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Neural prosthetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227807/ecog-data-analyses-to-inform-closed-loop-bci-experiments-for-speech-based-prosthetic-applications
#1
Tejaswy Pailla, Werner Jiang, Benjamin Dichter, Edward F Chang, Vikash Gilja, Tejaswy Pailla, Werner Jiang, Benjamin Dichter, Edward F Chang, Vikash Gilja, Vikash Gilja, Werner Jiang, Tejaswy Pailla, Benjamin Dichter, Edward F Chang
Brain Computer Interfaces (BCIs) assist individuals with motor disabilities by enabling them to control prosthetic devices with their neural activity. Performance of closed-loop BCI systems can be improved by using design strategies that leverage structured and task-relevant neural activity. We use data from high density electrocorticography (ECoG) grids implanted in three subjects to study sensory-motor activity during an instructed speech task in which the subjects vocalized three cardinal vowel phonemes...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227738/tuning-electrical-stimulation-for-thalamic-visual-prosthesis-an-autoencoder-based-approach
#2
Amr Jawwad, Hossam H Abolfotuh, Bassem Abdullah, Hani M K Mahdi, Seif Eldawlatly, Amr Jawwad, Hossam H Abolfotuh, Bassem Abdullah, Hani M K Mahdi, Seif Eldawlatly, Amr Jawwad, Hani M K Mahdi, Bassem Abdullah, Seif Eldawlatly, Hossam H Abolfotuh
Visual prosthesis holds hope of vision restoration for millions with retinal degenerative diseases. Machine learning techniques such as artificial neural networks could help in improving prosthetic devices as they could learn how the brain encodes information and imitate that code. This paper introduces an autoencoder-based approach for tuning thalamic visual prostheses. The objective of the proposed approach is to estimate electrical stimuli that are equivalent to a given natural visual stimulus, in a way such that they both elicit responses that are as similar as possible when introduced to a Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (LGN) population...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227648/24-dof-emg-controlled-hybrid-actuated-prosthetic-hand
#3
A Atasoy, E Kaya, E Toptas, S Kuchimov, E Kaplanoglu, M Ozkan, A Atasoy, E Kaya, E Toptas, S Kuchimov, E Kaplanoglu, M Ozkan, S Kuchimov, A Atasoy, M Ozkan, E Kaplanoglu, E Kaya, E Toptas
A complete mechanical design concept of an electromyogram (EMG) controlled hybrid prosthetic hand, with 24 degree of freedom (DOF) anthropomorphic structure is presented. Brushless DC motors along with Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) actuators are used to achieve dexterous functionality. An 8 channel EMG is used for detecting 7 basic hand gestures for control purposes. The prosthetic hand will be integrated with the Neural Network (NNE) based controller in the next phase of the study.
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227645/myoelectric-intuitive-control-and-transcutaneous-electrical-stimulation-of-the-forearm-for-vibrotactile-sensation-feedback-applied-to-a-3d-printed-prosthetic-hand
#4
Enrique I Germany, Esteban J Pino, Pablo E Aqueveque, Enrique I Germany, Esteban J Pino, Pablo E Aqueveque, Enrique I Germany, Pablo E Aqueveque, Esteban J Pino
This paper presents the development of a myoelectric prosthetic hand based on a 3D printed model. A myoelectric control strategy based on artificial neural networks is implemented on a microcontroller for online position estimation. Position estimation performance achieves a correlation index of 0.78. Also a study involving transcutaneous electrical stimulation was performed to provide tactile feedback. A series of stimulations with controlled parameters were tested on five able-body subjects. A single channel stimulator was used, positioning the electrodes 8 cm on the wrist over the ulnar and median nerve...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227602/development-of-high-impedance-measurement-system-for-water-leakage-detection-in-implantable-neuroprosthetic-devices
#5
Aziz Yousif, Shawn K Kelly, Aziz Yousif, Shawn K Kelly, Shawn K Kelly, Aziz Yousif
There has been a push for a greater number of channels in implantable neuroprosthetic devices; but, that number has largely been limited by current hermetic packaging technology. Microfabricated packaging is becoming reality, but a standard testing system is needed to prepare these devices for clinical trials. Impedance measurements of electrodes built into the packaging layers may give an early warning of device failure and predict device lifetime. Because the impedance magnitudes of such devices can be on the order of gigaohms, a versatile system was designed to accommodate ultra-high impedances and allow future integrated circuit implementation in current neural prosthetic technologies...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227544/tolerance-of-neural-decoding-errors-for-powered-artificial-legs-a-pilot-study
#6
Fan Zhang, Ming Liu, He Huang, Fan Zhang, Ming Liu, He Huang, He Huang, Ming Liu, Fan Zhang
Neural-machine interface (NMI) decoding errors challenge the clinical value of neural control of powered artificial legs, because these errors can dangerously disturb the user's walking balance, cause stumbles or falls, and thus threaten the user's confidence and safety in prosthesis use. Although extensive research efforts have been made to minimize the NMI decoding error rate, none of the current approaches can completely eliminate the errors in NMI. This study aimed at improving the robustness of prosthesis control system against neural decoding errors by introducing a fault-tolerant control (FTC) strategy...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227542/biologically-inspired-multi-layered-synthetic-skin-for-tactile-feedback-in-prosthetic-limbs
#7
Luke Osborn, Harrison Nguyen, Joseph Betthauser, Rahul Kaliki, Nitish Thakor, Luke Osborn, Harrison Nguyen, Joseph Betthauser, Rahul Kaliki, Nitish Thakor, Joseph Betthauser, Luke Osborn, Nitish Thakor, Rahul Kaliki, Harrison Nguyen
The human body offers a template for many state-of-the-art prosthetic devices and sensors. In this work, we present a novel, sensorized synthetic skin that mimics the natural multi-layered nature of mechanoreceptors found in healthy glabrous skin to provide tactile information. The multi-layered sensor is made up of flexible piezoresistive textiles that act as force sensitive resistors (FSRs) to convey tactile information, which are embedded within a silicone rubber to resemble the compliant nature of human skin...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226902/investigation-on-the-hermeticity-of-an-implantable-package-with-32-feedthroughs-for-neural-prosthetic-applications
#8
Lorenzo Bisoni, Matthias Mueller, Paul Cvancara, Caterina Carboni, Roberto Puddu, Luigi Raffo, Massimo Barbaro, Thomas Stieglitz, Lorenzo Bisoni, Matthias Mueller, Paul Cvancara, Caterina Carboni, Roberto Puddu, Luigi Raffo, Massimo Barbaro, Thomas Stieglitz, Roberto Puddu, Luigi Raffo, Lorenzo Bisoni, Matthias Mueller, Paul Cvancara, Caterina Carboni, Massimo Barbaro, Thomas Stieglitz
This paper presents an implantable package aimed at hosting a bidirectional neural interface for neural prosthetic applications. The package has been conceived to minimize the invasivity for the patient, for this reason a cylindrical container with an outer diameter of 7 mm and a length of 21 mm has been designed. The package, realized in alumina (Al2O3), presents 32 hermetic feedthroughs located at the top and bottom base of the cylinder. The hermetic housing has been assembled using a low-temperature soldering method based on a previous platinum/gold (Pt/Au) metallization of the ceramic parts...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226860/an-implantable-designed-for-human-use-peripheral-nerve-stimulation-and-recording-system-for-advanced-prosthetics
#9
John R Lachapelle, Caroline K Bjune, Alexander L Kindle, Andrew Czarnecki, John R Burns, Julianne E Grainger, Carlos A Segura, Brian D Nugent, Tirunelveli S Sriram, Philip D Parks, Edward Keefer, Jonathan Cheng, John R Lachapelle, Caroline K Bjune, Alexander L Kindle, Andrew Czarnecki, John R Burns, Julianne E Grainger, Carlos A Segura, Brian D Nugent, Tirunelveli S Sriram, Philip D Parks, Edward Keefer, Jonathan Cheng, John R Lachapelle, Edward Keefer, Alexander L Kindle, Julianne E Grainger, John R Burns, Philip D Parks, Jonathan Cheng, Andrew Czarnecki, Brian D Nugent, Carlos A Segura, Tirunelveli S Sriram, Caroline K Bjune
Complex suture prostheses that deliver sensory and position feedback require a more sophisticated integration with the human user. Here a micro-size active implantable system that provides many-degree-of-freedom neural feedback in both sensory stimulation and motor control is shown, as one potential human-use solution in DARPA's HAPTIX program. Various electrical and mechanical challenge and solutions in meeting both sensory /motor performance as well as ISO 14708 FDA-acceptable human use in an aspirin-size active implementation are discussed...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226808/idle-state-classification-using-spiking-activity-and-local-field-potentials-in-a-brain-computer-interface
#10
Jordan J Williams, Rex N Tien, Yoh Inoue, Andrew B Schwartz, Jordan J Williams, Rex N Tien, Yoh Inoue, Andrew B Schwartz, Rex N Tien, Andrew B Schwartz, Jordan J Williams, Yoh Inoue
Previous studies of intracortical brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) have often focused on or compared the use of spiking activity and local field potentials (LFPs) for decoding kinematic movement parameters. Conversely, using these signals to detect the initial intention to use a neuroprosthetic device or not has remained a relatively understudied problem. In this study, we examined the relative performance of spiking activity and LFP signals in detecting discrete state changes in attention regarding a user's desire to actively control a BCI device...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226528/automatic-grasp-selection-using-a-camera-in-a-hand-prosthesis
#11
Joseph DeGol, Aadeel Akhtar, Bhargava Manja, Timothy Bretl, Joseph DeGol, Aadeel Akhtar, Bhargava Manja, Timothy Bretl, Joseph DeGol, Bhargava Manja, Timothy Bretl, Aadeel Akhtar
In this paper, we demonstrate how automatic grasp selection can be achieved by placing a camera in the palm of a prosthetic hand and training a convolutional neural network on images of objects with corresponding grasp labels. Our labeled dataset is built from common graspable objects curated from the ImageNet dataset and from images captured from our own camera that is placed in the hand. We achieve a grasp classification accuracy of 93.2% and show through realtime grasp selection that using a camera to augment current electromyography controlled prosthetic hands may be useful...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212099/high-density-high-radiance-%C3%AE-led-matrix-for-optogenetic-retinal-prostheses-and-planar-neural-stimulation
#12
Ahmed Soltan, Brian McGovern, Emmanuel Drakakis, Mark Neil, Pleun Maaskant, Mahbub Akhter, Jun Su Lee, Patrick Degenaar
Optical neuron stimulation arrays are important for both in-vitro biology and retinal prosthetic biomedical applications. Hence, in this work, we present an 8100 pixel high radiance photonic stimulator. The chip module vertically combines custom made gallium nitride μLEDs with a CMOS application specific integrated circuit. This is designed with active pixels to ensure random access and to allow continuous illumination of all required pixels. The μLEDs have been assembled on the chip using a solder ball flip-chip bonding technique which has allowed for reliable and repeatable manufacture...
February 13, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211795/a-murine-model-of-a-novel-surgical-architecture-for-proprioceptive-muscle-feedback-and-its-potential-application-to-control-of-advanced-limb-prostheses
#13
Tyler R Clites, Matthew Carty, Shriya Srinivasan, Anthony Zorzos, Hugh Herr
<i>Objective:</i> Proprioceptive mechanisms play a critical role in both reflexive and volitional lower extremity control. Significant strides have been made in the development of bionic limbs that are capable of bi-directional communication with the peripheral nervous system, but none of these systems have been capable of providing physiologically-relevant muscle-based proprioceptive feedback through natural neural pathways. In this study, we present the Agonist-antagonist Myoplastic Interface (AMI), a surgical approach with the capacity to provide graded kinesthetic feedback from a prosthesis through mechanical activation of native mechanoreceptors within residual agonist-antagonist muscle pairs...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196820/combined-use-of-neurally-adjusted-ventilatory-assist-nava-and-vertical-expandable-prostethic-titanium-rib-veptr-in-a-patient-with-spondylocostal-dysostosis-and-associated-bronchomalacia
#14
Martí Pons-Odena, Alba Verges, Natalia Arza, Francisco José Cambra
Jarcho-Levin syndrome is a rare disorder characterised by defects in vertebral and costal segmentation of varying severity. Respiratory complications are the main cause of death or severe comorbidity due to a restrictive rib cage. A 3 months old infant with Spondylocostal dysostosis and associated bronchomalacia experiencing severe asynchrony during the weaning process is reported. The Neurally Adjusted Ventilatory Assist (NAVA) mode was used to improve adaptation to mechanical ventilation after Vertical Expandable Prosthetic Titanium Ribs (VEPTRs) were implanted...
February 14, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143603/classification-of-upper-limb-center-out-reaching-tasks-by-means-of-eeg-based-continuous-decoding-techniques
#15
Andrés Úbeda, José M Azorín, Ricardo Chavarriaga, José Del R Millán
BACKGROUND: One of the current challenges in brain-machine interfacing is to characterize and decode upper limb kinematics from brain signals, e.g. to control a prosthetic device. Recent research work states that it is possible to do so based on low frequency EEG components. However, the validity of these results is still a matter of discussion. In this paper, we assess the feasibility of decoding upper limb kinematics from EEG signals in center-out reaching tasks during passive and active movements...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113323/brain-machine-interface-control-algorithms
#16
Maryam M Shanechi
Motor brain-machine interfaces (BMI) allow subjects to control external devices by modulating their neural activity. BMIs record the neural activity, use a mathematical algorithm to estimate the subject's intended movement, actuate an external device, and provide visual feedback of the generated movement to the subject. A critical component of a BMI system is the control algorithm, termed decoder. Significant progress has been made in the design of BMI decoders in recent years resulting in proficient control in non-human primates and humans...
December 14, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060708/characterization-and-decoding-the-spatial-patterns-of-hand-extension-flexion-using-high-density-ecog
#17
Tianxiao Jiang, Tao Jiang, Taylor Wang, Shanshan Mei, Qingzhu Liu, Yunlin Li, Xiaofei Wang, Sujit Prabhu, Zhiyi Sha, Nuri F Ince
During awake brain surgeries, electrocorticogram (ECoG) was recorded using a high density electrode grid from the motor cortex of two subjects while they were asked to execute spontaneous hand extension and flexion. Firstly, we characterized the spatio-spectral patterns of high-density ECoG during the hand movements. In both subjects, we observed event related desynchronization (ERD) in low frequency band (LFB:8-32Hz) and event related synchronization (ERS) in high frequency band (HFB:60-200Hz) where HFB-ERS was more spatially localized and movement specific compared to LFB-ERD...
January 4, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018160/a-sliced-inverse-regression-sir-decoding-the-forelimb-movement-from-neuronal-spikes-in-the-rat-motor-cortex
#18
Shih-Hung Yang, You-Yin Chen, Sheng-Huang Lin, Lun-De Liao, Henry Horng-Shing Lu, Ching-Fu Wang, Po-Chuan Chen, Yu-Chun Lo, Thanh Dat Phan, Hsiang-Ya Chao, Hui-Ching Lin, Hsin-Yi Lai, Wei-Chen Huang
Several neural decoding algorithms have successfully converted brain signals into commands to control a computer cursor and prosthetic devices. A majority of decoding methods, such as population vector algorithms (PVA), optimal linear estimators (OLE), and neural networks (NN), are effective in predicting movement kinematics, including movement direction, speed and trajectory but usually require a large number of neurons to achieve desirable performance. This study proposed a novel decoding algorithm even with signals obtained from a smaller numbers of neurons...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992344/brain-machine-interface-control-algorithms
#19
Maryam M Shanechi
Motor brain-machine interfaces (BMI) allow subjects to control external devices by modulating their neural activity. BMIs record the neural activity, use a mathematical algorithm to estimate the subject's intended movement, actuate an external device, and provide visual feedback of the generated movement to the subject. A critical component of a BMI system is the control algorithm, termed decoder. Significant progress has been made in the design of BMI decoders in recent years resulting in proficient control in non-human primates and humans...
December 14, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927962/selective-neuronal-activation-by-cochlear-implant-stimulation-in-auditory-cortex-of-awake-primate
#20
Luke A Johnson, Charles C Della Santina, Xiaoqin Wang
: Despite the success of cochlear implants (CIs) in human populations, most users perform poorly in noisy environments and music and tonal language perception. How CI devices engage the brain at the single neuron level has remained largely unknown, in particular in the primate brain. By comparing neuronal responses with acoustic and CI stimulation in marmoset monkeys unilaterally implanted with a CI electrode array, we discovered that CI stimulation was surprisingly ineffective at activating many neurons in auditory cortex, particularly in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the CI...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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