) has been reported to be one of its site of action...
November 11, 2016: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844033/novel-nalcn-variant-altered-respiratory-and-circadian-rhythm-anesthetic-sensitivity
#18
Bernarda Lozic, Stefan Johansson, Sanja Lovric Kojundzic, Josko Markic, Per Morten Knappskog, Angelika F Hahn, Helge Boman
The sodium leak channel, a Na(+)-permeable, nonselective cation channel, is widely expressed in the nervous system, contributing a basal Na(+)-leak conductance and regulating neuronal excitability. A 3-year-old girl, heterozygous for a de novo missense mutation in NALCN (c.956C>T; p.Ala319Val) predicted to be deleterious, presented from birth with: stimulus-induced, episodic contractures of the limbs and face with associated respiratory distress; distal arthrogryposis; severe axial hypotonia; and severe global developmental delay (CLIFAHDD syndrome)...
November 2016: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836462/clock-genes-adhd-and-aggression
#19
REVIEW
Floriana Mogavero, Amanda Jager, Jeffrey C Glennon
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequently associated with comorbid aggression and sleep disturbances. The sleep/wake cycle is under the control of the circadian system which is moderated by clock genes. Clock genes can regulate the transcription of monoamine oxidase A, which is involved in the degradation of monoamines. Disturbances in monoamine interaction with clock genes in those with monoamine gene polymorphisms may regulate susceptibility of ADHD and comorbid aggression/sleep disturbances...
November 8, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834148/the-role-of-nuclear-receptor-ppar%C3%AE-in-the-sleep-wake-cycle-modulation-a-tentative-approach-for-treatment-of-sleep-disorders
#20
Eric Murillo-Rodriguez
There is a general consensus that sleep-wake cycle is controlled by neuroanatomical, neurochemical and molecular systems as well as by homeostatic and circadian complex networks. The research has shown that a molecular element that could be displaying a relevant role in the modulation of sleep is the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), which belongs to the family of nuclear receptor ligand-activated transcription factors that includes PPARβ/δ and PPARγ. A growing body of evidence supports the notion that PPARα is activated by natural ligands such as the anorexic lipid mediator oleoylethanolamide (OEA) or synthetic compounds including Wy14643 whereas antagonists like MK-886 block the neurobiological outcomes of PPARα...
November 9, 2016: Current Drug Delivery
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