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Brain cortical thickness

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928491/freezing-of-gait-is-associated-with-cortical-thinning-in-mesial-frontal-cortex
#1
Miroslav Vastik, Pavel Hok, Jan Valosek, Petr Hlustik, Katerina Mensikova, Petr Kanovsky
AIMS: The relationship between freezing of gait (FOG) and regional brain atrophy has been intensively investigated, but it is still not clearly understood. The study objective was to test whether grey matter (GM) atrophy contributes to FOG in Parkinson´s disease (PD) using a surface-based algorithm. METHODS: We investigated 21 patients with PD, 11 with FOG and 10 without FOG. Both groups were assessed using a FOG questionnaire and Hoehn and Yahr staging. High resolution T1-weighted brain images were acquired for each subject using a 1...
September 13, 2017: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921167/brain-structural-concomitants-of-resting-state-heart-rate-variability-in-the-young-and-old-evidence-from-two-independent-samples
#2
Hyun Joo Yoo, Julian F Thayer, Steven Greening, Tae-Ho Lee, Allison Ponzio, Jungwon Min, Michiko Sakaki, Lin Nga, Mara Mather, Julian Koenig
Previous research has shown associations between brain structure and resting state high-frequency heart rate variability (HF HRV). Age affects both brain structure and HF HRV. Therefore, we sought to examine the relationship between brain structure and HF HRV as a function of age. Data from two independent studies were used for the present analysis. Study 1 included 19 older adults (10 males, age range 62-78 years) and 19 younger adults (12 males, age range 19-37). Study 2 included 23 older adults (12 males; age range 55-75) and 27 younger adults (17 males; age range 18-34)...
September 18, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913599/the-mediating-role-of-cortical-thickness-and-gray-matter-volume-on-sleep-slow-wave-activity-during-adolescence
#3
Aimée Goldstone, Adrian R Willoughby, Massimiliano de Zambotti, Peter L Franzen, Dongjin Kwon, Kilian M Pohl, Adolf Pfefferbaum, Edith V Sullivan, Eva M Müller-Oehring, Devin E Prouty, Brant P Hasler, Duncan B Clark, Ian M Colrain, Fiona C Baker
During the course of adolescence, reductions occur in cortical thickness and gray matter (GM) volume, along with a 65% reduction in slow-wave (delta) activity during sleep (SWA) but empirical data linking these structural brain and functional sleep differences, is lacking. Here, we investigated specifically whether age-related differences in cortical thickness and GM volume and cortical thickness accounted for the typical age-related difference in slow-wave (delta) activity (SWA) during sleep. 132 healthy participants (age 12-21 years) from the National Consortium on Alcohol and NeuroDevelopment in Adolescence study were included in this cross-sectional analysis of baseline polysomnographic, electroencephalographic, and magnetic resonance imaging data...
September 14, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911901/structural-brain-abnormalities-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-with-oppositional-defiant-disorder
#4
Siri D S Noordermeer, Marjolein Luman, Corina U Greven, Kim Veroude, Stephen V Faraone, Catharina A Hartman, Pieter J Hoekstra, Barbara Franke, Jan K Buitelaar, Dirk J Heslenfeld, Jaap Oosterlaan
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with structural abnormalities in total gray matter, basal ganglia, and cerebellum. Findings of structural abnormalities in frontal and temporal lobes, amygdala, and insula are less consistent. Remarkably, the impact of comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) (comorbidity rates up to 60%) on these neuroanatomical differences is scarcely studied, while ODD (in combination with conduct disorder) has been associated with structural abnormalities of the frontal lobe, amygdala, and insula...
July 21, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910775/classification-of-schizophrenia-based-on-individual-hierarchical-brain-networks-constructed-from-structural-mri-images
#5
Jin Liu, Min Li, Yi Pan, Fang-Xiang Wu, Xiaogang Chen, Jianxin Wang
With structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images, conventional methods for the classification of schizophrenia (SCZ) and healthy control (HC) extract cortical thickness independently at different regions of interest (ROIs) without considering the correlation between these regions. In this study we proposed an improved method for the classification of SCZ and HC based on individual hierarchical brain networks constructed from structural MRI images. Our method involves constructing individual hierarchical networks where each node and each edge in these networks represents a ROI and the correlation between a pair of ROIs, respectively...
September 11, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900721/effects-of-per3-clock-gene-polymorphisms-on-aging-related-changes-of-the-cerebral-cortex
#6
Delphine Dewandre, Mercedes Atienza, Mayely P Sanchez-Espinosa, Jose L Cantero
Considerable evidence suggests that circadian rhythmicity is progressively disrupted in senescence. Among clock genes, Period3 (PER3) has been associated with circadian phenotypes, homeostatic regulation of sleep, and cognitive performance in young adults. However, the effects of PER3 genotype on aging-related changes in both cognitive function and cortical integrity remain largely unknown. To shed light into this issue, we have investigated differences in cognitive performance, patterns of cortical thickness, and cortical glucose consumption in normal elderly subjects homozygous carriers of the short (PER3(4/4), n = 32) and long repeat alleles (PER3(5/5), n = 32)...
September 12, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898497/a-pediatric-structural-mri-analysis-of-healthy-brain-development-from-newborns-to-young-adults
#7
Jacob Levman, Patrick MacDonald, Ashley Ruyan Lim, Cynthia Forgeron, Emi Takahashi
Assessment of healthy brain maturation can be useful toward better understanding natural patterns of brain growth and toward the characterization of a variety of neurodevelopmental disorders as deviations from normal growth trajectories. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides excellent soft-tissue contrast, which allows for the assessment of gray and white matter in the developing brain. We performed a large-scale retrospective analysis of 993 pediatric structural brain MRI examinations of healthy subjects (n = 988, aged 0-32 years) imaged clinically at 3 T, and extracted a wide variety of measurements such as white matter volumes, cortical thickness, and gyral curvature localized to subregions of the brain...
September 12, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884712/-clinical-and-neurovisualization-characteristics-of-apathetic-depression
#8
A S Avedisova, K V Zakharova, V V Gaskin, I S Samotaeva, I A Arkusha
AIM: To study apathetic depression first diagnosed at late age and identify its relation to cognitive and social dysfunction as well as to morphological and functional changes in the brain. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-two patients at the age above 60 years with newly diagnosed depressive episode and 15 healthy age-matched volunteers were included in the study. All patients were divided into two groups by the score on the Apathy scale (AS): >14 - depression with apathy (n=21), <14 - depression without apathy (n=11)...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882421/-18-f-fdg-pet-hypometabolism-patterns-reflect-clinical-heterogeneity-in-sporadic-forms-of-early-onset-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Matthieu Vanhoutte, Franck Semah, Adeline Rollin Sillaire, Alice Jaillard, Grégory Petyt, Grégory Kuchcinski, Aurélien Maureille, Xavier Delbeuck, Rachid Fahmi, Florence Pasquier, Renaud Lopes
Until now, hypometabolic patterns and their correlations with neuropsychological performance have not been assessed as a function of the various presentations of sporadic early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD). Here, we processed and analyzed the patients' metabolic maps at the vertex and voxel levels by using a nonparametric, permutation method that also regressed out the effects of cortical thickness and gray matter volume, respectively. The hypometabolism patterns in several areas of the brain were significantly correlated with the clinical manifestations...
August 12, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879544/brain-cortical-characteristics-of-lifetime-cognitive-ageing
#10
Simon R Cox, Mark E Bastin, Stuart J Ritchie, David Alexander Dickie, Dave C Liewald, Susana Muñoz Maniega, Paul Redmond, Natalie A Royle, Alison Pattie, Maria Valdés Hernández, Janie Corley, Benjamin S Aribisala, Andrew M McIntosh, Joanna M Wardlaw, Ian J Deary
Regional cortical brain volume is the product of surface area and thickness. These measures exhibit partially distinct trajectories of change across the brain's cortex in older age, but it is unclear which cortical characteristics at which loci are sensitive to cognitive ageing differences. We examine associations between change in intelligence from age 11 to 73 years and regional cortical volume, surface area, and thickness measured at age 73 years in 568 community-dwelling older adults, all born in 1936...
September 6, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879083/monitoring-disease-progression-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-associations-between-atrophy-patterns-cognition-apoe-and-amyloid
#11
Farshad Falahati, Daniel Ferreira, J-Sebastian Muehlboeck, Maria Eriksdotter, Andrew Simmons, Lars-Olof Wahlund, Eric Westman
BACKGROUND: A disease severity index (SI) for Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been proposed that summarizes MRI-derived structural measures into a single score using multivariate data analysis. OBJECTIVES: To longitudinally evaluate the use of the SI to monitor disease progression and predict future progression to AD in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Further, to investigate the association between longitudinal change in the SI and cognitive impairment, Apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype as well as the levels of cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-beta 1-42 (Aβ) peptide...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872667/cognitive-and-neuroimaging-findings-in-developmental-coordination-disorder-new-insights-from-a-systematic-review-of-recent-research
#12
REVIEW
Peter H Wilson, Bouwien Smits-Engelsman, Karen Caeyenberghs, Bert Steenbergen, David Sugden, Jane Clark, Nick Mumford, Rainer Blank
AIM: To better understand the neural and performance factors that may underlie developmental coordination disorder (DCD), and implications for a multi-component account. METHOD: A systematic review of the experimental literature published between June 2011 and September 2016 was conducted using a modified PICOS (population, intervention, comparison, outcomes, and study type) framework. A total of 106 studies were included. RESULTS: Behavioural data from 91 studies showed a broad cluster of deficits in the anticipatory control of movement, basic processes of motor learning, and cognitive control...
September 5, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867898/cortical-oligodendrocytes-in-kaolin-induced-hydrocephalus-in-wistar-rat-impact-of-degree-and-duration-of-ventriculomegaly
#13
Olugbenga Ayodeji Ayannuga, Thajasvarie Naicker
BACKGROUND: Oligodendrocytes are critical to the function of the brain. They generate the myelin sheath which ensures saltatory conduction, which is a more energy saving and efficient means of axonal impulse transmission. Ventriculomegaly results in neuronal degeneration and astrogliosis. PURPOSE: The effect of the degree of ventriculomegaly on oligodendrocyte in kaolin-induced hydrocephalus and the timeline have not been extensively documented, hence this study...
July 2017: Annals of Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866752/altered-associations-between-pain-symptoms-and-brain-morphometry-in-the-pain-matrix-of-hiv-seropositive-individuals
#14
Deborrah Castillo, Thomas Ernst, Eric Cunningham, Linda Chang
Pain remains highly prevalent in HIV-seropositive (HIV+) patients despite their well-suppressed viremia with combined antiretroviral therapy. Investigating brain abnormalities within the pain matrix, and in relation to pain symptoms, in HIV+ participants may provide objective biomarkers and insights regarding their pain symptoms. We used Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) pain questionnaire to evaluate pain symptoms (pain intensity, pain interference and pain behavior), and structural MRI to assess brain morphometry using FreeSurfer (cortical area, cortical thickness and subcortical volumes were evaluated in 12 regions within the pain matrix)...
September 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865241/processing-speed-and-the-relationship-between-trail-making-test-b-performance-cortical-thinning-and-white-matter-microstructure-in-older-adults
#15
Sarah E MacPherson, Simon R Cox, David A Dickie, Sherif Karama, John M Starr, Alan C Evans, Mark E Bastin, Joanna M Wardlaw, Ian J Deary
Part B of the Trail Making Test (TMT-B) is widely used as a quick and easy to administer measure of executive dysfunction. The current study investigated the relationships between TMT-B performance, brain volumes, cortical thickness and white matter water diffusion characteristics in a large sample of older participants, before and after controlling for processing speed. Four hundred and eleven healthy, community-dwelling older adults who were all born in 1936 were assessed on TMT-B, 5 tests of processing speed, and provided contemporaneous structural and diffusion MRI data...
August 9, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859146/negative-correlation-of-cortical-thickness-with-the-severity-and-duration-of-abdominal-pain-in-asian-women-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#16
Chian Sem Chua, Chyi-Huey Bai, Chen-Yu Shiao, Chien-Yeh Hsu, Chiao-Wen Cheng, Kuo-Ching Yang, Hung-Wen Chiu, Jung-Lung Hsu
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) manifests as chronic abdominal pain. One pathophysiological theory states that the brain-gut axis is responsible for pain control in the intestine. Although several studies have discussed the structural changes in the brain of IBS patients, most of these studies have been conducted in Western populations. Different cultures and sexes experience different pain sensations and have different pain responses. Accordingly, we aimed to identify the specific changes in the cortical thickness of Asian women with IBS and to compare these data to those of non-Asian women with IBS...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856799/complexity-analysis-of-cortical-surface-detects-changes-in-future-alzheimer-s-disease-converters
#17
Juan Ruiz de Miras, Víctor Costumero, Vicente Belloch, Joaquín Escudero, César Ávila, Jorge Sepulcre
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurological disorder that creates neurodegenerative changes at several structural and functional levels in human brain tissue. The fractal dimension (FD) is a quantitative parameter that characterizes the morphometric variability of the human brain. In this study, we investigate spherical harmonic-based FD (SHFD), thickness, and local gyrification index (LGI) to assess whether they identify cortical surface abnormalities toward the conversion to AD. We study 33 AD patients, 122 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients (50 MCI converters and 29 MCI nonconverters), and 32 healthy controls (HC)...
August 30, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851912/association-of-monoamine-oxidase-a-genetic-variants-and-amygdala-morphology-in-violent-offenders-with-antisocial-personality-disorder-and-high-psychopathic-traits
#18
Nathan J Kolla, Raihaan Patel, Jeffrey H Meyer, M Mallar Chakravarty
Violent offending is elevated among individuals with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and high psychopathic traits (PP). Morphological abnormalities of the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) are present in violent offenders, which may relate to the violence enacted by ASPD + PP. Among healthy males, monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) genetic variants linked to low in vitro transcription (MAOA-L) are associated with structural abnormalities of the amygdala and OFC. However, it is currently unknown whether amygdala and OFC morphology in ASPD relate to MAO-A genetic polymorphisms...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846882/alzheimer-s-related-cortical-atrophy-is-associated-with-postoperative-delirium-severity-in-persons-without-dementia
#19
Annie M Racine, Tamara G Fong, Thomas G Travison, Richard N Jones, Yun Gou, Sarinnapha M Vasunilashorn, Edward R Marcantonio, David C Alsop, Sharon K Inouye, Bradford C Dickerson
Patients with dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD) have increased risk of developing delirium. This study investigated the relationship between a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived biomarker associated with preclinical AD and postoperative delirium. Participants were older adults (≥70 years) without dementia who underwent preoperative MRI and elective surgery. Delirium incidence and severity were evaluated daily during hospitalization. Cortical thickness was averaged across a published set of a priori brain regions to derive a measure known as the "AD signature...
August 4, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842274/structural-changes-in-socio-affective-networks-multi-modal-mri-findings-in-long-term-meditation-practitioners
#20
Haakon G Engen, Boris C Bernhardt, Leon Skottnik, Matthieu Ricard, Tania Singer
Our goal was to assess the effects of long-term mental training in socio-affective skills on structural brain networks. We studied a group of long-term meditation practitioners (LTMs) who have focused on cultivating socio-affective skills using loving-kindness and compassion meditation for an average of 40k hours, comparing these to meditation-naïve controls. To maximize homogeneity of prior practice, LTMs were included only if they had undergone extensive full-time meditation retreats in the same center. MRI-based cortical thickness analysis revealed increased thickness in the LTM cohort relative to meditation-native controls in fronto-insular cortices...
August 22, 2017: Neuropsychologia
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