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Vascular medicine

Stephen L Kopecky, Douglas C Bauer, Martha Gulati, Jeri W Nieves, Andrea J Singer, Peter P Toth, James A Underberg, Taylor C Wallace, Connie M Weaver
Description: Calcium is the dominant mineral present in bone and a shortfall nutrient in the American diet. Supplements have been recommended for persons who do not consume adequate calcium from their diet as a standard strategy for the prevention of osteoporosis and related fractures. Whether calcium with or without vitamin D supplementation is beneficial or detrimental to vascular health is not known. Methods: The National Osteoporosis Foundation and American Society for Preventive Cardiology convened an expert panel to evaluate the effects of dietary and supplemental calcium on cardiovascular disease based on the existing peer-reviewed scientific literature...
October 25, 2016: Annals of Internal Medicine
Jie Li, Yonghong Gao, Xiaomeng Ren, Yanda Li, Lijun Wu, Xinyu Yang, Jie Wang, Hongcai Shang, Xingjiang Xiong, Yanwei Xing
Autophagy, a highly conserved starvation response mechanism with both defensive and protective effects in eukaryotic cells, is a lysosome-mediated degradation process for non-essential or damaged cellular constituents. It plays an important role in the cell survival, differentiation and development to maintain homeostasis. Autophagy is involved in cardiovascular diseases, cerebrovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative disease, as well as tumours. Thus, modulating autophagy may provide potential therapeutic strategies...
October 21, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Jianchun Huang, Xiaojun Tang, Fangxing Ye, Junhui He, Xiaolong Kong
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Coronary heart disease is characterized by vascular stenosis or occlusion resulting in myocardial ischemia, hypoxia and necrosis. In China, the combination of aspirin and Fufang Danshen Diwan (FDD), a traditional Chinese medicine formula, has been suggested in the treatment of coronary heart disease. There have been several studies comparing the effectiveness of aspirin alone and in combination with FDD to treat coronary artery disease; however, it remains unclear whether combined aspirin therapy is superior...
October 24, 2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Landon W Trost, Ricardo Munarriz, Run Wang, Allen Morey, Laurence Levine
INTRODUCTION: The field of sexual medicine is continuously advancing, with novel outcomes reported on a regular basis. Given the rapid evolution, updated guidelines are essential to inform practicing clinicians on best practices. AIM: To summarize the current literature and provide clinical guidelines on penile traction therapy, vacuum erection devices, and penile revascularization. METHODS: A consensus panel was held with leading sexual medicine experts during the 2015 International Consultation on Sexual Medicine (ICSM)...
November 2016: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Pan Dan, Émilie Velot, Grégory Francius, Patrick Menu, Véronique Decot
: One of the outstanding goals in tissue engineering is to develop a natural coating surface which is easy to manipulate, effective for cell adhesion and fully biocompatible. The ideal surface would be derived from human tissue, perfectly controllable, and pathogen-free, thereby satisfying all of the standards of the health authorities. This paper reports an innovative approach to coating surfaces using a natural extracellular matrix (ECM) extracted from the Wharton's jelly (WJ) of the umbilical cord (referred to as WJ-ECM)...
October 18, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Matthias Jacob, Daniel Chappell, Bernhard F Becker
Oxygen delivery to cells is the basic prerequisite of life. Within the human body, an ingenious oxygen delivery system, comprising steps of convection and diffusion from the upper airways via the lungs and the cardiovascular system to the microvascular area, bridges the gap between oxygen in the outside airspace and the interstitial space around the cells. However, the complexity of this evolutionary development makes us prone to pathophysiological problems. While those problems related to respiration and macrohemodynamics have already been successfully addressed by modern medicine, the pathophysiology of the microcirculation is still often a closed book in daily practice...
October 21, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
M Satheesh Kumar, Ayush Lohiya, Viviktha Ramesh, Priyamadhaba Behera, Sarika Palepu, S A Rizwan
OBJECTIVES: To compare pulse oximetry and Ankle-Brachial Index (ABI) with duplex ultrasonography as reference standard to determine the diagnostic accuracy for screening asymptomatic PVD in type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 at tertiary hospital in Madurai among diabetic patients attending the medicine outpatient department (OPD). Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients, asymptomatic with regards to symptoms and signs of PVD, aged above 40 years were included...
August 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Sherry M Bumpus, Christa Kuck, Steven T Heidt, Minnie Bluhm
Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a vascular disorder about which little has been known until recently. Patients with FMD may suffer from hypertension, aneurysms, or strokes, as well as symptoms associated with local artery damage. As a result of advances in vascular medicine and growing outcomes registries, we now have a better understanding of the FMD disease process and epidemiology. Nevertheless, the consequences of FMD on patients' day-to-day experiences and mental health status are not well understood...
October 6, 2016: Vascular Medicine
Rosemary Townsend, Asma Khalil
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Selective intrauterine growth restriction (sIUGR) in twin pregnancies presents a complex management problem for the fetal medicine specialist. This review summarizes what is currently known about sIUGR pathophysiology, particularly in monochorionic pregnancies and looks at the results of early trials of fetal intervention in high-risk sIUGR pregnancies. RECENT FINDINGS: sIUGR in monochorionic pregnancies is due to unequal placental sharing, but the clinical outcome is determined by the characteristics of the placental vascular anastomoses...
October 15, 2016: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Francesco Spannella, Federico Giulietti, Silvia Buscarini, Piero Giordano, Maddalena Ricci, Emma Espinosa, Riccardo Sarzani
OBJECTIVE: Age is considered one of the main risk factors for cardiovascular (CV) disease and aging seems to play a central role in the onset and progression of atherosclerosis. AIM: to compare the prevalence of carotid plaque in a very elderly population without history of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), with the prevalence in a population of hypertensive adults. DESIGN AND METHOD: We studied 179 patients: 69 hospitalized very elderly (mean age: 88...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Madhumita Chatterjee, Meinrad Gawaz
Platelet membrane bedecked with a wide array of receptors offers a platform to regulate platelet responsiveness, thrombotic propensity, inflammatory disposition, and immune reactivity under diverse pathophysiological conditions. Ectopic proteolytic cleavage of such receptors irreversibly inactivates receptor-mediated intracellular signaling governing cellular functions, further releases soluble fragments into circulation which might modulate functions of target cells. Glycoprotein VI-(GPVI) is a membrane glycoprotein expressed in platelets and megakaryocytes...
October 18, 2016: Platelets
T Chen, Z-P Guo, L-X Fu, N Cao, S Qin
BACKGROUND: Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine, which is closely associated with the pathogenesis of various types of cutaneous vasculitis (CV). AIM: To investigate the therapeutic effects of an anti-TWEAK monoclonal antibody (mAb) in a mouse model of cutaneous reverse passive Arthus (RPA) reaction. METHODS: Cutaneous RPA reaction was induced in BALB/c mice by intradermal injection of anti-ovalbumin IgG into the left ear followed immediately by intravenous injection of chicken ovalbumin...
October 18, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
Xie Ge, Si-Yu Chen, Mei Liu, Ting-Ming Liang, Chang Liu
Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation is a key event in the development of in‑stent restenosis. Evodiamine is an indole alkaloid extracted from the Chinese medicine, evodia, and has been shown to inhibit tumor cell proliferation and protect the cardiovascular system. However, whether evodiamine affects VSMC proliferation remains to be elucidated. Therefore, the present study examined the effects and the mechanisms of action of evodiamine on the proliferation of rat VSMCs. The cells were treated with evodiamine alone or in combination with platelet‑derived growth factor‑BB (PDGF‑BB) stimulation...
October 5, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Christoph F Dietrich, Rudolf Horn, Susanne Morf, Liliana Chiorean, Yi Dong, Xin-Wu Cui, Nathan S S Atkinson, Christian Jenssen
Central venous access has traditionally been performed on the basis of designated anatomical landmarks. However, due to patients' individual anatomy and vessel pathology and depending on individual operators' skill, this landmark approach is associated with a significant failure rate and complication risk. There is substantial evidence demonstrating significant improvement in effectiveness and safety of vascular access by realtime ultrasound (US)-guidance, as compared to the anatomical landmark-guided approach...
September 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Lori A Stolz, Uwe Stolz, J Matthew Fields, Turandot Saul, Michael Secko, Matthew J Flannigan, Johnathan M Sheele, Robert P Rifenburg, Anthony J Weekes, Elaine B Josephson, John Bedolla, Dana M Resop, Jonathan Dela Cruz, Megan Boysen-Osborn, Terrell Caffery, Charlotte Derr, Rimon Bengiamin, Gerardo Chiricolo, Brandon Backlund, Jagdipak Heer, Robert J Hyde, Srikar Adhikari
OBJECTIVES: Emergency ultrasound (EUS) has been recognized as integral to the training and practice of emergency medicine (EM). The Council of Emergency Medicine Residency-Academy of Emergency Ultrasound (CORD-AEUS) consensus document provides guidelines for resident assessment and progression. The Accredited Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) has adopted the EM Milestones for assessment of residents' progress during their residency training which includes demonstration of procedural competency in bedside ultrasound...
October 14, 2016: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
John Patrick McQuilling, Emmanuel C Opara
A major obstacle to long-term performance of tissue construct implants in regenerative medicine is the inherent hypoxia to which cells in the engineered construct are exposed prior to vascularization of the implant. Various approaches are currently being designed to address this problem. An emerging area of interest on this issue is the use of peroxide-based materials to generate oxygen during the critical period of extended hypoxia that occurs from the time cells are in culture waiting to be used in tissue engineering devices through the immediate post-implant period...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Yong Wang, Ting-Ting Ma, Na-Na Gao, Xiao-Ling Zhou, Jiang Hong, Rui Guo, Li-Na Jia, Hong Chang, Ying Gao, Zhi-Min Gao, Lei Pan
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Tongxinluo (TXL),which is a Chinese medicine rooted from traditional used herbs, has been used in clinic to treat cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. However, it remains unknown whether TXL alleviates low pressure hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. AIM OF THE STUDY: Here, we aimed to observe the influence of TXL on pulmonary hypertension in a rat model that exposed to high altitude environment characterized by low pressure hypoxia...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Sana Saif Ur Rehman, Suresh S Ramalingam
Advanced stage nonsmall cell lung cancer had been treated mainly with platinum-based doublet chemotherapy, and other cytotoxic agents that offered significant survival advantage over best supportive care, until recently. Modest improvements were achieved with the addition of antibodies targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor, and the introduction of maintenance chemotherapy. Improvements in our knowledge of lung cancer biology have shifted the current treatment paradigm from being based on histology to one based on molecular biomarkers...
October 2016: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Manishekhar Kumar, Jeannine M Coburn, David L Kaplan, Biman B Mandal
Macrophages, the key players in immunoregulation, are actively involved in tissue remodelling and vascularization. Recent advances in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine illustrate the importance of 'immuno-informed' biomaterials to regulate the microenvironment of biomedical implants. In the current study, silk-based 3D hydrogels were utilized to regulate cytokine delivery for macrophage, a type of immune cell, differentiation and polarization. Three different hydrogel variants, silk-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) (SP), silk-horseradish peroxidase (HRP) (SH) and silk-sonicated (SS) hydrogels were studied...
October 11, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Quan-Yong Yi, Gang Deng, Nan Chen, Zhi-Sha Bai, Jian-Shu Yuan, Guo-Hai Wu, Yu-Wen Wang, Shan-Jun Wu
Previous studies have shown that metformin, an AMP-activated protein kinase activator widely prescribed for type 2 diabetes, is especially beneficial in cases of diabetic retinopathy (DR) with undetermined mechanisms. Here, we used a streptozotocin-induced diabetes model in mice to study the effects of metformin on the development of DR. We found that 10 weeks after STZ treatment, DR was induced in STZ-treated mice, regardless treatment of metformin. However, metformin alleviated the DR, seemingly through attenuating the retina neovascularization...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
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