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Brain modulation

Laura J Mosher, Sean C Godar, Marc Morissette, Kenneth M McFarlin, Simona Scheggi, Carla Gambarana, Stephen C Fowler, Thérèse Di Paolo, Marco Bortolato
The enzyme steroid 5α-reductase 2 (5αR2) catalyzes the conversion of testosterone into the potent androgen 5α-dihydrotestosterone. Previous investigations showed that 5αR2 is expressed in key brain areas for emotional and socio-affective reactivity, yet the role of this enzyme in behavioral regulation remains mostly unknown. Here, we profiled the behavioral characteristics of 5αR2 heterozygous (HZ) and knockout (KO) mice, as compared with their wild-type (WT) littermates. While male 5αR2 KO mice displayed no overt alterations in motoric, sensory, information-processing and anxiety-related behaviors, they exhibited deficits in neurobehavioral correlates of dominance (including aggression against intruders, mating, and tube dominance) as well as novelty-seeking and risk-taking responses...
February 16, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Michela Balconi, Laura Gatti, Maria Elide Vanutelli
Cooperation behavior is a core question of study on social neuroscience. In the present study, inter-brain functional connectivity and cognitive performance were considered during joint which was failing. The cognitive performance and the EEG (brain oscillations from delta to beta) underlying the execution of joint-actions were recorded when dyads of participants executed synchronicity game and received reinforcing negative feedbacks A pre-feedback condition (cooperation) and a control condition (individual task, T0) were provided as well as a check for possible learning effect (time series analysis)...
March 12, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Viktor Müller, Johanna Sänger, Ulman Lindenberger
When playing music in an ensemble, musicians need to precisely coordinate their actions with one another. As shown in our previous studies on guitar duets, interbrain synchronization plays an essential role during such interactions. In this study, we simultaneously recorded electroencephalograms from four guitarists during quartet playing, to explore the extent and the functional significance of synchronized cortical activity across four brains. We found that hyperbrain networks based on intra- and interbrain connectivity across four brains dwell on higher frequencies for intrabrain communication and on lower frequencies for interbrain connections...
March 15, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
LaDonya Jackson, Wael Eldahshan, Susan C Fagan, Adviye Ergul
For many years, modulators of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) have been trusted by clinicians for the control of essential hypertension. It was recently demonstrated that these modulators have other pleiotropic properties independent of their hypotensive effects, such as enhancement of cognition. Within the brain, different components of the RAS have been extensively studied in the context of neuroprotection and cognition. Interestingly, a crosstalk between the RAS and other systems such as cholinergic, dopaminergic and adrenergic systems have been demonstrated...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Laurence Dufourny, Oona Delmas, Ana-Paula Teixeira-Gomes, Caroline Decourt, Joanna H Sliwowska
Somatostatin (SST) a neuropeptide involved in the central modulation of several physiological functions, is co-distributed in the same hypothalamic areas as kisspeptin (KP), the most potent secretagogue of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion known to date. As SST infused intracerebroventricularly (icv) evoked a potent inhibition of GnRH release, we explored neuroanatomical relationships between KP and SST populations in male and female rats. For that, intact males and ovariectomised oestradiol-replaced females were killed and their brains processed in order to simultaneously detect KP, SST and synapsin, a marker for synapses...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Caitlin A Wotton, Elizabeth F Quon, Ashley C Palmer, Lane K Bekar
Both serotonin (5HT) and stress exert changes in cortical inhibitory tone to shape activity of cortical networks. As astrocytes are also known to affect inhibition through established purinergic pathways, we assessed the role of GABA and purinergic pathways in rapid corticosterone (CORT) and 5HT effects on cortical inhibition. We used a paired-pulse paradigm (P1 & P2) in acutely isolated mouse brain slices to evaluate changes in cortical evoked inhibition. Normally, 5HT decreases amplitude of the first pulse P1, while increasing the amplitude of P2 (increase frequency transmission)...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Akhil Kumar, Ashish Tiwari, Ashok Sharma
Alzheimer disease (AD) is now considered as a multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder and rapidly increasing to an alarming situation and causing higher death rate. One target one ligand hypothesis is not able to provide complete solution of AD due to multifactorial nature of disease and one target one drug seems to fail to provide better treatment against AD. Moreover, current available treatments are limited and most of the upcoming treatments under clinical trials are based on modulating single target...
March 15, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Angus P Yu, Bjorn T Tam, Christopher W Lai, Doris S Yu, Jean Woo, Ka-Fai Chung, Stanley S Hui, Justina Y Liu, Gao X Wei, Parco M Siu
Tai Chi Chuan (TCC), a traditional Chinese martial art, is well-documented to result in beneficial consequences in physical and mental health. TCC is regarded as a mind-body exercise that is comprised of physical exercise and meditation. Favorable effects of TCC on body balance, gait, bone mineral density, metabolic parameters, anxiety, depression, cognitive function, and sleep have been previously reported. However, the underlying mechanisms explaining the effects of TCC remain largely unclear. Recently, advances in neuroimaging technology have offered new investigative opportunities to reveal the effects of TCC on anatomical morphologies and neurological activities in different regions of the brain...
2018: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
Lotte F van Dillen, Henk van Steenbergen
The present research examined whether cognitive load modulates the neural processing of appetitive, high-calorie food stimuli. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, participants quickly categorized high-calorie and low-calorie food pictures versus object pictures as edible or inedible while they concurrently performed a digit-span task that varied between low and high cognitive load (memorizing six digits vs. one digit). In line with predictions, the digit-span task engaged the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) when cognitive load was high compared to low...
March 14, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Marion Griton, Jan Pieter Konsman
Although the immune and nervous systems have long been considered independent biological systems, they turn out to mingle and interact extensively. The present review summarizes recent insights into the neural pathways activated by and involved in infection-induced inflammation and discusses potential clinical applications. The simplest activation concerns a reflex action within C-fibers leading to neurogenic inflammation. Low concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines or bacterial fragments may also act on these afferent nerve fibers to signal the central nervous system and bring about early fever, hyperalgesia and sickness behavior...
March 14, 2018: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
Alireza Shahbabaie, Mitra Ebrahimpoor, Ali Hariri, Michael A Nitsche, Javad Hatami, Emad Fatemizadeh, Mohammad Ali Oghabian, Hamed Ekhtiari
Background: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation tool suited to alter cortical excitability and activity via the application of weak direct electrical currents. An increasing number of studies in the addiction literature suggests that tDCS modulates subjective self-reported craving through stimulation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). The major goal of this study was to explore effects of bilateral DLPFC stimulation on resting state networks (RSNs) in association with drug craving modulation...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
Sophie Kobuch, Azharuddin Fazalbhoy, Rachael Brown, Vaughan G Macefield, Luke A Henderson
Introduction: Long-lasting experimental muscle pain elicits divergent muscle sympathetic responses, with some individuals exhibiting a persistent increase in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), and others a decrease. These divergent responses are thought to result from sustained functional changes in specific brain regions that modulate the cardiovascular responses to pain. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate brain regions that are functionally coupled to the generation of an MSNA burst at rest and to determine their behavior during tonic muscle pain...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
Serhat Tozburun, Cedric Blatter, Meena Siddiqui, Eelco F J Meijer, Benjamin J Vakoc
We present a swept-wavelength optical coherence tomography (OCT) system with a 19 MHz laser source and electronic phase-locking of the source, acquisition clock, and beam scanning mirrors. The laser is based on stretched-pulse active mode-locking using an electro-optic modulator. Beam scanning in the fast axis uses a resonant micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) -based mirror at ~23.8 kHz. Acquisition is performed at 1.78 Gigasamples per second using an external fixed clock. Phase sensitive imaging without need for k-clocking, A-line triggers, or phase-calibration methods is demonstrated...
March 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Leland J Dunwoodie, William L Poehlman, Stephen P Ficklin, Frank Alexander Feltus
Tumors exhibit complex patterns of aberrant gene expression. Using a knowledge-independent, noise-reducing gene co-expression network construction software called KINC, we created multiple RNAseq-based gene co-expression networks relevant to brain and glioblastoma biology. In this report, we describe the discovery and validation of a glioblastoma-specific gene module that contains 22 co-expressed genes. The genes are upregulated in glioblastoma relative to normal brain and lower grade glioma samples; they are also hypo-methylated in glioblastoma relative to lower grade glioma tumors...
February 16, 2018: Oncotarget
Changqing Lu, Lihua Dong, Hui Zhou, Qianmei Li, Guojiao Huang, Shu Jun Bai, Linchuan Liao
Oligodendrocytes are the myelin-producing cells of the central nervous system (CNS). A variety of brain disorders from "classical" demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, stroke, schizophrenia, depression, Down syndrome and autism, are shown myelination defects. Oligodendrocyte myelination is regulated by a complex interplay of intrinsic, epigenetic and extrinsic factors. Gpr17 (G protein-coupled receptor 17) is a G protein-coupled receptor, and has been identified to be a regulator for oligodendrocyte development...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yi-Shu Huang, Nien-Yi Chiang, Gin-Wen Chang, Hsi-Hsien Lin
The evolutionarily conserved adhesion G protein-coupled receptors (aGPCRs) play critical roles in biological processes as diverse as brain development, cell polarity and innate immune functions. A defining feature of aGPCRs is the GPCR autoproteolysis inducing (GAIN) domain capable of self-catalytic cleavage, resulting in the generation of an extracellular N-terminal fragment (NTF) and a seven-transmembrane C-terminal fragment (CTF) involved in the cellular adhesion and signaling functions, respectively. Interestingly, two different NTF subtypes have previously been identified, namely an NTF that couples non-covalently with the CTF and a membrane-associated NTF that tethers on cell surface independently...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Saloni Sharma, Prosper A Fiave, Koen Nelissen
Neurophysiological data obtained in primates suggests that merely observing others' actions can modulate activity in the observer's motor cortices. In humans, it has been suggested that these multimodal vicarious responses extend well beyond the motor cortices, including somatosensory and insular brain regions, that seem to yield vicarious responses when witnessing others' actions, sensations or emotions (Gazzola and Keysers, 2009). Despite the wealth of data with respect to shared action responses in the monkey motor system, whether the somatosensory and insular cortices also yield vicarious responses during observation of touch remains largely unknown...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Yu-Chen Lu, Yu-Jun Wang, Bin Lu, Ming Chen, Ping Zheng, Jing-Gen Liu
Itch is an unpleasant sensation that initiates scratching behavior. Itch-scratch reaction is a complex phenomenon whose occurrence implicates supraspinal structures required for regulation of sensory, emotional, cognitive, and motivational aspects. However, the central mechanisms underlying the processing of itch and the interplay of the supraspinal regions and spinal cord in regulating itch-scratch processes are poorly understood. Here, we have identified that the neural projections from anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to dorsal medial striatum (DMS) constitute a critical circuit element for regulating itch-related behaviors in the brain of male C57BL/6J mice...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Jonas Hönig, Ivana Mižíková, Claudio Nardiello, David Emanuel Surate Solaligue, Maximilian J Daume, István Vadász, Konstantin Mayer, Susanne Herold, Stefan Günther, Werner Seeger, Rory Edward Morty
The emergence of microRNA as regulators of organogenesis and tissue differentiation has stimulated interest in the ablation of microRNA expression and function during discrete periods of development. To this end, inducible, conditional modulation of microRNA expression with doxycycline-based tetracycline-controlled transactivator and tamoxifen-based estrogen receptor systems has found widespread use. However, the induction agents and components of genome recombination systems negatively impact pregnancy, parturition, and post natal development; thereby limiting the use of these technologies between late gestation and the early post-natal period...
March 14, 2018: RNA
Kedarlal Sharma, JuhiSingh, Emma E Frost, Prakash P Pillai
MethylCpG binding protein-2 (MeCP2) is an epigenetic regulator and essential for brain development.MeCP2 mutations are associated with a spectrum of neuro-developmental disorders that vary depending on the patient gender, most notably Rett Syndrome. MeCP2 is essential for normal neuronal maturation, and glial cell function in the brain. Besides, its role in neurodevelopmental disorders, MeCP2 is involved in many cancers such as breast, colorectal, lung, liver, and prostate cancer. Glioma is the most lethal form of brain cancer...
March 11, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
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