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neuropeptide S

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549585/cystamine-mediated-inhibition-of-protein-disulfide-isomerase-triggers-aggregation-of-misfolded-orexin-a-in-the-golgi-apparatus-and-prevents-extracellular-secretion-of-orexin-a
#1
Issei Fujita, Mizuki Nobunaga, Takahiro Seki, Yuki Kurauchi, Akinori Hisatsune, Hiroshi Katsuki
Orexins (orexin-A and orexin-B) are neuropeptides that are reduced in narcolepsy, a sleep disorder that is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, sudden sleep attacks and cataplexy. However, it remains unclear how orexins in the brain and orexin neurons are reduced in narcolepsy. Orexin-A has two closely located intramolecular disulfide bonds and is prone to misfolding due to the formation of incorrect disulfide bonds. Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) possesses disulfide interchange activity. PDI can modify misfolded orexin-A to its native form by rearrangement of two disulfide bonds...
May 23, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548278/neuropeptide-s-precursor-knockout-mice-display-memory-and-arousal-deficits
#2
Xiaobin Liu, Wei Si, Celia Garau, Kay Jüngling, Hans-Christian Pape, Stefan Schulz, Rainer K Reinscheid
Activation of Neuropeptide S (NPS) signaling has been found to produce arousal, wakefulness, anxiolytic-like behaviors and enhanced memory formation. In order to further study physiological functions of the NPS system, we generated NPS precursor knockout mice by homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells. NPS(-/-) mice were viable, fertile, and anatomically normal, when compared to their wildtype and heterozygous littermates. The total number of NPS neurons - although no longer synthesizing the peptide - was not affected by the knockout, as analyzed in NPS(-/-) /NPS(EGFP) double-transgenic mice...
May 26, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534875/dose-dependent-social-cognitive-effects-of-intranasal-oxytocin-delivered-with-novel-breath-powered-device-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-double-blind-crossover-trial
#3
D S Quintana, L T Westlye, S Hope, T Nærland, T Elvsåshagen, E Dørum, Ø Rustan, M Valstad, L Rezvaya, H Lishaugen, E Stensønes, S Yaqub, K T Smerud, R A Mahmoud, P G Djupesland, O A Andreassen
The neuropeptide oxytocin has shown promise as a treatment for symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, clinical research progress has been hampered by a poor understanding of oxytocin's dose-response and sub-optimal intranasal delivery methods. We examined two doses of oxytocin delivered using a novel Breath Powered intranasal delivery device designed to improve direct nose-to-brain activity in a double-blind, crossover, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. In a randomized sequence of single-dose sessions, 17 male adults with ASD received 8 international units (IU) oxytocin, 24IU oxytocin or placebo followed by four social-cognitive tasks...
May 23, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524415/ndrg4-an-early-detection-marker-for-colorectal-cancer-is-specifically-expressed-in-enteric-neurons
#4
N Vaes, M H F M Lentjes, M J Gijbels, G Rademakers, K L Daenen, W Boesmans, K A D Wouters, A Geuzens, X Qu, H P J Steinbusch, B P F Rutten, S H Baldwin, K A Sharkey, R M W Hofstra, M van Engeland, P Vanden Berghe, V Melotte
BACKGROUND: Promoter methylation of N-myc Downstream-Regulated Gene 4 (NDRG4) in fecal DNA is an established early detection marker for colorectal cancer (CRC). Despite its connection to CRC, NDRG4 is predominantly studied in brain and heart, with little to no knowledge about its expression or role in other organs. In this study, we aimed to determine the whole-body expression of NDRG4, with a focus on the intestinal tract. METHODS: We investigated NDRG4 expression throughout the body by immunohistochemistry, Western Blotting and in situ mRNA hybridization using tissues from NDRG4 wild-type, heterozygous and knockout mice and humans...
May 19, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506620/bombesin-administration-impairs-memory-and-does-not-reverse-memory-deficit-caused-by-sleep-deprivation
#5
L B T Ferreira, S L B Oliveira, J Raya, L A Esumi, D C Hipolide
Sleep deprivation impairs performance in emotional memory tasks, however this effect on memory is not completely understood. Possible mechanisms may involve an alteration in neurotransmission systems, as shown by the fact that many drugs that modulate neural pathways can prevent memory impairment by sleep loss. Gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) is a neuropeptide that emerged as a regulatory molecule of emotional memory through the modulation of other neurotransmission systems. Thus, the present study addressed the effect of intraperitoneal (IP) administration of bombesin (BB) (2...
May 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502715/identification-of-mature-peptides-from-pban-and-capa-genes-of-the-moths-heliothis-peltigera-and-spodoptera-littoralis
#6
Lapo Ragionieri, Burak Özbagci, Susanne Neupert, Yuval Salts, Michael Davidovitch, Miriam Altstein, Reinhard Predel
By transcriptome analysis, we identified PBAN and CAPA precursors in the moths Spodoptera littoralis and Heliothis peltigera which are among the most damaging pests of agriculture in tropical and subtropical Africa as well as in Mediterranean countries. A combination of mass spectrometry and immunocytochemistry was used to identify mature peptides processed from these precursors and to reveal their spatial distribution in the CNS. We found that the sites of expression of pban genes, the structure of PBAN precursors and the processed neuropeptides are very similar in noctuid moths...
May 11, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493529/pain-in-knee-osteoarthritis-is-associated-with-variation-in-the-neurokinin-1-substance-p-receptor-tacr1-gene
#7
S C Warner, D A Walsh, L L Laslett, R A Maciewicz, A Soni, D J Hart, W Zhang, K R Muir, E M Dennison, P Leaverton, E Rampersaud, C Cooper, T D Spector, F M Cicuttini, N K Arden, G Jones, M Doherty, A M Valdes
BACKGROUND: Substance P (SP) is a pain- and inflammation-related neuropeptide which preferentially binds to the neurokinin receptor 1 (NK1 ). SP and NK1 receptors have been implicated in joint pain, inflammation and damage in animal models and human studies of osteoarthritis (OA). The aim of this study was to test if genetic variation at the neurokinin 1 receptor gene (TACR1) is associated with pain in individuals with radiographic knee OA. METHODS: Participants from the Genetics of OA and Lifestyle study were used for the discovery group (n = 1615)...
May 11, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486525/hypothesis-driven-single-cell-dual-oscillator-mathematical-model-of-circadian-rhythms
#8
Shiju S, K Sriram
Molecular mechanisms responsible for 24 h circadian oscillations, entrainment to external cues, encoding of day length and the time-of-day effects have been well studied experimentally. However, it is still debated from the molecular network point of view whether each cell in suprachiasmatic nuclei harbors two molecular oscillators, where one tracks dawn and the other tracks dusk activities. A single cell dual morning and evening oscillator was proposed by Daan et al., based on the molecular network that has two sets of similar non-redundant per1/cry1 and per2/cry2 circadian genes and each can independently maintain their endogenous oscillations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481347/membrane-curvature-regulates-ligand-specific-membrane-sorting-of-gpcrs-in-living-cells
#9
Kadla R Rosholm, Natascha Leijnse, Anna Mantsiou, Vadym Tkach, Søren L Pedersen, Volker F Wirth, Lene B Oddershede, Knud J Jensen, Karen L Martinez, Nikos S Hatzakis, Poul Martin Bendix, Andrew Callan-Jones, Dimitrios Stamou
The targeted spatial organization (sorting) of Gprotein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is essential for their biological function and often takes place in highly curved membrane compartments such as filopodia, endocytic pits, trafficking vesicles or endosome tubules. However, the influence of geometrical membrane curvature on GPCR sorting remains unknown. Here we used fluorescence imaging to establish a quantitative correlation between membrane curvature and sorting of three prototypic class A GPCRs (the neuropeptide Y receptor Y2, the β1 adrenergic receptor and the β2 adrenergic receptor) in living cells...
May 8, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475285/involvement-of-neurone-glia-neurone-neurone-communications-via-gap-junctions-in-synchronised-activity-of-kndy-neurones
#10
K Ikegami, S Minabe, N Ieda, T Goto, A Sugimoto, S Nakamura, N Inoue, S Oishi, A D Maturana, M Sanbo, M Hirabayashi, K-I Maeda, H Tsukamura, Y Uenoyama
Pulsatile secretion of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)/luteinizing hormone is indispensable for puberty onset and reproductive activities at adulthood in mammalian species. A cohort of neurones expressing three neuropeptides, kisspeptin, encoded by Kiss1 gene, neurokinin B (NKB) and dynorphin A, localised in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), so-called KNDy neurones, are a putative intrinsic source of the GnRH pulse generator. Synchronous activity among KNDy neurones is thought to be required for pulsatile GnRH secretion...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473259/the-central-effects-of-alpha-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone-%C3%AE-msh-in-chicks-involve-changes-in-gene-expression-of-neuropeptide-y-and-other-factors-in-distinct-hypothalamic-nuclei
#11
Meghan S Delp, Mark A Cline, Elizabeth R Gilbert
Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) is a satiety-inducing factor in birds and mammals although central mechanisms mediating its effects on appetite in birds are poorly understood. Thus, the objective of the present study was to determine effects of centrally-injected α-MSH on c-Fos and gene expression in chick appetite-associated hypothalamic nuclei. At 4days post-hatch, 3h-fasted chicks were intracerebroventricularly (ICV) injected with 0 (vehicle) or 0.12nmol α-MSH and 1h later, hypothalamus samples were collected for measuring c-Fos immunoreactivity and mRNA abundance of appetite-associated factors in hypothalamic nuclei...
May 1, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463995/neuropeptide-s-nps-variants-modify-the-signaling-and-risk-effects-of-nps-receptor-1-npsr1-variants-in-asthma
#12
Nathalie Acevedo, Sini Ezer, Simon Kebede Merid, Vincent D Gaertner, Cilla Söderhäll, Mauro D'Amato, Michael Kabesch, Erik Melén, Juha Kere, Ville Pulkkinen
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) close to the gain-of-function substitution, Asn(107)Ile (rs324981, A>T), in Neuropeptide S Receptor 1 (NPSR1) have been associated with asthma. Furthermore, a functional SNP (rs4751440, G>C) in Neuropeptide S (NPS) encodes a Val(6)Leu substitution on the mature peptide that results in reduced bioactivity. We sought to examine the effects of different combinations of these NPS and NPSR1 variants on downstream signaling and genetic risk of asthma. In transfected cells, the magnitude of NPSR1-induced activation of cAMP/PKA signal transduction pathways and downstream gene expression was dependent on the combination of the NPS and NPSR1 variants with NPS-Val(6)/NPSR1-Ile(107) resulting in strongest and NPS-Leu(6)/NPSR1-Asn(107) in weakest effects, respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458653/appetite-controlling-endocrine-systems-in-teleosts
#13
REVIEW
Ivar Rønnestad, Ana S Gomes, Koji Murashita, Rita Angotzi, Elisabeth Jönsson, Hélène Volkoff
Mammalian studies have shaped our understanding of the endocrine control of appetite and body weight in vertebrates and provided the basic vertebrate model that involves central (brain) and peripheral signaling pathways as well as environmental cues. The hypothalamus has a crucial function in the control of food intake, but other parts of the brain are also involved. The description of a range of key neuropeptides and hormones as well as more details of their specific roles in appetite control continues to be in progress...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444138/the-evolution-of-neuropeptide-signalling-insights-from-echinoderms
#14
Dean C Semmens, Maurice R Elphick
Neuropeptides are evolutionarily ancient mediators of neuronal signalling that regulate a wide range of physiological processes and behaviours in animals. Neuropeptide signalling has been investigated extensively in vertebrates and protostomian invertebrates, which include the ecdysozoans Drosophila melanogaster (Phylum Arthropoda) and Caenorhabditis elegans (Phylum Nematoda). However, until recently, an understanding of evolutionary relationships between neuropeptide signalling systems in vertebrates and protostomes has been impaired by a lack of genome/transcriptome sequence data from non-ecdysozoan invertebrates...
April 21, 2017: Briefings in Functional Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434803/genetic-dissection-of-the-planarian-reproductive-system-through-characterization-of-schmidtea-mediterranea-cpeb-homologs
#15
Labib Rouhana, Junichi Tasaki, Amir Saberi, Phillip A Newmark
Cytoplasmic polyadenylation is a mechanism of mRNA regulation prevalent in metazoan germ cells; it is largely dependent on Cytoplasmic Polyadenylation Element Binding proteins (CPEBs). Two CPEB homologs were identified in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. Smed-CPEB1 is expressed in ovaries and yolk glands of sexually mature planarians, and required for oocyte and yolk gland development. In contrast, Smed-CPEB2 is expressed in the testes and the central nervous system; its function is required for spermatogenesis as well as non-autonomously for development of ovaries and accessory reproductive organs...
April 21, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433253/neuropeptide-s-increases-motor-activity-and-thermogenesis-in-the-rat-through-sympathetic-activation
#16
Takuya Ensho, Keiko Nakahara, Yoshihiro Suzuki, Noboru Murakami
The central role of neuropeptide S (NPS), identified as the endogenous ligand for GPR154, now named neuropeptide S receptor (NPSR), has not yet been fully clarified. We examined the central role of NPS for body temperature, energy expenditure, locomotor activity and adrenal hormone secretion in rats. Intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of NPS increased body temperature in a dose-dependent manner. Energy consumption and locomotor activity were also significantly increased by icv injection of NPS. In addition, icv injection of NPS increased the peripheral blood concentration of adrenalin and corticosterone...
April 13, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418087/traumatic-stress-induced-persistent-changes-in-dna-methylation-regulate-neuropeptide-y-expression-in-rat-jejunum
#17
S Sagarkar, S Mahajan, A G Choudhary, C D Borkar, D M Kokare, A J Sakharkar
BACKGROUND: Stress-induced chronic neuropsychiatric conditions such as anxiety are often co-morbid with gastrointestinal malfunctions. While we find enduring anxiety-like symptoms following minimal traumatic brain injury (MTBI) in rats, gastrointestinal consequences of MTBI remain elusive. METHODS: In this study, we examined the effects of MTBI on a major gut peptide, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and gut motility. DNA methylation was studied as a possible epigenetic mechanism operative in the regulation of NPY expression in the gut...
April 18, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416501/protocol-for-a-placebo-controlled-within-participants-crossover-trial-evaluating-the-efficacy-of-intranasal-oxytocin-to-improve-pain-and-function-among-women-with-chronic-pelvic-musculoskeletal-pain
#18
Joshua A Rash, Kirsti Toivonen, Magali Robert, Maryam Nasr-Esfahani, John F Jarrell, Tavis S Campbell
INTRODUCTION: This protocol presents the rationale and design for a trial evaluating the efficacy of intranasal oxytocin in improving pain and function among women with chronic pelvic musculoskeletal pain. Oxytocin is a neuropeptide traditionally recognised for involvement in labour, delivery and lactation. Novel evidence suggests that oxytocin decreases pain sensitivity in humans. While oxytocin administration has been reported to lower pain sensitivity among patients experiencing chronic back pain, headache, constipation and colon pain, no research has evaluated the association between intranasal oxytocin and chronic pelvic musculoskeletal pain...
April 16, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413467/calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-protects-type-ii-alveolar-epithelial-cells-from-hyperoxia-induced-dna-damage-and-cell-death
#19
Hongmin Fu, Tiesong Zhang, Rongwei Huang, Zhen Yang, Chunming Liu, Ming Li, Fang Fang, Feng Xu
Hyperoxia therapy for acute lung injury (ALI) may unexpectedly lead to reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and cause additional ALI. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a 37 amino acid neuropeptide that regulates inflammasome activation. However, the role of CGRP in DNA damage during hyperoxia is unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of CGRP on DNA damage and the cell death of alveolar epithelial type II cells (AEC II) exposed to 60% oxygen. AEC II were isolated from 19-20 gestational day fetal rat lungs and were exposed to air or to 60% oxygen during treatment with CGRP or the specific CGRP receptor antagonist CGRP8-37...
April 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411439/neuropeptide-y-enhances-proliferation-and-prevents-apoptosis-in-rat-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-in-association-with-activation-of-the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway-in-vitro
#20
Jianqun Wu, Song Liu, Huan Meng, Tianyu Qu, Su Fu, Zhao Wang, Jianguo Yang, Dan Jin, Bin Yu
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) exhibits a critical but poorly understood regulatory signaling function and has been shown to promote proliferation, vascularization and migration in several types of cells and tissues. However, little is known about the specific role of NPY in the proliferation and apoptosis of bone marrow stromal cells (also known as bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, BMSCs), which contain a subpopulation of multipotent skeletal stem cells. Based on BrdU incorporation tests, Cell Counting Kit-8, flow cytometry, quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, we showed that NPY significantly promoted the proliferation of BMSCs in a concentration-dependent manner, with a maximal effect observed at a concentration of 10(-10)M for pro-proliferative and 10(-12)M for anti-apoptotic activities...
April 5, 2017: Stem Cell Research
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