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Brain cortical thickness

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340498/academic-difficulties-in-children-with-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-presence-profile-and-neural-correlates
#1
Leila Glass, Eileen M Moore, Natacha Akshoomoff, Kenneth Lyons Jones, Edward P Riley, Sarah N Mattson
BACKGROUND: Academic achievement was evaluated in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure to determine potential strengths and weaknesses, evaluate the utility of different definitions for identifying low academic performance, and explore the neural correlates that may underlie academic performance. METHODS: Children (8 to 16 years) were assessed using the WIAT-II. Patterns of performance were examined in 2 subject groups: children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (n = 67) and controls (n = 61)...
March 24, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334915/salience-and-default-mode-network-dysregulation-in-chronic-cocaine-users-predict-treatment-outcome
#2
Xiujuan Geng, Yuzheng Hu, Hong Gu, Betty Jo Salmeron, Bryon Adinoff, Elliot A Stein, Yihong Yang
While chronic cocaine use is associated with abnormalities in both brain structure and function within and interactions between regions, previous studies have been limited to interrogating structure and function independently, and the detected neural differences have not been applied to independent samples to assess the clinical relevance of results. We investigated consequences of structural differences on resting-state functional connectivity in cocaine addiction and tested whether resting-state functional connectivity of the identified circuits predict relapse in an independent cohort...
February 20, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334869/emerging-concepts-in-sporadic-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy
#3
Andreas Charidimou, Gregoire Boulouis, M Edip Gurol, Cenk Ayata, Brian J Bacskai, Matthew P Frosch, Anand Viswanathan, Steven M Greenberg
Sporadic cerebral amyloid angiopathy is a common, well-defined small vessel disease and a largely untreatable cause of intracerebral haemorrhage and contributor to age-related cognitive decline. The term 'cerebral amyloid angiopathy' now encompasses not only a specific cerebrovascular pathological finding, but also different clinical syndromes (both acute and progressive), brain parenchymal lesions seen on neuroimaging and a set of diagnostic criteria-the Boston criteria, which have resulted in increasingly detected disease during life...
March 13, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334217/testosterone-effects-on-the-brain-in-transgender-men
#4
Sarah M Burke, Amir H Manzouri, Cecilia Dhejne, Karin Bergström, Stefan Arver, Jamie D Feusner, Ivanka Savic-Berglund
Transgender individuals experience incongruence between their gender identity and birth-assigned sex. The resulting gender dysphoria (GD), which some gender-incongruent individuals experience, is theorized to be a consequence of atypical cerebral sexual differentiation, but support for this assertion is inconsistent. We recently found that GD is associated with disconnected networks involved in self-referential thinking and own body perception. Here, we investigate how these networks in trans men (assigned female at birth with male gender identity) are affected by testosterone...
March 10, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334178/inter-regional-variations-in-gene-expression-and-age-related-cortical-thinning-in-the-adolescent-brain
#5
Angelita Pui-Yee Wong, Leon French, Gabriel Leonard, Michel Perron, G Bruce Pike, Louis Richer, Suzanne Veillette, Zdenka Pausova, Tomáš Paus
Age-related decreases in cortical thickness observed during adolescence may be related to fluctuations in sex and stress hormones. We examine this possibility by relating inter-regional variations in age-related cortical thinning (data from the Saguenay Youth Study) to inter-regional variations in expression levels of relevant genes (data from the Allen Human Brain Atlas); we focus on genes coding for glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1), androgen receptor (AR), progesterone receptor (PGR), and estrogen receptors (ESR1 and ESR2)...
February 25, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334080/cortical-thickness-abnormalities-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-through-late-childhood-adolescence-and-adulthood-a-large-scale-mri-study
#6
Budhachandra S Khundrakpam, John D Lewis, Penelope Kostopoulos, Felix Carbonell, Alan C Evans
Neuroimaging studies in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have provided inconsistent evidence of cortical abnormality. This is probably due to the small sample sizes used in most studies, and important differences in sample characteristics, particularly age, as well as to the heterogeneity of the disorder. To address these issues, we assessed abnormalities in ASD within the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange data set, which comprises data from approximately 1100 individuals (~6-55 years). A subset of these data that met stringent quality control and inclusion criteria (560 male subjects; 266 ASD; age = 6-35 years) were used to compute age-specific differences in cortical thickness in ASD and the relationship of any such differences to symptom severity of ASD...
February 18, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333492/perceptual-and-memory-inhibition-deficits-in-clinically-healthy-older-adults-are-associated-with-region-specific-doubly-dissociable-patterns-of-cortical-thinning
#7
Teal S Eich, Qolamreza R Razlighi, Yaakov Stern
Converging evidence suggests that the cognitive control processes that enable the inhibition of irrelevant information on a perceptual versus a memorial basis are qualitatively different and are underlain by unique neural systems that may be affected differentially in aging. In the current study, we investigated whether individual differences in performance on these 2 types of inhibitory processes were attributable to region-specific patterns of cortical thinning. Clinically healthy older adults completed a pair of behavioral memory and perceptual inhibition tasks and then underwent structural brain imaging...
March 23, 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333012/cerebral-cortex-regions-selectively-vulnerable-to-radiation-dose-dependent-atrophy
#8
Tyler M Seibert, Roshan Karunamuni, Samar Kaifi, Jeffrey Burkeen, Michael Connor, Anitha Priya Krishnan, Nathan S White, Nikdokht Farid, Hauke Bartsch, Vyacheslav Murzin, Tanya T Nguyen, Vitali Moiseenko, James B Brewer, Carrie R McDonald, Anders M Dale, Jona A Hattangadi-Gluth
PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVES: Neurologic deficits after brain radiation therapy (RT) typically involve decline in higher-order cognitive functions such as attention and memory rather than sensory defects or paralysis. We sought to determine whether areas of the cortex critical to cognition are selectively vulnerable to radiation dose-dependent atrophy. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We measured change in cortical thickness in 54 primary brain tumor patients who underwent fractionated, partial brain RT...
April 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328993/agreement-between-functional-connectivity-and-cortical-thickness-driven-correlation-maps-of-the-medial-frontal-cortex
#9
Hyunjin Park, Yeong-Hun Park, Jungho Cha, Sang Won Seo, Duk L Na, Jong-Min Lee
Parcellation of the human cortex has important implications in neuroscience. Parcellation is often a crucial requirement before meaningful regional analysis can occur. The human cortex can be parcellated into distinct regions based on structural features, such as gyri and sulci. Brain network patterns in a given region with respect to its neighbors, known as connectional fingerprints, can be used to parcellate the cortex. Distinct imaging modalities might provide complementary information for brain parcellation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328939/multimodal-mr-imaging-reveals-large-scale-structural-and-functional-connectivity-changes-in-profound-early-blindness
#10
Corinna M Bauer, Gabriella V Hirsch, Lauren Zajac, Bang-Bon Koo, Olivier Collignon, Lotfi B Merabet
In the setting of profound ocular blindness, numerous lines of evidence demonstrate the existence of dramatic anatomical and functional changes within the brain. However, previous studies based on a variety of distinct measures have often provided inconsistent findings. To help reconcile this issue, we used a multimodal magnetic resonance (MR)-based imaging approach to provide complementary structural and functional information regarding this neuroplastic reorganization. This included gray matter structural morphometry, high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) of white matter connectivity and integrity, and resting state functional connectivity MRI (rsfcMRI) analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320161/circulating-autoantibodies-against-the-nr2-peptide-of-the-nmda-receptor-are-associated-with-subclinical-brain-damage-in-hypertensive-patients-with-other-pre-existing-conditions-for-vascular-risk
#11
S González-García, A González-Quevedo, Z Hernandez-Diaz, L Alvarez Camino, M Peña-Sanchez, A Cordero-Eiriz, M Brown, J A Gaya, M Betancourt-Losa, I Fernandez-Almirall, M C Menendez-Sainz, R Fernandez-Carriera
Arterial hypertension (HT) and other vascular pre-existing conditions (PEC) generate asymptomatic brain damage which increases the occurrence of stroke and cognitive decline. The aim of this work was to explore if serum antibodies against the NR2 subunit of the NMDA receptor (NR2Ab) could predict subclinical brain damage (SBD) in hypertensive patients with PEC. Forty seven neurologically asymptomatic hypertensive subjects were classified according to the number of PEC (retinopathy, overweight/obesity, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia)...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304286/family-history-of-alzheimer-s-disease-is-associated-with-impaired-perceptual-discrimination-of-novel-objects
#12
Emily J Mason, Erin P Hussey, Robert J Molitor, Philip C Ko, Manus J Donahue, Brandon A Ally
Early detection may be the key to developing therapies that will combat Alzheimer's disease (AD). It has been consistently demonstrated that one of the main pathologies of AD, tau, is present in the brain decades before a clinical diagnosis. Tau pathology follows a stereotypical route through the medial temporal lobe beginning in the entorhinal and perirhinal cortices. If early pathology leads to very subtle changes in behavior, it may be possible to detect these changes in subjects years before a clinical diagnosis can currently be made...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303959/altered-microstructure-rather-than-morphology-in-the-corpus-callosum-after-lower-limb-amputation
#13
Zhichao Li, Chuanming Li, Lingzhong Fan, Guangyao Jiang, Jixiang Wu, Tianzi Jiang, Xuntao Yin, Jian Wang
The corpus callosum (CC) has been implicated in the reorganization of the brain following amputation. However, it is unclear which regions of the CC are involved in this process. In this study, we explored the morphometric and microstructural changes in CC subregions in patients with unilateral lower limb amputation. Thirty-eight patients and 38 age- and gender-matched normal controls were included. The CC was divided into five regions, and the area, thickness and diffusion parameters of each region were investigated...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295833/can-we-predict-subject-specific-dynamic-cortical-thickness-maps-during-infancy-from-birth
#14
Yu Meng, Gang Li, Islem Rekik, Han Zhang, Yaozong Gao, Weili Lin, Dinggang Shen
Understanding the early dynamic development of the human cerebral cortex remains a challenging problem. Cortical thickness, as one of the most important morphological attributes of the cerebral cortex, is a sensitive indicator for both normal neurodevelopment and neuropsychiatric disorders, but its early postnatal development remains largely unexplored. In this study, we investigate a key question in neurodevelopmental science: can we predict the future dynamic development of cortical thickness map in an individual infant based on its available MRI data at birth? If this is possible, we might be able to better model and understand the early brain development and also early detect abnormal brain development during infancy...
March 15, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291592/white-matter-and-cortical-changes-in-atypical-parkinsonisms-a-multimodal-quantitative-mr-study
#15
Stefano Zanigni, Stefania Evangelisti, Claudia Testa, David N Manners, Giovanna Calandra-Buonaura, Maria Guarino, Anna Gabellini, Laura Ludovica Gramegna, Giulia Giannini, Luisa Sambati, Pietro Cortelli, Raffaele Lodi, Caterina Tonon
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate white matter and cortical changes in patients with parkinsonisms and healthy controls (HC), applying both hypothesis-free and regions of interest (ROI)-based advanced brain MR analyses. METHODS: Twenty-five patients with Progressive Supranuclear Palsy - Richardson's Syndrome (PSP-RS), nine with cerebellar and nine with parkinsonian Multiple System Atrophy variants (MSA-C and MSA-P), forty-seven with Parkinson's Disease (PD) and twenty-seven HC underwent a 1...
March 6, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291265/t1-weighted-in-vivo-human-whole-brain-mri-dataset-with-an-ultrahigh-isotropic-resolution-of-250-%C3%AE-m
#16
Falk Lüsebrink, Alessandro Sciarra, Hendrik Mattern, Renat Yakupov, Oliver Speck
We present an ultrahigh resolution in vivo human brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) dataset. It consists of T1-weighted whole brain anatomical data acquired at 7 Tesla with a nominal isotropic resolution of 250 μm of a single young healthy Caucasian subject and was recorded using prospective motion correction. The raw data amounts to approximately 1.2 TB and was acquired in eight hours total scan time. The resolution of this dataset is far beyond any previously published in vivo structural whole brain dataset...
March 14, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279917/at-risk-of-being-risky-the-relationship-between-brain-age-under-emotional-states-and-risk-preference
#17
Marc D Rudolph, Oscar Miranda-Domínguez, Alexandra O Cohen, Kaitlyn Breiner, Laurence Steinberg, Richard J Bonnie, Elizabeth S Scott, Kim Taylor-Thompson, Jason Chein, Karla C Fettich, Jennifer A Richeson, Danielle V Dellarco, Adriana Galván, B J Casey, Damien A Fair
Developmental differences regarding decision making are often reported in the absence of emotional stimuli and without context, failing to explain why some individuals are more likely to have a greater inclination toward risk. The current study (N=212; 10-25y) examined the influence of emotional context on underlying functional brain connectivity over development and its impact on risk preference. Using functional imaging data in a neutral brain-state we first identify the "brain age" of a given individual then validate it with an independent measure of cortical thickness...
February 1, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279623/cortical-thickness-reduction-in-combat-exposed-u-s-veterans-with-and-without-ptsd
#18
Kristen M Wrocklage, Lynnette A Averill, J Cobb Scott, Christopher L Averill, Brian Schweinsburg, Marcia Trejo, Alicia Roy, Valerie Weisser, Christopher Kelly, Brenda Martini, Ilan Harpaz-Rotem, Steven M Southwick, John H Krystal, Chadi G Abdallah
We investigated the extent of cortical thinning in U.S. Veterans exposed to combat who varied in the severity of their posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. In addition, we explored the neural correlates of PTSD symptom dimensions and the interactive effects of combat exposure and PTSD upon cortical thickness. Sixty-nine combat exposed Veterans completed high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans to estimate cortical thickness. The Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) and Combat Exposure Scale (CES) assessments were completed to measure current PTSD and historical combat severity, respectively...
March 6, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274834/resolution-considerations-in-imaging-of-the-cortical-layers
#19
Shlomi Lifshits, Omri Tomer, Ittai Shamir, Daniel Barazany, Galia Tsarfaty, Saharon Rosset, Yaniv Assaf
The cortical layers are a finger print of brain development, function, connectivity and pathology. Obviously, the formation of the layers and their composition is essential to cognition and behavior. The layers were traditionally measured by histological means but recent studies utilizing MRI suggested that T1 relaxation imaging consist of enough contrast to separate the layers. Indeed extreme resolution, post mortem, studies demonstrated this phenomenon. Yet, one of the limiting factors of using T1 MRI to visualize the layers in neuroimaging research is partial volume effect...
March 6, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272153/brain-gray-matter-mri-morphometry-for-neuroprognostication-after-cardiac-arrest
#20
Stein Silva, Patrice Peran, Lionel Kerhuel, Briguita Malagurski, Nicolas Chauveau, Benoit Bataille, Jean Albert Lotterie, Pierre Celsis, Florent Aubry, Giuseppe Citerio, Betty Jean, Russel Chabanne, Vincent Perlbarg, Lionel Velly, Damien Galanaud, Audrey Vanhaudenhuyse, Olivier Fourcade, Steven Laureys, Louis Puybasset
OBJECTIVES: We hypothesize that the combined use of MRI cortical thickness measurement and subcortical gray matter volumetry could provide an early and accurate in vivo assessment of the structural impact of cardiac arrest and therefore could be used for long-term neuroprognostication in this setting. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Five Intensive Critical Care Units affiliated to the University in Toulouse (France), Paris (France), Clermont-Ferrand (France), Liège (Belgium), and Monza (Italy)...
March 7, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
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