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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915137/monoamines-inhibit-gabaergic-neurons-in-ventrolateral-preoptic-area-that-make-direct-synaptic-connections-to-hypothalamic-arousal-neurons
#1
Yuki Saito, Takashi Maejima, Mitsuhiro Nishitani, Emi Hasegawa, Yuchio Yanagawa, Michihiro Mieda, Takeshi Sakurai
The hypothalamus plays an important role in regulation of sleep/wakefulness states. While the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO) plays a critical role in the initiation and maintenance of sleep, the lateral posterior part of the hypothalamus contains neuronal populations implicated in maintenance of arousal, including orexin-producing neurons (orexin neurons) in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) and histaminergic neurons in the tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN). During a search for neurons that make direct synaptic contact with histidine decarboxylase (HDC)-positive, histaminergic neurons (HDC neurons) in the TMN and orexin neurons in the LHA of male mice, we found that these arousal-related neurons are heavily innervated by GABAergic neurons in the preoptic area (POA) including the VLPO...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912983/efficacy-of-melatonin-with-behavioural-sleep-wake-scheduling-for-delayed-sleep-wake-phase-disorder-a-double-blind-randomised-clinical-trial
#2
Tracey L Sletten, Michelle Magee, Jade M Murray, Christopher J Gordon, Nicole Lovato, David J Kennaway, Stella M Gwini, Delwyn J Bartlett, Steven W Lockley, Leon C Lack, Ronald R Grunstein, Shantha M W Rajaratnam
BACKGROUND: Delayed Sleep-Wake Phase Disorder (DSWPD) is characterised by sleep initiation insomnia when attempting sleep at conventional times and difficulty waking at the required time for daytime commitments. Although there are published therapeutic guidelines for the administration of melatonin for DSWPD, to our knowledge, randomised controlled trials are lacking. This trial tested the efficacy of 0.5 mg melatonin, combined with behavioural sleep-wake scheduling, for improving sleep initiation in clinically diagnosed DSWPD patients with a delayed endogenous melatonin rhythm relative to patient-desired (or -required) bedtime (DBT)...
June 2018: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911349/tales-around-the-clock-poly-a-tails-in-circadian-gene-expression
#3
REVIEW
Rafailia A A Beta, Nikolaos A A Balatsos
Circadian rhythms are ubiquitous time-keeping processes in eukaryotes with a period of ~24 hr. Light is perhaps the main environmental cue (zeitgeber) that affects several aspects of physiology and behaviour, such as sleep/wake cycles, orientation of birds and bees, and leaf movements in plants. Temperature can serve as the main zeitgeber in the absence of light cycles, even though it does not lead to rhythmicity through the same mechanism as light. Additional cues include feeding patterns, humidity, and social rhythms...
June 17, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908300/acute-and-chronic-escitalopram-alter-eeg-gamma-oscillations-differently-relevance-to-therapeutic-effects
#4
Noémi Papp, Szilvia Vas, Emese Bogáthy, Zita Kátai, Diána Kostyalik, György Bagdy
Brain oscillations in the gamma frequency band of the electroencephalogram (EEG) have been implicated in several sensory and cognitive processes, and have also been associated with numerous neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression. The widely prescribed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), similarly to other antidepressants, are known to produce markedly different effects on sleep and behavioral measures with acute and chronic administration. Although there are studies examining the acute effect of escitalopram on slower (<30 Hz) oscillations, we hardly could find any data about the effect of the drug on higher-frequency EEG oscillations (>30 Hz) in different sleep-wake stages, particularly comparing the acute and chronic effects of the drug concerning gamma oscillations...
June 13, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908240/the-gabaergic-gudden-s-dorsal-tegmental-nucleus-a-new-relay-for-serotonergic-regulation-of-sleep-wake-behavior-in-the-mouse
#5
Marine Chazalon, Sylvie Dumas, Jean-François Bernard, Iman Sahly, François Tronche, Alban de Kerchove d'Exaerde, Michel Hamon, Joëlle Adrien, Véronique Fabre, Patricia Bonnavion
Serotonin (5-HT) neurons are involved in wake promotion and exert a strong inhibitory influence on rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Such effects have been ascribed, at least in part to the action of 5-HT at post-synaptic 5-HT1A receptors (5-HT1A R) in the brainstem, a major wake/REM sleep regulatory center. However, the neuroanatomical substrate through which 5-HT1A R influence sleep remains elusive. We therefore investigated whether a brainstem structure containing a high density of 5-HT1A R mRNA, the GABAergic Gudden's dorsal tegmental nucleus (DTg), may contribute to 5-HT-mediated regulatory mechanisms of sleep-wake stages...
June 13, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904334/sleep-disorders-associated-with-alzheimer-s-disease-a-perspective
#6
REVIEW
Anna Brzecka, Jerzy Leszek, Ghulam Md Ashraf, Maria Ejma, Marco F Ávila-Rodriguez, Nagendra S Yarla, Vadim V Tarasov, Vladimir N Chubarev, Anna N Samsonova, George E Barreto, Gjumrakch Aliev
Sleep disturbances, as well as sleep-wake rhythm disturbances, are typical symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) that may precede the other clinical signs of this neurodegenerative disease. Here, we describe clinical features of sleep disorders in AD and the relation between sleep disorders and both cognitive impairment and poor prognosis of the disease. There are difficulties of the diagnosis of sleep disorders based on sleep questionnaires, polysomnography or actigraphy in the AD patients. Typical disturbances of the neurophysiological sleep architecture in the course of the AD include deep sleep and paradoxical sleep deprivation...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899451/quantitative-phosphoproteomic-analysis-of-the-molecular-substrates-of-sleep-need
#7
Zhiqiang Wang, Jing Ma, Chika Miyoshi, Yuxin Li, Makito Sato, Yukino Ogawa, Tingting Lou, Chengyuan Ma, Xue Gao, Chiyu Lee, Tomoyuki Fujiyama, Xiaojie Yang, Shuang Zhou, Noriko Hotta-Hirashima, Daniela Klewe-Nebenius, Aya Ikkyu, Miyo Kakizaki, Satomi Kanno, Liqin Cao, Satoru Takahashi, Junmin Peng, Yonghao Yu, Hiromasa Funato, Masashi Yanagisawa, Qinghua Liu
Sleep and wake have global effects on brain physiology, from molecular changes1-4 and neuronal activities to synaptic plasticity3-7 . Sleep-wake homeostasis is maintained by the generation of a sleep need that accumulates during waking and dissipates during sleep8-11 . Here we investigate the molecular basis of sleep need using quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of the sleep-deprived and Sleepy mouse models of increased sleep need. Sleep deprivation induces cumulative phosphorylation of the brain proteome, which dissipates during sleep...
June 13, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29894840/slow-wave-sleep-and-androgens-selective-slow-wave-sleep-suppression-affects-testosterone-and-17%C3%AE-hydroxyprogesterone-secretion
#8
Yu V Ukraintseva, K M Liaukovich, А A Polishchuk, О V Martynova, D A Belov, E S Simenel, М Meira E Cruz, А N Nizhnik
OBJECTIVES: Levels of steroid hormones such as androgens and cortisol exhibit circadian variation, and their fluctuations are related to the sleep-wake cycle. Currently, the functional role of different stages of sleep in steroid hormone secretion remains unclear. The present study aims to explore the effect of slow-wave sleep (SWS) suppression on morning levels of cortisol and androgens. METHODS: Twelve healthy male volunteers participated in two experimental sessions: a session with selective SWS suppression during night sleep and a session with regular night sleep (control)...
May 12, 2018: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892500/modeling-and-analysis-of-the-impacts-of-jet-lag-on-circadian-rhythm-and-its-role-in-tumor-growth
#9
Azka Hassan, Jamil Ahmad, Hufsah Ashraf, Amjad Ali
Circadian rhythms maintain a 24 h oscillation pattern in metabolic, physiological and behavioral processes in all living organisms. Circadian rhythms are organized as biochemical networks located in hypothalamus and peripheral tissues. Rhythmicity in the expression of circadian clock genes plays a vital role in regulating the process of cell division and DNA damage control. The oncogenic protein, MYC and the tumor suppressor, p53 are directly influenced by the circadian clock. Jet lag and altered sleep/wake schedules prominently affect the expression of molecular clock genes...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892048/thalamic-dual-control-of-sleep-and-wakefulness
#10
Thomas C Gent, Mojtaba Bandarabadi, Carolina Gutierrez Herrera, Antoine R Adamantidis
Slow waves (0.5-4 Hz) predominate in the cortical electroencephalogram during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep in mammals. They reflect the synchronization of large neuronal ensembles alternating between active (UP) and quiescent (Down) states and propagating along the neocortex. The thalamic contribution to cortical UP states and sleep modulation remains unclear. Here we show that spontaneous firing of centromedial thalamus (CMT) neurons in mice is phase-advanced to global cortical UP states and NREM-wake transitions...
June 11, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890462/sleep-profile-in-anorexia-and-bulimia-nervosa-female-patients
#11
Tarek Asaad Abdou, Heba Ibrahim Esawy, Ghada Abdel Razek Mohamed, Hanan Hussein Ahmed, Mahmoud Mamdouh Elhabiby, Sherien Ahmed Khalil, Yomna Ahmed El-Hawary
OBJECTIVE: Sleep wake cycle and eating patterns undergo major changes throughout life and have been proved to be very correlated. Eating disorder prevalence is increasing and sleep problems are very common among them. The current study is concerned with investigating the sleep pattern in anorexia and bulimia female patients using both subjective and objective assessment tools. METHODS: A cross sectional study of sleep patterns using structured sleep disorder questionnaire and full night polysomnography in 23 female patients with bulimia and anorexia, patients aged 18-45 years not on any treatment for a month at least, compared to a sex and age matched control group (20 participants), all cases were collected from the Institute of Psychiatry, Ain Shams University over 18 months interval...
May 7, 2018: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888167/chronotype-and-psychiatric-disorders
#12
REVIEW
Liia Kivelä, Marinos Rodolfos Papadopoulos, Niki Antypa
Purpose of Review: Chronotype, reflecting interindividual differences in daily activity patterns and sleep-wake cycles, is intrinsically connected with well-being. Research indicates increased risk of many adverse mental health outcomes for evening-type individuals. Here, we provide an overview of the current evidence available on the relationship between chronotype and psychiatric disorders. Recent Findings: The association between eveningness and depression is well established cross-sectionally, with preliminary support from longitudinal studies...
2018: Current Sleep Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885049/diurnal-changes-in-glutamate-glutamine-levels-of-healthy-young-adults-assessed-by-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#13
Carina Volk, Valeria Jaramillo, Renato Merki, Ruth O'Gorman Tuura, Reto Huber
The glutamatergic α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor is involved in synaptic plasticity processes, and animal studies have demonstrated altered expression across the sleep wake cycle. Accordingly, glutamate levels are reduced during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and the rate of this decrease is positively correlated with sleep EEG slow wave activity (SWA). Here, we combined proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1 H-MRS) and high-density sleep EEG to assess if 1 H-MRS is sensitive to diurnal changes of glutamate + glutamine (GLX) in healthy young adults and if potential overnight changes of GLX are correlated to SWA...
June 8, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29880005/nodding-behavior-couples-to-vigilance-fluctuation-in-a-high-calorie-diet-model-of-drowsiness
#14
Anna Shin, Jeonghoon Woo, Jung Eun Kim, Daesoo Kim
Drowsiness is an awake state with increased sleep drive, yet the neural correlates and underlying mechanisms remains unclear. Here, we established a mouse model of drowsiness, where mice are fasted for 1 day and then allowed to overeat high-fat food (to promote sleep) while positioned in an open-field box (to promote vigilance). They fall into a long-lasting drowsy state, as reflected by repeated and open-eyed nodding of the head while in a standing position. Simultaneous recording of electroencephalogram (EEG) and neck electromyogram (EMG) readouts revealed that this drowsy state including nodding state had multiple stages in terms of the relationship between the level of vigilance and head movement: delta oscillations decreased in power prior to the head-nodding period and increased during the non-nodding period...
June 7, 2018: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29876197/assessment-and-management-of-sleep-disturbance-in-cirrhosis
#15
REVIEW
Chiara Formentin, Maria Garrido, Sara Montagnese
Purpose of Review: This review presents an in-depth overview of the sleep-wake phenotype of patients with cirrhosis, together with available pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment strategies. A set of simple, practical recommendations is also provided. Recent Findings: The understanding of the pathophysiology of sleep disorders in this patient population has improved over the past decade, especially in relation to the interplay between homeostatic and circadian sleep regulation...
2018: Current Hepatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29869429/synchrony-of-sleep-wake-cycles-with-lunar-tidal-cycles-in-a-rapid-cycling-bipolar-patient
#16
David H Avery, Thomas A Wehr
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 4, 2018: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29869403/circadian-rhythm-in-bipolar-disorder-a-review-of-the-literature
#17
REVIEW
Yoshikazu Takaesu
Sleep disturbances and circadian rhythm dysfunction have been widely demonstrated in patients with bipolar disorder (BD). Irregularity of the sleep-wake rhythm, eveningness chronotype, abnormality of melatonin secretion, vulnerability of clock genes, and the irregularity of social time cues have also been well-documented in BD. Circadian rhythm dysfunction is prominent in BD compared with that in major depressive disorders, implying that circadian rhythm dysfunction is a trait marker of BD. In the clinical course of BD, the circadian rhythm dysfunctions may act as predictors for the first onset of BD and the relapse of mood episodes...
June 5, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29869374/impacts-of-artificial-light-at-night-on-sleep-a-review-and-prospectus
#18
REVIEW
Anne E Aulsebrook, Therésa M Jones, Raoul A Mulder, John A Lesku
Natural cycles of light and darkness govern the timing of most aspects of animal behavior and physiology. Artificial light at night (ALAN)-a recent and pervasive form of pollution-can mask natural photoperiodic cues and interfere with biological rhythms. One such rhythm vulnerable to perturbation is the sleep-wake cycle. ALAN may greatly influence sleep in humans and wildlife, particularly in animals that sleep predominantly at night. There has been some recent evidence for impacts of ALAN on sleep, but critical questions remain...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29864525/sleep-wake-rhythm-fragmentation-relates-more-strongly-than-age-and-any-other-known-risk-to-medial-temporal-lobe-atrophy
#19
Eus J W Van Someren, J M Oosterman, B Van Harten, R L Vogels, A A Gouw, H C Weinstein, A Poggesi, Ph Scheltens, E J A Scherder
Atrophy of the medial temporal lobe of the brain is key to memory function and memory complaints in old age. While age and some morbidities are major factors for medial temporal lobe atrophy, individual differences remain, and mechanisms are insufficiently known. The largest combined neuroimaging and whole genome study to date indicates that medial temporal lobe volume is most associated with common polymorphisms in the GRIN2B gene that encodes for the 2B subunit (NR2B) of the NMDA receptor. Because sleep disruption induces a selective loss of NR2B from hippocampal synaptic membranes in rodents, and because of several other reports on medial temporal lobe sensitivity to sleep disruption, we hypothesized a contribution of the typical age-related increase in sleep-wake rhythm fragmentation to medial temporal lobe atrophy...
June 1, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29862620/differential-effects-of-the-circadian-system-and-circadian-misalignment-on-insulin-sensitivity-and-insulin-secretion-in-humans
#20
Jingyi Qian, Chiara Dalla Man, Christopher J Morris, Claudio Cobelli, Frank Ajl Scheer
Glucose tolerance is lower at night and higher in the morning. Shift workers, who often eat at night and experience circadian misalignment (i.e., misalignment between the central circadian pacemaker and the environmental/behavioral cycle), have an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. To determine the separate and relative impacts of the circadian system, behavioral/environmental cycles, and their interaction (i.e., circadian misalignment) on insulin sensitivity and β-cell function, we used the oral minimal model to quantitatively assess the major determinants of glucose control in 14 healthy adults, using a randomized, cross-over design with two 8-day laboratory protocols...
June 4, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
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