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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913193/neuropeptide-y-resilience-and-ptsd-therapeutics
#1
REVIEW
Marin Kautz, Dennis S Charney, James W Murrough
Resilience to traumatic stress is a complex psychobiological process that protects individuals from developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or other untoward consequences of exposure to extreme stress, including depression. Progress in translational research points toward the neuropeptide Y (NPY) system - among others - as a key mediator of stress response and as a potential therapeutic focus for PTSD. Substantial preclinical evidence supports the role of NPY in the modulation of stress response and in the regulation of anxiety in animal models...
November 29, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909097/induction-of-migraine-like-photophobic-behavior-in-mice-by-both-peripheral-and-central-cgrp-mechanisms
#2
Bianca N Mason, Eric A Kaiser, Adisa Kuburas, Maria-Cristina M Loomis, John A Latham, Leon F Garcia-Martinez, Andrew F Russo
: The neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a key player in migraine. While migraine can be treated using CGRP antagonists that act peripherally, the relevant sites of CGRP action remain unknown. To address the role of CGRP both within and outside the central nervous system, we used CGRP-induced light aversive behavior in mice as a measure of migraine-associated photophobia. Peripheral (intraperitoneal, IP) injection of CGRP resulted in light aversive behavior in wild-type CD1 mice similar to aversion previously seen following central (intracerebroventricular, ICV) injection...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899138/the-impact-of-oxytocin-administration-on-brain-activity-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-protocol
#3
Daniel S Quintana, Tim Outhred, Lars T Westlye, Gin S Malhi, Ole A Andreassen
BACKGROUND: Converging evidence demonstrates the important role of the neuropeptide hormone oxytocin (OT) in human behaviour and cognition. Intranasal OT administration has been shown to improve several aspects of social communication, such as the theory of mind performance and gaze to the eye region, and reduce anxiety and related negative cognitive appraisals. While this early research has demonstrated the potential for intranasal OT to treat psychiatric illnesses characterized by social impairments, the neurobiological mechanisms are not well known...
November 29, 2016: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893846/cerebellum-transcriptome-of-mice-bred-for-high-voluntary-activity-offers-insights-into-locomotor-control-and-reward-dependent-behaviors
#4
Kelsey Caetano-Anollés, Justin S Rhodes, Theodore Garland, Sam D Perez, Alvaro G Hernandez, Bruce R Southey, Sandra L Rodriguez-Zas
The role of the cerebellum in motivation and addictive behaviors is less understood than that in control and coordination of movements. High running can be a self-rewarding behavior exhibiting addictive properties. Changes in the cerebellum transcriptional networks of mice from a line selectively bred for High voluntary running (H) were profiled relative to an unselected Control (C) line. The environmental modulation of these changes was assessed both in activity environments corresponding to 7 days of Free (F) access to running wheel and to Blocked (B) access on day 7...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889920/neuropeptide-y-receptor-1-is-expressed-by-b-and-t-lymphocytes-and-mast-cells-in-infantile-haemangiomas
#5
Elysia M S Tan, Max G Blackwell, Jonathan C Dunne, Reginald Marsh, Swee T Tan, Tinte Itinteang
AIM: We investigated the expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY), NPY receptor 1 (NPYR1) and NPY receptor 2 (NPYR2) in infantile haemangiomas (IHs). METHODS: Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining was performed on proliferating IHs from six patients aged 4-13 (mean 8.7) months and involuted IHs from six patients aged 5-59 (mean 18.7) years, for the expression of NPY, NPYR1 and NPYR2. Protein and messenger ribonucleic acid expression corresponding to these proteins was investigated by Western blotting and NanoString analysis, respectively...
November 27, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883964/sex-specific-association-between-functional-neuropeptide-s-receptor-gene-npsr1-variants-and-cortisol-and-central-stress-responses
#6
Fabian Streit, Ceren Akdeniz, Leila Haddad, Robert Kumsta, Sonja Entringer, Josef Frank, Ilona S Yim, Sandra Zänkert, Stephanie H Witt, Peter Kirsch, Marcella Rietschel, Stefan Wüst
The brain neuropeptide S (NPS) system has recently generated substantial interest and may be of major relevance for central stress regulation. The NPS receptor (NPSR1) is highly expressed in the limbic system, exogenous NPS exerts pronounced anxiolytic and fear-attenuating effects in rodents and extensive close crosstalk between the NPS system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been demonstrated. In humans, associations between NPSR1 variants and anxiety and panic disorder, as well as amygdala responsiveness to fear- relevant faces and prefrontal cortex activity in a fear conditioning paradigm have been reported...
November 10, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870427/understanding-the-broad-influence-of-sex-hormones-and-sex-differences-in-the-brain
#7
REVIEW
Bruce S McEwen, Teresa A Milner
Sex hormones act throughout the entire brain of both males and females via both genomic and nongenomic receptors. Sex hormones can act through many cellular and molecular processes that alter structure and function of neural systems and influence behavior as well as providing neuroprotection. Within neurons, sex hormone receptors are found in nuclei and are also located near membranes, where they are associated with presynaptic terminals, mitochondria, spine apparatus, and postsynaptic densities. Sex hormone receptors also are found in glial cells...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865847/functional-characterisation-and-application-of-an-ex-vivo-perfusion-superfusion-system-in-murine-airways
#8
Esther Y Cheah, Tracy S Mann, Philip C Burcham, Peter J Henry
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to develop two dynamic ex vivo airway explant systems, a perfusion-superfusion system and a ventilation-superfusion system, for the study of toxic airborne substances, such as the prevalent smoke constituent acrolein. METHODS: Mouse isolated tracheal segments were perfused with physiological media or ventilated with humidified air at 37°C to mimic dynamic flow conditions, and superfused with media over the exterior surface...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860234/probing-the-response-of-human-osteoblasts-following-exposure-to-sympathetic-neuron-like-pc-12-cells-in-a-3d-co-culture-model
#9
Josh Erndt-Marino, Mariah S Hahn
Understanding the capacity of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) to regulate bone homeostasis has implications for a number of metabolic diseases and may help establish connections between certain neurological conditions and bone quality. The goal of the present work was to gain a deeper understanding of the influence of the SNS on the phenotype of osteoblasts, a major cell type in bone. An in vitro co-culture model with human osteoblasts and sympathetic-like, neuroendocrine pheochromocytoma-12 (PC-12) encapsulated within separate 3D poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogels was utilized to assess markers involved with bone ECM formation and osteoclast formation...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853240/modulation-of-light-driven-arousal-by-lim-homeodomain-transcription-factor-apterous-in-large-pdf-positive-lateral-neurons-of-the-drosophila-brain
#10
Naoto Shimada, Show Inami, Shoma Sato, Toshihiro Kitamoto, Takaomi Sakai
Apterous (Ap), the best studied LIM-homeodomain transcription factor in Drosophila, cooperates with the cofactor Chip (Chi) to regulate transcription of specific target genes. Although Ap regulates various developmental processes, its function in the adult brain remains unclear. Here, we report that Ap and Chi in the neurons expressing PDF, a neuropeptide, play important roles in proper sleep/wake regulation in adult flies. PDF-expressing neurons consist of two neuronal clusters: small ventral-lateral neurons (s-LNvs) acting as the circadian pacemaker and large ventral-lateral neurons (l-LNvs) regulating light-driven arousal...
November 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852784/activity-induces-fmr1-sensitive-synaptic-capture-of-anterograde-circulating-neuropeptide-vesicles
#11
Samantha L Cavolo, Dinara Bulgari, David L Deitcher, Edwin S Levitan
: Synaptic neuropeptide and neurotrophin stores are maintained by constitutive bidirectional capture of dense-core vesicles (DCVs) as they circulate in and out of the nerve terminal. Activity increases DCV capture to rapidly replenish synaptic neuropeptide stores following release. However, it is not known whether this is due to enhanced bidirectional capture. Here experiments at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction, where DCVs contain neuropeptides and a bone morphogenic protein, show that activity-dependent replenishment of synaptic neuropeptides following release is evident after inhibiting the retrograde transport with the dynactin disruptor mycalolide B or photobleaching DCVs entering a synaptic bouton by retrograde transport...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845162/neuropeptide-glutamic-acid-isoleucine-nei-induced-paradoxical-sleep-in-rats
#12
Moe Fujimoto, Satoru Fukuda, Hidetoshi Sakamoto, Junko Takata, Shigehito Sawamura
Neuropeptideglutamic acid-isoleucine (NEI) as well as melanin concentrating hormone (MCH) is cleaved from the 165 amino acid protein, prepro-melanin concentrating hormone (prepro-MCH). Among many physiological roles of MCH, we demonstrated that intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of MCH induced increases in REM sleep episodes as well as in non REM sleep episodes. However, there are no studies on the effect of NEI on the sleep-wake cycle. As for the sites of action of MCH for induction of REM sleep, the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) has been reported to be one of its site of action...
November 11, 2016: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836728/altered-gene-expression-profile-in-a-mouse-model-of-scn8a-encephalopathy
#13
Ryan S Sprissler, Jacy L Wagnon, Rosie K Bunton-Stasyshyn, Miriam H Meisler, Michael F Hammer
SCN8A encephalopathy is a severe, early-onset epilepsy disorder resulting from de novo gain-of-function mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.6. To identify the effects of this disorder on mRNA expression, RNA-seq was performed on brain tissue from a knock-in mouse expressing the patient mutation p.Asn1768Asp (N1768D). RNA was isolated from forebrain, cerebellum, and brainstem both before and after seizure onset, and from age-matched wildtype littermates. Altered transcript profiles were observed only in forebrain and only after seizures...
November 9, 2016: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823957/prediction-of-a-neuropeptidome-for-the-eyestalk-ganglia-of-the-lobster-homarus-americanus-using-a-tissue-specific-de-novo-assembled-transcriptome
#14
Andrew E Christie, Vittoria Roncalli, Matthew C Cieslak, Micah G Pascual, Andy Yu, Tess J Lameyer, Meredith E Stanhope, Patsy S Dickinson
In silico transcriptome mining is a powerful tool for crustacean peptidome prediction. Using homology-based BLAST searches and a simple bioinformatics workflow, large peptidomes have recently been predicted for a variety of crustaceans, including the lobster, Homarus americanus. Interestingly, no in silico studies have been conducted on the eyestalk ganglia (lamina ganglionaris, medulla externa, medulla interna and medulla terminalis) of the lobster, although the eyestalk is the location of a major neuroendocrine complex, i...
November 4, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823858/ambient-temperature-modulates-the-effects-of-the-prader-willi-syndrome-candidate-gene-snord116-on-energy-homeostasis
#15
Y Qi, L Purtell, M Fu, K Sengmany, K Loh, L Zhang, S Zolotukhin, A Sainsbury, L Campbell, H Herzog
Germline deletion of the Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) candidate gene Snord116 in mice leads to some classical symptoms of human PWS, notably reductions in body weight, linear growth and bone mass. However, Snord116 deficient mice (Snord116(-/-)) do not develop an obese phenotype despite their increased food intake and the underlying mechanism for that is unknown. We tested the phenotypes of germline Snord116(-/-) as well as neuropeptide Y (NPY) neuron specific Snord116(lox/lox)/NPY(cre/+) mice at 30°C, the thermoneutral temperature of mice, and compared these to previous reports studies conducted at normal room temperature...
October 27, 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820848/acid-sensing-ion-channel-1a-contributes-to-airway-hyperreactivity-in-mice
#16
Leah R Reznikov, David K Meyerholz, Ryan J Adam, Mahmoud Abou Alaiwa, Omar Jaffer, Andrew S Michalski, Linda S Powers, Margaret P Price, David A Stoltz, Michael J Welsh
Neurons innervating the airways contribute to airway hyperreactivity (AHR), a hallmark feature of asthma. Several observations suggested that acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), neuronal cation channels activated by protons, might contribute to AHR. For example, ASICs are found in vagal sensory neurons that innervate airways, and asthmatic airways can become acidic. Moreover, airway acidification activates ASIC currents and depolarizes neurons innervating airways. We found ASIC1a protein in vagal ganglia neurons, but not airway epithelium or smooth muscle...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818789/early-experiences-can-alter-the-size-of-cortical-fields-in-prairie-voles-microtus-ochrogaster
#17
A M H Seelke, S-M Yuan, A M Perkeybile, L A Krubitzer, K L Bales
The neocortex of the prairie vole is composed of three well-defined sensory areas and one motor area: primary somatosensory, visual, auditory areas and the primary motor area respectively. The boundaries of these cortical areas are identifiable very early in development, and have been thought to resist alteration by all but the most extreme physical or genetic manipulations. Here we assessed the extent to which the boundaries of sensory/motor cortical areas can be altered by exposing young prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) to a chronic stimulus, high or low levels of parental contact, or an acute stimulus, a single dose of saline, oxytocin (OT), or oxytocin antagonist on the day of birth...
August 2016: Environmental Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804275/oxytocin-mediated-behavior-in-invertebrates-an-evolutionary-perspective
#18
REVIEW
Meghan A Lockard, Margaret S Ebert, Cornelia I Bargmann
The molecular and functional conservation of oxytocin-related neuropeptides in behavior is striking. In animals separated by at least 600 million years of evolution, from roundworms to humans, oxytocin homologs play critical roles in the modulation of reproductive behavior and other biological functions. Here, we review the roles of oxytocin in invertebrate behavior from an evolutionary perspective. We begin by tracing the evolution of oxytocin through the invertebrate animal lineages, and then describe common themes in invertebrate behaviors that are mediated by oxytocin-related peptides, including reproductive behavior, learning and memory, food arousal, and predator/prey relationships...
November 2, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802308/bone-injury-and-repair-trigger-central-and-peripheral-npy-neuronal-pathways
#19
Cecília J Alves, Inês S Alencastre, Estrela Neto, João Ribas, Sofia Ferreira, Daniel M Vasconcelos, Daniela M Sousa, Teresa Summavielle, Meriem Lamghari
Bone repair is a specialized type of wound repair controlled by complex multi-factorial events. The nervous system is recognized as one of the key regulators of bone mass, thereby suggesting a role for neuronal pathways in bone homeostasis. However, in the context of bone injury and repair, little is known on the interplay between the nervous system and bone. Here, we addressed the neuropeptide Y (NPY) neuronal arm during the initial stages of bone repair encompassing the inflammatory response and ossification phases in femoral-defect mouse model...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796869/zinc-transporter-3-znt3-as-an-active-substance-in-the-enteric-nervous-system-of-the-porcine-esophagus
#20
Joanna Wojtkiewicz, Krystyna Makowska, Ewa Bejer-Olenska, Sławomir Gonkowski
Zinc transporter 3 (ZnT3), a member of the SLC 30 zinc transporter family, is involved in the transport of zinc ions from the cytoplasm into synaptic vesicles or intracellular organelles. The aim of the present study was to investigate for the first time the percentage of ZnT3-like immunoreactive (ZnT3-LI) neurons in the enteric nervous system (ENS) of the porcine esophagus and denotation of their neurochemical coding. Routine double- and triple-immunofluorescence labeling of cervical, thoracic, and abdominal fragments of esophagus for ZnT3 with protein gene product (PGP 9...
October 30, 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
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