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Brain cortical thickness

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911306/cortical-thickness-and-microstructural-white-matter-changes-detect-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment
#1
Zan Wang, Zhengjia Dai, Hao Shu, Duan Liu, Qihao Guo, Yong He, Zhijun Zhang
Both the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ɛ4 allele and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) are considered to be risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD). The primary aim of this study was to determine whether the aMCI-related abnormality in gray matter (GM) cortical thickness and white matter (WM) tracts integrity would be modified by the APOE genotype. A total of 146 older adults, including 64 aMCI patients (28 ɛ4 carriers and 36 non-carriers) and 82 healthy controls (39 ɛ4 carriers and 43 non-carriers), underwent a standardized clinical interview, neuropsychological battery assessment, and multi-modal brain magnetic resonance imaging scans...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909098/reversible-disruption-of-neuronal-mitochondria-by-ischemic-and-traumatic-injury-revealed-by-quantitative-two-photon-imaging-in-the-neocortex-of-anesthetized-mice
#2
Mikhail Kislin, Jeremy Sword, Ioulia V Fomitcheva, Deborah Croom, Evgeny Pryazhnikov, Eero Lihavainen, Dmytro Toptunov, Heikki Rauvala, Andre S Ribeiro, Leonard Khiroug, Sergei A Kirov
: Mitochondria play a variety of functional roles in cortical neurons, from metabolic support and neuroprotection to the release of cytokines that trigger apoptosis. In dendrites, mitochondrial structure is closely linked to their function, and fragmentation (fission) of the normally elongated mitochondria indicates loss of their function under such pathological conditions as stroke and brain trauma. Using in vivo two-photon microscopy in mouse brain, we quantified mitochondrial fragmentation in a full spectrum of cortical injuries ranging from severe to mild...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903329/prediction-of-free-and-cued-selective-reminding-test-performance-using-volumetric-and-amyloid-based-biomarkers-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
Lisa Quenon, Laurence Dricot, John L Woodard, Bernard Hanseeuw, Nathalie Gilis, Renaud Lhommel, Adrian Ivanoiu
OBJECTIVES: Relatively few studies have investigated relationships between performance on clinical memory measures and indexes of underlying neuropathology related to Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study investigated predictive relationships between Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT) cue efficiency (CE) and free-recall (FR) measures and brain amyloid levels, hippocampal volume (HV), and regional cortical thickness. METHODS: Thirty-one older controls without memory complaints and 60 patients presenting memory complaints underwent the FCSRT, amyloid imaging using [F18]-flutemetamol positron emission tomography, and surface-based morphometry (SBM) using brain magnetic resonance imaging...
November 2016: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902687/limb-bone-structural-proportions-and-locomotor-behavior-in-a-l-288-1-lucy
#4
Christopher B Ruff, M Loring Burgess, Richard A Ketcham, John Kappelman
While there is broad agreement that early hominins practiced some form of terrestrial bipedality, there is also evidence that arboreal behavior remained a part of the locomotor repertoire in some taxa, and that bipedal locomotion may not have been identical to that of modern humans. It has been difficult to evaluate such evidence, however, because of the possibility that early hominins retained primitive traits (such as relatively long upper limbs) of little contemporaneous adaptive significance. Here we examine bone structural properties of the femur and humerus in the Australopithecus afarensis A...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898324/longitudinal-trajectory-of-clinical-insight-and-covariation-with-cortical-thickness-in-first-episode-psychosis
#5
Lisa Buchy, Carolina Makowski, Ashok Malla, Ridha Joober, Martin Lepage
Among people with a first-episode of psychosis, those with poorer clinical insight show neuroanatomical abnormalities in frontal, temporal and parietal cortices compared to those with better clinical insight. Whether changes in clinical insight are associated with progressive structural brain changes is unknown. We aimed to evaluate 1) associations between clinical insight and cortical thickness at a baseline assessment, 2) covariation between clinical insight and cortical thickness across baseline, one-year and two-year follow-up assessments, and 3) the predictive value of clinical insight for cortical thickness at one-year and two-year follow-ups...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886813/cranial-vault-thickness-in-non-human-primates-allometric-and-geometric-analyses-of-the-vault-and-its-component-layers
#6
Lynn E Copes
Extremely thick cranial vaults have been noted as a diagnostic characteristic of Homo erectus since the first fossil of the species was identified, but relatively little work has been done on elucidating its variation within extant non-human primates. Cranial vault thickness (CVT) is not a monolithic trait, and the relationship of its layers to other morphological variables is unknown. Total CVT and the thickness of the cortical and diploë layers individually, as well as the ratio between diploë and total thickness, were calculated from 258 female individuals from 47 species of non-human primate...
December 2016: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884877/associations-between-measures-of-structural-morphometry-and-sensorimotor-performance-in-individuals-with-nonspecific-low-back-pain
#7
K Caeyenberghs, M Pijnenburg, N Goossens, L Janssens, S Brumagne
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To date, most structural brain imaging studies in individuals with nonspecific low back pain have evaluated volumetric changes. These alterations are particularly found in sensorimotor-related areas. Although it is suggested that specific measures, such as cortical surface area and cortical thickness, reflect different underlying neural architectures, the literature regarding these different measures in individuals with nonspecific low back pain is limited. Therefore, the current study was designed to investigate the association between the performance on a sensorimotor task, more specifically the sit-to-stand-to-sit task, and cortical surface area and cortical thickness in individuals with nonspecific low back pain and healthy controls...
November 24, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884107/association-between-changes-in-cerebral-grey-matter-volume-and-postoperative-cognitive-dysfunction-in-elderly-patients-study-protocol-for-a-prospective-observational-cohort-study
#8
Nicolai Goettel, Panagiota Mistridis, Manfred Berres, Julia Reinhardt, Christoph Stippich, Andreas U Monsch, Luzius A Steiner
BACKGROUND: Cognitive decline is frequently observed in elderly patients after major surgery. The pathophysiology of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) remains unclear. The aim of our investigation is to identify potential associations between brain volume change and POCD in elderly patients undergoing major surgery. METHODS: This is a prospective observational cohort study approved by the regional ethics board. We intend to compare specific brain volumes (hippocampus, lateral ventricle, total grey matter volume, regional cortical thickness) on magnetic resonance imaging and cognitive functions determined by a neuropsychological assessment battery in 70 study participants aged ≥65 years before and 3 and 12 months after major noncardiac surgery...
November 25, 2016: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883992/precuneal-thickness-and-depression-in-parkinson-disease
#9
Stefano Zanigni, Luisa Sambati, Stefania Evangelisti, Claudia Testa, Giovanna Calandra-Buonaura, David Neil Manners, Rossana Terlizzi, Roberto Poda, Federico Oppi, Raffaele Lodi, Pietro Cortelli, Caterina Tonon
BACKGROUND: Depression-related gray matter changes in Parkinson disease (PD) patients have been reported, although studies investigating cortical thickness in early-stage disease are lacking. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate cortical changes related to depression in early-stage PD patients with an extensive neuropsychological evaluation. METHODS: 17 PD patients and 22 healthy controls underwent a 1.5-T brain MR protocol, and voxel-wise differences in cortical thickness among patients with (n = 6) and without (n = 11) depression and controls were evaluated using FreeSurfer software...
November 24, 2016: Neuro-degenerative Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875803/analysis-of-alcohol-use-disorders-from-the-nathan-kline-institute-rockland-sample-correlation-of-brain-cortical-thickness-with-neuroticism
#10
Yihong Zhao, Zhi-Liang Zheng, F Xavier Castellanos
BACKGROUND: Although differences in both neuroanatomical measures and personality traits, in particular neuroticism, have been associated with alcohol use disorders (AUD), whether lifetime AUD diagnosis alters the relationship between neuroticism and neuroanatomical structures remains to be determined. METHODS: Data from 65 patients with lifetime AUD diagnoses and 65 healthy comparisons (HC) group-matched on age, sex and race were extracted from the Nathan Kline Institute - Rockland Sample data set...
November 8, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875715/common-and-divergent-neural-correlates-of-anomia-in-amnestic-and-logopenic-presentations-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
Cristian E Leyton, John R Hodges, Olivier Piguet, Kirrie J Ballard
The majority of logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia (lv-PPA) cases harbour Alzheimer pathology, suggesting that lv-PPA constitutes an atypical presentation of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, even if caused by Alzheimer pathology, the clinical manifestations of lv-PPA differ from those observed in the typical or amnestic AD presentation: in lv-PPA, aphasia is the main feature while amnestic AD is characterised by impaired episodic memory. Anomia or impaired naming, however, is present in both AD presentations...
November 5, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874271/diagnostic-model-generated-by-mri-derived-brain-features-in-toddlers-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#12
Xiang Xiao, Hui Fang, Jiansheng Wu, ChaoYong Xiao, Ting Xiao, Lu Qian, FengJing Liang, Zhou Xiao, Kang Kang Chu, Xiaoyan Ke
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder with core symptoms of atypical social interaction, communication, and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, and activities. Although the pathophysiologic mechanism of ASD is unclarified yet, the neuroanatomical features are considered as valuable predictors for discriminating ASD from others. But there has been relatively little scientific study about predictive power of different neuroanatomical features of early age ASD...
November 22, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869301/cerebral-amyloid-deposition-is-associated-with-gait-parameters-in-the-mayo-clinic-study-of-aging
#13
Alexandra M V Wennberg, Rodolfo Savica, Clinton E Hagen, Rosebud O Roberts, David S Knopman, John H Hollman, Prashanthi Vemuri, Clifford R Jack, Ronald C Petersen, Michelle M Mielke
OBJECTIVES: To determine the cross-sectional association between cerebral amyloid-beta (Aβ) deposition and gait. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Population-based cohort study in Olmsted County, MN. PARTICIPANTS: Cognitively normal individuals (n = 611), aged 50 to 69 years, enrolled in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging with concurrent PiB-PET imaging and gait assessment. Participants with a history of stroke, alcoholism, Parkinson's disease, subdural hematoma, traumatic brain injury, or normal pressure hydrocephalus were excluded...
November 21, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864081/genetic-and-environmental-influences-on-cortical-mean-diffusivity
#14
Jeremy A Elman, Matthew S Panizzon, Donald J Hagler, Christine Fennema-Notestine, Lisa T Eyler, Nathan A Gillespie, Michael C Neale, Michael J Lyons, Carol E Franz, Linda K McEvoy, Anders M Dale, William S Kremen
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an important tool in the early detection of age-related and neuropathological brain changes. Recent studies suggest that changes in mean diffusivity (MD) of cortical gray matter derived from diffusion MRI scans may be useful in detecting early effects of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and that these changes may be detected earlier than alterations associated with standard structural MRI measures such as cortical thickness. Thus, due to its potential clinical relevance, we examined the genetic and environmental influences on cortical MD in middle-aged men to provide support for the biological relevance of this measure and to guide future gene association studies...
November 15, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862549/diffusion-tensor-imaging-defined-sulcal-enlargement-is-related-to-cognitive-impairment-in-multiple-sclerosis
#15
Zafer Keser, Khader M Hasan, Benson Mwangi, Refaat E Gabr, Flavia M Nelson
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the brain can be compartmentalized into two main divisions: ventricular CSF and subarachnoid space (sulcal CSF). Changes in CSF volumetry are seen in many neurological conditions including multiple sclerosis (MS) and found to correlate with clinical outcomes. We aimed to test the relation between the volumetry of sulcal and ventricular CSF and cognitive impairment (CI) based on the minimal assessment of cognitive function in MS (MACFIMS) in patients with MS...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862544/brain-morphology-and-cortical-thickness-variations-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-patients-differences-among-neurological-psychiatric-and-nonneuropsychiatric-manifestations
#16
Nicolle Zimmermann, Diogo Goulart Corrêa, Gustavo Tukamoto, Tania Netto, Denis Batista Pereira, Rochele Paz Fonseca, Emerson Leandro Gasparetto
PURPOSE: To determine whether systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) affecting subcortical white matter volumes, deep gray matter volumes, and cortical thickness differ between groups of SLE patients with psychiatric (P-SLE), neurological (N-SLE), or nonneuropsychiatric (non-NPSLE) presentations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-seven participants were divided into three groups (P-SLE [n = 19], N-SLE [n = 12], and non-NPSLE [n = 36]) and examined with a 1.5T MRI scanner...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856361/reprint-of-adolescent-cortical-thickness-pre-and-post-marijuana-and-alcohol-initiation
#17
REVIEW
Joanna Jacobus, Norma Castro, Lindsay M Squeglia, M J Meloy, Ty Brumback, Marilyn A Huestis, Susan F Tapert
Cortical thickness abnormalities have been identified in youth using both alcohol and marijuana. However, limited studies have followed individuals pre- and post initiation of alcohol and marijuana use to help identify to what extent discrepancies in structural brain integrity are pre-existing or substance-related. Adolescents (N=69) were followed from ages 13 (pre-initiation of substance use, baseline) to ages 19 (post-initiation, follow-up). Three subgroups were identified, participants that initiated alcohol use (ALC, n=23, >20 alcohol use episodes), those that initiated both alcohol and marijuana use (ALC+MJ, n=23, >50 marijuana use episodes) and individuals that did not initiate either substance regularly by follow-up (CON, n=23, <3 alcohol use episodes, no marijuana use episodes)...
November 14, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852296/brain-volumes-and-regional-cortical-thickness-in-young-females-with-anorexia-nervosa
#18
Tone Seim Fuglset, Tor Endestad, Eva Hilland, Lasse Bang, Christian Krog Tamnes, Nils Inge Landrø, Øyvind Rø
BACKGROUND: Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a severe mental illness, with an unknown etiology. Magnetic resonance imaging studies show reduced brain volumes and cortical thickness in patients compared to healthy controls. However, findings are inconsistent, especially concerning the anatomical location and extent of the differences. The purpose of this study was to estimate and compare brain volumes and regional cortical thickness in young females with AN and healthy controls. METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging data was acquired from young females with anorexia nervosa (n = 23) and healthy controls (n = 28)...
November 16, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847345/differential-associations-between-systemic-markers-of-disease-and-cortical-thickness-in-healthy-middle-aged-and-older-adults
#19
Artur Martins Coutinho, Jean-Philippe Coutu, Emily Rose Lindemer, H Diana Rosas, Bruce R Rosen, David H Salat
Aside from cortical damage associated with age, cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, it's an outstanding question if factors of global health, including normal variation in blood markers of metabolic and systemic function, may also be associated with individual variation in brain structure. This cross-sectional study included 138 individuals between 40 to 86 years old who were physically healthy and cognitively intact. Eleven markers (total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglycerides, insulin, fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, albumin, total protein) and five derived indicators (estimated glomerular filtration rate, creatinine clearance rate, insulin-resistance, average glucose, and cholesterol/HDL ratio) were obtained from blood sampling of all participants...
November 12, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837005/glial-activation-colocalizes-with-structural-abnormalities-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#20
Mohamad J Alshikho, Nicole R Zürcher, Marco L Loggia, Paul Cernasov, Daniel B Chonde, David Izquierdo Garcia, Julia E Yasek, Oluwaseun Akeju, Ciprian Catana, Bruce R Rosen, Merit E Cudkowicz, Jacob M Hooker, Nazem Atassi
OBJECTIVE: In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to evaluate brain structural abnormalities in relation to glial activation in the same cohort of participants. METHODS: Ten individuals with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and 10 matched healthy controls underwent brain imaging using integrated MR/PET and the radioligand [(11)C]-PBR28. Diagnosis history and clinical assessments including Upper Motor Neuron Burden Scale (UMNB) were obtained from patients with ALS...
November 11, 2016: Neurology
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