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Amphetamine typed stimulants

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902448/rasgrp1-promotes-amphetamine-induced-motor-behavior-through-a-rhes-interaction-network-rhesactome-in-the-striatum
#1
Neelam Shahani, Supriya Swarnkar, Vincenzo Giovinazzo, Jenny Morgenweck, Laura M Bohn, Catherina Scharager-Tapia, Bruce Pascal, Pablo Martinez-Acedo, Kshitij Khare, Srinivasa Subramaniam
The striatum of the brain coordinates motor function. Dopamine-related drugs may be therapeutic to patients with striatal neurodegeneration, such as Huntington's disease (HD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), but these drugs have unwanted side effects. In addition to stimulating the release of norepinephrine, amphetamines, which are used for narcolepsy and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), trigger dopamine release in the striatum. The guanosine triphosphatase Ras homolog enriched in the striatum (Rhes) inhibits dopaminergic signaling in the striatum, is implicated in HD and L-dopa-induced dyskinesia, and has a role in striatal motor control...
November 15, 2016: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865546/french-consensus-management-of-patients-with-hypersomnia-which-strategy
#2
R Lopez, I Arnulf, X Drouot, M Lecendreux, Y Dauvilliers
Central hypersomnias principally involves type 1 narcolepsy (NT1), type 2 narcolepsy (NT2) and idiopathic hypersomnia (IH). Despite great progress made in understanding the physiopathology of NT1 with low cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 levels, current treatment remains symptomatic. The same applies to NT2 and IH, for which the physiopathology is still largely unknown. Controlling excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations, sleep paralysis and disturbed night-time sleep are key therapeutic targets in NT1...
November 16, 2016: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823935/glucose-enhances-rat-islet-function-via-stimulating-cart-expression
#3
Wan Xu, Yuqing Zhang, Mengyao Bai, Feiye Zhou, Ruyuan Deng, Xueying Ji, Juan Zhang, Yun Liu, Libin Zhou, Xiao Wang
Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is an anorexigenic peptide widely expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, as well as in endocrine cells. CART is markedly upregulated in the β-cells of several rodent models of type-2 diabetes. The stimulatory effect of exogenous CART peptide on insulin secretion is cAMP dependent. Glucose is the most important regulator of islet function. However, the role of CART in glucose-potentiated insulin secretion remains unclear. Here, our results showed that glucose time- and dose-dependently elicited CART mRNA expression in rat islets...
December 2, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823666/modifier-assisted-differential-mobility-tandem-mass-spectrometry-method-for-detection-and-quantification-of-amphetamine-type-stimulants-in-urine
#4
Pai-Shan Chen, Shu-Hua Chen, Jung-Hsuan Chen, Wan-Yun Haung, Hsin-Tung Liu, Po-Hsin Kong, Olivia Hsu-Yuan Yang
An advantage of differential mobility spectrometry (DMS) is it provides an orthogonal mechanism to mass spectrometry (MS). The DMS-MS/MS detects analytes in the gas phase on the basis of differences in ion mobility in low and high electric fields, which makes DMS-MS/MS an alternative to chromatographic separation-MS. One drawback of DMS is its limited resolution and sensitivity, especially for detecting small molecules when using a nonpolar inert gas as the carrier gas. The present work has evaluated the effects on peak capacity of adding chemical modifiers to inert carrier gases (nitrogen, helium, argon and carbon dioxide)...
November 23, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789102/nps-and-the-methadone-queue-spillages-of-space-and-time
#5
Liviu Alexandrescu
BACKGROUND: Between 2008 and 2013, powder-stimulants sold by 'head shops' as novel psychoactive substances (NPS) or 'legal highs' have displaced heroin among groups of injecting substance users in Bucharest, Romania. Rising HIV-infection rates and other medical or social harms have been reported to follow this trend. METHODS: The study builds on two sets of original (N=30) and existing (N=20) interview data and on observations collected mainly at the site of a methadone substitution treatment facility...
October 24, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775894/a-book-type-dried-plasma-spot-card-for-automated-flow-through-elution-coupled-with-on-line-spe-lc-ms-ms-bioanalysis-of-opioids-and-stimulants-in-blood
#6
Imelda Ryona, Jack Henion
Despite many benefits including simple point-of-care sample collection, reduced costs, and simplified shipping and storage, dried blood spot (DBS) techniques have faced adoption resistance such as the hematocrit (Hct) effects and the established preference for bioanalysis of plasma rather than whole blood. One way to potentially circumvent these challenges is to adopt the concept of a dried plasma spot (DPS) technique. One approach to accomplishing this is through an on-card red blood cell (RBC) filtration to generate plasma from whole blood without the need for centrifugation...
October 24, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663745/exposure-to-amphetamines-leads-to-development-of-amphetamine%C3%A2-type-stimulants%C3%A2-associated-cardiomyopathy-atsac
#7
Mahsa Jafari Giv
With rapidly rising prevalence of exposure to Amphetamine Type Stimulants (ATS), novel insights into cardiotoxic effects of this substance are being presented in the literature and remarkably ATS Associated Cardiomyopathy (ATSAC) is emerging as a novel cardiovascular condition with its distinctive pathogenesis, risk factors, clinical features and prognosis. A comprehensive systematic review was performed to explore and analyze the current evidence on the association between ATS exposure and development of cardiomyopathy, biological mechanisms involved in pathogenesis of ATSAC, risk factors, clinical features and course of patients with ATSAC...
September 24, 2016: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637620/drug-induced-tactile-hallucinations-beyond-recreational-drugs
#8
REVIEW
Mio Nakamura, John Koo
In monosymptomatic hypochondriacal psychosis (MHP), such as delusional infestation (DI), the patient has a fixed, false, encapsulated belief associated with tactile hallucinations (TH), most commonly formication, which is defined as cutaneous sensations of crawling, stinging, biting, etc., without evidence of infestation. Drug-induced TH should be considered in patients with suspected MHP. Although recreational drugs such as cocaine, amphetamines, and narcotics are well known to induce TH, many busy practicing dermatologists may not be familiar with other types of medications that can induce TH...
December 2016: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614130/central-inhibitory-effects-on-feeding-induced-by-the-adipo-myokine-irisin
#9
Claudio Ferrante, Giustino Orlando, Lucia Recinella, Sheila Leone, Annalisa Chiavaroli, Chiara Di Nisio, Rugia Shohreh, Fabio Manippa, Adriana Ricciuti, Michele Vacca, Luigi Brunetti
Irisin, the soluble secreted form of fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5)-cleaved product, is a recently identified adipo-myokine that has been indicated as a possible link between physical exercise and energetic homeostasis. The co-localization of irisin with neuropeptide Y in hypothalamic sections of paraventricular nucleus, which receives NPY/AgRP projections from the arcuate nucleus, suggests a possible role of irisin in the central regulation of energy balance. In this context, in the present work we studied the effects of intra-hypothalamic irisin (1μl, 50-200nmol/l) administration on feeding and orexigenic [agouti-related peptide (AgRP), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and orexin-A] and anorexigenic [cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC)] peptides in male Sprague-Dawley rats...
September 8, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27549768/management-of-narcolepsy
#10
REVIEW
Lucie Barateau, Régis Lopez, Yves Dauvilliers
Narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) and type 2 (NT2) are two rare neurological diseases, classified as central disorders of hypersomnolence. The pathophysiology of NT1 is well known; it is caused by the selective destruction of hypocretin (Hcrt) neurons, by a highly suspected autoimmune process. On the contrary, little is known about NT2 etiology, sharing with NT1 somnolence and signs of dysregulation of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, but not cataplexy. Management strategies are rather codified, at least in adults, with a lifelong treatment required in NT1, whereas no pharmacological study focused only on NT2 patients, with sometimes spontaneous improvement or disappearance of their symptoms...
October 2016: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27484319/promoting-global-health-prevention-and-treatment-of-substance-abuse-and-hiv-in-asia
#11
Ming D Li, Yih-Ing Hser, Zhiwei Chen, Linda Chang
This special issue contains 20 papers including 3 Perspectives, 1 Brief Report, 6 Invited Reviews, and 10 Original Articles, which highlight the work by presenters at the second meeting of the biennial Conference Series to Promote Global Health held on April 22-24, 2015 in Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China. These papers focused on the prevalent substance misuse of amphetamine-type-stimulants and opioids, and the increasing prevalence of HIV-infection in Asian countries. The Conference Series is sponsored by the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the U...
September 2016: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27421727/cocaine-and-amphetamine-regulated-transcript-a-novel-regulator-of-energy-homeostasis-expressed-in-a-subpopulation-of-pancreatic-islet-cells
#12
EDITORIAL
Patrick Gilon
Type 2 diabetes is characterised by chronic hyperglycaemia and its incidence is highly increased by exaggerated food consumption. It results from a lack of insulin action/production, but growing evidence suggests that it might also involve hyperglucagonaemia and impaired control of glucose homeostasis by the brain. In recent years, the cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptides have generated a lot of interest in the battle against obesity because, via the brain, they exert anorexic effects and they increase energy expenditure...
September 2016: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27405364/elisa-detection-of-30-new-amphetamine-designer-drugs-in-whole-blood-urine-and-oral-fluid-using-neogen%C3%A2-amphetamine-and-methamphetamine-mdma-kits
#13
Maria Nieddu, Lucia Burrai, Elena Baralla, Valeria Pasciu, Maria Vittoria Varoni, Irene Briguglio, Maria Piera Demontis, Gianpiero Boatto
Amphetamine designer drugs are central nervous system stimulants that are widely disseminated in the illegal market. Generally, in forensic laboratories, immunoassay methods are the first line of screening for these types of drugs in a biological specimen (typically blood, urine or oral fluid). In this article, we describe the cross-reactivity profiles of 30 new amphetamine designer drugs, using the Neogen(®) [Amphetamine Specific and Methamphetamine/3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) assays] drug tests...
September 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27367616/predicting-hydration-free-energies-of-amphetamine-type-stimulants-with-a-customized-molecular-model
#14
Jipeng Li, Jia Fu, Xing Huang, Diannan Lu, Jianzhong Wu
Amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) are a group of incitation and psychedelic drugs affecting the central nervous system. Physicochemical data for these compounds are essential for understanding the stimulating mechanism, for assessing their environmental impacts, and for developing new drug detection methods. However, experimental data are scarce due to tight regulation of such illicit drugs, yet conventional methods to estimate their properties are often unreliable. Here we introduce a tailor-made multiscale procedure for predicting the hydration free energies and the solvation structures of ATS molecules by a combination of first principles calculations and the classical density functional theory...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27358529/cardiovascular-complications-among-individuals-with-amphetamine-positive-urine-drug-screening-admitted-to-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-riyadh
#15
Mohammad Alghamdi, Bader Alqahtani, Sultan Alhowti
BACKGROUND: Amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) are the most commonly used illicit drugs in Saudi Arabia. Frequency and outcome of ATS-related cardiovascular (CV) complications in the Saudi community have not been previously studied. AIM: We aimed to determine the incidence and the clinical outcomes of CV complications among individuals with amphetamine-positive urine drug screening (APUDS) tests admitted to a tertiary care facility in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: Retrospective review of consecutive cases with APUDS and concurrently positive cardiac biomarkers admitted to King Abdul-Aziz Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between January 2006 and December 2013...
July 2016: Journal of the Saudi Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27251771/profiles-and-changes-in-stimulant-use-in-belgium-in-the-period-of-2011-2015
#16
Frederic Been, Foon Yin Lai, Juliet Kinyua, Adrian Covaci, Alexander L N van Nuijs
Adapting illicit drug policy strategies requires detailed knowledge on types and amounts of substances consumed by the target population. In this study, we applied wastewater-based epidemiology to detect spatio-temporal changes in the relative amounts of stimulants (amphetamine, methamphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), cocaine) used in seven locations in Belgium over 2011-2015. Clear geographical differences were observed with stimulant users in large cities (Antwerp, Brussels) showing a preference for cocaine, while amphetamine use was most abundant in smaller cities (Geraardsbergen, Koksijde, Lier, Ninove, Ostend)...
September 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27232972/wastewater-based-assessment-of-regional-and-temporal-consumption-patterns-of-illicit-drugs-and-therapeutic-opioids-in-croatia
#17
Ivona Krizman, Ivan Senta, Marijan Ahel, Senka Terzic
A comprehensive study of spatial and temporal consumption patterns of the selected illicit drugs (heroin, cocaine, amphetamine, MDMA, methamphetamine, cannabis) and therapeutic opioids (codeine, methadone) has been performed in six Croatian cities by applying wastewater-based epidemiology. The investigated cities (Bjelovar, Vinkovci, Varazdin, Karlovac, Zadar and Zagreb) varied widely in the population size (27,000-688,000 inhabitants) as well as in the number of registered drug consumers included in compulsory and voluntary medical treatment and rehabilitation programs (30-513 persons/100,000 inhabitants of age 15-64)...
October 1, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27224011/emerging-drug-use-trends-in-kelantan-malaysia
#18
Alethea Desrosiers, Weng-Tink Chooi, Norzarina Mohd Zaharim, Imran Ahmad, Mohd Azhar Mohd Yasin, Sharifah Z Syed Jaapar, Richard S Schottenfeld, Balasingam Vicknasingam, Marek C Chawarski
The primarily rural and agrarian Kelantan province of Malaysia has high rates of drug use and is characterized by unique sociocultural factors. Combining qualitative and ethnographic methods, we investigated drug use and treatment needs of people who use drugs (PWUD) in rural areas of Kelantan. In February 2014, field visits, participant observation, and focus group discussions (FGDs) with 27 active PWUD were conducted in rural areas surrounding the capital city of Kelantan. The findings indicate a high prevalence of opiate and amphetamine type stimulants (ATS) use in these areas...
July 2016: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27211290/beneficial-effects-of-tai-chi-for-amphetamine-type-stimulant-dependence-a-pilot-study
#19
Dong Zhu, Ding Xu, Guobin Dai, Fei Wang, Xin Xu, Daoxin Zhou
BACKGROUND: Tai Chi is a traditional Chinese sport that is classified as a moderate exercise. Recent studies have evaluated the effectiveness of Tai Chi in substance abuse rehabilitation. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the quality of life and physical effects of a Tai Chi intervention on individuals with amphetamine-type stimulant (stimulant) dependence. METHODS: Sixty male subjects with stimulant dependence from a Shanghai Mandatory Detoxification and Rehabilitation Center participated in a 12-week trial...
July 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27186357/long-acting-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonists-have-direct-access-to-and-effects-on-pro-opiomelanocortin-cocaine-and-amphetamine-stimulated-transcript-neurons-in-the-mouse-hypothalamus
#20
REVIEW
Lotte Bjerre Knudsen, Anna Secher, Jacob Hecksher-Sørensen, Charles Pyke
Liraglutide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist marketed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Besides lowering blood glucose, liraglutide reduces bodyweight, and has recently also been approved for the obesity indication. Acutely, GLP-1 markedly reduces gastric emptying, and this effect was previously believed to at least partly explain the effect on bodyweight loss. However, recent studies in both humans and animals have shown that GLP-1R agonists, such as liraglutide, that lead to pharmacological concentrations for 24 h/day only have a minor effect on gastric emptying; such an effect is unlikely to have lasting effects on appetite reduction...
April 2016: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
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