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neuropeptide S

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716951/a-calcium-diacylglycerol-stimulated-protein-kinase-c-c-elegans-pkc-2-links-thermal-signals-to-learned-behavior-by-acting-in-a-sensory-neuron-and-intestinal-cells
#1
Marianne Land, Charles S Rubin
Ca(2+) and diacylglycerol (DAG) activated protein kinase C (cPKC) promotes learning and behavioral plasticity. However, knowledge of in vivo regulation and exact functions of cPKCs that affect behavior is limited. We show that PKC-2, a C. elegans cPKC, is essential for a complex behavior, thermotaxis. C. elegans memorizes a nutrient-associated cultivation temperature (Tc) and migrates along Tc within a 17-25°C gradient. pkc-2 gene disruption abrogated thermotaxis; a PKC-2 transgene, driven by endogenous pkc-2 promoters, restored thermotaxis behavior in pkc-2(-/-) animals...
July 17, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716609/oxytocin-reduces-alcohol-consumption-in-prairie-voles
#2
J R Stevenson, S M Wenner, D M Freestone, C C Romaine, M C Parian, S M Christian, A E Bohidar, J R Ndem, I R Vogel, C M O'Kane
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) negatively affects millions of people every year in the United States, and effective treatments for AUD are still needed. The neuropeptide oxytocin has shown promise for reducing alcohol drinking in mice and rats. Because oxytocin also plays a key role in complex prosocial behaviors like bonding and attachment, we tested the effect of oxytocin on alcohol drinking in prairie voles, a species that both consumes high amounts of alcohol and forms oxytocin dependent social bonds in a manner similar to humans...
July 14, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696286/intranasal-oxytocin-treatment-for-social-deficits-and-biomarkers-of-response-in-children-with-autism
#3
Karen J Parker, Ozge Oztan, Robin A Libove, Raena D Sumiyoshi, Lisa P Jackson, Debra S Karhson, Jacqueline E Summers, Kyle E Hinman, Kara S Motonaga, Jennifer M Phillips, Dean S Carson, Joseph P Garner, Antonio Y Hardan
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by core social deficits. Prognosis is poor, in part, because existing medications target only associated ASD features. Emerging evidence suggests that the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) may be a blood-based biomarker of social functioning and a possible treatment for ASD. However, prior OXT treatment trials have produced equivocal results, perhaps because of variability in patients' underlying neuropeptide biology, but this hypothesis has not been tested. Using a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel design, we tested the efficacy and tolerability of 4-wk intranasal OXT treatment (24 International Units, twice daily) in 32 children with ASD, aged 6-12 y...
July 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696162/physiological-and-brain-alterations-produced-by-high-fat-diet-in-male-and-female-rats-can-be-modulated-by-increased-levels-of-estradiol-during-critical-periods-of-development
#4
Beatriz Carrillo, Paloma Collado, Francisca Díaz, Julie A Chowen, Mª Ángeles Pérez-Izquierdo, Helena Pinos
BACKGROUND: Overnutrition due to a high-fat diet (HFD) can increase the vulnerability of the metabolic system to maladjustments. Estradiol has an inhibitory role on food intake and this hormone has demonstrated to be a crucial organizer during brain development. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to determine whether increased levels of estradiol in the early postnatal period modulate the alterations in metabolism and brain metabolic circuits produced by overnutrition. METHODS: Twenty-four male and 24 female Wistar rats were submitted to a HFD (34...
July 11, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686209/detailed-characterization-of-sympathetic-chain-ganglia-schg-neurons-supplying-the-skin-of-the-porcine-hindlimb
#5
Anna Kozłowska, Anita Mikołajczyk, Mariusz Majewski
It is generally known that in the skin sympathetic fibers innervate various dermal structures, including sweat glands, blood vessels, arrectores pilorum muscles and hair follicles. However, there is a lack of data about the distribution and chemical phenotyping of the sympathetic chain ganglia (SChG) neurons projecting to the skin of the pig, a model that is physiologically and anatomically very representative for humans. Thus, the present study was designed to establish the origin of the sympathetic fibers supplying the porcine skin of the hind leg, and the pattern(s) of putative co-incidence of dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DβH) with pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), somatostatin (SOM), neuronal nitric oxide synthase, substance P, vasoactive intestinal peptide, neuropeptide Y (NPY), leu5-enkephalin and galanin (GAL) using combined retrograde tracing and double-labeling immunohistochemistry...
July 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676307/new-immunomodulatory-role-of-neuropeptide-y-npy-in-salmo-salar-leucocytes
#6
Roxana González-Stegmaier, Franz Villarroel-Espíndola, René Manríquez, Mauricio López, Mónica Monrás, Jaime Figueroa, Ricardo Enríquez, Alex Romero
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) plays different roles in mammals such as: regulate food intake, memory retention, cardiovascular functions, and anxiety. It has also been shown in the modulation of chemotaxis, T lymphocyte differentiation, and leukocyte migration. In fish, NPY expression and functions have been studied but its immunomodulatory role remains undescribed. This study confirmed the expression and synthesis of NPY in S. salar under inflammation, and validated a commercial antibody for NPY detection in teleost...
July 1, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660243/effects-of-selective-deletion-of-tyrosine-hydroxylase-from-kisspeptin-cells-on-puberty-and-reproduction-in-male-and-female-mice
#7
Shannon B Z Stephens, Melvin L Rouse, Kristen P Tolson, Reanna B Liaw, Ruby A Parra, Navi Chahal, Alexander S Kauffman
The neuropeptide kisspeptin, encoded by Kiss1, regulates reproduction by stimulating GnRH secretion. Kiss1-syntheizing neurons reside primarily in the hypothalamic anteroventral periventricular (AVPV/PeN) and arcuate (ARC) nuclei. AVPV/PeN Kiss1 neurons are sexually dimorphic, with females expressing more Kiss1 than males, and participate in estradiol (E2)-induced positive feedback control of GnRH secretion. In mice, most AVPV/PeN Kiss1 cells coexpress tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine synthesis (in this case, dopamine)...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660189/eosinophil-activation-status-in-separate-compartments-and-association-with-asthma
#8
REVIEW
Mats W Johansson
Asthma is frequently characterized by eosinophil-rich airway inflammation. Airway eosinophilia is associated with asthma exacerbations and likely plays a part in airway remodeling. Eosinophil recruitment from the bloodstream depends on circulating eosinophils becoming activated, which leads to eosinophil arrest on activated endothelium, extravasation, and continued movement through the bronchial tissue by interaction with the extracellular matrix (ECM). Circulating eosinophils can exist at different activation levels, which include non-activated or pre-activated (sensitized or "primed")...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655610/neuropeptide-s-nps-is-a-neuropeptide-with-cellular-actions-in-arousal-and-anxiety-related-nuclei-functional-implications-for-effects-of-nps-on-wakefulness-and-mood
#9
Vincenzo Roncacè, Filip Souza Polli, Minella Zojicic, Kristi Anne Kohlmeier
Neuropeptide S (NPS) is a peptide recently recognized to be present in the CNS, and believed to play a role in vigilance and mood control, as behavioral studies have shown it promotes arousal and has an anxiolytic effect. Although NPS precursor is found in very few neurons, NPS positive fibers are present throughout the brain stem. Given the behavioral actions of this peptide and the wide innervation pattern, we examined the cellular effects of NPS within two brain stem nuclei known to play a critical role in anxiety and arousal: the dorsal raphe (DR) and laterodorsal tegmentum (LDT)...
June 24, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653356/arcuate-nucleus-homeostatic-systems-reflect-blood-leptin-concentration-but-not-feeding-behaviour-during-scheduled-feeding-on-a-high-fat-diet-in-mice
#10
T Bake, J Baron, J S Duncan, D G A Morgan, J G Mercer
Hypothalamic homeostatic and forebrain reward-related genes were examined in the context of scheduled meal feeding without caloric restriction in C57BL/6 mice. Mice fed ad libitum but allowed access to a palatable high fat diet for 2 h a day rapidly adapted their feeding behaviour and consumed approximately 80% of their daily caloric intake during this 2 h scheduled feed. Gene expression levels were examined during either the first or second hour of scheduled feeding vs. 24 h ad libitum feeding on the same high fat diet...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647454/elevated-serum-met-5-enkephalin-levels-correlate-with-improved-clinical-and-behavioral-outcomes-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#11
Michael D Ludwig, Ian S Zagon, Patricia J McLaughlin
Methionine enkephalin ([Met(5)]-enkephalin, Opioid growth factor (OGF)) is a small neuropeptide with growth-related as well as immunomodulatory properties. OGF is distributed widely throughout the body, is both autocrine and paracrine produced, and has a very short half-life in serum. In addition to its neurotransmitter functions, OGF inhibits cell replication of a wide variety of cells involved in the autoimmune process. In this preclinical study, mice were immunized with myelin oligodendrocytic glycoprotein (MOG35-55) to establish a chronic progressive form of autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), and serum enkephalin levels were assessed throughout the disease as well as in response to OGF therapy in order to determine whether OGF may be a biological marker for EAE and multiple sclerosis...
June 21, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641988/wavy-multistratified-amacrine-cells-in-the-monkey-retina-contain-immunoreactive-secretoneurin
#12
Andrea S Bordt, Ye Long, Nobuo Kouyama, Elizabeth S Yamada, Jens Hannibal, David W Marshak
The goals of this study were to describe the morphology, neurotransmitter content and synaptic connections of neurons in primate retinas that contain the neuropeptide secretoneurin. Amacrine cells were labeled with antibodies to secretoneurin in macaque and baboon retinas. Their processes formed three distinct plexuses in the inner plexiform layer: one in the outermost stratum, one in the center and one in the innermost stratum. In light microscopic double immunolabeling experiments, GABA was colocalized with secretoneurin in these cells, but glycine transporter 1 and Substance P were not...
June 19, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636933/drosophila-neuropeptide-f-signaling-independently-regulates-feeding-and-sleep-wake-behavior
#13
Brian Y Chung, Jennifer Ro, Sabine A Hutter, Kylie M Miller, Lakshmi S Guduguntla, Shu Kondo, Scott D Pletcher
Proper regulation of sleep-wake behavior and feeding is essential for organismal health and survival. While previous studies have isolated discrete neural loci and substrates important for either sleep or feeding, how the brain is organized to coordinate both processes with respect to one another remains poorly understood. Here, we provide evidence that the Drosophila Neuropeptide F (NPF) network forms a critical component of both adult sleep and feeding regulation. Activation of NPF signaling in the brain promotes wakefulness and adult feeding, likely through its cognate receptor NPFR...
June 20, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636888/responsiveness-of-pituitary-to-galanin-throughout-the-reproductive-cycle-of-male-european-sea-bass-dicentrarchus-labrax
#14
P Pinto, Z Velez, C Sousa, S Santos, A Andrade, M V Alvarado, A Felip, S Zanuy, A V M Canário
The neuropeptide galanin (Gal) is a putative factor regulating puberty onset and reproduction through its actions on the pituitary. The present study investigated the pituitary responsiveness to galanin and the patterns of galanin receptors (Galrs) expression throughout the reproductive cycle of two years old male European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), an important aquaculture species. Quantitative analysis of pituitary and hypothalamus transcript expression of four galr subtypes revealed differential regulation according to the testicular developmental stage, with an overall decrease in expression from the immature stage to the mid-recrudescence stage...
June 19, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617958/alcohol-consumption-decreases-oxytocin-neurons-in-the-anterior-paraventricular-nucleus-of-the-hypothalamus-in-prairie-voles
#15
J R Stevenson, K A Young, A E Bohidar, L M Francomacaro, T R Fasold, J M Buirkle, J R Ndem, S C Christian
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorders are associated with dysfunctional social relationships and stress responses. The neuropeptides oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) are known to orchestrate or mediate many aspects of social behavior, stress responses, and ingestive behaviors. Because of the overlap between the effects of alcohol and the roles of oxytocin and vasopressin, we sought to determine if alcohol consumption altered expression of OT and AVP in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), one of the key sites for OT and AVP synthesis...
June 15, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604684/sensory-integration-and-neuromodulatory-feedback-facilitate-drosophila-mechanonociceptive-behavior
#16
Chun Hu, Meike Petersen, Nina Hoyer, Bettina Spitzweck, Federico Tenedini, Denan Wang, Alisa Gruschka, Lara S Burchardt, Emanuela Szpotowicz, Michaela Schweizer, Ananya R Guntur, Chung-Hui Yang, Peter Soba
Nociception is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism to encode and process harmful environmental stimuli. Like most animals, Drosophila melanogaster larvae respond to a variety of nociceptive stimuli, including noxious touch and temperature, with stereotyped escape responses through activation of multimodal nociceptors. How behavioral responses to these different modalities are processed and integrated by the downstream network remains poorly understood. By combining trans-synaptic labeling, ultrastructural analysis, calcium imaging, optogenetics and behavioral analyses, we uncovered a circuit specific for mechanonociception but not thermonociception...
June 12, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600320/limited-distal-organelles-and-synaptic-function-in-extensive-monoaminergic-innervation
#17
Juan Tao, Dinara Bulgari, David L Deitcher, Edwin S Levitan
Organelles such as neuropeptide-containing dense-core vesicles (DCVs) and mitochondria travel down axons to supply synaptic boutons. DCV distribution among en passant boutons in small axonal arbors is mediated by circulation with bidirectional capture. However, it is not known how organelles are distributed in extensive arbors associated with volume transmission and neuromodulation by monoamines and neuropeptides and mammalian dopamine neuron vulnerability. Therefore, we studied presynaptic organelle distribution in Drosophila octopamine neurons that innervate ∼20 muscles with ∼1500 boutons...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595953/inhalation-of-a-racemic-mixture-r-s-linalool-by-rats-experiencing-restraint-stress-alters-neuropeptide-and-mhc-class-i-gene-expression-in-the-hypothalamus
#18
Kazushi Yoshida, Naoto Yamamoto, Satoshi Fujiwara, Asuka Kamei, Keiko Abe, Akio Nakamura
Some odorants have physiological and psychological effects on organisms. However, little is known about the effects of inhaling them, particularly on the central nervous system. Using DNA microarray analysis, we obtained gene expression profiles of the hypothalamus from restraint stressed rats exposed to racemic (R,S)-linalool. Hierarchical clustering across all probe sets showed that this inhalation of (R,S)-linalool influenced the expression levels of a wide range of genes in the hypothalamus. A comparison of transcription levels revealed that the inhalation of (R,S)-linalool restored the expression of 560 stress-induced probe sets to a normal status...
July 13, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578678/changes-in-the-neuropeptide-content-of-biomphalaria-ganglia-nervous-system-following-schistosoma-infection
#19
Tianfang Wang, Min Zhao, Di Liang, Utpal Bose, Satwant Kaur, Donald P McManus, Scott F Cummins
BACKGROUND: Molluscs, including snails, are prone to parasite infection, which can lead to massive physiological and behavioural changes, yet many of the molecular components involved remain unresolved. Central to this point is the neural system that in snails consists of several ganglia that regulate the animals' physiology and behaviour patterns. The availability of a genomic resource for the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata provides a mean towards the high throughput analysis of changes in the central nervous system (CNS) following infection with Schistosoma miracidia...
June 2, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576646/increase-in-hypothalamic-ampk-phosphorylation-induced-by-prolonged-exposure-to-lps-involves-ghrelin-and-cb1r-signaling
#20
Priscila M S Rivas, Fernanda M V Vechiato, Beatriz C Borges, Rodrigo Rorato, Jose Antunes-Rodrigues, Lucila L K Elias
Acute administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria induces hypophagia. However, the repeated administration of LPS leads to desensitization of hypophagia, which is associated with increased hypothalamic p-AMPK expression. Because ghrelin and endocannabinoids modulate AMPK activity in the hypothalamus, we hypothesized that these neuromodulators play a role in the reversal of tolerance to hypophagia in rats under long-term exposure to LPS. Male Wistar rats were treated with single (1 LPS, 100μg/kg body weight, ip) or repeated injections of LPS over 6days (6 LPS)...
June 8, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
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