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neuropeptide S

Virginia Mela, Sara Jimenez, Alejandra Freire-Regatillo, Vicente Barrios, Eva-María Marco, Ana-Belén Lopez-Rodriguez, Jesús Argente, María-Paz Viveros, Julie A Chowen
The neonatal leptin surge, occurring from postnatal day (PND) 5 to 13 and peaking at PND9 in rodents, is important for the development of neuroendocrine circuits involved in metabolic control and reproductive function. We previously demonstrated that treatment with a leptin antagonist from PND 5 to 9, coincident with peak leptin levels in the neonatal surge, modified trophic factors and markers of cell turnover and neuronal maturation in the hypothalamus of peri-pubertal rats. The kisspeptin system and metabolic neuropeptide and hormone levels were also modified...
October 14, 2016: Peptides
Awa R N'Diaye, Camille Leclerc, Takfarinas Kentache, Julie Hardouin, Cecile Duclairoir Poc, Yoan Konto-Ghiorghi, Sylvie Chevalier, Olivier Lesouhaitier, Marc G J Feuilloley
Staphylococci can sense Substance P (SP) in skin, but this molecule is generally released by nerve terminals along with another neuropeptide, Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide (CGRP). In this study, we investigated the effects of αCGRP on Staphylococci. CGRP induced a strong stimulation of Staphylococcus epidermidis virulence with a low threshold (<10(-12 )M) whereas Staphylococcus aureus was insensitive to CGRP. We observed that CGRP-treated S. epidermidis induced interleukin 8 release by keratinocytes...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
Youn Yi Jo, Ji Yeon Lee, Chul-Kyu Park
The neuropeptide substance P (SP) is expressed in primary sensory neurons and is commonly regarded as a "pain" neurotransmitter. Upon peripheral inflammation, SP activates the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor and potentiates activity of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1), which is coexpressed by nociceptive neurons. Therefore, SP functions as an important neurotransmitter involved in the hypersensitization of inflammatory pain. Resolvin E1 (RvE1), derived from omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, inhibits TRPV1 activity via activation of the chemerin 23 receptor (ChemR23)-an RvE1 receptor located in dorsal root ganglion neurons-and therefore exerts an inhibitory effect on inflammatory pain...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
S Cohen, G Ifergane, E Vainer, M A Matar, Z Kaplan, J Zohar, A A Mathé, H Cohen
Pharmacotherapeutic intervention during traumatic memory consolidation has been suggested to alleviate or even prevent the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We recently reported that, in a controlled, prospective animal model, depriving rats of sleep following stress exposure prevents the development of a PTSD-like phenotype. Here, we report that administering the wake-promoting drug modafinil to rats in the aftermath of a stressogenic experience has a similar prophylactic effect, as it significantly reduces the prevalence of PTSD-like phenotype...
October 11, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
Linnet Ramos, Callum Hicks, Alex Caminer, Kalliu Couto, Rajeshwar Narlawar, Michael Kassiou, Iain S McGregor
In laboratory rats, peripheral administration of the neuropeptides oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) induces similar prosocial effects (i.e. increased adjacent lying) to the party drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), which are sensitive to vasopressin V1A receptor (V1AR) antagonism. Here, we employed a social preference paradigm to further compare the prosocial effects of OT, AVP and MDMA. We also investigated the possible involvement of the V1AR and oxytocin receptor (OTR) in rodent social preference...
October 7, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Sedigheh Babaei, Alberto Sáez, Albert Caballero-Solares, Felipe Fernández, Isabel V Baanante, Isidoro Metón
Endocrine factors released from the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, adipose tissue and other peripheral organs mediate the regulation of food intake. Although many studies have evaluated the effect of fed-to-starved transition on the expression of appetite-related genes, little is known about how the expression of appetite-regulating peptides is regulated by the macronutrient composition of the diet. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of diet composition and nutritional status on the expression of four peptides involved in food intake control in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata): neuropeptide Y (NPY), ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK) and leptin...
October 7, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Barbara Jana, Karolina A Meller, Michał Bulc, Jarosław Całka
BACKGROUND: Intraovarian distribution and density of nerve fibres immunoreactive (IR) to protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) and containing dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DβH), neuropeptide Y (NPY), somatostatin (SOM), galanin (GAL) were determined. METHODS: From day 4 of the first oestrous cycle to day 20 of the second studied cycle, experimental gilts (n = 3) were injected with testosterone (T), while control gilts (n = 3) received corn oil. RESULTS: After T administration the numbers of fibres IR to PGP 9...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Ovarian Research
Xiaoqing Wu, Meizi Wang, Juan Huang, Li Zhang, Zhe Zhang, Yun Ling, Xinling Yang, Stephen S Tobe
BACKGROUND: The FGLa-allatostatins (ASTs) are a family of neuropeptides that can inhibit juvenile hormone biosynthesis by the corpora allata (CA) in vitro, and therefore, they are regarded as insect growth regulator (IGR) candidates for pest control. In our previous studies, an AST mimic, H17 was found to have a significant effect on JH biosynthesis by cockroach CA, both in vitro and in vivo. To discover new potential mimics and explore the substituent effect on the inhibition of JH biosynthesis, 30 analogs, modified with various substituents on the benzene ring at the N-terminus of lead compound H17, were designed and synthesized...
September 22, 2016: Pest Management Science
Patsy S Dickinson, Xuan Qu, Meredith E Stanhope
Central pattern generators are subject to modulation by peptides, allowing for flexibility in patterned output. Current techniques used to characterize peptides include mass spectrometry and transcriptomics. In recent years, hundreds of neuropeptides have been sequenced from crustaceans; mass spectrometry has been used to identify peptides and to determine their levels and locations, setting the stage for comparative studies investigating the physiological roles of peptides. Such studies suggest that there is some evolutionary conservation of function, but also divergence of function even within a species...
September 29, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Fazal Wahab, Muhammad Shahab, Rüdiger Behr
A large body of data suggests that body weight influences puberty onset and adult reproduction. However, the underlying mechanism of how body weight influences puberty onset and fertility is not completely understood. The hypothalamic neuronal circuit regulating reproduction is restrained by inhibitory signals during childhood. At the time of puberty, these inhibitory signals are weakened and supplanted by stimulatory signals that, in turn, stimulate the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) - a hypothalamic neuropeptide governing reproduction...
October 2016: Medical Hypotheses
Masaru Ishibashi, Iryna Gumenchuk, Kenichi Miyazaki, Takafumi Inoue, William N Ross, Christopher S Leonard
UNLABELLED: Orexins (hypocretins) are neuropeptides that regulate multiple homeostatic processes, including reward and arousal, in part by exciting serotonergic dorsal raphe neurons, the major source of forebrain serotonin. Here, using mouse brain slices, we found that, instead of simply depolarizing these neurons, orexin-A altered the spike encoding process by increasing the postspike afterhyperpolarization (AHP) via two distinct mechanisms. This orexin-enhanced AHP (oeAHP) was mediated by both OX1 and OX2 receptors, required Ca(2+) influx, reversed near EK, and decayed with two components, the faster of which resulted from enhanced SK channel activation, whereas the slower component decayed like a slow AHP (sAHP), but was not blocked by UCL2077, an antagonist of sAHPs in some neurons...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
William Thomas Keenan, Alan C Rupp, Rachel A Ross, Preethi Somasundaram, Suja Hiriyanna, Zhijian Wu, Tudor C Badea, Phyllis R Robinson, Bradford B Lowell, Samer S Hattar
Rapid and stable control of pupil size in response to light is critical for vision, but the neural coding mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we investigated the neural basis of pupil control by monitoring pupil size across time while manipulating each photoreceptor input or neurotransmitter output of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), a critical relay in the control of pupil size. We show that transient and sustained pupil responses are mediated by distinct photoreceptors and neurotransmitters...
September 26, 2016: ELife
Wei-Hui Liu, Yan Chen, Xue-Wei Bai, Hui-Min Yao, Xu-Guang Zhang, Xiu-Wen Yan, Ren Lai
The present study was designed to identify immunomodulatory components from the leech salivary gland of Haemadipsa sylvestris. The Sephadex G-50, Resource(TM) S column chromatography and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) were used to isolate and purify the salivary gland extracts (SGE). Structural analysis of isolated compounds was based on Edman degradation and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MALDI-TOF-MS). The cDNA encoding the precursor of the compound was cloned from the cDNA library of the salivary gland of H...
September 2016: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
Vrinda S, Jasmin C, Sivakumar K C, Seena Jose, Blessy Jose, Rosamma Philip, Bright Singh I S
Gonad inhibiting hormone (GIH), type II class of the CHH family neuropeptides, is released by the neurohaemal XO-SG complex of the eyestalk. The inhibitory function of GIH has a pivotal role in gonad development and reproduction. In this study, we report the expression and production of a thioredoxin-fused mature GIH protein (mf-PmGIH) of Penaeus monodon in a bacterial system and its use as antigen to raise polyclonal antiserum (anti-mf-PmGIH). The mature GIH gene of 237bp that codes for 79 amino acids, was cloned into the Escherichia coli thioredoxin gene fusion expression system...
September 15, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Shunyu Gao, Jiannan Zhang, Chen He, Fengyan Meng, Guixian Bu, Guoqiang Zhu, Juan Li, Yajun Wang
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptors and its ligands, NPY, peptide YY (PYY) and pancreatic polypeptide (PP), are suggested to regulate many physiological processes including food intake in birds. However, our knowledge regarding this avian NPY system remains rather limited. Here, we examined the tissue expression of NPY, PYY and PP and the gene structure, expression and signaling of three NPY receptors (cY1, cY4 and cY6) in chickens. The results showed that 1) NPY is widely expressed in chicken tissues with abundance noted in the hypothalamus via quantitative real-time PCR, whereas PYY is highly expressed in the pancreas, gastrointestinal tract and various brain regions, and PP is expressed almost exclusively in the pancreas; 2) cY1, cY4 and cY6 contain novel non-coding exon(s) at their 5'-UTR; 3) The wide tissue distribution of cY1 and cY4 and cY6 were detected in chickens by quantitative real-time PCR and their expression is controlled by the promoter near exon 1, which displays strong promoter activity in DF-1 cells as demonstrated by Dual-luciferase reporter assay; 4) Monitored by luciferase reporter assays, activation of cY1 and cY4 expressed in HEK293 cells by chicken NPY1-36, PYY1-37, and PP1-36 treatment inhibits cAMP/PKA and activates MAPK/ERK signaling pathways, while cY6-expressing cells show little response to peptide treatment, indicating that cY1 and cY4, and not cY6, can transmit signals in vitro...
September 15, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
S Imbrogno, R Mazza, C Pugliese, M Filice, T Angelone, Y P Loh, B Tota, M C Cerra
Chromogranin A (CgA) is an acidic protein co-stored with catecholamines, hormones and neuropeptides in the secretory granules of endocrine, neuronal and other cell types (including cardiomyocytes). Proteolytic cleavage in the C terminus of CgA generates a 2.9kDa peptide named serpinin (Serp; Ala26Leu) that can be modified at its N terminus to form a pyroglutamate residue (pGlu-Serp). In the rat heart, both peptides increase contractility and relaxation through a β-adrenergic-like action mechanism. Accordingly, Serp and pGlu-Serp were proposed as novel myocardial sympatho-adrenergic modulators in mammals...
September 12, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
George S Boyan, Yu Liu
The central complex represents one of the most conspicuous neuroarchitectures to be found in the insect brain and regulates a wide repertoire of behaviors including locomotion, stridulation, spatial orientation and spatial memory. In this review article, we show that in the grasshopper, a model insect system, the intricate wiring of the fan-shaped body (FB) begins early in embryogenesis when axons from the first progeny of four protocerebral stem cells (called W, X, Y, Z, respectively) in each brain hemisphere establish a set of tracts to the primary commissural system...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Oishi Chatterjee, Krutika Patil, Apeksha Sahu, Lathika Gopalakrishnan, Praseeda Mol, Jayshree Advani, Srabani Mukherjee, Rita Christopher, T S Keshava Prasad
Oxytocin, a nine amino acid long neuropeptide hormone, is synthesized in the hypothalamus and stored and released from the neural lobe of the pituitary gland. Although commonly known for its central role in the regulation of parturition and lactation, oxytocin signaling also plays a key role in modulating social behavior, evoking contentment, initiating maternal behavior, inducing trust, generosity and bonding in humans and animals. Oxytocin signaling can prove to be of great importance in therapeutics and drug targeting because of its diverse range of actions...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
Karen P Briski, Fahaad S H Alenazi, Manita Shakya, Paul W Sylvester
Estradiol (E) mitigates acute and postacute adverse effects of 12 hr-food deprivation (FD) on energy balance. Hindbrain 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulates hyperphagic and hypothalamic metabolic neuropeptide and norepinephrine responses to FD in an E-dependent manner. Energy-state information from AMPK-expressing hindbrain A2 noradrenergic neurons shapes neural responses to metabolic imbalance. Here we investigate the hypothesis that FD causes divergent changes in A2 AMPK activity in E- vs...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Devin P Merullo, Caroline S Angyal, Sharon A Stevenson, Lauren V Riters
Some animals, including songbirds, vocalize at high rates when alone or in large groups. In songbirds, vocal behavior in these contexts is important for song learning and group cohesion. It is not obviously targeted at any particular individual and is described as 'undirected'. Studies suggest a role for dopamine (DA) in undirected song. The neuropeptide neurotensin (NT) can enhance dopaminergic signaling upon binding to the NT receptor 1 (NTR1) and is found in regions where DA can influence song, including the ventral tegmental area (VTA), septum, and the song control nucleus Area X...
September 10, 2016: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
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