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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249656/brain-computer-interface-with-inhibitory-neurons-reveals-subtype-specific-strategies
#1
Akinori Mitani, Mingyuan Dong, Takaki Komiyama
Brain-computer interfaces have seen an increase in popularity due to their potential for direct neuroprosthetic applications for amputees and disabled individuals. Supporting this promise, animals-including humans-can learn even arbitrary mapping between the activity of cortical neurons and movement of prosthetic devices [1-4]. However, the performance of neuroprosthetic device control has been nowhere near that of limb control in healthy individuals, presenting a dire need to improve the performance. One potential limitation is the fact that previous work has not distinguished diverse cell types in the neocortex, even though different cell types possess distinct functions in cortical computations [5-7] and likely distinct capacities to control brain-computer interfaces...
December 5, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209023/motor-cortical-activity-changes-during-neuroprosthetic-controlled-object-interaction
#2
John E Downey, Lucas Brane, Robert A Gaunt, Elizabeth C Tyler-Kabara, Michael L Boninger, Jennifer L Collinger
Brain-computer interface (BCI) controlled prosthetic arms are being developed to restore function to people with upper-limb paralysis. This work provides an opportunity to analyze human cortical activity during complex tasks. Previously we observed that BCI control became more difficult during interactions with objects, although we did not quantify the neural origins of this phenomena. Here, we investigated how motor cortical activity changed in the presence of an object independently of the kinematics that were being generated using intracortical recordings from two people with tetraplegia...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201041/decoding-of-human-movements-based-on-deep-brain-local-field-potentials-using-ensemble-neural-networks
#3
Mohammad S Islam, Khondaker A Mamun, Hai Deng
Decoding neural activities related to voluntary and involuntary movements is fundamental to understanding human brain motor circuits and neuromotor disorders and can lead to the development of neuromotor prosthetic devices for neurorehabilitation. This study explores using recorded deep brain local field potentials (LFPs) for robust movement decoding of Parkinson's disease (PD) and Dystonia patients. The LFP data from voluntary movement activities such as left and right hand index finger clicking were recorded from patients who underwent surgeries for implantation of deep brain stimulation electrodes...
2017: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198041/ethical-considerations-on-novel-neuronal-interfaces
#4
Kadircan H Keskinbora, Kader Keskinbora
Wireless powered implants, each smaller than a grain of rice, have the potential to scan and stimulate brain cells. Further research may lead to next-generation brain-machine interfaces for controlling prosthetics, exoskeletons, and robots, as well as "electroceuticals" to treat disorders of the brain and body. In conditions that can be particularly alleviated with brain stimulation, the use of such mini devices may pose certain challenges. Health professionals are becoming increasingly more accountable in decision-making processes that have impacts on the life quality of individuals...
December 2, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187808/toward-a-cognitive-neural-prosthesis-using-focused-ultrasound
#5
Matthew E Downs, Tobias Teichert, Amanda Buch, Maria E Karakatsani, Carlos Sierra, Shangshang Chen, Elisa E Konofagou, Vincent P Ferrera
Non-invasive brain stimulation using focused ultrasound has many potential applications as a research and clinical tool, including its incorporation as either an extracorporeal or implantable neural prosthetic. To this end, we investigated the effect of focused ultrasound (FUS) combined with systemically administered microbubbles on visual-motor decision-making behavior in monkeys. We applied FUS to the putamen in one hemisphere to open the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and then tested behavioral performance 3-4 h later...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185336/fluoropolymer-based-flexible-neural-prosthetic-electrodes-for-reliable-neural-interfacing
#6
Yong Hee Kim, Jongkil Park, Ho Koo, Min Sun Kim, Sang-Don Jung
We covalently bound fluoropolymer (FP) films by plasma treatment followed by thermal pressing at temperatures below their melting point, and fabricated an adhesion-metal-free flexible gold electrode array entirely encapsulated by the FP film, excepting the active electrode openings. The fabricated device was chemically resistant and was modified to have a lower impedance and efficient charge injection capability. The fabricated device was evaluated in vivo in rats and was confirmed to record the epidural epileptiform activity induced by chemical administration...
November 29, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163122/selectivity-and-longevity-of-peripheral-nerve-and-machine-interfaces-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Usman Ghafoor, Sohee Kim, Keum-Shik Hong
For those individuals with upper-extremity amputation, a daily normal living activity is no longer possible or it requires additional effort and time. With the aim of restoring their sensory and motor functions, theoretical and technological investigations have been carried out in the field of neuroprosthetic systems. For transmission of sensory feedback, several interfacing modalities including indirect (non-invasive), direct-to-peripheral-nerve (invasive), and cortical stimulation have been applied. Peripheral nerve interfaces demonstrate an edge over the cortical interfaces due to the sensitivity in attaining cortical brain signals...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125465/decoding-kinematics-using-task-independent-movement-phase-specific-encoding-models
#8
Stefan L Sumsky, Marc H Schieber, Nitish V Thakor, Sridevi V Sarma, Sabato Santaniello
Neural decoders of kinematic variables have largely relied on task-dependent (TD) encoding models of the neural activity. TD decoders, though, require prior knowledge of the tasks, which may be unavailable, lack scalability as the number of tasks grows, and require a large number of trials per task to reduce the effects of neuronal variability. The execution of movements involves a sequence of phases (e.g., idle, planning, and so on) whose progression contributes to the neuronal variability. We hypothesize that information about the movement phase facilitates the decoding of kinematics and compensates for the lack of prior knowledge about the task...
November 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122711/developmental-refinement-of-synaptic-transmission-on-micropatterned-single-layer-graphene
#9
Sandeep Keshavan, Shovan Naskar, Alberto Diaspro, Laura Cancedda, Silvia Dante
Interfacing neurons with a single atomic layer of graphene, single atomic layer of sp2 hybridized C-atoms, is a key paradigm in understanding how to exploit the unique properties of such a two-dimensional system for neural prosthetics and biosensors development. In order to fabricate graphene-based circuitry, a reliable large area patterning method is a requirement. Following a previously developed protocol, we monitored the in vitro neuronal development of geometrically ordered neural network growing onto patterned Single Layer Graphene (SLG) coated with poly-D-lysine...
November 6, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118202/bayesian-optimal-adaptation-explains-age-related-human-sensorimotor-changes
#10
Faisal Karmali, Gregory T Whitman, Richard F Lewis
The brain uses information from different sensory systems to guide motor behavior, and aging is associated with a simultaneous decline in the quality of sensory information provided to the brain and a deterioration in motor control. Correlations between age-dependent decline in sensory anatomical structures and behavior have been demonstrated, and it has recently been suggested that a Bayesian framework could explain these relationships. Here we show that age-dependent changes in a human sensorimotor reflex, the vestibulo-ocular reflex, are explained by a Bayesian optimal adaptation in the brain occurring in response to death of motion-sensing hair cells...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060417/spatiotemporal-properties-of-magnetic-fields-induced-by-auditory-speech-sound-imagery-and-perception
#11
Shihomi Uzawa, Tetsuya Takiguchi, Yasuo Ariki, Seiji Nakagawa
Brain computer interface (BCI) technologies, which enable direct communication between the brain and external devices, have been developed. BCI technology can be utilized in neural prosthetics to restore impaired movement, including speech production. However, most of the BCI systems that have been developed are the "P300-speller" type, which can only detect objects that users direct his/her attention at. To develop more versatile BCI systems that can detect a user's intention or thoughts, the brain responses associated with verbal imagery need to be clarified...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060406/the-role-of-nonmotor-brain-regions-during-human-motor-control
#12
Jacob J Johnson, Macauley S Breault, Pierre Sacre, Matthew S D Kerr, Mathew Johnson, Juan Bulacio, Jorge Gonzalez-Martinez, Sridevi V Sarma, John T Gale
Neural prostheses have generally relied on signals from cortical motor regions to control reaching movements of a robotic arm. However, little work has been done in exploring the involvement of nonmotor cortical and associative regions during motor tasks. In this study, we identify regions which may encode direction during planning and movement of a center-out motor task. Local field potentials were collected using stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) from nine epilepsy patients implanted with multiple depth electrodes for clinical purposes...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060067/a-comparative-study-of-light-and-electrically-evoked-response-of-retinal-ganglion-cells
#13
Satarupa Biswas, Debdeep Sikdar, Soumen Das, Manjunatha Mahadevappa
Understanding of the evoked neural discharges from retinal tissues is vital for designing of any retinal prosthesis. In this study, retinal ganglion cell activity to light and electrical stimulus is recorded using multielectrode arrays. For an effective epiretinal prosthetic device, the electrical stimulus through the prosthesis should be able to evoke responses similar to those of light response in normal condition. This pilot study was intended to design the experimental protocol for in-vitro retinal stimulation...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060062/safe-direct-current-stimulator-design-for-reduced-power-consumption-and-increased-reliability
#14
Gene Fridman
Current state of the art neural prosthetics, such as cochlear implants, spinal cord stimulators, and deep brain stimulators use implantable pulse generators (IPGs) to excite neural activity. Inhibition of neural firing is typically indirect and requires excitation of neurons that then have inhibitory projections downstream. Safe Direct Current Stimulator (SDCS) technology is designed to convert electronic pulses delivered to electrodes embedded within an implantable device to ionic direct current (iDC) at the output of the device...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054880/common-synaptic-input-to-motor-neurons-and-neural-drive-to-targeted-reinnervated-muscles
#15
D Farina, A M Castronovo, I Vujaklija, A Sturma, S Salminger, C Hofer, O C Aszmann
We compared the behaviour of motor neurons innervating their physiological muscle targets with motor neurons from the same spinal segment whose axons were surgically redirected to remnant muscles (targeted muscle reinnervation). The objective was to assess whether motor neurons with non-physiological innervation receive similar synaptic input and could be voluntary controlled as motor neurons with natural innervation. For this purpose, we acquired high-density EMG signals from the biceps brachii in 5 male trans-humeral amputees who underwent targeted reinnervation of this muscle by the ulnar nerve and from the first dorsal interosseous muscle of 5 healthy individuals to investigate the natural innervation of the ulnar nerve...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044049/acute-in-vivo-testing-of-a-conformal-polymer-microelectrode-array-for-multi-region-hippocampal-recordings
#16
Huijing Xu, Ahuva Weltman Hirschberg, Kee Scholten, Ted W Berger, Dong Song, Ellis Meng
OBJECTIVE: The success of a cortical prosthetic device relies upon its ability to attain resolvable spikes from many neurons in particular neural networks over long periods of time. Traditionally, lifetimes of neural recordings are greatly limited by the body's immune response against the foreign implant which causes neuronal death and glial scarring. This immune reaction is posited to be exacerbated by micromotion between the implant, which is often rigid, and the surrounding, soft brain tissue and attenuates the quality of recordings over time...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979183/nanowire-fet-based-neural-element-for-robotic-tactile-sensing-skin
#17
William Taube Navaraj, Carlos García Núñez, Dhayalan Shakthivel, Vincenzo Vinciguerra, Fabrice Labeau, Duncan H Gregory, Ravinder Dahiya
This paper presents novel Neural Nanowire Field Effect Transistors (υ-NWFETs) based hardware-implementable neural network (HNN) approach for tactile data processing in electronic skin (e-skin). The viability of Si nanowires (NWs) as the active material for υ-NWFETs in HNN is explored through modeling and demonstrated by fabricating the first device. Using υ-NWFETs to realize HNNs is an interesting approach as by printing NWs on large area flexible substrates it will be possible to develop a bendable tactile skin with distributed neural elements (for local data processing, as in biological skin) in the backplane...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926593/target-directed-motor-imagery-of-the-lower-limb-enhances-event-related-desynchronization
#18
Kosuke Kitahara, Yoshikatsu Hayashi, Shiro Yano, Toshiyuki Kondo
Event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/S) is an electroencephalogram (EEG) feature widely used as control signals for Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs). Nevertheless, the underlying neural mechanisms and functions of ERD/S are largely unknown, thus investigating them is crucial to improve the reliability of ERD/S-based BCIs. This study aimed to identify Motor Imagery (MI) conditions that enhance ERD/S. We investigated following three questions: 1) whether target-directed MI affects ERD/S, 2) whether MI with sound imagery affects ERD/S, and 3) whether ERD/S has a body part dependency of MI...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880183/gaussian-process-autoregression-for-simultaneous-proportional-multi-modal-prosthetic-control-with-natural-hand-kinematics
#19
Michele Xiloyannis, Constantinos Gavriel, Andreas A C Thomik, A Aldo Faisal
Matching the dexterity, versatility and robustness of the human hand is still an unachieved goal in bionics, robotics and neural engineering. A major limitation for hand prosthetics lies in the challenges of reliably decoding user intention from muscle signals when controlling complex robotic hands. Most of the commercially available prosthetic hands use musclerelated signals to decode a finite number of predefined motions and some offer proportional control of open/close movements of the whole hand. Here, in contrast, we aim to offer users flexible control of individual joints of their artificial hand...
August 31, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877508/the-no-heme-signaling-hypothesis
#20
Andrei L Kleschyov
While the biological role of nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) is appreciated, several fundamental aspects of the NOS/NO-related signaling pathway(s) remain incompletely understood. Canonically, the NOS-derived NO diffuses through the (inter)cellular milieu to bind the prosthetic ferro(Fe(2+))-heme group of the soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC). The formation of ternary NO-ferroheme-sGC complex results in the enzyme activation and accelerated production of the second messenger, cyclic GMP. This paper argues that cells dynamically generate mobile/exchangeable NO-ferroheme species, which activate sGC and regulate the function of some other biomolecules...
September 3, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
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