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Amphetamine typed stimulants

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896656/wastewater-analysis-for-community-wide-drugs-use-assessment
#1
Christoph Ort, Lubertus Bijlsma, Sara Castiglioni, Adrian Covaci, Pim de Voogt, Erik Emke, Félix Hernández, Malcolm Reid, Alexander L N van Nuijs, Kevin V Thomas, Barbara Kasprzyk-Hordern
Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) complements existing epidemiology-based estimation techniques and provides objective, evidence-based estimates of illicit drug use. After consumption, biomarkers - drugs and their metabolites - excreted to toilets and flushed into urban sewer networks can be measured in raw wastewater samples. The quantified loads can serve as an estimate for the collective consumption of all people contributing to the wastewater sample. This transdisciplinary approach, further explained in this chapter, has developed, matured and is now established for monitoring substances such as cocaine and amphetamine-type stimulants...
June 13, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777946/screening-method-for-rapid-classification-of-psychoactive-substances-in-illicit-tablets-using-mid-infrared-spectroscopy-and-pls-da
#2
Leandro S A Pereira, Fernanda L C Lisboa, José Coelho Neto, Frederico N Valladão, Marcelo M Sena
Several new psychoactive substances (NPS) have reached the illegal drug market in recent years, and ecstasy-like tablets are one of the forms affected by this change. Cathinones and tryptamines have increasingly been found in ecstasy-like seized samples as well as other amphetamine type stimulants. A presumptive method for identifying different drugs in seized ecstasy tablets (n=92) using ATR-FTIR (attenuated total reflectance - Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) and PLS-DA (partial least squares discriminant analysis) was developed...
May 9, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760666/candyflipping-and-other-combinations-identifying-drug-drug-combinations-from-an-online-forum
#3
Michael Chary, David Yi, Alex F Manini
Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) refer to synthetic compounds or derivatives of more widely known substances of abuse that have emerged over the last two decades. Case reports suggest that users combine substances to achieve desired psychotropic experiences while reducing dysphoria and unpleasant somatic effects. However, the pattern of combining NPS has not been studied on a large scale. Here, we show that posts discussing NPS describe combining nootropics with sedative-hypnotics and stimulants with plant hallucinogens or psychiatric medications...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709847/big-data-on-a-big-new-market-insights-from-washington-state-s-legal-cannabis-market
#4
Jonathan P Caulkins, Yilun Bao, Steve Davenport, Imane Fahli, Yutian Guo, Krista Kinnard, Mary Najewicz, Lauren Renaud, Beau Kilmer
INTRODUCTION: Voters in eight U.S. states have passed initiatives to legalize large-scale commercial production of cannabis for non-medical use. All plan or require some form of "seed-to-sale" tracking systems, which provide a view of cannabis market activity at a heretofore unimagined level of detail. Legal markets also create a range of new matters for policy makers to address. DATA: Publicly available data were obtained on approximately 45 million individually priced items purchased in the 35 million retail transactions that took place during the first two and a half years of Washington State's legal cannabis market...
July 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703999/amphetamine-maintenance-differentially-modulates-effects-of-cocaine-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-mdpv-and-methamphetamine-on-intracranial-self-stimulation-and-nucleus-accumbens-dopamine-in-rats
#5
Amy R Johnson, Matthew L Banks, Dana E Selley, S Stevens Negus
Amphetamine maintenance is effective clinically to reduce the consumption of the monoamine uptake inhibitor cocaine but not of the monoamine releaser methamphetamine, and its effectiveness in treating the abuse of other psychostimulants is not known. The mechanisms for differential amphetamine-maintenance effectiveness to treat different types of psychostimulant abuse are also not known. Accordingly, the present study compared the effects of amphetamine maintenance on abuse-related behavioral and neurochemical effects of cocaine, methamphetamine, and the "bath salts" constituent 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) in rats...
July 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642565/polyacrylonitrile-nanofiber-based-quartz-crystal-microbalance-for-sensitive-detection-of-safrole
#6
Aditya Rianjanu, Roto Roto, Trisna Julian, Shidiq Nur Hidayat, Ahmad Kusumaatmaja, Eko Agus Suyono, Kuwat Triyana
Safrole is the main precursor for producing the amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) drug, N -methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDMA), also known as ecstasy. We devise a polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofiber-based quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) for detecting safrole. The PAN nanofibers were fabricated by direct electrospinning to modify the QCM chips. The PAN nanofiber on the QCM chips has a diameter of 240 ± 10 nm. The sensing of safrole by QCM modified with PAN nanofiber shows good reversibility and an apparent sensitivity of 4...
April 10, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609152/experiences-of-police-contact-among-young-adult-recreational-drug-users-a-qualitative-study
#7
Ellen M Leslie, Adrian Cherney, Andrew Smirnov, Robert Kemp, Jake M Najman
BACKGROUND: While young adults who engage in recreational drug use are at increased risk of contact with police, their experiences of police contact have been largely overlooked. METHOD: In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 70 young adult amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS; i.e., ecstasy [MDMA] and methamphetamine) users who had experienced intensive alcohol and other drug-related police contact (e.g., being arrested, charged, or raided by police). These interviews focused on perceptions of personal experiences of alcohol and other drug-related police contact and general perceptions of police and policing and were conducted as part of a larger longitudinal study of drug use among a population-based sample of young adults from South-East Queensland, Australia...
March 30, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573648/atomoxetine-for-amphetamine-type-stimulant-dependence-during-buprenorphine-treatment-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Richard S Schottenfeld, Marek C Chawarski, Mehmet Sofuoglu, Weng-Tink Chooi, Norzarina M Zaharim, M Azhar M Yasin, Imran Ahmad, Sharifah Zubaidiah Syed Jaapar, B Kasinather Vicknasingam
BACKGROUND: Amphetamine type stimulants (ATS) use is highly prevalent and frequently co-occurs with opioid dependence in Malaysia and Asian countries. No medications have established efficacy for treating ATS use disorder. This study evaluated the safety, tolerability, and potential efficacy of atomoxetine for treating ATS use disorder. METHODS: Participants with opioid and ATS dependence (N = 69) were enrolled in a pilot, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial; all received buprenorphine/naloxone and behavioral counseling and were randomized to atomoxetine 80 mg daily (n = 33) or placebo (n = 33)...
May 1, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554274/dibutylone-bk-dmbdb-intoxications-quantitative-confirmations-and-metabolism-in-authentic-biological-specimens
#9
Alex J Krotulski, Amanda L A Mohr, Donna M Papsun, Barry K Logan
The number of emerging novel stimulants modified based on beta-keto variations of amphetamine-like substances continues to rise. Dibutylone reports described in the medical and toxicological literature are limited, therefore little information is available in terms of quantitative confirmation or metabolism. During this study, authentic human specimens, including blood, urine, vitreous humor, oral fluid and liver were quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed for the presence of dibutylone and butylone, with paired case history and demographic information...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533079/ice-in-the-outback-the-epidemiology-of-amphetamine-type-stimulant-related-hospital-admissions-and-presentations-to-the-emergency-department-in-hedland-western-australia
#10
Caitriona Monahan, Mathew Coleman
OBJECTIVES: Despite research showing higher use of amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) in rural areas, limited research has examined the epidemiology of ATS-related presentations and admissions to remote regional centres. To determine the epidemiology of ATS-related (a) Emergency Department (ED) presentations and (b) inpatient admissions over a five-year period at the Hedland Health Campus (HHC) in remote Western Australia. METHODS: A retrospective review of medical records was conducted...
March 1, 2018: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503826/predictive-factors-of-mortality-in-acute-amphetamine-type-stimulants-poisoning-a-review-of-226-cases
#11
Mitra Rahimi, Somaieh Lookzadeh, Roxana Sadeghi, Kambiz Soltaninejad, Shahin Shadnia, Abdolkarim Pajoumand, Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam, Nasim Zamani, Masoud Latifi-Pour
Introduction: Amphetamine type stimulants (ATS) such as amphetamine and methamphetamine (MA) are one of the most important causes of poisoning in the world. In this study we aimed to define the predictive factors of mortality in acute ATS poisoning patients. Methods: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study on all cases with acute ATS poisoning who were referred to a referral center for poisoning, Tehran, Iran, from April 2011 to March 2014. Using patients' medical records, demographic data, route of exposure, type and amount of ATS, the cause of poisoning, clinical presentations, and electrocardiogram (ECG) and laboratory findings, as well as patient's outcomes were collected and analyzed regarding the independent predictive factors of mortality...
2018: Emergency (Tehran, Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501195/supras-extraction-approach-for-matrix-independent-determination-of-amphetamine-type-stimulants-by-lc-ms-ms
#12
Francesca Accioni, Diego García-Gómez, Eloy Girela, Soledad Rubio
Monitoring of amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) confronts clinical labs with a high number of samples involving a variety of biological matrices. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), routinely used for confirmation of ATS abuse, requires of laborious and matrix-dependent sample treatment methods, this increasing analysis time and cost. In this work, a universal and single-step sample treatment, based on supramolecular solvents (SUPRAS), was proposed for simplifying ATS confirmation in seven biological matrices...
May 15, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487040/feasibility-of-a-mobile-phone-app-to-support-recovery-from-addiction-in-china-secondary-analysis-of-a-pilot-study
#13
Hui Han, Jing Ying Zhang, Yih-Ing Hser, Di Liang, Xu Li, Shan Shan Wang, Jiang Du, Min Zhao
BACKGROUND: Mobile health technologies have been found to improve the self-management of chronic diseases. However, there is limited research regarding their feasibility in supporting recovery from substance use disorders (SUDs) in China. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility of a mobile phone-based ecological momentary assessment (EMA) app by testing the concordance of drug use assessed by the EMA, urine testing, and a life experience timeline (LET) assessment...
February 27, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29481765/a-randomised-controlled-trial-of-a-brief-intervention-for-illicit-drug-use-linked-to-assist-screening-in-a-primary-healthcare-setting-results-from-the-australian-component-of-the-world-health-organization-phase-iii-assist-studies
#14
Rachel Humeniuk, David A L Newcombe, Victoria Dennington, Robert Ali
This report presents the findings from the Australian component of the Phase III World Health Organization (WHO) Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) randomised controlled trial investigating the effectiveness of a 5-10-min brief intervention (BI) for illicit drug use delivered in primary healthcare (PHC) settings. Participants (n=171) recruited from a South Australian PHC setting (sexual health clinic) who scored in the 'moderate risk' range on the ASSIST were randomly allocated to an intervention group or wait-list control group at baseline and were followed up 3 months later...
February 27, 2018: Australian Journal of Primary Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475104/distress-and-sleep-quality-in-young-amphetamine-type-stimulant-users-with-an-affective-or-psychotic-illness
#15
Jacob J Crouse, Rico S C Lee, Django White, Ahmed A Moustafa, Ian B Hickie, Daniel F Hermens
Misuse of amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) drugs may disrupt key neurodevelopmental processes in young people and confer protracted neurocognitive and psychopathological harm. ATS users with a co-occurring psychiatric illness are typically excluded from research, reducing generalisability of findings. Accordingly, we conducted a cross-sectional examination of key clinical, sleep, socio-occupational and neurocognitive measures in current, past and never users of ATS drugs who were accessing a youth mental health service (headspace) for affective- or psychotic-spectrum illnesses...
April 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465560/olanzapine-and-haloperidol-for-the-treatment-of-acute-symptoms-of-mental-disorders-induced-by-amphetamine-type-stimulants-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Xiaobin Xue, Yun Song, Xiaojie Yu, Qiang Fan, Jiyou Tang, Xu Chen
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to compare olanzapine and haloperidol efficacies in the treatment of acute psychiatric symptoms due to amphetamine-type stimulants (ATSs). METHODS: The Zelen II design method was used; 124 patients with acute mental disorders due to amphetamine were randomly divided into olanzapine group (n = 63) and haloperidol group (n = 61). Then, a 4-week open-label medical therapy was performed. Clinical Global Impression Scale Item 2 was employed to evaluate the onset time; meanwhile, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) was used at baseline and at posttreatment weeks 1, 2, and 4...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459189/detailed-investigations-into-the-akabori-momotani-reaction-for-the-synthesis-of-amphetamine-type-stimulants-part-2
#17
David Doughty, Emma Kent, Ben Painter, Paul E Pigou, Martin R Johnston
The Akabori-Momotani reaction can be used to synthesise pseudoephedrine in 50% yield from N-methylalanine and benzaldehyde. This paper investigates electronic effects of substituted benzaldehydes on the reaction to synthesise amphetamine type stimulants and identifies several new Akabori-Momotani by-products, 1-[(4-methoxybenzyl)(methyl)amino]ethanol (11c), 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3,4-dimethyl-1,3-oxazolidine (12c), 1,2,3,4-tetramethyl-5,6-di-(4-methoxyphenyl)piperazine (13c) and 1,2,4,5-tetramethyl-3,6-di-(4-methoxyphenyl)piperazine (14c)...
June 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458910/maternal-characteristics-and-pregnancy-outcomes-among-illicit-drug-using-women-in-an-urban-setting
#18
Pitchaya Homsup, Chadakarn Phaloprakarn, Siriwan Tangjitgamol, Sumonmal Manusirivithaya
OBJECTIVE: To identify characteristics and pregnancy outcomes among pregnant illicit drug users living in an urban area, and to describe trends in drug use over an 8-year period. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data on pregnant women living in the Bangkok Metropolitan Region who delivered at our institution during 2008-2015 were studied. Women with drug use (n = 197) and women without drug use (n = 787) were compared in terms of maternal characteristics and pregnancy outcomes...
February 2018: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453444/positive-regulation-of-raphe-serotonin-neurons-by-serotonin-2b-receptors
#19
Arnauld Belmer, Emily Quentin, Silvina L Diaz, Bruno P Guiard, Sebastian P Fernandez, Stéphane Doly, Sophie M Banas, Pothitos M Pitychoutis, Imane Moutkine, Aude Muzerelle, Anna Tchenio, Anne Roumier, Manuel Mameli, Luc Maroteaux
Serotonin is a neurotransmitter involved in many psychiatric diseases. In humans, a lack of 5-HT2B receptors is associated with serotonin-dependent phenotypes, including impulsivity and suicidality. A lack of 5-HT2B receptors in mice eliminates the effects of molecules that directly target serotonergic neurons including amphetamine derivative serotonin releasers, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that 5-HT2B receptors directly and positively regulate raphe serotonin neuron activity...
February 5, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429705/synthesis-of-novel-sonocatalyst-er-3-yalo-3-nb-2-o-5-and-its-application-for-sonocatalytic-degradation-of-methamphetamine-hydrochloride
#20
Chunsheng Wei, Kuiyu Yi, Guangsheng Sun, Jun Wang
The composited sonocatalyst Er3+ :YAlO3 /Nb2 O5 was prepared by ultrasonic dispersion and high temperature calcinations method. The microstructure of Er3+ :YAlO3 was prepared via sol-gel method and Nb2 O5 was prepared by hydrothermal method. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectra and photoluminescence (PL) spectra, respectively. The sonocatalytic decomposition activity of composite sonocatalyst Er3+ :YAlO3 /Nb2 O5 was investigated by using ultrasound as sound source and methamphetamine hydrochloride as the target degradation product...
April 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
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