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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074896/the-neuropeptide-oxytocin-enhances-information-sharing-and-group-decision-making-quality
#1
Tim R W De Wilde, Femke S Ten Velden, Carsten K W De Dreu
Groups can make better decisions than individuals when members cooperatively exchange and integrate their uniquely held information and insights. However, under conformity pressures group members are biased towards exchanging commonly known information, and away from exchanging unique information, thus undermining group decision-making quality. At the neurobiological level, conformity associates with the neuropeptide oxytocin. A double-blind placebo controlled study found no evidence for oxytocin induced conformity...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072496/structural-reconstruction-of-the-perivascular-space-in-the-adult-mouse-neurohypophysis-during-an-osmotic-stimulation
#2
K Nishikawa, E Furube, S Morita, N Horii-Hayashi, M Nishi, S Miyata
Oxytocin (OXT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP), neuropeptides in the neurohypophysis (NH), control lactation and body fluid homeostasis, respectively. Hypothalamic neurosecretory neurons project their axons from the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei to the NH to make contact with the vascular surface and release OXT and AVP. The neurohypophysial vascular structure is unique, because it has a wide perivascular space between the inner and outer basement membranes. However, the significance of this unique vascular structure remains unclear; therefore, we aimed to elucidate the functional significance of the perivascular space and its activity-dependent changes during salt loading in adult mice...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072414/evidence-for-genetic-heterogeneity-between-clinical-subtypes-of-bipolar-disorder
#3
A W Charney, D M Ruderfer, E A Stahl, J L Moran, K Chambert, R A Belliveau, L Forty, K Gordon-Smith, A Di Florio, P H Lee, E J Bromet, P F Buckley, M A Escamilla, A H Fanous, L J Fochtmann, D S Lehrer, D Malaspina, S R Marder, C P Morley, H Nicolini, D O Perkins, J J Rakofsky, M H Rapaport, H Medeiros, J L Sobell, E K Green, L Backlund, S E Bergen, A Juréus, M Schalling, P Lichtenstein, P Roussos, J A Knowles, I Jones, L A Jones, C M Hultman, R H Perlis, S M Purcell, S A McCarroll, C N Pato, M T Pato, N Craddock, M Landén, J W Smoller, P Sklar
We performed a genome-wide association study of 6447 bipolar disorder (BD) cases and 12 639 controls from the International Cohort Collection for Bipolar Disorder (ICCBD). Meta-analysis was performed with prior results from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Bipolar Disorder Working Group for a combined sample of 13 902 cases and 19 279 controls. We identified eight genome-wide significant, associated regions, including a novel associated region on chromosome 10 (rs10884920; P=3.28 × 10(-8)) that includes the brain-enriched cytoskeleton protein adducin 3 (ADD3), a non-coding RNA, and a neuropeptide-specific aminopeptidase P (XPNPEP1)...
January 10, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067354/heparin-acts-as-a-structural-component-of-%C3%AE-endorphin-amyloid-fibrils-rather-than-a-simple-aggregation-promoter
#4
N Nespovitaya, P Mahou, R F Laine, G S Kaminski Schierle, C F Kaminski
The aggregation promoter heparin is commonly used to study the aggregation kinetics and biophysical properties of protein amyloids. However, the underlying mechanism for amyloid promotion by heparin remains poorly understood. In the case of the neuropeptide β-endorphin that can reversibly adopt a functional amyloid form in nature, aggregation in the presence of heparin leads to a loss of function. Applying correlative optical super-resolution microscopy methods, we show that heparin incorporates into emerging β-endorphin fibrils forming an integral component and is essential for amyloid templating...
January 9, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058675/neuropeptide-cycloprolylglycine-is-an-endogenous-positive-modulator-of-ampa-receptors
#5
T A Gudasheva, V V Grigoriev, K N Koliasnikova, V L Zamoyski, S B Seredenin
We have previously shown that neuropeptide cycloprolylglycine (CPG) increases the content of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the culture of neuronal cells under normal conditions and in pathology. This is the first study to show that CPG at a physiological concentration of 10(-6) M significantly enhances the transmembrane AMPA currents in rat cerebellar Purkinje cells. Thus, CPG is a positive endogenous modulator of AMPA receptors. It was assumed that the neuropsychotropic effects of CPG are implemented as a result of BDNF accumulation after the activation of AMPA receptors by this neuropeptide...
November 2016: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057851/corticotropin-releasing-hormone-improves-survival-in-pneumococcal-pneumonia-by-reducing-pulmonary-inflammation
#6
Brittney Burnley, Harlan P Jones
The use of glucocorticoids to reduce inflammatory responses is largely based on the knowledge of the physiological action of the endogenous glucocorticoid, cortisol. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is a neuropeptide released from the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis of the central nervous system. This hormone serves as an important mediator of adaptive physiological responses to stress. In addition to its role in inducing downstream cortisol release that in turn regulates immune suppression, CRH has also been found to mediate inflammatory responses in peripheral tissues...
January 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053042/induction-of-migraine-like-photophobic-behavior-in-mice-by-both-peripheral-and-central-cgrp-mechanisms
#7
Bianca N Mason, Eric A Kaiser, Adisa Kuburas, Maria-Cristina M Loomis, John A Latham, Leon F Garcia-Martinez, Andrew F Russo
: The neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a key player in migraine. Although migraine can be treated using CGRP antagonists that act peripherally, the relevant sites of CGRP action remain unknown. To address the role of CGRP both within and outside the CNS, we used CGRP-induced light-aversive behavior in mice as a measure of migraine-associated photophobia. Peripheral (intraperitoneal) injection of CGRP resulted in light-aversive behavior in wild-type CD1 mice similar to aversion seen previously after central (intracerebroventricular) injection...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048952/adherens-junctions-modulate-diffusion-between-epithelial-cells-in-trichoplax-adhaerens
#8
Carolyn L Smith, Thomas S Reese
Trichoplax adhaerens is the sole named member of Placozoa, an ancient metazoan phylum. This coin-shaped animal glides on ventral cilia to find and digest algae on the substrate. It has only six cell types, all but two of which are incorporated into the epithelium that encloses it. The upper epithelium is thin, composed of a pavement of relatively large polygonal disks, each bearing a cilium. The lower epithelium is thick and composed primarily of narrow ciliated cells that power locomotion. Interspersed among these cells are two different secretory cells: one containing large lipophilic granules that, when released, lyse algae under the animal; the other, less abundant, is replete with smaller secretory granules containing neuropeptides...
December 2016: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043969/the-role-of-nfkb-in-drug-addiction-beyond-inflammation
#9
REVIEW
S E Nennig, J R Schank
AIMS: Nuclear factor kappa light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NFkB) is a ubiquitous transcription factor well known for its role in the innate immune response. As such, NFkB is a transcriptional activator of inflammatory mediators such as cytokines. It has recently been demonstrated that alcohol and other drugs of abuse can induce NFkB activity and cytokine expression in the brain. A number of reviews have been published highlighting this effect of alcohol, and have linked increased NFkB function to neuroimmune-stimulated toxicity...
January 1, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028818/a-mechanism-for-sickness-sleep-lessons-from-invertebrates
#10
Kristen C Davis, David M Raizen
During health, animal sleep is regulated by an internal clock and by the duration of prior wakefulness. During sickness, sleep is regulated by cytokines released from either peripheral cells or from cells within the nervous system. These cytokines regulate central nervous system neurons to induce sleep. Recent research in the invertebrates Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster has led to new insights into the mechanism of sleep during sickness. Sickness is triggered by exposure to environments such as infection, heat, or ultraviolet light irradiation, all of which cause cellular stress...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024205/exogenous-substances-regulate-silkworm-fat-body-protein-synthesis-through-mapk-and-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathways
#11
J H Tian, B Xue, J H Hu, J X Li, X Y Cheng, J S Hu, F C Li, Y H Chen, B Li
Insect fat body is an important intermediate metabolic organ that plays an important role in protein metabolism and detoxification. In order to study the effects of TiO2 NPs and phoxim on fat body protein synthesis through MAPK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways in silkworms, we determined the effects of TiO2 NPs and phoxim, alone and in combination, on fat body protein content of silkworms, analyzed the gene expression profile of the fat body, and verified the expression of characteristic genes. We found that TiO2 NPs and phoxim alone increased the total protein content of the fat body, and up-regulated MAPK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathway genes...
December 19, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017596/the-role-of-the-kisspeptin-system-in-regulation-of-the-reproductive-endocrine-axis-and-territorial-behavior-in-male-side-blotched-lizards-uta-stansburiana
#12
Lorin Neuman-Lee, Timothy Grieves, Gareth R Hopkins, Susannah S French
The neuropeptide kisspeptin and its receptor are essential for activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and regulating reproduction. While the role of kisspeptin in regulating the HPG axis in mammals has been well established, little is known about the functional ability of kisspeptins to activate the HPG axis and associated behavior in non-mammalian species. Here we experimentally examined the effects of kisspeptin on downstream release of testosterone and associated aggression and display behaviors in the side-blotched lizard (Uta stansburiana)...
December 23, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017470/a-central-amygdala-crf-circuit-facilitates-learning-about-weak-threats
#13
Christina A Sanford, Marta E Soden, Madison A Baird, Samara M Miller, Jay Schulkin, Richard D Palmiter, Michael Clark, Larry S Zweifel
Fear is a graded central motive state ranging from mild to intense. As threat intensity increases, fear transitions from discriminative to generalized. The circuit mechanisms that process threats of different intensity are not well resolved. Here, we isolate a unique population of locally projecting neurons in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) that produce the neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF). CRF-producing neurons and CRF in the CeA are required for discriminative fear, but both are dispensable for generalized fear at high US intensities...
January 4, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009825/neuropeptide-y1-receptor-regulates-glucocorticoid-induced-inhibition-of-osteoblast-differentiation-in-murine-mc3t3-e1-cells-via-erk-signaling
#14
Wei Yu, Chao Zhu, Wenning Xu, Leisheng Jiang, Shengdan Jiang
High dose glucocorticoid (GC) administration impairs the viability and function of osteoblasts, thus causing osteoporosis and osteonecrosis. Neuropeptide Y1 receptor (Y1 receptor) is expressed in bone tissues and cells, and regulates bone remodeling. However, the role of Y1 receptor in glucocorticoid-induced inhibition of osteoblast differentiation remains unknown. In the present study, osteoblastic cell line MC3T3-E1 cultured in osteogenic differentiation medium was treated with or without of 10(-7) M dexamethasone (Dex), Y1 receptor shRNA interference, Y1 receptor agonist [Leu(31), Pro(34)]-NPY, and antagonist BIBP3226...
December 21, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006725/oxytocin-modulates-third-party-sanctioning-of-selfish-and-generous-behavior-within-and-between-groups
#15
Katie Daughters, Antony S R Manstead, Femke S Ten Velden, Carsten K W De Dreu
Human groups function because members trust each other and reciprocate cooperative contributions, and reward others' cooperation and punish their non-cooperation. Here we examined the possibility that such third-party punishment and reward of others' trust and reciprocation is modulated by oxytocin, a neuropeptide generally involved in social bonding and in-group (but not out-group) serving behavior. Healthy males and females (N=100) self-administered a placebo or 24 IU of oxytocin in a randomized, double-blind, between-subjects design...
December 3, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000031/paradoxical-antidepressant-effects-of-alcohol-are-related-to-acid-sphingomyelinase-and-its-control-of-sphingolipid-homeostasis
#16
Christian P Müller, Liubov S Kalinichenko, Jens Tiesel, Matthias Witt, Thomas Stöckl, Eva Sprenger, Jens Fuchser, Janine Beckmann, Marc Praetner, Sabine E Huber, Davide Amato, Christiane Mühle, Christian Büttner, Arif B Ekici, Irena Smaga, Lucyna Pomierny-Chamiolo, Bartosz Pomierny, Malgorzata Filip, Volker Eulenburg, Erich Gulbins, Anbarasu Lourdusamy, Martin Reichel, Johannes Kornhuber
Alcohol is a widely consumed drug that can lead to addiction and severe brain damage. However, alcohol is also used as self-medication for psychiatric problems, such as depression, frequently resulting in depression-alcoholism comorbidity. Here, we identify the first molecular mechanism for alcohol use with the goal to self-medicate and ameliorate the behavioral symptoms of a genetically induced innate depression. An induced over-expression of acid sphingomyelinase (ASM), as was observed in depressed patients, enhanced the consumption of alcohol in a mouse model of depression...
December 20, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991900/molecular-interrogation-of-hypothalamic-organization-reveals-distinct-dopamine-neuronal-subtypes
#17
Roman A Romanov, Amit Zeisel, Joanne Bakker, Fatima Girach, Arash Hellysaz, Raju Tomer, Alán Alpár, Jan Mulder, Frédéric Clotman, Erik Keimpema, Brian Hsueh, Ailey K Crow, Henrik Martens, Christian Schwindling, Daniela Calvigioni, Jaideep S Bains, Zoltán Máté, Gábor Szabó, Yuchio Yanagawa, Ming-Dong Zhang, Andre Rendeiro, Matthias Farlik, Mathias Uhlén, Peer Wulff, Christoph Bock, Christian Broberger, Karl Deisseroth, Tomas Hökfelt, Sten Linnarsson, Tamas L Horvath, Tibor Harkany
The hypothalamus contains the highest diversity of neurons in the brain. Many of these neurons can co-release neurotransmitters and neuropeptides in a use-dependent manner. Investigators have hitherto relied on candidate protein-based tools to correlate behavioral, endocrine and gender traits with hypothalamic neuron identity. Here we map neuronal identities in the hypothalamus by single-cell RNA sequencing. We distinguished 62 neuronal subtypes producing glutamatergic, dopaminergic or GABAergic markers for synaptic neurotransmission and harboring the ability to engage in task-dependent neurotransmitter switching...
December 19, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990720/a-functional-variant-of-the-neuropeptide-s-receptor-1-gene-modulates-clinical-outcomes-and-healthcare-utilization-in-patients-with-systolic-heart-failure-results-from-the-interdisciplinary-network-heart-failure-inh-study
#18
Christiane E Angermann, Mathias Kaspar, Almuth Marx, Sarah Kittel-Schneider, Dominik Menhofer, Stefan Störk, Georg Ertl, Katharina Domschke, Jürgen Deckert, Andreas Reif
AIMS: Psychopathologies may occur in heart failure (HF) and can be associated with adverse outcomes. Amongst neuropeptide S receptor gene functional sequence variants, the T-allele [asparagine(107)isoleucine, NPSR1 rs324981] has been identified as a risk factor for increased anxiety/overinterpretation of bodily symptoms. We investigated all-cause death and re-hospitalization (composite primary endpoint, CPEP) and healthcare utilization in patients hospitalized for decompensated systolic HF with the TT vs...
December 18, 2016: European Journal of Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990492/the-orphan-c2orf40-gene-is-a-neuroimmune-factor-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Sonia Podvin, Miles C Miller, Ryan Rossi, Jasmine Chukwueke, John E Donahue, Conrad E Johanson, Andrew Baird, Edward G Stopa
Expression of the orphan C2orf40 gene is associated with the aggregation of the neurofibrillary tangle-protein tau in transgenic mice, tumor suppression, the induction of senescence in CNS, and the activation of microglia and peripheral mononuclear leukocytes. This gene also encodes several secreted pro- and anti-inflammatory neuropeptide-like cytokines, suggesting they might be implicated in the inflammatory component(s) of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Accordingly, we evaluated human AD and control brains for expression changes by RT-qPCR, Western blot, and histological changes by immunolabeling...
2016: JSM Alzheimers Dis Relat Dement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990106/localization-of-neuropeptide-gene-expression-in-larvae-of-an-echinoderm-the-starfish-asterias-rubens
#20
Tatiana D Mayorova, Shi Tian, Weigang Cai, Dean C Semmens, Esther A Odekunle, Meet Zandawala, Yusef Badi, Matthew L Rowe, Michaela Egertová, Maurice R Elphick
Neuropeptides are an ancient class of neuronal signaling molecules that regulate a variety of physiological and behavioral processes in animals. The life cycle of many animals includes a larval stage(s) that precedes metamorphic transition to a reproductively active adult stage but, with the exception of Drosophila melanogaster and other insects, research on neuropeptide signaling has hitherto largely focused on adult animals. However, recent advances in genome/transcriptome sequencing have facilitated investigation of neuropeptide expression/function in the larvae of protostomian (e...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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