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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161621/human-subthalamic-oscillatory-dynamics-following-somatosensory-stimulation
#1
Saskia Elben, Carlos Trenado, Jan Vesper, Alfons Schnitzler, Lars Wojtecki
OBJECTIVE: Electrical median nerve somatosensory stimulation leads to a distinct modulation of cortical oscillations. Initial high frequency and gamma augmentation, as well as modulation of beta and alpha oscillations have been reported. We aimed at investigating the involvement of the subthalamic nucleus in somatosensory processing by means of local field potential recordings, since recordings during passive movements and peripheral somatosensory stimulation have suggested a prominent role...
October 28, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161500/a-small-molecule-mimetic-of-the-humanin-peptide-as-a-candidate-for-modulating-nmda-induced-neurotoxicity
#2
Mohammad Parvez Alam, Tina Bilousova, Patricia Spilman, Kanagasabai Vadivel, Dongsheng Bai, Denis Evseenko, Varghese John
Humanin (HN), a 24-amino acid bioactive peptide, has been shown to increase cell survival of neurons after exposure to Aβ and NMDA-induced toxicity and thus could be beneficial in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The neuroprotection by HN is reported to be primarily through its agonist binding properties to the gp130 receptor. However, peptidic nature of HN presents challenges in its development as a therapeutic for AD. We report here for the first time the elucidation of the binding site of Humanin (HN) peptide to gp130 receptor extracellular domain through modeling and the synthesis of small molecule mimetics that interact with the HN binding site on the gp130 receptor that provides protection against NMDA-induced neurotoxicity in primary hippocampal neurons...
November 21, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161383/basal-forebrain-gating-by-somatostatin-neurons-drives-prefrontal-cortical-activity
#3
Nelson Espinosa, Alejandra Alonso, Cristian Morales, Pedro Espinosa, Andrés E Chávez, Pablo Fuentealba
The basal forebrain provides modulatory input to the cortex regulating brain states and cognitive processing. Somatostatin-expressing neurons constitute a heterogeneous GABAergic population known to functionally inhibit basal forebrain cortically projecting cells thus favoring sleep and cortical synchronization. However, it remains unclear if somatostatin cells can regulate population activity patterns in the basal forebrain and modulate cortical dynamics. Here, we demonstrate that somatostatin neurons regulate the corticopetal synaptic output of the basal forebrain impinging on cortical activity and behavior...
November 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161362/the-hierarchical-organization-of-the-default-dorsal-attention-and-salience-networks-in-adolescents-and-young-adults
#4
Yuan Zhou, Karl J Friston, Peter Zeidman, Jie Chen, Shu Li, Adeel Razi
An important characteristic of spontaneous brain activity is the anticorrelation between the core default network (cDN) and the dorsal attention network (DAN) and the salience network (SN). This anticorrelation may constitute a key aspect of functional anatomy and is implicated in several brain disorders. We used dynamic causal modeling to assess the hypothesis that a causal hierarchy underlies this anticorrelation structure, using resting-state fMRI of healthy adolescent and young adults (N = 404). Our analysis revealed an asymmetric effective connectivity, such that the regions in the SN and DAN exerted an inhibitory influence on the cDN regions; whereas the cDN exerted an excitatory influence on the SN and DAN regions...
November 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161352/delta-rhythm-orchestrates-the-neural-activity-underlying-the-resting-state-bold-signal-via-phase-amplitude-coupling
#5
Saul Jaime, Hong Gu, Brian F Sadacca, Elliot A Stein, Jose E Cavazos, Yihong Yang, Hanbing Lu
Spontaneous ongoing neuronal activity is a prominent feature of the mammalian brain. Temporal and spatial patterns of such ongoing activity have been exploited to examine large-scale brain network organization and function. However, the neurophysiological basis of this spontaneous brain activity as detected by resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) remains poorly understood. To this end, multi-site local field potentials (LFP) and blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI were simultaneously recorded in the rat striatum along with local pharmacological manipulation of striatal activity...
November 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161339/astrocyte-specific-deletion-of-sox2-promotes-functional-recovery-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#6
Chunhai Chen, Xiaoling Zhong, Derek K Smith, Wenjiao Tai, Jianjing Yang, Yuhua Zou, Lei-Lei Wang, Jiahong Sun, Song Qin, Chun-Li Zhang
Injury to the adult brain induces activation of local astrocytes, which serves as a compensatory response that modulates tissue damage and recovery. However, the mechanism governing astrocyte activation during brain injury remains largely unknown. Here we provide in vivo evidence that SOX2, a transcription factor critical for stem cells and brain development, is also required for injury-induced activation of adult cortical astrocytes. Genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation-seq analysis of mouse cortical tissues reveals that SOX2 binds to regulatory regions of genes associated with signaling pathways that control glial cell activation, such as Nr2e1, Mmd2, Wnt7a, and Akt2...
November 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160926/electro-mechanical-response-of-a-3d-nerve-bundle-model-to-mechanical-loads-leading-to-axonal-injury
#7
I Cinelli, M Destrade, M Duffy, P McHugh
OBJECTIVE: Traumatic brain injuries and damage are major causes of death and disability. We propose a 3D fully coupled electro-mechanical model of a nerve bundle to investigate the electrophysiological impairments due to trauma at the cellular level. METHODS: The coupling is based on a thermal analogy of the neural electrical activity by using the finite element software Abaqus CAE 6.13-3. The model includes a real-time coupling, modulated threshold for spiking activation and independent alteration of the electrical properties for each 3-layer fibre within a nerve bundle as a function of strain...
November 21, 2017: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160817/impact-of-high-dose-multi-strain-probiotic-supplementation-on-neurocognitive-performance-and-central-nervous-system-immune-activation-of-hiv-1-infected-individuals
#8
Giancarlo Ceccarelli, Jason M Brenchley, Eugenio Nelson Cavallari, Giuseppe Corano Scheri, Mariangela Fratino, Claudia Pinacchio, Ivan Schietroma, Saeid Najafi Fard, Carolina Scagnolari, Ivano Mezzaroma, Vincenzo Vullo, Gabriella d'Ettorre
BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota has metabolic activity which influences mucosal homeostasis, local and systemic immune responses, and other anatomical systems (i.e., brain). The effects of dysbiosis are still poorly studied in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) positive subjects and insufficient data are available on the impairment of the gut-brain axis, despite neurocognitive disorders being commonly diagnosed in these patients. This study evaluated the impact of a probiotic supplementation strategy on intrathecal immune activation and cognitive performance in combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) treated HIV-1 infected subjects...
November 21, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160761/fronto-parietal-coherence-response-to-tdcs-modulation-in-patients-with-disorders-of-consciousness
#9
Yang Bai, Xiaoyu Xia, Yong Wang, Yongkun Guo, Yi Yang, Jianghong He, Xiaoli Li
A transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) protocol (2 min, 2 mA, anodal electrode at the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and cathodal electrode at the right supraorbital area) was applied in patients with different degrees of disorders of consciousness (DoC). Although previous research indicates that it could improve patients' coma recovery scale-revised (CRS-R) scores, the brain's electrophysiological responses to tDCS are still unclear. Therefore, the present study was performed to explore the underlying brain responses of patients in a minimally conscious state (MCS) and a Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome (UWS) to tDCS modulation...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160600/current-evidence-of-cannabinoid-based-analgesia-obtained-in-preclinical-and-human-experimental-settings
#10
REVIEW
J Lötsch, I Weyer-Menkhoff, I Tegeder
Cannabinoids have a long record of recreational and medical use and become increasingly approved for pain therapy. This development is based on preclinical and human experimental research summarized in this review. Cannabinoid CB1 receptors are widely expressed throughout the nociceptive system. Their activation by endogenous or exogenous cannabinoids modulates the release of neurotransmitters. This is reflected in antinociceptive effects of cannabinoids in preclinical models of inflammatory, cancer and neuropathic pain, and by nociceptive hypersensitivity of cannabinoid receptor-deficient mice...
November 21, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160331/primum-non-nocere-or-primum-facere-meliorem-hacking-the-brain-in-the-21st-century
#11
Lucas Borrione, Andre R Brunoni
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that modulates cortical excitability. It is devoid of serious adverse events and exerts variable effects on cognition, with several research findings suggesting that it can improve memory, verbal and mathematical skills. Because tDCS devices are low-cost, portable and relatively easy to assemble, they have become available outside of the medical setting and used for non-medical ("cosmetic") purposes by laypersons. In this sense, tDCS has become a popular technique aiming to improve cognition and the achievement of a better performance not only at work, but also in other fields such as sports, leisure activities (video games) and even the military...
November 13, 2017: Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160240/remapping-cortical-modulation-for-electrocorticographic-brain-computer-interfaces-a-somatotopy-based-approach-in-individuals-with-upper-limb-paralysis
#12
Alan D Degenhart, Shivayogi V Hiremath, Ying Yang, Stephen T Foldes, Jennifer L Collinger, Michael L Boninger, Elizabeth C Tyler-Kabara, Wei Wang
OBJECTIVE: Brain-computer interface (BCI) technology aims to provide individuals with paralysis a means to restore function. Electrocorticography (ECoG) uses disc electrodes placed on either the surface of the dura or the cortex to record field potential activity. ECoG has been proposed as a viable neural recording modality for BCI systems, potentially providing stable, long-term recordings of cortical activity with high spatial and temporal resolution. Previously we have demonstrated that a subject with spinal cord injury (SCI) could control an ECoG-based BCI system with up to three degrees of freedom [Wang et al...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159775/toxic-effects-of-phytol-and-retinol-on-human-glioblastoma-cells-are-associated-with-modulation-of-cholesterol-and-fatty-acid-biosynthetic-pathways
#13
Gustavo Facchini, Raffaela Silvestre Ignarro, Erika Rodrigues-Silva, André Schwambach Vieira, Iscia Lopes-Cendes, Roger Frigério Castilho, Fabio Rogerio
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor. Genetic mutations may reprogram the metabolism of neoplastic cells. Particularly, alterations in cholesterol and fatty acid biosynthetic pathways may favor biomass synthesis and resistance to therapy. Therefore, compounds that interfere with those pathways, such as phytol (PHY) and retinol (RET), may be appropriate for cytotoxic approaches. We tested the effect of PHY or RET on the viability of human GBM cell lines (U87MG, A172 and T98G). Since the compounds showed a dose-dependent cytotoxic effect, additional analyses were performed with IC50 values...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159234/gene-expression-microarray-data-from-mouse-cerebrum-treated-with-rtms-for-30-days
#14
Tetsurou Ikeda, Satoru Kobayashi, Chikao Morimoto
This data article contains complementary tables related to the research article entitled, 'Effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on ER stress-related genes and glutamate, γ-aminobutyric acid, and glycine transporter genes in mouse brain' (Ikeda et al. (2017) [1]), which showed that rTMS modulates glutamate, GABA and glycine transporters and regulates ER stress-related genes. Here we provide accompanying data collected using Affymetrix GeneChip microarrays to identify changes in gene expression in mouse cerebrum treated with rTMS for 30 days (Tables 1-10)...
December 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159055/neural-correlates-of-working-memory-deficits-and-associations-to-response-inhibition-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#15
Stephan Heinzel, Christian Kaufmann, Rosa Grützmann, Robert Hummel, Julia Klawohn, Anja Riesel, Katharina Bey, Leonhard Lennertz, Michael Wagner, Norbert Kathmann
Previous research in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has indicated performance decrements in working memory (WM) and response inhibition. However, underlying neural mechanisms of WM deficits are not well understood to date, and empirical evidence for a proposed conceptual link to inhibition deficits is missing. We investigated WM performance in a numeric n-back task with four WM load conditions during functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) in 51 patients with OCD and 49 healthy control participants who were matched for age, sex, and education...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159044/a-key-role-of-the-prefrontal-cortex-in-the-maintenance-of-chronic-tinnitus-an-fmri-study-using-a-stroop-task
#16
Rodrigo Araneda, Laurent Renier, Laurence Dricot, Monique Decat, Daniela Ebner-Karestinos, Naïma Deggouj, Anne G De Volder
Introduction: Since we recently showed in behavioural tasks that the top-down cognitive control was specifically altered in tinnitus sufferers, here we wanted to establish the link between this impaired executive function and brain alterations in the frontal cortex in tinnitus patients. Method: Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we monitored the brain activity changes in sixteen tinnitus patients (TP) and their control subjects (CS) while they were performing a spatial Stroop task, both in audition and vision...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158584/ketamine-enhances-structural-plasticity-in-mouse-mesencephalic-and-human-ipsc-derived-dopaminergic-neurons-via-ampar-driven-bdnf-and-mtor-signaling
#17
L Cavalleri, E Merlo Pich, M J Millan, C Chiamulera, T Kunath, P F Spano, G Collo
Among neurobiological mechanisms underlying antidepressant properties of ketamine, structural remodeling of prefrontal and hippocampal neurons has been proposed as critical. The suggested mechanism involves downstream activation of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors, which trigger mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-dependent structural plasticity via brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and protein neo-synthesis. We evaluated whether ketamine elicits similar molecular events in dopaminergic (DA) neurons, known to be affected in mood disorders, using a novel, translational strategy that involved mouse mesencephalic and human induced pluripotent stem cells-derived DA neurons...
November 21, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158580/ck2-regulates-5-ht4-receptor-signaling-and-modulates-depressive-like-behavior
#18
J Castello, B LeFrancois, M Flajolet, P Greengard, E Friedman, H Rebholz
The serotonergic neurotransmitter system has been widely implicated in the pathophysiology of mood-related disorders such as anxiety and major depressive disorder (MDD). The onset of therapeutic efficacy of traditional antidepressants is delayed by several weeks. The 5-HT4 receptor has emerged as a new therapeutic target since agonists of this receptor induce rapid antidepressant-like responses in rodents. Here we show that the 5-HT4 receptor is regulated by CK2, at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels...
November 21, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158578/ketamine-and-its-metabolite-2r-6r-hydroxynorketamine-induce-lasting-alterations-in-glutamatergic-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-mesolimbic-circuit
#19
N Yao, O Skiteva, X Zhang, P Svenningsson, K Chergui
Low doses of ketamine trigger rapid and lasting antidepressant effects after one injection in treatment-resistant patients with major depressive disorder. Modulation of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex is suggested to mediate the antidepressant action of ketamine and of one of its metabolites (2R,6R)-hydroxynorketamine ((2R,6R)-HNK). We have examined whether ketamine and (2R,6R)-HNK affect glutamatergic transmission and plasticity in the mesolimbic system, brain regions known to have key roles in reward-motivated behaviors, mood and hedonic drive...
November 21, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158577/vgf-function-in-depression-and-antidepressant-efficacy
#20
C Jiang, W-J Lin, M Sadahiro, B Labonté, C Menard, M L Pfau, C A Tamminga, G Turecki, E J Nestler, S J Russo, S R Salton
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a critical effector of depression-like behaviors and antidepressant responses. Here, we show that VGF (non-acronymic), which is robustly regulated by BDNF/TrkB signaling, is downregulated in hippocampus (male/female) and upregulated in nucleus accumbens (NAc) (male) in depressed human subjects and in mice subjected to chronic social defeat stress (CSDS). Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-Cre-mediated Vgf ablation in floxed VGF mice, in dorsal hippocampus (dHc) or NAc, led to pro-depressant or antidepressant behaviors, respectively, while dHc- or NAc-AAV-VGF overexpression induced opposite outcomes...
November 21, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
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