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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448332/sleep-quality-and-quantity-in-low-income-postpartum-women
#1
Jennifer J Doering, Aniko Szabo, Deepika Goyal, Elizabeth Babler
PURPOSE: To describe and explore patterns of postpartum sleep, fatigue, and depressive symptoms in low-income urban women. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: In this descriptive, exploratory, nonexperimental study, participants were recruited from an inpatient postpartum unit. Subjective measures were completed by 132 participants across five time points. Objective sleep/wake patterns were measured by 72-hour wrist actigraphy at 4 and 8 weeks. Mean sample age was 25 years, high school educated with 3...
May 2017: MCN. the American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446040/characteristics-of-socially-withdrawn-youth-in-france-a-retrospective-study
#2
Nicolas Chauliac, Audrey Couillet, Sophie Faivre, Nassima Brochard, Jean-Louis Terra
BACKGROUND: Poor social interactions have been recognized as a symptom since the beginnings of psychiatry. As far as socially withdrawn youth (SWY) are concerned, studies were mostly conducted on patients seeking care. Our psychiatric outreach team called Psymobile was able to reach SWY patients who were not seeking mental health care. AIMS: To identify the clinical and socio-demographic characteristics of SWY patients referred to our Psymobile unit. METHOD: We carried out a retrospective study on the records of patients aged 18-34 years, who were referred to Psymobile for 'withdrawal', between April 2012 and December 2015...
April 1, 2017: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443381/pharmacological-management-of-narcolepsy-with-and-without-cataplexy
#3
Ulf Kallweit, Claudio L Bassetti
Introduction Narcolepsy is an orphan neurological disease and presents with sleep- wake, motoric, neuropsychiatric and metabolic symptoms. Narcolepsy with cataplexy is most commonly caused by an immune-mediated process including genetic and environmental factors, resulting in the selective loss of hypocretin-producing neurons. Narcolepsy has a major impact on workableness and quality of life. Areas covered This review provides an overview of the temporal available treatment options for narcolepsy (type 1 and 2) in adults, including authorization status by regulatory agencies...
April 26, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440811/evaluation-of-circadian-phenotypes-utilizing-fibroblasts-from-patients-with-circadian-rhythm-sleep-disorders
#4
A Hida, Y Ohsawa, S Kitamura, K Nakazaki, N Ayabe, Y Motomura, K Matsui, M Kobayashi, A Usui, Y Inoue, H Kusanagi, Y Kamei, K Mishima
We evaluated the circadian phenotypes of patients with delayed sleep-wake phase disorder (DSWPD) and non-24-hour sleep-wake rhythm disorder (N24SWD), two different circadian rhythm sleep disorders (CRSDs) by measuring clock gene expression rhythms in fibroblast cells derived from individual patients. Bmal1-luciferase (Bmal1-luc) expression rhythms were measured in the primary fibroblast cells derived from skin biopsy samples of patients with DSWPD and N24SWD, as well as control subjects. The period length of the Bmal1-luc rhythm (in vitro period) was distributed normally and was 22...
April 25, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435883/normal-sleep-requires-the-astrocyte-brain-type-fatty-acid-binding-protein-fabp7
#5
Jason R Gerstner, Isaac J Perron, Samantha M Riedy, Takeo Yoshikawa, Hiroshi Kadotani, Yuji Owada, Hans P A Van Dongen, Raymond J Galante, Kaitlin Dickinson, Jerry C P Yin, Allan I Pack, Marcos G Frank
Sleep is found widely in the animal kingdom. Despite this, few conserved molecular pathways that govern sleep across phyla have been described. The mammalian brain-type fatty acid binding protein (Fabp7) is expressed in astrocytes, and its mRNA oscillates in tandem with the sleep-wake cycle. However, the role of FABP7 in regulating sleep remains poorly understood. We found that the missense mutation FABP7.T61M is associated with fragmented sleep in humans. This phenotype was recapitulated in mice and fruitflies bearing similar mutations: Fabp7-deficient mice and transgenic flies that express the FABP7...
April 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435104/drosophila-pink1-and-parkin-loss-of-function-mutants-display-a-range-of-non-motor-parkinson-s-disease-phenotypes
#6
Hannah Julienne, Edgar Buhl, David S Leslie, James J L Hodge
Parkinson's disease (PD) is more commonly associated with its motor symptoms and the related degeneration of dopamine (DA) neurons. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that PD patients also display a wide range of non-motor symptoms, including memory deficits and disruptions of their sleep-wake cycles. These have a large impact on their quality of life, and often precede the onset of motor symptoms, but their etiology is poorly understood. The fruit fly Drosophila has already been successfully used to model PD, and has been used extensively to study relevant non-motor behaviours in other contexts, but little attention has yet been paid to modelling non-motor symptoms of PD in this genetically tractable organism...
April 20, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434992/promising-techniques-to-illuminate-neuromodulatory-control-of-the-cerebral-cortex-in-sleeping-and-waking-states
#7
REVIEW
Takeshi Kanda, Kaoru Ohyama, Hiroki Muramoto, Nami Kitajima, Hiroshi Sekiya
Sleep, a common event in daily life, has clear benefits for brain function, but what goes on in the brain when we sleep remains unclear. Sleep was long regarded as a silent state of the brain because the brain seemingly lacks interaction with the surroundings during sleep. Since the discovery of electrical activities in the brain at rest, electrophysiological methods have revealed novel concepts in sleep research. During sleep, the brain generates oscillatory activities that represent characteristic states of sleep...
April 20, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434991/the-control-of-sleep-and-wakefulness-by-mesolimbic-dopamine-systems
#8
REVIEW
Yo Oishi, Michael Lazarus
The mesolimbic dopamine pathway between the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays a central role in motivational behaviors. Recent findings indicate that the VTA and NAc are also involved in sleep/wake regulation - the topic of this review. First, we present an overview of the growing evidence from rodent studies revealing a wake-regulatory role of VTA dopamine neurons. We also discuss brain areas and their neurotransmitters or neuromodulators that may regulate the activity of wake-promoting VTA dopamine neurons...
April 20, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433628/ca-2-dependent-hyperpolarization-hypothesis-for-mammalian-sleep
#9
REVIEW
Fumiya Tatsuki, Koji L Ode, Hiroki R Ueda
The detailed molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of sleep/wake cycles in mammals are elusive. In this regulation, at least two mechanisms with fast and slow time scales are involved. In the faster time scale, a state of non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep can be microscopically characterized by the millisecond-to-second-order electrical behavior of neurons, namely slow-wave oscillations described by electrophysiology. In the slower time scale, the total duration of NREM sleep is homeostatically regulated by sleep pressure (the need for sleep), which is usually sustained for hours or even days and can be macroscopically described by electroencephalogram (EEG)...
April 19, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433001/principal-cell-types-of-sleep-wake-regulatory-circuits
#10
REVIEW
Barbara E Jones
Electrophysiological recordings indicate that neurons which discharge maximally in association with distinct sleep-wake states are distributed through the brain, albeit in differing proportions. As studied using juxtacellular recording and labeling within the basal forebrain, four functional principal cell types are distinguished as: wake/paradoxical sleep (W/PS)-, slow wave sleep (SWS)-, W- and PS-max active. They are each comprised by both GABA and glutamate neurons, in addition to acetylcholine neurons belonging to the W/PS group...
April 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431742/the-sleeping-cerebellum
#11
REVIEW
Cathrin B Canto, Yoshiyuki Onuki, Bastiaan Bruinsma, Ysbrand D van der Werf, Chris I De Zeeuw
We sleep almost one-third of our lives and sleep plays an important role in critical brain functions like memory formation and consolidation. The role of sleep in cerebellar processing, however, constitutes an enigma in the field of neuroscience; we know little about cerebellar sleep-physiology, cerebro-cerebellar interactions during sleep, or the contributions of sleep to cerebellum-dependent memory consolidation. Likewise, we do not understand why cerebellar malfunction can lead to changes in the sleep-wake cycle and sleep disorders...
April 18, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431626/sleep-patterns-in-villagers-and-urban-african-volunteers-in-a-humid-tropical-climate-influence-of-accessibility-to-electric-light
#12
Alain Buguet, Pascal Bogui, Stéphane Picot, Raymond Cespuglio
Recent publications focusing on sleep-wake alternation, using actigraphic recordings in hunter-gatherers, stressed the existence of a potential effect of electricity availability on sleep habits. These reports prompted us to achieve a new analysis of the polysomnographic data already obtained in healthy African volunteers in equatorial Africa during two different investigations. Comparison of the 24-h polysomnographic sleep patterns were done between 9 volunteers sleeping in a laboratory in Abidjan (Abidjan cohort) and 11 villagers living in electricity-free bush villages (Sinfra cohort)...
May 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427008/lateral-hypothalamic-circuits-for-sleep-wake-control
#13
REVIEW
Takayuki Yamashita, Akihiro Yamanaka
The lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) of the diencephalon is crucially involved in controlling instinctive behavior such as sleep-wake cycle and feeding behavior. LHA is a heterogeneous structure that contains spatially intermingled, genetically distinct cell populations. Among LHA neurons, orexin/hypocretin (OX) neuron is the key cell type that promotes waking, and specific loss of OX neurons results in narcolepsy. Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) containing neurons are known to be active during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and stimulation of these neurons promotes REM sleep...
April 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424614/relationship-between-cognitive-and-sleep-wake-variables-in-asymptomatic-offspring-of-patients-with-late-onset-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Carolina Abulafia, Bárbara Duarte-Abritta, Mirta F Villarreal, María S Ladrón-de-Guevara, Celeste García, Geraldine Sequeyra, Gustavo Sevlever, Leticia Fiorentini, Karl-Jürgen Bär, Deborah R Gustafson, Daniel E Vigo, Salvador M Guinjoan
Early neuropathological changes characteristic of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) involve brain stem and limbic structures that regulate neurovegetative functions, including sleep-wake rhythm. Indeed, sleep pattern is an emerging biomarker and a potential pathophysiological mechanism in LOAD. We hypothesized that cognitively asymptomatic, middle-aged offspring of patients with LOAD (O-LOAD) would display a series of circadian rhythm abnormalities prior to the onset of objective cognitive alterations. We tested 31 children of patients with LOAD (O-LOAD) and 19 healthy individuals without family history of Alzheimer's disease (control subjects, CS) with basic tests of cognitive function, as well as actigraphy measures of sleep-wake rhythm, cardiac autonomic function, and bodily temperature...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422354/auditory-verbal-experience-and-agency-in-waking-sleep-onset-rem-and-non-rem-sleep
#15
Jana Speth, Trevor A Harley, Clemens Speth
We present one of the first quantitative studies on auditory verbal experiences ("hearing voices") and auditory verbal agency (inner speech, and specifically "talking to (imaginary) voices or characters") in healthy participants across states of consciousness. Tools of quantitative linguistic analysis were used to measure participants' implicit knowledge of auditory verbal experiences (VE) and auditory verbal agencies (VA), displayed in mentation reports from four different states. Analysis was conducted on a total of 569 mentation reports from rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, non-REM sleep, sleep onset, and waking...
April 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421617/eveningness-and-later-sleep-timing-are-associated-with-greater-risk-for-alcohol-and-marijuana-use-in-adolescence-initial-findings-from-the-ncanda-study
#16
Brant P Hasler, Peter L Franzen, Massimiliano de Zambotti, Devin Prouty, Sandra A Brown, Susan F Tapert, Adolf Pfefferbaum, Kilian M Pohl, Edith V Sullivan, Michael D De Bellis, Bonnie J Nagel, Fiona C Baker, Ian M Colrain, Duncan B Clark
BACKGROUND: Abundant cross-sectional evidence links eveningness (a preference for later sleep-wake timing) and increased alcohol and drug use among adolescents and young adults. However, longitudinal studies are needed to examine whether eveningness is a risk factor for subsequent alcohol and drug use, particularly during adolescence, which is marked by parallel peaks in eveningness and risk for the onset of alcohol use disorders. The present study examined whether eveningness and other sleep characteristics were associated with concurrent or subsequent substance involvement in a longitudinal study of adolescents...
April 19, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419646/suvorexant-an-orexin-hypocretin-receptor-antagonist-attenuates-motivational-and-hedonic-properties-of-cocaine
#17
Taylor A Gentile, Steven J Simmons, David J Barker, Jessica K Shaw, Rodrigo A España, John W Muschamp
Orexins ('hypocretins') are peptides produced by neurons of the hypothalamus that project to structures implicated in reward and emotion processing. Converging evidence demonstrates functional roles of orexin signaling in arousal, sleep/wakefulness and motivated behaviors for natural and drug rewards. Suvorexant, a dual orexin receptor antagonist, recently received approval from the US Food and Drug Administration to treat insomnia. In Experiment 1, rats self-administered cocaine under a progressive-ratio schedule of reinforcement and the effects of suvorexant on motivation to self-administer cocaine were measured...
April 17, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416429/-life-threatening-sleepwalking-elpenor-s-syndrome-in-a-10-year-old-child
#18
M-A Madigand-Tordjman, P-J Egler, F Bertran, M Jokic, F Guénolé
Though benign in the majority of cases, sleepwalking sometimes causes injuries due, among other causes, to falls. Such accidents can be life-threatening - a situation that has been termed Elpenor syndrome (in reference to an accident experienced by a character in Homer's epic The Odyssey) - in particular when entailing defenestration. This syndrome has been described in adults and adolescents; we report here a case in a child. OBSERVATION: This 10-year-old girl was admitted at night to our hospital after a 3-m fall at home...
April 14, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414966/modeling-sleep-and-neuropsychiatric-disorders-in-zebrafish
#19
REVIEW
Talia Levitas-Djerbi, Lior Appelbaum
What are the molecular and cellular mechanisms that link neurological disorders and sleep disturbances? The transparent zebrafish model could bridge this gap in knowledge due to its unique genetic and imaging toolbox, and amenability to high-throughput screening. Sleep is well-characterized in zebrafish and key regulators of the sleep/wake cycle are conserved, including melatonin and hypocretin/orexin (Hcrt), whereas novel sleep regulating proteins are continually being identified, such as Kcnh4a, Neuromedin U, and QRFP...
April 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413931/glucose-variations-and-activity-are-strongly-coupled-in-sleep-and-wake-in-young-adults-with-type-1-diabetes
#20
Sarah S Farabi, David W Carley, Lauretta Quinn
BACKGROUND: Glucose variations are common throughout sleep and wakefulness in people with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The objective of this investigation was to characterize the time-varying coupling between glucose and unstructured physical activity over a 60-hr period in young adults with T1DM. The hypothesis was that coupling would differ during sleep versus wakefulness and would exhibit circadian variations. METHOD: Young adults with T1DM treated with an insulin pump participated in the study...
May 2017: Biological Research for Nursing
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