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Neural prosthetics

James Hope, Frederique Vanholsbeeck, A J McDaid
In neural interfaces for peripheral nerve a trade-off exists between the level of invasiveness and the selectivity of neural recordings. In this study, we implement electrical impedance tomography (EIT) in a nerve cuff with the aim to investigate the achievable level of selectivity.
 Approach: Established modelling approaches in neural-EIT are expanded on to be used, for the first time, on myelinated fibres which are abundant in mammalian peripheral nerves and transmit motor commands. The model is then used to evaluate the viability of using EIT with a nerve cuff to record neural activity in peripheral nerves...
March 16, 2018: Physiological Measurement
Paul D Marasco, Jacqueline S Hebert, Jon W Sensinger, Courtney E Shell, Jonathon S Schofield, Zachary C Thumser, Raviraj Nataraj, Dylan T Beckler, Michael R Dawson, Dan H Blustein, Satinder Gill, Brett D Mensh, Rafael Granja-Vazquez, Madeline D Newcomb, Jason P Carey, Beth M Orzell
To effortlessly complete an intentional movement, the brain needs feedback from the body regarding the movement's progress. This largely nonconscious kinesthetic sense helps the brain to learn relationships between motor commands and outcomes to correct movement errors. Prosthetic systems for restoring function have predominantly focused on controlling motorized joint movement. Without the kinesthetic sense, however, these devices do not become intuitively controllable. We report a method for endowing human amputees with a kinesthetic perception of dexterous robotic hands...
March 14, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
Andrea Lavazza
There are many kinds of neural prostheses available or being researched today. In most cases they are intended to cure or improve the condition of patients affected by some cerebral deficiency. In other cases, their goal is to provide new means to maintain or improve an individual's normal performance. In all these circumstances, one of the possible risks is that of violating the privacy of brain contents (which partly coincide with mental contents) or of depriving individuals of full control over their thoughts (mental states), as the latter are at least partly detectable by new prosthetic technologies...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Keum-Shik Hong, Nida Aziz, Usman Ghafoor
During the last few decades, substantial scientific and technological efforts have been focused on the development of neuroprostheses. The major emphasis has been on techniques for connecting the human nervous system with a robotic prosthesis via natural-feeling interfaces. The peripheral nerves provide access to highly processed and segregated neural command signals from the brain that can in principle be used to determine user intent and control muscles. If these signals could be used, they might allow near-natural and intuitive control of prosthetic limbs with multiple degrees of freedom...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Philip P Vu, Zachary T Irwin, Autumn J Bullard, Shoshana W Ambani, Ian C Sando, Melanie G Urbanchek, Paul S Cederna, Cynthia A Chestek
Loss of the upper limb imposes a devastating interruption to everyday life. Full restoration of natural arm control requires the ability to simultaneously control multiple degrees of freedom of the prosthetic arm and maintain that control over an extended period of time. Current clinically available myoelectric prostheses do not provide simultaneous control or consistency for transradial amputees. To address this issue, we have implemented a standard Kalman filter for continuous hand control using intramuscular electromyography (EMG) from both regenerative peripheral nerve interfaces (RPNI) and an intact muscle within non-human primates...
February 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Qilin Hua, Junlu Sun, Haitao Liu, Rongrong Bao, Ruomeng Yu, Junyi Zhai, Caofeng Pan, Zhong Lin Wang
Mechanosensation electronics (or Electronic skin, e-skin) consists of mechanically flexible and stretchable sensor networks that can detect and quantify various stimuli to mimic the human somatosensory system, with the sensations of touch, heat/cold, and pain in skin through various sensory receptors and neural pathways. Here we present a skin-inspired highly stretchable and conformable matrix network (SCMN) that successfully expands the e-skin sensing functionality including but not limited to temperature, in-plane strain, humidity, light, magnetic field, pressure, and proximity...
January 16, 2018: Nature Communications
Akinori Mitani, Mingyuan Dong, Takaki Komiyama
Brain-computer interfaces have seen an increase in popularity due to their potential for direct neuroprosthetic applications for amputees and disabled individuals. Supporting this promise, animals-including humans-can learn even arbitrary mapping between the activity of cortical neurons and movement of prosthetic devices [1-4]. However, the performance of neuroprosthetic device control has been nowhere near that of limb control in healthy individuals, presenting a dire need to improve the performance. One potential limitation is the fact that previous work has not distinguished diverse cell types in the neocortex, even though different cell types possess distinct functions in cortical computations [5-7] and likely distinct capacities to control brain-computer interfaces...
December 5, 2017: Current Biology: CB
John E Downey, Lucas Brane, Robert A Gaunt, Elizabeth C Tyler-Kabara, Michael L Boninger, Jennifer L Collinger
Brain-computer interface (BCI) controlled prosthetic arms are being developed to restore function to people with upper-limb paralysis. This work provides an opportunity to analyze human cortical activity during complex tasks. Previously we observed that BCI control became more difficult during interactions with objects, although we did not quantify the neural origins of this phenomena. Here, we investigated how motor cortical activity changed in the presence of an object independently of the kinematics that were being generated using intracortical recordings from two people with tetraplegia...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
Mohammad S Islam, Khondaker A Mamun, Hai Deng
Decoding neural activities related to voluntary and involuntary movements is fundamental to understanding human brain motor circuits and neuromotor disorders and can lead to the development of neuromotor prosthetic devices for neurorehabilitation. This study explores using recorded deep brain local field potentials (LFPs) for robust movement decoding of Parkinson's disease (PD) and Dystonia patients. The LFP data from voluntary movement activities such as left and right hand index finger clicking were recorded from patients who underwent surgeries for implantation of deep brain stimulation electrodes...
2017: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
Kadircan H Keskinbora, Kader Keskinbora
Wireless powered implants, each smaller than a grain of rice, have the potential to scan and stimulate brain cells. Further research may lead to next-generation brain-machine interfaces for controlling prosthetics, exoskeletons, and robots, as well as "electroceuticals" to treat disorders of the brain and body. In conditions that can be particularly alleviated with brain stimulation, the use of such mini devices may pose certain challenges. Health professionals are becoming increasingly more accountable in decision-making processes that have impacts on the life quality of individuals...
December 2, 2017: Neurological Sciences
Matthew E Downs, Tobias Teichert, Amanda Buch, Maria E Karakatsani, Carlos Sierra, Shangshang Chen, Elisa E Konofagou, Vincent P Ferrera
Non-invasive brain stimulation using focused ultrasound has many potential applications as a research and clinical tool, including its incorporation as either an extracorporeal or implantable neural prosthetic. To this end, we investigated the effect of focused ultrasound (FUS) combined with systemically administered microbubbles on visual-motor decision-making behavior in monkeys. We applied FUS to the putamen in one hemisphere to open the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and then tested behavioral performance 3-4 h later...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Yong Hee Kim, Jongkil Park, Ho Koo, Min Sun Kim, Sang-Don Jung
We covalently bound fluoropolymer (FP) films by plasma treatment followed by thermal pressing at temperatures below their melting point and fabricated an adhesion-metal-free flexible gold electrode array entirely encapsulated by the FP film, excepting the active electrode openings. The fabricated device was chemically resistant and was modified to have a lower impedance and efficient charge injection capability. The fabricated device was evaluated in vivo in rats and was confirmed to record the epidural epileptiform activity induced by chemical administration...
December 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Usman Ghafoor, Sohee Kim, Keum-Shik Hong
For those individuals with upper-extremity amputation, a daily normal living activity is no longer possible or it requires additional effort and time. With the aim of restoring their sensory and motor functions, theoretical and technological investigations have been carried out in the field of neuroprosthetic systems. For transmission of sensory feedback, several interfacing modalities including indirect (non-invasive), direct-to-peripheral-nerve (invasive), and cortical stimulation have been applied. Peripheral nerve interfaces demonstrate an edge over the cortical interfaces due to the sensitivity in attaining cortical brain signals...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
Stefan L Sumsky, Marc H Schieber, Nitish V Thakor, Sridevi V Sarma, Sabato Santaniello
Neural decoders of kinematic variables have largely relied on task-dependent (TD) encoding models of the neural activity. TD decoders, though, require prior knowledge of the tasks, which may be unavailable, lack scalability as the number of tasks grows, and require a large number of trials per task to reduce the effects of neuronal variability. The execution of movements involves a sequence of phases (e.g., idle, planning, and so on) whose progression contributes to the neuronal variability. We hypothesize that information about the movement phase facilitates the decoding of kinematics and compensates for the lack of prior knowledge about the task...
November 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Sandeep Keshavan, Shovan Naskar, Alberto Diaspro, Laura Cancedda, Silvia Dante
Interfacing neurons with graphene, a single atomic layer of sp2 hybridized C-atoms, is a key paradigm in understanding how to exploit the unique properties of such a two-dimensional system for neural prosthetics and biosensors development. In order to fabricate graphene-based circuitry, a reliable large area patterning method is a requirement. Following a previously developed protocol, we monitored the in vitro neuronal development of geometrically ordered neural network growing onto patterned Single Layer Graphene (SLG) coated with poly-D-lysine...
January 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Faisal Karmali, Gregory T Whitman, Richard F Lewis
The brain uses information from different sensory systems to guide motor behavior, and aging is associated with simultaneous decline in the quality of sensory information provided to the brain and deterioration in motor control. Correlations between age-dependent decline in sensory anatomical structures and behavior have been demonstrated in many sensorimotor systems, and it has recently been suggested that a Bayesian framework could explain these relationships. Here we show that age-dependent changes in a human sensorimotor reflex, the vestibuloocular reflex, are explained by a Bayesian optimal adaptation in the brain occurring in response to death of motion-sensing hair cells...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Shihomi Uzawa, Tetsuya Takiguchi, Yasuo Ariki, Seiji Nakagawa
Brain computer interface (BCI) technologies, which enable direct communication between the brain and external devices, have been developed. BCI technology can be utilized in neural prosthetics to restore impaired movement, including speech production. However, most of the BCI systems that have been developed are the "P300-speller" type, which can only detect objects that users direct his/her attention at. To develop more versatile BCI systems that can detect a user's intention or thoughts, the brain responses associated with verbal imagery need to be clarified...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Jacob J Johnson, Macauley S Breault, Pierre Sacre, Matthew S D Kerr, Mathew Johnson, Juan Bulacio, Jorge Gonzalez-Martinez, Sridevi V Sarma, John T Gale
Neural prostheses have generally relied on signals from cortical motor regions to control reaching movements of a robotic arm. However, little work has been done in exploring the involvement of nonmotor cortical and associative regions during motor tasks. In this study, we identify regions which may encode direction during planning and movement of a center-out motor task. Local field potentials were collected using stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) from nine epilepsy patients implanted with multiple depth electrodes for clinical purposes...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Satarupa Biswas, Debdeep Sikdar, Soumen Das, Manjunatha Mahadevappa
Understanding of the evoked neural discharges from retinal tissues is vital for designing of any retinal prosthesis. In this study, retinal ganglion cell activity to light and electrical stimulus is recorded using multielectrode arrays. For an effective epiretinal prosthetic device, the electrical stimulus through the prosthesis should be able to evoke responses similar to those of light response in normal condition. This pilot study was intended to design the experimental protocol for in-vitro retinal stimulation...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Gene Fridman
Current state of the art neural prosthetics, such as cochlear implants, spinal cord stimulators, and deep brain stimulators use implantable pulse generators (IPGs) to excite neural activity. Inhibition of neural firing is typically indirect and requires excitation of neurons that then have inhibitory projections downstream. Safe Direct Current Stimulator (SDCS) technology is designed to convert electronic pulses delivered to electrodes embedded within an implantable device to ionic direct current (iDC) at the output of the device...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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