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neuropeptide S

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154467/central-and-peripheral-leptin-and-agouti-related-protein-during-and-after-pregnancy-in-relation-to-weight-change
#1
Ulrika Andersson Hall, Pernilla Svedin, Ulf Andreasson, Magnus Gren, Ameli Ingemansson, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Aurimantas Pelanis, Carina Mallard, Agneta Holmäng
OBJECTIVE: To study changes of neuropeptides and adipokines in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum from pregnancy to post-pregnancy in relation to weight changes, fat mass and glucose metabolism. CONTEXT: With high postpartum weight retention being a risk factor in future pregnancies and of life-long obesity we evaluated neuropeptide and adipokine changes in women who either gained weight or were weight stable. DESIGN: Women were followed for 5±1 years after pregnancy and divided into two groups, Weight-Stable and Weight-Gain, by weight change from start of pregnancy...
November 20, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150945/development-of-an-in-vivo-mouse-model-of-discogenic-low-back-pain
#2
Changgui Shi, Vaskar Das, Xin Li, Ranjan Kc, Sujun Qiu, InSug O-Sullivan, Richard L Ripper, Jeffrey S Kroin, Fackson Mwale, Atiyayein A Wallace, Bingqian Zhu, Lan Zhao, Andre J van Wijnen, Mingliang Ji, Jun Lu, Gina Votta-Velis, Wen Yuan, Hee-Jeong Im
Discogenic Low back pain (DLBP) is extremely common and costly. Effective treatments are lacking due to DLBP's unknown pathogenesis. Currently, there are no in vivo mouse models of DLBP, which restricts research in this field. The aim of this study was to establish a reliable DLBP model in mouse that captures the pathological changes in the disc and allows longitudinal pain testing. The model was generated by puncturing the mouse lumbar discs (L4/5, L5/6, and L6/S1) and removing the nucleus pulposus using a microscalpel under the microscope...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143821/erratum-the-neuropeptide-nmu-amplifies-ilc2-driven-allergic-lung-inflammation
#3
Antonia Wallrapp, Samantha J Riesenfeld, Patrick R Burkett, Raja-Elie E Abdulnour, Jackson Nyman, Danielle Dionne, Matan Hofree, Michael S Cuoco, Christopher Rodman, Daneyal Farouq, Brian J Haas, Timothy L Tickle, John J Trombetta, Pankaj Baral, Christoph S N Klose, Tanel Mahlakõiv, David Artis, Orit Rozenblatt-Rosen, Isaac M Chiu, Bruce D Levy, Monika S Kowalczyk, Aviv Regev, Vijay K Kuchroo
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/nature24029.
November 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141033/transcriptome-profiling-of-claw-muscle-of-the-mud-crab-scylla-paramamosain-at-different-fattening-stages
#4
Qingling Jiang, Chenchang Bao, Ya'nan Yang, An Liu, Fang Liu, Huiyang Huang, Haihui Ye
In crustaceans, muscle growth and development is complicated, and to date substantial knowledge gaps exist. In this study, the claw muscle, hepatopancreas and nervous tissue of the mud crab (Scylla paramamosain) were collected at three fattening stages for sequence by the Illumina sequencing. A total of 127.87 Gb clean data with no less than 3.94 Gb generated for each sample and the cycleQ30 percentages were more than 86.13% for all samples. De Bruijn assembly of these clean data produced 94,853 unigenes, thereinto, 50,059 unigenes were found in claw muscle...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133203/expression-and-functional-characterization-of-tachykinin-related-peptides-in-the-blood-feeding-bug-rhodnius-prolixus
#5
A N S Haddad, M S Defferrari, S Hana, S G Szeto, A B Lange
Tachykinins (tachykinin-related peptides, TRPs) are multifunctional neuropeptides that have widespread distribution in the central nervous system (CNS) and in the gastrointestinal tract of many insects, and most have been shown to stimulate contractions of visceral muscles. Invertebrate TRPs carry a characteristic conserved C-terminal pentapeptide (FXGXR-amide) and most of them share some amino acid sequence similarities (approx. 45%) with the vertebrate and mammalian tachykinin family. We have functionally characterized the tachykinins in R...
November 10, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130940/neuropeptide-y-regulates-a-vascular-gateway-for-hematopoietic-stem-and-progenitor-cells
#6
Pratibha Singh, Jonathan Hoggatt, Malgorzata M Kamocka, Khalid S Mohammad, Mary R Saunders, Hongge Li, Jennifer Speth, Nadia Carlesso, Theresa A Guise, Louis M Pelus
Endothelial cells (ECs) are components of the hematopoietic microenvironment and regulate hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) homeostasis. Cytokine treatments that cause HSPC trafficking to peripheral blood are associated with an increase in dipeptidylpeptidase 4/CD26 (DPP4/CD26), an enzyme that truncates the neurotransmitter neuropeptide Y (NPY). Here, we show that enzymatically altered NPY signaling in ECs caused reduced VE-cadherin and CD31 expression along EC junctions, resulting in increased vascular permeability and HSPC egress...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129406/neuropeptide-y-y2-antagonist-treated-ovariectomized-mice-exhibit-greater-bone-mineral-density
#7
K L Seldeen, P G Halley, C H Volmar, M A Rodríguez, M Hernandez, M Pang, S K Carlsson, L J Suva, C Wahlestedt, B R Troen, S P Brothers
Osteoporosis, a disease characterized by progressive bone loss and increased risk of fracture, often results from menopausal loss of estrogen in women. Neuropeptide Y has been shown to negatively regulate bone formation, with amygdala specific deletion of the Y2 receptor resulting in increased bone mass in mice. In this study, ovariectomized (OVX) mice were injected once daily with JNJ-31020028, a brain penetrant Y2 receptor small molecule antagonist to determine the effects on bone formation. Antagonist treated mice had reduced weight and showed increased whole-body bone mineral density compared to vehicle-injected mice...
November 7, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128909/central-noradrenergic-activity-affects-analgesic-effect-of-neuropeptide-s
#8
Kei Jinushi, Tetsuya Kushikata, Takashi Kudo, Girolamo Calo, Remo Guerrini, Kazuyoshi Hirota
BACKGROUND: Neuropeptide S (NPS) is an endogenous neuropeptide controlling anxiolysis, wakefulness, and analgesia. NPS containing neurons exist near to the locus coeruleus (LC) involved in the descending anti-nociceptive system. NPS interacts with central noradrenergic neurons; thus brain noradrenergic signaling may be involved in NPS-induced analgesia. We tested NPS analgesia in noradrenergic neuron-lesioned rats using a selective LC noradrenergic neurotoxin, N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP-4)...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125862/peptidergic-control-in-a-fruit-crop-pest-the-spotted-wing-drosophila-drosophila-suzukii
#9
Caroline S Gough, Grace M Fairlamb, Petra Bell, Ronald J Nachman, Neil Audsley, R Elwyn Isaac
Neuropeptides play an important role in the regulation of feeding in insects and offer potential targets for the development of new chemicals to control insect pests. A pest that has attracted much recent attention is the highly invasive Drosophila suzukii, a polyphagous pest that can cause serious economic damage to soft fruits. Previously we showed by mass spectrometry the presence of the neuropeptide myosuppressin (TDVDHVFLRFamide) in the nerve bundle suggesting that this peptide is involved in regulating the function of the crop, which in adult dipteran insects has important roles in the processing of food, the storage of carbohydrates and the movement of food into the midgut for digestion...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118105/neuropeptide-s-activates-paraventricular-oxytocin-neurons-to-induce-anxiolysis
#10
Thomas Grund, Stephanie Goyon, Yuting Li, Marina Eliava, Haikun Liu, Alexandre Charlet, Valery Grinevich, Inga D Neumann
Neuropeptides, such as neuropeptide S (NPS) and oxytocin (OXT) represent potential options for the treatment of anxiety disorders due to their potent anxiolytic profile. In this study, we aimed to reveal the mechanisms underlying the behavioral action of NPS, and present a chain of evidence that the effects of NPS within the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) are mediated via actions on local OXT neurons in male Wistar rats. First, retrograde studies identified NPS fibers originating in the brainstem locus coeruleus and projecting to the PVN...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112739/organophosphate-flame-retardants-alter-adult-mouse-homeostasis-and-gene-expression-in-a-sex-dependent-manner-potentially-through-interactions-with-er%C3%AE
#11
Elizabeth A Krumm, Vipa J Patel, Taylor S Tillery, Ali Yasrebi, Jianliang Shen, Grace L Guo, Stephanie M Marco, Brian T Buckley, Troy A Roepke
Flame retardants (FR) such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) and organophosphate FR (OPFR) persist in the environment and interact with multiple nuclear receptors involved in homeostasis, including estrogen receptors (ER). However, little is known about the effects of FR, especially OPFR, on mammalian neuroendocrine functions. Therefore, we investigated if exposure to FR alters hypothalamic gene expression and whole-animal physiology in adult wild-type (WT) and ERα KO mice. Intact WT and KO males and ovariectomized WT and KO females were orally dosed daily with vehicle (oil), 17α-ethynylestradiol (2...
November 3, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103295/human-mast-cells-release-the-migraine-inducing-factor-pituitary-adenylate-cyclase-activating-polypeptide-pacap
#12
Angela J Okragly, S Michelle Morin, David DeRosa, Andrea P Martin, Kirk W Johnson, Michael P Johnson, Robert J Benschop
Background Many patients with migraines suffer from allergies and vice versa, suggesting a relationship between biological mechanisms of allergy and migraine. It was proposed many years ago that mast cells may be involved in the pathophysiology of migraines. We set out to investigate the relationship between mast cell activation and known neurogenic peptides related to migraine. Methods Cultured human mast cells were assayed for the presence of neuropeptides and their receptors at the RNA and protein level...
January 1, 2017: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098220/improved-identification-and-quantitation-of-mature-endogenous-peptides-in-the-rodent-hypothalamus-using-a-rapid-conductive-sample-heating-system
#13
Ning Yang, Krishna D B Anapindi, Elena V Romanova, Stanislav S Rubakhin, Jonathan V Sweedler
Measurement, identification, and quantitation of endogenous peptides in tissue samples by mass spectrometry (MS) contribute to our understanding of the complex molecular mechanisms of numerous biological phenomena. For accurate results, it is essential to arrest the postmortem degradation of ubiquitous proteins in samples prior to performing peptidomic measurements. Doing so ensures that the detection of endogenous peptides, typically present at relatively low levels of abundance, is not overwhelmed by protein degradation products...
November 3, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080684/chronic-social-stress-ameliorates-psoriasiform-dermatitis-through-upregulation-of-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis
#14
Oscar Vegas, Brian Poligone, Paul Blackcloud, Elaine S Gilmore, JoAnne VanBuskirk, Christopher T Ritchlin, Alice P Pentland, Scott A Walter, Yasmine Nousari, Francisco Tausk
Acute stress is a physiological response of an organism to adverse conditions, contributing to survival; however, persistence through time may lead to disease. Indeed, exacerbation of inflammatory conditions such as psoriasis has been reported to follow stressors in susceptible patients. Because chronic stress cannot ethically be elicited in patients under controlled laboratory conditions, we studied genetically modified mice that naturally develop psoriasiform dermatitis, and subjected them to an ethological chronic social contact stress paradigm...
October 25, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075180/evaluating-the-autonomy-of-the-drosophila-circadian-clock-in-dissociated-neuronal-culture
#15
Virginie Sabado, Ludovic Vienne, Emi Nagoshi
Circadian behavioral rhythms offer an excellent model to study intricate interactions between the molecular and neuronal mechanisms of behavior. In mammals, pacemaker neurons in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) generate rhythms cell-autonomously, which are synchronized by the network interactions within the circadian circuit to drive behavioral rhythms. However, whether this principle is universal to circadian systems in animals remains unanswered. Here, we examined the autonomy of the Drosophila circadian clock by monitoring transcriptional and post-transcriptional rhythms of individual clock neurons in dispersed culture with time-lapse microscopy...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074564/hid-1-controls-large-dense-core-vesicle-formation-by-influencing-cargo-sorting-and-tgn-acidification
#16
Blake H Hummer, Noah F de Leeuw, Christian Burns, Lan Chen, Matthew S Joens, Bethany Hosford, James A J Fitzpatrick, Cedric S Asensio
Large dense core vesicles (LDCVs) mediate the regulated release of neuropeptides and peptide hormones. They form at the trans-Golgi network (TGN) where their soluble content aggregates to form a dense core, but the mechanisms controlling biogenesis are still not completely understood. Recent studies have implicated the peripheral membrane protein HID-1 in neuropeptide sorting and insulin secretion. Using CRISPR/Cas9, we generated HID-1 KO rat neuroendocrine cells, and show that the absence of HID-1 results in specific defects in peptide hormone and monoamine storage and regulated secretion...
October 26, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058980/regulatory-pathways-controlling-female-insect-reproduction
#17
Sourav Roy, Tusar T Saha, Zhen Zou, Alexander S Raikhel
The synthesis of vitellogenin and its uptake by maturing oocytes during egg maturation are essential for successful female reproduction. These events are regulated by the juvenile hormones and ecdysteroids, and the nutritional signaling pathway regulated by neuropeptides. Juvenile hormones act as gonadotropins, regulating vitellogenesis in most insects, but ecdysteroids control this process in Diptera and some Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera. The complex crosstalk between the juvenile hormones, ecdysteroids, and nutritional signaling pathways differs distinctly depending on the reproductive strategies adopted by various insects...
October 20, 2017: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055857/coumarinyl-pyranopyrimidines-as-new-neuropeptide-s-receptor-antagonists-design-synthesis-homology-and-molecular-docking
#18
Rasha Z Batran, Dina H Dawood, Samia A El-Seginy, Timothy J Maher, Kuljeet S Gugnani, Alejandro N Rondon-Ortiz
In this work, we described the design, synthesis and characterization of a new class of NPSR antagonists bearing the tetracyclic coumarinyl pyranopyrimidine scaffold incorporated with different acyclic and/or heterocyclic moieties. These compounds are highlighted in this study as never being used as NPSR antagonists before which provides a model for the discovery of new bioactive inhibitors that may hold potential for drug development towards anxiety, food, and addiction disorders. Synthetic and medicinal chemistry studies led to the identification of four potent antagonists, compounds 7d, 10, 12 and 13, which were able to significantly inhibit the stimulatory effect of NPS through counteracting the increased intracellular Ca(2+) accumulation...
October 12, 2017: Bioorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040006/neurokinin-3-receptor-antagonism-the-magic-bullet-for-hot-flushes
#19
J K Prague, W S Dhillo
Hot flushes affect 70% of menopausal women and are reported as being the most bothersome symptom by the majority. Hormone replacement therapy and other currently available alternative therapies are not without side-effects and/or have variable efficacy, and so an effective novel therapy could be practice-changing. Over the last 20 years, numerous studies in animal and human models have implicated neurokinin B, a hypothalamic neuropeptide, together with its receptor (NK3R) in the etiology of menopausal hot flushes...
October 17, 2017: Climacteric: the Journal of the International Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037600/asymmetric-phosphatidylethanolamine-distribution-controls-fusion-pore-lifetime-and-probability
#20
Alex J B Kreutzberger, Volker Kiessling, Binyong Liang, Sung-Tae Yang, J David Castle, Lukas K Tamm
Little attention has been given to how the asymmetric lipid distribution of the plasma membrane might facilitate fusion pore formation during exocytosis. Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), a cone-shaped phospholipid, is predominantly located in the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane and has been proposed to promote membrane deformation and stabilize fusion pores during exocytotic events. To explore this possibility, we modeled exocytosis using plasma membrane SNARE-containing planar-supported bilayers and purified neuroendocrine dense core vesicles (DCVs) as fusion partners, and we examined how different PE distributions between the two leaflets of the supported bilayers affected SNARE-mediated fusion...
November 7, 2017: Biophysical Journal
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