Read by QxMD icon Read

neuropeptide S

Jing Huang, Erika Polgár, Hans Jürgen Solinski, Santosh K Mishra, Pang-Yen Tseng, Noboru Iwagaki, Kieran A Boyle, Allen C Dickie, Mette C Kriegbaum, Hendrik Wildner, Hanns Ulrich Zeilhofer, Masahiko Watanabe, John S Riddell, Andrew J Todd, Mark A Hoon
Stimuli that elicit itch are detected by sensory neurons that innervate the skin. This information is processed by the spinal cord; however, the way in which this occurs is still poorly understood. Here we investigated the neuronal pathways for itch neurotransmission, particularly the contribution of the neuropeptide somatostatin. We find that in the periphery, somatostatin is exclusively expressed in Nppb+ neurons, and we demonstrate that Nppb+ somatostatin+ cells function as pruriceptors. Employing chemogenetics, pharmacology and cell-specific ablation methods, we demonstrate that somatostatin potentiates itch by inhibiting inhibitory dynorphin neurons, which results in disinhibition of GRPR+ neurons...
March 19, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
LiLi Shi, Bin Li, Ting Ting Zhou, Wei Wang, Siuming F Chan
The recent use of RNA-Seq to study the transcriptomes of different species has helped identify a large number of new genes from different non-model organisms. In this study, five distinctive transcripts encoding for neuropeptide members of the CHH/MIH/GIH family have been identified from the spermatophore transcriptome of the shrimp Fenneropenaeus merguiensis. The size of these transcripts ranged from 531 bp to 1771 bp. Four transcripts encoded different CHH-family subtype I members, and one transcript encoded a subtype II member...
2018: PloS One
Thanh D Do, Joseph F Ellis, Elizabeth K Neumann, Troy J Comi, Emily G Tillmaand, Ashley E Lenhart, Stanislav S Rubakhin, Jonathan Sweedler
The mammalian dorsal root ganglia (DRG) are located on the dorsal roots of the spinal nerves and contain cell bodies of primary sensory neurons. DRG cells have been classified into subpopulations based on their size, morphology, intracellular markers, response to stimuli, and neuropeptides. To understand the connections between DRG chemical heterogeneity and cellular function, we performed optically guided, high-throughput single cell profiling using sequential matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MS) to detect lipids, peptides, and several proteins in individual DRG cells...
March 15, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Guo Zhang, Wang-Ding Yuan, Ferdinand S Vilim, Elena V Romanova, Ke Yu, Si-Yuan Yin, Zi-Wei Le, Ying-Yu Xue, Ting-Ting Chen, Guo-Kai Chen, Song-An Chen, Elizabeth C Cropper, Jonathan V Sweedler, Klaudiusz R Weiss, Jian Jing
When individual neurons in a circuit contain multiple neuropeptides, these peptides can target different sets of follower neurons. This endows the circuit with a certain degree of flexibility. Here we identified a novel family of peptides, the Aplysia SPTR-Gene Family-Derived peptides (apSPTR-GF-DPs). We demonstrated apSPTR-GF-DPs, particularly apSPTR-GF-DP2, are expressed in the Aplysia CNS using immunohistochemistry and MALDI-TOF MS. apSPTR-GF-DP2 is present in single projection neurons, e.g., in the cerebral-buccal interneuron-12 (CBI-12)...
March 15, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
James A Waschek, Serapio M Baca, Simon Akerman
The discovery that intravenous (IV) infusions of the neuropeptide PACAP-38 (pituitary adenylyl cyclase activating peptide-38) induced delayed migraine-like headaches in a large majority of migraine patients has resulted in considerable excitement in headache research. In addition to suggesting potential therapeutic targets for migraine, the finding provides an opportunity to better understand the pathological events from early events (aura) to the headache itself. Although PACAP-38 and the closely related peptide VIP (vasoactive intestinal peptide) are well-known as vasoactive molecules, the dilation of cranial blood vessels per se is no longer felt to underlie migraine headaches...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Headache and Pain
Hussain N Alhamami, Md Main Uddin, A S M Hasan Mahmood, Karen P Briski
The hypothalamic energy sensor adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an important regulator of counter-regulatory responses to hypoglycemia, responds to pharmacological manipulation of hindbrain AMPK activity. Dorsomedial hindbrain A2 noradrenergic neurons express hypoglycemia-sensitive metabolo-sensory biomarkers, including AMPK. Here, adult male rats were pretreated by intra-caudal fourth ventricular administration of the selective neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) to determine if catecholamine signaling from the aforesaid site governs hypothalamic AMPK activation during insulin-induced hypoglycemia (IIH)...
March 10, 2018: Neuroscience
Ning Yang, Krishna D P Anapindi, Stanislav S Rubakhin, Pingli Wei, Qing Yu, Lingjun Li, Paul J Kenny, Jonathan V Sweedler
Conserved across vertebrates, the habenular nuclei are a pair of small symmetrical structures in the epithalamus. The nuclei functionally link the forebrain and midbrain by receiving input from and projecting to several brain regions. Each habenular nucleus comprises two major asymmetrical subnuclei, the medial and lateral habenula. These subnuclei are associated with different physiological processes and disorders, such as depression, nicotine addiction, and encoding aversive stimuli or omitting expected rewarding stimuli...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
Kasey L DeAtley, Michelle L Colgrave, Angela Canovas, Gene Wijffels, Ryan L Ashley, Gail A Silver, Gonzalo Rincon, Juan F Medrano, Alma Islas-Trejo, Marina R S Fortes, Antonio Reverter, Laercio Porto-Neto, Sigrid A Lehnert, Milton G Thomas
Puberty in cattle is regulated by an endocrine axis which includes a complex milieu of neuropeptides in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. The neuropeptidome of hypothalamic-pituitary tissue of pre- (PRE) and post-pubertal (POST) Bos indicus-influenced heifers was characterized, followed by quantitative analysis of 51 fertility-related neuropeptides in these tissues. Comparison of peptide abundances with gene expression levels allowed assessment of post-transcriptional peptide processing. Based on classical cleavage, 233 mature neuropeptides from 35 precursor proteins were detected in hypothalamus and pituitary gland tissues of three PRE and three POST Brangus heifers...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
Sarah L Ferri, Ted Abel, Edward S Brodkin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neurodevelopmental disorders disproportionately affect males. The mechanisms underlying male vulnerability or female protection are not known and remain understudied. Determining the processes involved is crucial to understanding the etiology and advancing treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders. Here, we review current findings and theories that contribute to male preponderance of neurodevelopmental disorders, with a focus on autism. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent work on the biological basis of the male preponderance of autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders includes discussion of a higher genetic burden in females and sex-specific gene mutations or epigenetic changes that differentially confer risk to males or protection to females...
March 5, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
Hayriye Baykan, Onur Durmaz, Ozgur Baykan, Merve Sahin Can, Hayrettin Kara, Adnan Adil Hismiogullari, Tunay Karlidere
PURPOSE: Neuropeptide-S (NPS) is a novel 20-amino acid peptide, mainly expressed in the central nervous system and endocrine tissues. NPS has been linked to anxiety and fear-related behaviors. The association of NPS with depression in a human population has not been previously examined. The aim of the current study was to explore the potential association of NPS with clinical depression and comorbid anxiety. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-nine patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder and seventy-eight controls were included in the study...
February 28, 2018: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
Arleta K Skrzynska, Elisabetta Maiorano, Marco Bastaroli, Fatemeh Naderi, Jesús M Míguez, Gonzalo Martínez-Rodríguez, Juan M Mancera, Juan A Martos-Sitcha
The hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) and hypothalamus-sympathetic-chromaffin cell (HSC) axes are involved in the regulation of the stress response in teleost. In this regard, the activation of a complex network of endocrine players is needed, including corticotrophin-releasing hormone (Crh), Crh binding protein (Crhbp), proopiomelanocortin (Pomc), thyrotropin-releasing hormone (Trh), arginine vasotocin (Avt), and isotocin (It) to finally produce pleiotropic functions. We aimed to investigate, using the gilthead sea bream ( Sparus aurata ) as a biological model, the transcriptomic response of different endocrine factors ( crh, crhbp, pomc s, trh ), neuropeptides ( avt and it ), and their specific receptors ( avtrv1a, avtrv2 , and itr ) in four important target tissues (hypothalamus, pituitary, kidney and liver), after an acute stress situation...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Jaime S Ide, Sanja Nedic, Kin F Wong, Shmuel L Strey, Elizabeth A Lawson, Bradford C Dickerson, Lawrence L Wald, Giancarlo La Camera, L R Mujica-Parodi
Oxytocin (OT) is an endogenous neuropeptide that, while originally thought to promote trust, has more recently been found to be context-dependent. Here we extend experimental paradigms previously restricted to de novo decision-to-trust, to a more realistic environment in which social relationships evolve in response to iterative feedback over twenty interactions. In a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled within-subject/crossover experiment of human adult males, we investigated the effects of a single dose of intranasal OT (40 IU) on Bayesian expectation updating and reinforcement learning within a social context, with associated brain circuit dynamics...
February 24, 2018: NeuroImage
D Joshi, S K Singh
Orexin A, a hypothalamic neuropeptide, regulates food intake and sleep-wake cycle by binding to orexin receptor 1. Besides brain, orexin A and orexin receptor 1 are also present in peripheral organs. In our earlier studies, localization and expression of orexin A and orexin receptor 1 have been shown in adult mouse testis, and further their role in testicular development in neonatal mouse was also demonstrated. In this study, role of orexin A and orexin receptor 1 in the testis of adult mouse by blocking binding of orexin A to orexin receptor 1 using an orexin receptor 1 antagonist, SB-334867, was investigated under in vivo and ex vivo conditions...
February 26, 2018: Andrology
W Zhao, L Li, Y Zhang, X Liu, J Wei, Y Xie, M Du, S An
Lepidoptera sex pheromone biosynthesis is regulated by pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN). PBAN regulates not only female sex pheromone biosynthesis but also male sex pheromone biosynthesis. Previous research has confirmed that PBAN regulates sex pheromone biosynthesis using Ca2+ as a secondary messenger in all examined species to date. However, the downstream signal of Ca2+ has remained elusive. In the present study, calcineurin A (CNA), a downstream signal of Ca2+ , was discovered in Helicoverpa armigera male hairpencil and named HaCNA...
February 21, 2018: Insect Molecular Biology
Tunde K Szivak, Elaine C Lee, Catherine Saenz, Shawn D Flanagan, Brian C Focht, Jeff S Volek, Carl M Maresh, William J Kraemer
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this research was to evaluate neuroendocrine and physical performance responses in sailors and Marines undergoing U.S. Navy Survival, Evasion, Resistance, and Escape (SERE) training. METHODS: Participants were 20 men (Age: 25.3 ± 3.6 yr; Height: 178.1 ± 6.1 cm; Weight: 83.7 ± 12.6 kg). Men were further split into high fit (N = 10) and low fit (N = 10) subgroups based on physical fitness test scores. Blood samples were obtained at baseline (T1), stress (T2), and recovery (T3) timepoints, and were analyzed for plasma epinephrine, plasma norepinephrine, plasma dopamine, serum cortisol, serum testosterone, and plasma neuropeptide Y...
February 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Rhîannan H Williams, Sarah W Black, Alexia M Thomas, Juliette Piquet, Bruno Cauli, Thomas S Kilduff
We have proposed that cortical nNOS/NK1R interneurons have a role in sleep homeostasis. The hypocretins (orexins) are wake-promoting neuropeptides and hypocretin/orexin (Hcrt) neurons project to the cortex. Hcrt peptides affect deep layer cortical neurons, and Hcrt receptor 1 (Hcrtr1; Ox1r) mRNA is expressed in cortical nNOS/NK1R cells. Therefore, we investigated whether Hcrt neuron stimulation affects cingulate cortex nNOS/NK1R neurons. Bath application of HCRT1/orexin-A evoked an inward current and membrane depolarization in most nNOS/NK1R cells which persisted in tetrodotoxin; optogenetic stimulation of Hcrt terminals expressing channelrhodopsin-2 confirmed these results, and pharmacological studies determined that HCRTR1 mediated these responses...
February 16, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
A Abbara, R Islam, S A Clarke, L Jeffers, G Christopoulos, A N Comninos, R Salim, S A Lavery, N L Vuong, P Humaidan, T W Kelsey, G H Trew, W S Dhillo
OBJECTIVE: Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is a serious iatrogenic condition, predominantly related to the hormone used to induce oocyte maturation during IVF treatment. Kisspeptin is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that has recently been demonstrated to safely trigger final oocyte maturation during IVF treatment even in women at high risk of OHSS. However to date, the safety of kisspeptin has not been compared to current hormonal triggers of oocyte maturation. DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective single-centre cohort study investigating symptoms and clinical parameters of early OHSS in women at high risk of OHSS (antral follicle count or total number of follicles on day of trigger ≥23) triggered with hCG (n=40), GnRH agonist (GnRHa; n=99), or kisspeptin (n=122) at Hammersmith Hospital IVF unit, London, UK (2013-2016)...
February 15, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
Mounir Bendahmane, Kevin P Bohannon, Mazdak M Bradberry, Tejeshwar C Rao, Michael W Schmidtke, Prabhodh S Abbineni, Nara L Chon, Sherleen Tran, Hai Lin, Edwin R Chapman, Jefferson D Knight, Arun Anantharam
In chromaffin cells, the kinetics of fusion pore expansion vary depending on which synaptotagmin isoform (Syt-1 or Syt-7) drives release. Our recent studies have shown that fusion pores of granules harboring Syt-1 expand more rapidly than those harboring Syt-7. Here, we sought to define the structural specificity of synaptotagmin action at the fusion pore by manipulating the Ca 2+ -binding C2B module. We generated a chimeric Syt-1 in which its C2B Ca 2+ -binding loops had been exchanged for those of Syt-7. Fusion pores of granules harboring a Syt-1 C2B chimera with all three Ca 2+ -binding loops of Syt-7 (Syt-1:7C2B 123 ) exhibited slower rates of fusion pore expansion and neuropeptide cargo release relative to WT Syt-1...
February 14, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Minchul Seo, S K M Azizul Islam, Seong-Su Moon
Hypothalamus is the regulatory center of both appetite and energy balance, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the hypothalamus is involved in the pathogenesis of obesity. Recently, inhibition of 11 β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type1 (11β-HSD1) was reported to have an anti-obesity effect by reducing fat mass. However, link between the role of 11β-HSD1 in hypothalamus and obesity has yet to be elucidated. In this study, embryonal primary hypothalamic neurons and high fat diet (HFD) fed mice were used to investigate the anorexigenic effects of 11β-HSD1 inhibitors in in vitro and in vivo...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Natalie C Ebner, Tian Lin, Melis Muradoglu, Devon H Weir, Gabriela M Plasencia, Travis S Lillard, Hossein Pournajafi-Nazarloo, Ronald A Cohen, C Sue Carter, Jessica J Connelly
The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) has been implicated in a wide range of affiliative processes. OT exerts its functions via OT receptors, which are encoded by the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR). Epigenetic modification of OXTR through the process of DNA methylation has been associated with individual differences in behavioral phenotypes. Specifically, lower levels of OXTR methylation have been linked to better social and affective functioning. However, research on epigenetic mechanisms of OXTR is scarce in non-clinical populations, and even less is known about epigenetic variability across adulthood...
February 2, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"