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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775703/ultrastructural-characterization-of-corticotropin-releasing-factor-and-neuropeptide-y-in-the-rat-locus-coeruleus-anatomical-evidence-for-putative-interactions
#1
Catherine C Theisen, Beverly A S Reyes, E L Sabban, Elisabeth J Van Bockstaele
As a neurochemical mediator of stress resilience, NPY has been shown to oppose excitatory effects of the pro-stress neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF). Previous studies have described the anatomical organization of NPY and CRF in the central nucleus of the amygdala, which sends CRF projections to the locus coeruleus (LC), activating LC norepinephrine release. However, the cellular substrates for interactions between NPY and CRF in the LC remain unknown. In this study, we investigated these anatomical substrates in the male rat LC, using immunocytochemistry, confocal microscopy, and immunoelectron microscopy to detect NPY and CRF, as well as CRF and Y1 or Y2 receptors (Y1R or Y2R)...
May 15, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772542/regulation-of-feeding-behavior-in-drosophila-through-the-interplay-of-gustation-physiology-and-neuromodulation
#2
Bhumika S, Arvind Kumar Singh
One of the most fundamental behaviors in all the organisms, in order to achieve a satiated state and internal energy homeostasis is feeding. The action of feeding in any being whether be it any vertebrate or an invertebrate involves the perception of the external environment along with the gamut of decision making processes to eat or to not eat. The feeding decision along with chemosensation through gustation and olfaction leads to intake of food with proper nutrient balance along with avoidance of bitter and toxic substances...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754819/blocking-neuronal-signaling-to-immune-cells-treats-streptococcal-invasive-infection
#3
Felipe A Pinho-Ribeiro, Buket Baddal, Rianne Haarsma, Maghnus O'Seaghdha, Nicole J Yang, Kimbria J Blake, Makayla Portley, Waldiceu A Verri, James B Dale, Michael R Wessels, Isaac M Chiu
The nervous system, the immune system, and microbial pathogens interact closely at barrier tissues. Here, we find that a bacterial pathogen, Streptococcus pyogenes, hijacks pain and neuronal regulation of the immune response to promote bacterial survival. Necrotizing fasciitis is a life-threatening soft tissue infection in which "pain is out of proportion" to early physical manifestations. We find that S. pyogenes, the leading cause of necrotizing fasciitis, secretes streptolysin S (SLS) to directly activate nociceptor neurons and produce pain during infection...
May 7, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752146/a-novel-topical-nonsteroidal-trpv1-antagonist-pac-14028-cream-improves-skin-barrier-function-and-exerts-anti-inflammatory-action-through-modulating-epidermal-differentiation-markers-and-suppressing-th2-cytokines-in-atopic-dermatitis
#4
Ji-Hae Lee, Chang Soon Choi, Il-Hong Bae, Jin Kyu Choi, Young-Ho Park, Miyoung Park
BACKGROUND: Although it is established that epidermal barrier disturbance and immune dysfunction resulting in IgE sensitization are critical factors in the development of cutaneous inflammation, the pathogenesis and targeted therapy of atopic dermatitis (AD)-specific pathways have still been unknown. OBJECTIVE: Taking into account the fact that Th2 cytokines in AD have both unique and overlapping functions including increased epidermal thickening, inflammation, and decreased expressing of the barrier proteins keratinocyte differentiation, we sought to clarify our hypothesis that TRPV1 antagonist plays a critical role in skin barrier function and can be a therapeutic target for AD...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751614/effects-of-dietary-acute-tryptophan-depletion-atd-on-npy-serum-levels-in-healthy-adult-humans-whilst-controlling-for-methionine-supply-a-pilot-study
#5
Janice W Y Wong, Hugo A E Morandini, Vita L S Dingerkus, Tilman J Gaber, Kevin C Runions, Pradeep Rao, Simone Mahfouda, Katrin Helmbold, Sarah Bubenzer-Busch, Rebecca Koenemann, Richard M Stewart, Florian D Zepf
Central nervous serotonin (5-HT) can influence behaviour and neuropsychiatric disorders. Evidence from animal models suggest that lowered levels of neuropeptide Y (NPY) may have similar effects, although it is currently unknown whether decreased central nervous 5-HT impact NPY concentrations. Given that the production of NPY is dependent on the essential amino acid methionine (MET), it is imperative to account for the presence of MET in such investigations. Hence, this study sought to examine the effects of acute tryptophan depletion (ATD; a dietary procedure that temporarily lowers central nervous 5-HT synthesis) on serum concentrations of NPY, whilst using the potential renal acid load indicator (PRAL) to control for levels of MET...
May 11, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743490/transcriptomic-analysis-of-crustacean-molting-gland-y-organ-regulation-via-the-mtor-signaling-pathway
#6
S Shyamal, S Das, A Guruacharya, D L Mykles, D S Durica
The intermolt crustacean Y-organ (YO) maintains a basal state mediated by pulsatile release of molt inhibiting hormone (MIH), a neuropeptide produced in the eyestalk ganglia, inhibiting YO ecdysteroidogenesis. Reduction of MIH results in YO activation and the animal enters premolt. In the crab, Gecarcinus lateralis, molting was induced by eyestalk ablation (ESA). ESA animals were injected with either rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor, or DMSO vehicle at Day 0. YOs were harvested at 1, 3, and 7 days post-ESA and processed for high throughput RNA sequencing...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738766/development-of-a-novel-photoaffinity-probe-for-labeling-nocistatin-receptor
#7
Masashi Harada, Toshiaki Minami, Seiji Ito, Emiko Okuda-Ashitaka
Nocistatin (NST) is a neuropeptide produced from the same precursor protein of opioid peptide nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ), and it is involved in a broad range of central functions including pain transmission in the nervous system. However, the composition and structure of the receptor(s) for NST remain unclear. Here, we developed NST photoaffinity probe to identify NST-binding receptor. The NST photoaffinity probe contains an azide moiety for the tagging of the binding protein as well as biotin for protein detection...
May 5, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733985/orexin-a-in-swine-corpus-luteum
#8
G Basini, R Ciccimarra, S Bussolati, S Grolli, L Ragionieri, F Ravanetti, M Botti, F Gazza, A Cacchioli, R Di Lecce, A M Cantoni, F Grasselli
Orexin A (OXA) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide which acts on 2 known G-protein-coupled receptors. It has been demonstrated that OXA is a central molecular link between food intake and reproduction. More recently, its peripheral role has been investigated, and we demonstrated its involvement in regulating ovarian follicle function. The present study was undertaken to explore a potential physiological role of orexin system in swine corpus luteum, a transient ovarian endocrine organ. Our aim was, first, to analyze the localization and eventual colocalization of OXA and its 2 receptors within the different cell types composing the corpus luteum structure...
April 9, 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732057/sequence-dependent-attack-on-peptides-by-photoactivated-platinum-anticancer-complexes
#9
Christopher A Wootton, Carlos Sanchez-Cano, Andrea F Lopez-Clavijo, Evyenia Shaili, Mark P Barrow, Peter J Sadler, Peter B O'Connor
Octahedral platinum(iv) complexes such as trans , trans , trans -[Pt(N3 )2 (OH)2 (pyridine)2 ] ( 1 ) are stable in the dark, but potently cytotoxic to a range of cancer cells when activated by UVA or visible light, and active in vivo . Photoactivation causes the reduction of the complex and leads to the formation of unusual Pt(ii) lesions on DNA. However, radicals are also generated in the excited state resulting from photoactivation (J. S. Butler, J. A. Woods, N. J. Farrer, M. E. Newton and P. J. Sadler, J...
March 14, 2018: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730398/capa-periviscerokinin-mediated-activation-of-mapk-erk-signaling-through-gq-plc-pkc-dependent-cascade-and-reciprocal-erk-activation-dependent-internalized-kinetics-of-bom-capa-pvk-receptor-2
#10
Zhangfei Shen, Xiaoyuan Yang, Yu Chen, Liangen Shi
Bombyx mori neuropeptide G protein-coupled receptor (BNGR)-A27 is a specific receptor for B. mori capability (CAPA) periviscerokinin (PVK), that is, Bom-CAPA-PVK receptor 2. Upon stimulation of Bom-CAPA-PVK-1 or -PVK-2, Bom-CAPA-PVK receptor 2 significantly increases cAMP-response element-controlled luciferase activity and Ca2+ mobilization in a Gq inhibitor-sensitive manner. However, the underlying mechanism(s) for CAPA/CAPA receptor system mediation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases1/2 (ERK1/2) activation remains to be explained further...
May 3, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724789/ligand-specific-signaling-profiles-and-resensitization-mechanisms-of-the-neuromedin-u2-receptor
#11
Khaled Alhosaini, Omar Bahattab, Heider Qassam, John Challiss, Gary B Willars
The structurally related, but distinct neuropeptides, neuromedin U (NmU) and neuromedin S (NmS) are ligands of two G protein-coupled NmU receptors (NMU1, NMU2). Hypothalamic NMU2 regulates feeding behavior and energy expenditure and has therapeutic potential as an anti-obesity target, making an understanding of its signaling and regulation of particular interest. NMU2 binds both NmU and NmS with high affinity, resulting in receptor-ligand co-internalization. We have investigated whether receptor trafficking events post-internalization are 'biased' by the ligand bound and can therefore influence signaling function...
May 3, 2018: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723484/investigational-drugs-for-alcohol-use-disorders-a-review-of-preclinical-data
#12
Sarah S Ch'ng, Andrew J Lawrence
Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are one of the leading causes of preventable death in the developed world. In the U.S., only three FDA-approved pharmacotherapies for AUDs currently exist, but at a population level they display poor efficacy, low compliance rates, and adverse side effects. Therefore, identifying novel neurobiological targets for pharmacological treatment of AUDs is of urgent concern. Areas covered: We discuss recent preclinical data on investigational drugs that have been assessed for their therapeutic potential in AUDs...
May 3, 2018: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715519/oxidative-stress-contributes-to-fracture-cast-induced-inflammation-and-pain-in-a-rat-model-of-complex-regional-pain-syndrome
#13
Tian-Zhi Guo, Tzuping Wei, Ting-Ting Huang, Wade S Kingery, John David Clark
Clinical evidence suggests vitamin C (Vit C) may protect against the development of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) after fracture and/or surgery. Tibia fracture followed by 4 weeks cast immobilization (fracture/cast) in rats results in nociceptive, vascular, and bone changes resembling clinical CRPS. In the present study, fracture/cast rats were treated with the oxidative stress inhibitors Vit C, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) or 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl (TEMPOL) to examine their effects on CRPS-related nociceptive and vascular changes...
April 28, 2018: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688813/dual-signaling-of-wamide-myoinhibitory-peptides-through-a-peptide-gated-channel-and-a-gpcr-in-platynereis
#14
Axel Schmidt, Philipp Bauknecht, Elizabeth A Williams, Katrin Augustinowski, Stefan Gründer, Gáspár Jékely
Neuropeptides commonly signal by metabotropic GPCRs. In some mollusks and cnidarians, RFamide neuropeptides mediate fast ionotropic signaling by peptide-gated ion channels that belong to the DEG/ENaC family. Here we describe a neuropeptide system with a dual mode of signaling by both a peptide-gated ion channel and a GPCR. We identified and characterized a peptide-gated channel in the marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii that is specifically activated by Wamide myoinhibitory peptides derived from the same proneuropeptide...
April 24, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684519/identification-of-a-transcription-factor-that-functions-downstream-of-corazonin-in-the-control-of-desert-locust-gregarious-body-coloration
#15
Ryohei Sugahara, Seiji Tanaka, Akiya Jouraku, Takahiro Shiotsuki
Corazonin (Crz) is a neuropeptide that controls phase-dependent body color polyphenism in locusts. The Crz signaling pathway is responsible for the development of gregarious black patterns in nymphs and determination of the morphometric ratio F/C (F = hind femur length, C = maximum head width) in adults. However, little information is available regarding the mediator and effector proteins regulated by Crz. In this study, we identified a novel transcription factor, Loct, which functions downstream of Crz in Schistocerca gregaria and Locusta migratoria...
April 20, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684510/the-rodent-tibia-fracture-model-a-critical-review-and-comparison-with-the-complex-regional-pain-syndrome-literature
#16
REVIEW
Frank Birklein, Alaa Ibrahim, Tanja Schlereth, Wade S Kingery
Distal limb fracture is the most common cause of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), thus the rodent tibia fracture model (TFM) was developed to study CRPS pathogenesis. This comprehensive review summarizes the published TFM research and compares these experimental results with the CRPS literature. The TFM generated spontaneous and evoked pain behaviors, inflammatory symptoms (edema, warmth) and trophic changes (skin thickening, osteoporosis) resembling symptoms in early CRPS. Neuropeptides, inflammatory cytokines, and nerve growth factor (NGF) have been linked to pain behaviors, inflammation, and trophic changes in the TFM model and proliferating keratinocytes were identified as the primary source of cutaneous cytokines and NGF...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671014/attenuated-cocaine-seeking-after-oxytocin-administration-in-male-and-female-rats
#17
Amy S Kohtz, Belle Lin, Michael E Smith, Gary Aston-Jones
RATIONALE: Initial drug abstinence (modeled here as Extinction Day 1, ED1) is a critical time point in the progression of addiction that is strongly influenced by stress and sex. ED1 induces corticosterone release in both sexes, and cocaine-seeking during ED1 can be mitigated by corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) antagonists more effectively in female rats. Oxytocin (OXT) is a neuropeptide that has several biological functions, including regulation of stress pathways. METHODS: To investigate a relationship between OXT, sex, and cocaine-seeking, we examined Fos on ED1 in OXT neurons of paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic nuclei (SON) compared to homecage (cocaine experienced) or naïve male and female rats...
April 18, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662754/magnesium-based-implants-beyond-fixators
#18
Xiaodan Chen
The mystery behind magnesium-induced bone formation is revealed by linking the neuropeptide(s) from sensory nerves with the osteogenic differentiation of stem cells in the periosteum. Zhang and colleagues' study sheds light on the development of magnesium pills or calcitonin gene-related peptide-delivery system for the prevention or treatment of osteoporosis. The translational potential of this article: For the first time, magnesium is shown to be beneficial for fracture healing at the weight-bearing site...
July 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Translation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642930/neuropeptide-regulation-of-adaptive-immunity-in-the-tibia-fracture-model-of-complex-regional-pain-syndrome
#19
Wen-Wu Li, Tian-Zhi Guo, Xiaoyou Shi, Frank Birklein, Tanja Schlereth, Wade S Kingery, J David Clark
BACKGROUND: Both dysfunctional neuropeptide signaling and immune system activation are characteristic of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Unknown is whether substance P (SP) or calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) support autoantibody production and, consequently, nociceptive sensitization. METHODS: These experiments involved the use of a well-characterized tibia fracture model of CRPS. Mice deficient in SP expression (Tac1-/- ) and CGRP signaling (RAMP1-/- ) were used to probe the neuropeptide dependence of post-fracture sensitization and antibody production...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625116/neuropeptide-y-npy-or-cocaine-and-amphetamine-regulated-transcript-cart-fiber-innervation-on-central-and-medial-amygdaloid-neurons-that-project-to-the-locus-coeruleus-and-dorsal-raphe-in-the-rat
#20
Young G Hwang, Hyun S Lee
The amygdaloid nuclear complex has been linked to the regulation of emotional behavior and energy regulation in that emotional stress might cause either reduction or enhancement of eating. We examined hypothalamic neuronal origin of feeding/arousal-related peptidergic fibers containing cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) located in the rat amygdala along with its efferent projections to the brainstem monoaminergic nuclei. First, central (CeA) as well as medial (MeA) amygdala, among several amygdaloid subdivisions, exhibited the most prominent NPY or CART immunostaining which consisted of a substantial number of somata as well as labeled fibers...
April 3, 2018: Brain Research
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