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Brain cortical thickness

Max M Owens, Bryant Duda, Lawrence H Sweet, James MacKillop
Working memory (WM), the short-term abstraction and manipulation of information, is an essential neurocognitive process in daily functioning. Few studies have concurrently examined the functional and structural neural correlates of WM and the current study did so to characterize both overlapping and unique associations. Participants were a large sample of adults from the Human Connectome Project (N = 1064; 54% female) who completed an in-scanner visual N-back WM task. The results indicate a clear dissociation between BOLD activation during the WM task and brain structure in relation to performance...
March 15, 2018: NeuroImage
Davis C Woodworth, Langston T Holly, Emeran A Mayer, Noriko Salamon, Benjamin M Ellingson
BACKGROUND: Advanced cervical spondylosis (CS) can cause structural damage to the spinal cord resulting in long-term neurological impairment including neck pain and motor weakness. We hypothesized long-term structural reorganization within the brain in patients with CS. OBJECTIVE: To explore the associations between cortical thickness, subcortical volumes, neurological symptoms, and pain severity in CS patients with or without myelopathy and healthy controls (HCs)...
March 14, 2018: Neurosurgery
Shirley Y Hill
Henderson and colleagues have provided new data from a large cohort demonstrating that cortical thickness, as one index of brain morphology, differs between adolescents with and without a family history of alcohol dependence. Understanding the relationship between brain structure and cognitive ability that differ in those with a family history of alcohol use disorders and those without relatives with AUD may provide clues about the biological substrate of addiction. To date, most of the studies concerning brain morphological differences by familial risk have focused on volumetric differences...
March 12, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Marta Gómez-Sancho, Jussi Tohka, Vanessa Gómez-Verdejo
Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a progressive neurological disorder in which the death of brain cells causes memory loss and cognitive decline. The identification of at-risk subjects yet showing no dementia symptoms but who will later convert to AD can be crucial for the effective treatment of AD. For this, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is expected to play a crucial role. During recent years, several Machine Learning (ML) approaches to AD-conversion prediction have been proposed using different types of MRI features...
March 9, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Deokjong Lee, Jinsick Park, Kee Namkoong, In Young Kim, Young-Chul Jung
Background and aims Altered risk/reward decision-making is suggested to predispose individuals with Internet gaming disorder (IGD) to pursue short-term pleasure, despite long-term negative consequences. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) play important roles in risk/reward decision-making. This study investigated gray matter differences in the ACC and OFC of young adults with and without IGD using surface-based morphometry (SBM). Methods We examined 45 young male adults with IGD and 35 age-matched male controls...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Katherine E Manning, Roger Tait, John Suckling, Anthony J Holland
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder of genomic imprinting, presenting with a characteristic overeating disorder, mild to moderate intellectual disability, and a variable range of social and behavioral difficulties. Consequently, widespread alterations in neural structure and developmental and maturational trajectory would be expected. To date, there have been few quantitative and systematic studies of brain morphology in PWS, although alterations of volume and of cortical organisation have been reported...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Sandhitsu R Das, Long Xie, Laura E M Wisse, Ranjit Ittyerah, Nicholas J Tustison, Bradford C Dickerson, Paul A Yushkevich, David A Wolk
We examined the relationship between in vivo estimates of tau deposition as measured by18 F-AV-1451 tau positron emission tomography imaging and cross-sectional cortical thickness, as well as rates of antecedent cortical thinning measured from magnetic resonance imaging in individuals with and without evidence of cerebral amyloid in 63 participants from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative study, including 32 cognitively normal individuals (mean age 74 years), 27 patients with mild cognitive impairment (mean age 76...
February 9, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Ling-Yun Fan, Ya-Mei Lai, Ta-Fu Chen, Yung-Chin Hsu, Pin-Yu Chen, Kuo-Zhou Huang, Ting-Wen Cheng, Wen-Yi Isaac Tseng, Mau-Sun Hua, Ya-Fang Chen, Ming-Jang Chiu
Alzheimer's disease (AD) progresses insidiously from the preclinical stage to dementia. While people with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) have normal cognitive performance, some may be in the preclinical stage of AD. Neurofibrillary tangles appear first in the transentorhinal cortex, followed by the entorhinal cortex in the clinically silent stage of AD. We expected the earliest changes in subjects with SCD to occur in medial temporal subfields other than the hippocampal proper. These selective structural changes would affect specific memory subcomponents...
March 8, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Dominik A Moser, Gaelle E Doucet, Won Hee Lee, Alexander Rasgon, Hannah Krinsky, Evan Leibu, Alex Ing, Gunter Schumann, Natalie Rasgon, Sophia Frangou
Importance: Alterations in multiple neuroimaging phenotypes have been reported in psychotic disorders. However, neuroimaging measures can be influenced by factors that are not directly related to psychosis and may confound the interpretation of case-control differences. Therefore, a detailed characterization of the contribution of these factors to neuroimaging phenotypes in psychosis is warranted. Objective: To quantify the association between neuroimaging measures and behavioral, health, and demographic variables in psychosis using an integrated multivariate approach...
March 7, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
Ines Mahjoub, Mohamed Ali Mahjoub, Islem Rekik
Accurate diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) before conversion to Alzheimer's disease (AD) is invaluable for patient treatment. Many works showed that MCI and AD affect functional and structural connections between brain regions as well as the shape of cortical regions. However, 'shape connections' between brain regions are rarely investigated -e.g., how morphological attributes such as cortical thickness and sulcal depth of a specific brain region change in relation to morphological attributes in other regions...
March 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
Paul M Macey, Natasha Haris, Rajesh Kumar, M Albert Thomas, Mary A Woo, Ronald M Harper
INTRODUCTION: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects approximately 10% of adults, and alters brain gray and white matter. Psychological and physiological symptoms of the disorder are sex-specific, perhaps related to greater injury occurs in female than male patients in white matter. Our objective was to identify influences of OSA separated by sex on cortical gray matter. METHODS: We assessed cortical thickness in 48 mild-severe OSA patients (mean age±std[range] = 46...
2018: PloS One
Nicolas Honnorat, Christos Davatzikos
The introduction of graph theory in neuroimaging has provided invaluable tools for the study of brain connectivity. These methods require the definition of a graph, which is typically derived by estimating the effective connectivity between brain regions through the optimization of an ill-posed inverse problem. Considerable efforts have been devoted to the development of methods extracting sparse connectivity graphs. The present paper aims at highlighting the benefits of an alternative approach. We investigate low-rank L2 regularized matrices recently introduced under the denomination of Riccati regularized precision matrices...
June 2017: Information Processing in Medical Imaging: Proceedings of the ... Conference
M Domínguez-Álvaro, M Montero-Crespo, L Blazquez-Llorca, R Insausti, J DeFelipe, L Alonso-Nanclares
Synaptic dysfunction or loss in early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is thought to be a major structural correlate of cognitive dysfunction. Early loss of episodic memory, which occurs at the early stage of AD, is closely associated with the progressive degeneration of medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures of which the transentorhinal cortex (TEC) is the first affected area. However, no ultrastructural studies have been performed in this region in human brain samples from AD patients. In the present study, we have performed a detailed three-dimensional (3D) ultrastructural analysis using focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM) to investigate possible synaptic alterations in the TEC of patients with AD...
March 2, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
Lorenzo Nanetti, Valeria Elisa Contarino, Anna Castaldo, Lidia Sarro, Anne-Catherine Bachoud-Levi, Maria Giavazzi, Serena Frittoli, Andrea Ciammola, Elena Rizzo, Cinzia Gellera, Maria Grazia Bruzzone, Franco Taroni, Marina Grisoli, Caterina Mariotti
BACKGROUND: Huntington disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder most commonly manifesting in adulthood. Identification of biomarkers tracking neurodegeneration before the onset of motor symptoms is important for future interventional studies. Our study aimed to contribute in the phenotypic characterization of the premanifest HD phase. METHODS: 28 premanifest subjects (preHD), 25 age-matched controls, and 12 manifest HD patients were enrolled for the study...
February 23, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Magdalena Wojtowicz, Andrew J Gardner, Peter Stanwell, Ross Zafonte, Bradford C Dickerson, Grant L Iverson
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine cortical thickness and subcortical volumes in professional rugby players with an extensive history of concussions compared to control subjects. Method: Participants included 24 active and former professional rugby league players [Age M(SD) = 33.3(6.3); Range = 21-44] with an extensive history of concussion and 18 age- and education-matched controls with no history of neurotrauma or participation in contact sports...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Meng-Chen Lo, Shuwu Wang, Sagar Singh, Vinod B Damodaran, Ijaz Ahmed, Kevin Coffey, David Barker, Kshitij Saste, Karanvir Kals, Hilton M Kaplan, Joachim Kohn, David I Shreiber, Jeffrey D Zahn
OBJECTIVE: Despite the feasibility of short-term neural recordings using implantable microelectrodes, attaining reliable, chronic recordings remains a challenge. Most neural recording devices suffer from a long-term tissue response, including gliosis, at the device-tissue interface. It was hypothesized that smaller, more flexible intracortical probes would limit gliosis by providing a better mechanical match with surrounding tissue. APPROACH: This paper describes the in vivo evaluation of flexible parylene microprobes designed to improve the interface with the adjacent neural tissue to limit gliosis and thereby allow for improved recording longevity...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Christopher G Watson, Christian Stopp, Jane W Newburger, Michael J Rivkin
Objective: Adolescents with d-transposition of the great arteries (d-TGA) who had the arterial switch operation in infancy have been found to have structural brain differences compared to healthy controls. We used cortical thickness measurements obtained from structural brain MRI to determine group differences in global brain organization using a graph theoretical approach. Methods: Ninety-two d-TGA subjects and 49 controls were scanned using one of two identical 1...
February 2018: Brain and Behavior
Rafael Romero-Garcia, Varun Warrier, Edward T Bullmore, Simon Baron-Cohen, Richard A I Bethlehem
Differences in cortical morphology-in particular, cortical volume, thickness and surface area-have been reported in individuals with autism. However, it is unclear what aspects of genetic and transcriptomic variation are associated with these differences. Here we investigate the genetic correlates of global cortical thickness differences (ΔCT) in children with autism. We used Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) on structural MRI data from 548 children (166 with autism, 295 neurotypical children and 87 children with ADHD) and cortical gene expression data from the Allen Institute for Brain Science to identify genetic correlates of ΔCT in autism...
February 26, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Alvi H Islam, Arron W S Metcalfe, Bradley J MacIntosh, Daphne J Korczak, Benjamin I Goldstein
BACKGROUND: Higher body mass index (BMI) and obesity is common among youth with bipolar disorder (BD) and is associated with greater psychiatric illness severity, including suicidality. Obesity has been associated with frontal, temporal and subcortical volumetric reductions in adults with BD. We examined the neurostructural correlates of BMI in adolescents early in their course of BD. METHODS: We processed T 1 -weighted images of adolescents with BD and psychiatrically healthy controls using FreeSurfer to derive a priori region of interest (ROI) volumes/cortical thickness for the frontal lobe (FL), prefrontal cortex (PFC) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) as well as volumes for the amygdala and hippocampus...
March 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Marina Kovalenko, Austen Milnerwood, James Giordano, Jason St Claire, Jolene R Guide, Mary Stromberg, Tammy Gillis, Ellen Sapp, Marian DiFiglia, Marcy E MacDonald, Jeffrey B Carroll, Jong-Min Lee, Susan Tappan, Lynn Raymond, Vanessa C Wheeler
BACKGROUND: Successful disease-modifying therapy for Huntington's disease (HD) will require therapeutic intervention early in the pathogenic process. Achieving this goal requires identifying phenotypes that are proximal to the HTT CAG repeat expansion. OBJECTIVE: To use Htt CAG knock-in mice, precise genetic replicas of the HTT mutation in patients, as models to study proximal disease events. METHODS: Using cohorts of B6J.HttQ111/+ mice from 2 to 18 months of age, we analyzed pathological markers, including immunohistochemistry, brain regional volumes and cortical thickness, CAG instability, electron microscopy of striatal synapses, and acute slice electrophysiology to record glutamatergic transmission at striatal synapses...
2018: Journal of Huntington's Disease
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