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Neural prosthetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125465/decoding-kinematics-using-task-independent-movement-phase-specific-encoding-models
#1
Stefan L Sumsky, Marc H Schieber, Nitish V Thakor, Sridevi V Sarma, Sabato Santaniello
Neural decoders of kinematic variables have largely relied on task-dependent (TD) encoding models of the neural activity. TD decoders, though, require prior knowledge of the tasks, which may be unavailable, lack scalability as the number of tasks grows, and require a large number of trials per task to reduce the effects of neuronal variability. The execution of movements involves a sequence of phases (e.g., idle, planning, and so on) whose progression contributes to the neuronal variability. We hypothesize that information about the movement phase facilitates the decoding of kinematics and compensates for the lack of prior knowledge about the task...
November 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122711/developmental-refinement-of-synaptic-transmission-on-micropatterned-single-layer-graphene
#2
Sandeep Keshavan, Shovan Naskar, Alberto Diaspro, Laura Cancedda, Silvia Dante
Interfacing neurons with a single atomic layer of graphene, single atomic layer of sp2 hybridized C-atoms, is a key paradigm in understanding how to exploit the unique properties of such a two-dimensional system for neural prosthetics and biosensors development. In order to fabricate graphene-based circuitry, a reliable large area patterning method is a requirement. Following a previously developed protocol, we monitored the in vitro neuronal development of geometrically ordered neural network growing onto patterned Single Layer Graphene (SLG) coated with poly-D-lysine...
November 6, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118202/bayesian-optimal-adaptation-explains-age-related-human-sensorimotor-changes
#3
Faisal Karmali, Gregory T Whitman, Richard F Lewis
The brain uses information from different sensory systems to guide motor behavior, and aging is associated with a simultaneous decline in the quality of sensory information provided to the brain and a deterioration in motor control. Correlations between age-dependent decline in sensory anatomical structures and behavior have been demonstrated, and it has recently been suggested that a Bayesian framework could explain these relationships. Here we show that age-dependent changes in a human sensorimotor reflex, the vestibulo-ocular reflex, are explained by a Bayesian optimal adaptation in the brain occurring in response to death of motion-sensing hair cells...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060417/spatiotemporal-properties-of-magnetic-fields-induced-by-auditory-speech-sound-imagery-and-perception
#4
Shihomi Uzawa, Tetsuya Takiguchi, Yasuo Ariki, Seiji Nakagawa
Brain computer interface (BCI) technologies, which enable direct communication between the brain and external devices, have been developed. BCI technology can be utilized in neural prosthetics to restore impaired movement, including speech production. However, most of the BCI systems that have been developed are the "P300-speller" type, which can only detect objects that users direct his/her attention at. To develop more versatile BCI systems that can detect a user's intention or thoughts, the brain responses associated with verbal imagery need to be clarified...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060406/the-role-of-nonmotor-brain-regions-during-human-motor-control
#5
Jacob J Johnson, Macauley S Breault, Pierre Sacre, Matthew S D Kerr, Mathew Johnson, Juan Bulacio, Jorge Gonzalez-Martinez, Sridevi V Sarma, John T Gale
Neural prostheses have generally relied on signals from cortical motor regions to control reaching movements of a robotic arm. However, little work has been done in exploring the involvement of nonmotor cortical and associative regions during motor tasks. In this study, we identify regions which may encode direction during planning and movement of a center-out motor task. Local field potentials were collected using stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) from nine epilepsy patients implanted with multiple depth electrodes for clinical purposes...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060067/a-comparative-study-of-light-and-electrically-evoked-response-of-retinal-ganglion-cells
#6
Satarupa Biswas, Debdeep Sikdar, Soumen Das, Manjunatha Mahadevappa
Understanding of the evoked neural discharges from retinal tissues is vital for designing of any retinal prosthesis. In this study, retinal ganglion cell activity to light and electrical stimulus is recorded using multielectrode arrays. For an effective epiretinal prosthetic device, the electrical stimulus through the prosthesis should be able to evoke responses similar to those of light response in normal condition. This pilot study was intended to design the experimental protocol for in-vitro retinal stimulation...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060062/safe-direct-current-stimulator-design-for-reduced-power-consumption-and-increased-reliability
#7
Gene Fridman
Current state of the art neural prosthetics, such as cochlear implants, spinal cord stimulators, and deep brain stimulators use implantable pulse generators (IPGs) to excite neural activity. Inhibition of neural firing is typically indirect and requires excitation of neurons that then have inhibitory projections downstream. Safe Direct Current Stimulator (SDCS) technology is designed to convert electronic pulses delivered to electrodes embedded within an implantable device to ionic direct current (iDC) at the output of the device...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054880/common-synaptic-input-to-motor-neurons-and-neural-drive-to-targeted-reinnervated-muscles
#8
D Farina, A M Castronovo, I Vujaklija, A Sturma, S Salminger, C Hofer, O C Aszmann
We compared the behaviour of motor neurons innervating their physiological muscle targets with motor neurons from the same spinal segment whose axons were surgically redirected to remnant muscles (targeted muscle reinnervation). The objective was to assess whether motor neurons with non-physiological innervation receive similar synaptic input and could be voluntary controlled as motor neurons with natural innervation. For this purpose, we acquired high-density EMG signals from the biceps brachii in 5 male trans-humeral amputees who underwent targeted reinnervation of this muscle by the ulnar nerve and from the first dorsal interosseous muscle of 5 healthy individuals to investigate the natural innervation of the ulnar nerve...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044049/acute-in-vivo-testing-of-a-conformal-polymer-microelectrode-array-for-multi-region-hippocampal-recordings
#9
Huijing Xu, Ahuva Weltman Hirschberg, Kee Scholten, Ted W Berger, Dong Song, Ellis Meng
OBJECTIVE: The success of a cortical prosthetic device relies upon its ability to attain resolvable spikes from many neurons in particular neural networks over long periods of time. Traditionally, lifetimes of neural recordings are greatly limited by the body's immune response against the foreign implant which causes neuronal death and glial scarring. This immune reaction is posited to be exacerbated by micromotion between the implant, which is often rigid, and the surrounding, soft brain tissue and attenuates the quality of recordings over time...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979183/nanowire-fet-based-neural-element-for-robotic-tactile-sensing-skin
#10
William Taube Navaraj, Carlos García Núñez, Dhayalan Shakthivel, Vincenzo Vinciguerra, Fabrice Labeau, Duncan H Gregory, Ravinder Dahiya
This paper presents novel Neural Nanowire Field Effect Transistors (υ-NWFETs) based hardware-implementable neural network (HNN) approach for tactile data processing in electronic skin (e-skin). The viability of Si nanowires (NWs) as the active material for υ-NWFETs in HNN is explored through modeling and demonstrated by fabricating the first device. Using υ-NWFETs to realize HNNs is an interesting approach as by printing NWs on large area flexible substrates it will be possible to develop a bendable tactile skin with distributed neural elements (for local data processing, as in biological skin) in the backplane...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926593/target-directed-motor-imagery-of-the-lower-limb-enhances-event-related-desynchronization
#11
Kosuke Kitahara, Yoshikatsu Hayashi, Shiro Yano, Toshiyuki Kondo
Event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/S) is an electroencephalogram (EEG) feature widely used as control signals for Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs). Nevertheless, the underlying neural mechanisms and functions of ERD/S are largely unknown, thus investigating them is crucial to improve the reliability of ERD/S-based BCIs. This study aimed to identify Motor Imagery (MI) conditions that enhance ERD/S. We investigated following three questions: 1) whether target-directed MI affects ERD/S, 2) whether MI with sound imagery affects ERD/S, and 3) whether ERD/S has a body part dependency of MI...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880183/gaussian-process-autoregression-for-simultaneous-proportional-multi-modal-prosthetic-control-with-natural-hand-kinematics
#12
Michele Xiloyannis, Constantinos Gavriel, Andreas A C Thomik, A Aldo Faisal
Matching the dexterity, versatility and robustness of the human hand is still an unachieved goal in bionics, robotics and neural engineering. A major limitation for hand prosthetics lies in the challenges of reliably decoding user intention from muscle signals when controlling complex robotic hands. Most of the commercially available prosthetic hands use musclerelated signals to decode a finite number of predefined motions and some offer proportional control of open/close movements of the whole hand. Here, in contrast, we aim to offer users flexible control of individual joints of their artificial hand...
August 31, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877508/the-no-heme-signaling-hypothesis
#13
Andrei L Kleschyov
While the biological role of nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) is appreciated, several fundamental aspects of the NOS/NO-related signaling pathway(s) remain incompletely understood. Canonically, the NOS-derived NO diffuses through the (inter)cellular milieu to bind the prosthetic ferro(Fe(2+))-heme group of the soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC). The formation of ternary NO-ferroheme-sGC complex results in the enzyme activation and accelerated production of the second messenger, cyclic GMP. This paper argues that cells dynamically generate mobile/exchangeable NO-ferroheme species, which activate sGC and regulate the function of some other biomolecules...
September 3, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869537/an-adaptive-classification-strategy-for-reliable-locomotion-mode-recognition
#14
Ming Liu, Fan Zhang, He Helen Huang
Algorithms for locomotion mode recognition (LMR) based on surface electromyography and mechanical sensors have recently been developed and could be used for the neural control of powered prosthetic legs. However, the variations in input signals, caused by physical changes at the sensor interface and human physiological changes, may threaten the reliability of these algorithms. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of applying adaptive pattern classifiers for LMR. Three adaptive classifiers, i.e...
September 4, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860986/classification-of-movement-and-inhibition-using-a-hybrid-bci
#15
Jennifer Chmura, Joshua Rosing, Steven Collazos, Shikha J Goodwin
Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are an emerging technology that are capable of turning brain electrical activity into commands for an external device. Motor imagery (MI)-when a person imagines a motion without executing it-is widely employed in BCI devices for motor control because of the endogenous origin of its neural control mechanisms, and the similarity in brain activation to actual movements. Challenges with translating a MI-BCI into a practical device used outside laboratories include the extensive training required, often due to poor user engagement and visual feedback response delays; poor user flexibility/freedom to time the execution/inhibition of their movements, and to control the movement type (right arm vs...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854522/an-investigation-on-effects-of-amputee-s-physiological-parameters-on-maximum-pressure-developed-at-the-prosthetic-socket-interface-using-artificial-neural-network
#16
Chitresh Nayak, Amit Singh, Himanshu Chaudhary, Deepak Rajendra Unune
Technological advances in prosthetics have attracted the curiosity of researchers in monitoring design and developments of the sockets to sustain maximum pressure without any soft tissue damage, skin breakdown, and painful sores. Numerous studies have been reported in the area of pressure measurement at the limb/socket interface, though, the relation between amputee's physiological parameters and the pressure developed at the limb/socket interface is still not studied. Therefore, the purpose of this work is to investigate the effects of patient-specific physiological parameters viz...
October 23, 2017: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841276/tuning-surface-and-topographical-features-to-investigate-competitive-guidance-of-spiral-ganglion-neurons
#17
Braden L Leigh, Kristy Truong, Reid Bartholomew, Mark Ramirez, Marlan R Hansen, C Allan Guymon
Cochlear Implants (CIs) suffer from limited tonal resolution due, in large part, to spatial separation between stimulating electrode arrays and primary neural receptors. In this work, a combination of physical and chemical micropatterns, formed on acrylate polymers, are used to direct the growth of primary spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs), the inner ear neurons. Utilizing the inherent temporal and spatial control of photopolymerization, physical microgrooves are fabricated using a photomask in a single step process...
September 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813963/novel-neural-interface-electrode-array-for-the-peripheral-nerve
#18
Ockchul Kim, Wonsuk Choi, Woohyun Jung, Sunyoung Jung, HyungDal Park, Jong Woong Park, Jinseok Kim
Peripheral neural interface (PNI) is becoming an essential technology in the field of robotic prosthesis due to its potential for providing bidirectional neural signal communication between the prosthetic arm and the brain. However, current PNIs inefficiently trade off neural signal selectivity and the invasiveness of the device. We designed and fabricated a new PNI electrode array that has high signal selectivity yet maintains low invasiveness by incorporating a design that allows for three-dimensional spiral insertion around the peripheral nerve...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798342/nanoparticle-based-plasmonic-transduction-for-modulation-of-electrically-excitable-cells
#19
Parveen Bazard, Robert D Frisina, Joseph P Walton, Venkat R Bhethanabotla
There is a compelling need for the development of new sensory and neural prosthetic devices which are capable of more precise point stimulation. Current prosthetic devices suffer from the limitation of low spatial resolution due to the non-specific stimulation characteristics of electrical stimulation, i.e., the spread of electric fields generated. We present a visible light stimulation method for modulating the firing patterns of electrically-excitable cells using surface plasmon resonance phenomena. In in-vitro studies using gold (Au) nanoparticle-coated nanoelectrodes, we show that this method (substrate coated with nanoparticles) has the potential for incorporating this new technology into neural stimulation prosthetics, such as cochlear implants for the deaf, with very high spatial resolution...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769755/broadband-prosthetic-interfaces-combining-nerve-transfers-and-implantable-multichannel-emg-technology-to-decode-spinal-motor-neuron-activity
#20
Konstantin D Bergmeister, Ivan Vujaklija, Silvia Muceli, Agnes Sturma, Laura A Hruby, Cosima Prahm, Otto Riedl, Stefan Salminger, Krisztina Manzano-Szalai, Martin Aman, Michael-Friedrich Russold, Christian Hofer, Jose Principe, Dario Farina, Oskar C Aszmann
Modern robotic hands/upper limbs may replace multiple degrees of freedom of extremity function. However, their intuitive use requires a high number of control signals, which current man-machine interfaces do not provide. Here, we discuss a broadband control interface that combines targeted muscle reinnervation, implantable multichannel electromyographic sensors, and advanced decoding to address the increasing capabilities of modern robotic limbs. With targeted muscle reinnervation, nerves that have lost their targets due to an amputation are surgically transferred to residual stump muscles to increase the number of intuitive prosthetic control signals...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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