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Agnieszka Mierczynska-Vasilev, Paul A Smith
The adsorption of macromolecules on solid surfaces is of great importance in the field of nanotechnology, biomaterials, biotechnological, and food processes. In the field of oenology adsorption of wine macromolecules such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, and proteins is much less desirable on membrane materials because of fouling and reduced filtering performance. On the other hand, adsorption of these molecules on processing aids is very beneficial for achieving wine clarity and stability. In this article, the effect of surface chemical functionalities on the adsorption of white, rosé, and red wine constituents was evaluated...
October 18, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Valentina Catalano, Paula Moreno-Sanz, Silvia Lorenzi, Maria Stella Grando
The genetic varietal authentication of wine was investigated according to DNA isolation procedures reported for enological matrices and also by testing 11 commercial extraction kits and various protocol modifications. Samples were collected at different stages of the winemaking process of renowned Italian wines Brunello di Montalcino, Lambruschi Modenesi, and Trento DOC. Results demonstrated not only that grape DNA loss is produced by the fermentation process but also that clarification and stabilization operations contribute to the reduction of double-stranded DNA content on wine...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Vera Muccilli, Nunzio Cardullo, Carmela Spatafora, Vincenzo Cunsolo, Corrado Tringali
Two batches of the oenological tannin Tan'Activ R, (toasted oak wood - Quercus robur), were extracted with ethanol. A fractionation on XAD-16 afforded four fractions for each extract. Extracts and fractions were evaluated for antioxidant activity (DPPH), polyphenol content (GAE) and yeast α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Comparable results were obtained for both columns, fractions X1B and X2B showing the highest antioxidant activity. Fractions X1C and X2C notably inhibited α-glucosidase, with IC50=9.89 and 8...
January 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Mirko De Rosso, Stefano Soligo, Annarita Panighel, Roberto Carraro, Antonio Dalla Vedova, Itay Maoz, Diego Tomasi, Riccardo Flamini
Grape dehydration is an oenological process used for the production of high-quality reinforced and sweet wines. Corvina and Raboso Piave are two red grape varieties used for production of high-quality Italian wines, such as Recioto, Amarone di Valpolicella and Raboso Passito. Changes of polyphenolic composition of the grapes as a consequence of the withering were studied by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC/QTOF); for identification of compounds a homemade HR-MS database of grape and wine metabolites, was used...
September 2016: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
Angela Capece, Lisa Granchi, Simona Guerrini, Silvia Mangani, Rossana Romaniello, Massimo Vincenzini, Patrizia Romano
Numerous studies, based on different molecular techniques analyzing DNA polymorphism, have provided evidence that indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae populations display biogeographic patterns. Since the differentiated populations of S. cerevisiae seem to be responsible for the regional identity of wine, the aim of this work was to assess a possible relationship between the diversity and the geographical origin of indigenous S. cerevisiae isolates from two different Italian wine-producing regions (Tuscany and Basilicata)...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Maria Martí-Raga, Valentina Martín, Mariona Gil, Marta Sancho, Fernando Zamora, Albert Mas, Gemma Beltran
BACKGROUND: The differential characteristic of sparkling wine is the formation of foam, which is dependent, among other factors, on yeast autolysis, aging and oenological practices. In this study, we analyzed the effects of yeast strain, nutrient supplementation to the base wine and aging process on the sparkling wine composition and its foamability. RESULTS: We determined that the addition of inorganic nitrogen promoted nitrogen liberation to the extracellular medium, while the addition of inactive dry yeast to the base wine caused an increase in the polysaccharide concentration and foaming properties of the sparkling wine...
July 15, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Aurélien L Furlan, Ahmad Saad, Erick J Dufourc, Julie Géan
Wine tasting results in interactions of tannin-ethanol solutions with proteins and lipids of the oral cavity. Among the various feelings perceived during tasting, astringency and bitterness most probably result in binding events with saliva proteins, lipids and receptors. In this work, we monitored the conjugated effect of the grape polyphenol catechin and ethanol on lipid membranes mimicking the different degrees of keratinization of oral cavity surfaces by varying the amount of cholesterol present in membranes...
July 9, 2016: Biochimie
Livio Lencioni, Cristina Romani, Mirko Gobbi, Francesca Comitini, Maurizio Ciani, Paola Domizio
Over the last few years the use of multi-starter inocula has become an attractive biotechnological practice in the search for wine with high flavour complexity or distinctive characters. This has been possible through exploiting the particular oenological features of some non-Saccharomyces yeast strains, and the effects that derive from their specific interactions with Saccharomyces. In the present study, we evaluated the selected strain Zygotorulaspora florentina (formerly Zygosaccharomyces florentinus) in mixed culture fermentations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, from the laboratory scale to the winery scale...
October 3, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
G Polizzotto, E Barone, G Ponticello, T Fasciana, D Barbera, O Corona, G Amore, A Giammanco, D Oliva
UNLABELLED: We isolated, identified and characterized yeast strains from grapes, and their fermented musts, sampled in the small island of Linosa, where there are no wineries and therefore the possibility of territory contamination by industrial strains is minimal. By traditional culture-dependent methods, we isolated 3805 colonies, distinguished by molecular methods in 17 different species. Five hundred and forty-four isolates were analysed for the main oenological characteristics such as fermentative vigour with and without sulphites, sugar consumption and production of alcohol, volatile acidity, hydrogen sulphide, glycerol and β-glucosidase...
August 2016: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Mariana Tristezza, Maria Tufariello, Vittorio Capozzi, Giuseppe Spano, Giovanni Mita, Francesco Grieco
In oenology, the utilization of mixed starter cultures composed by Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts is an approach of growing importance for winemakers in order to enhance sensory quality and complexity of the final product without compromising the general quality and safety of the oenological products. In fact, several non-Saccharomyces yeasts are already commercialized as oenological starter cultures to be used in combination with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, while several others are the subject of various studies to evaluate their application...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Caterina Durante, Lucia Bertacchini, Luana Bontempo, Federica Camin, Daniela Manzini, Paolo Lambertini, Andrea Marchetti, Mauro Paolini
In the development of a geographical traceability model, it is necessary to understand if the value of the monitored indicators in a food is correlated to its origin or if it is also influenced by 'external factors' such as those coming from its production. In this study, a deeper investigation of the trend of direct geographical traceability indicators along the winemaking process of two traditional oenological products was carried out. Different processes were monitored, sampling each step of their production (grape juice, intermediate products and wine)...
November 1, 2016: Food Chemistry
Maurizio Ciani, Pilar Morales, Francesca Comitini, Jordi Tronchoni, Laura Canonico, José A Curiel, Lucia Oro, Alda J Rodrigues, Ramon Gonzalez
Rising sugar content in grape must, and the concomitant increase in alcohol levels in wine, are some of the main challenges affecting the winemaking industry nowadays. Among the several alternative solutions currently under study, the use of non-conventional yeasts during fermentation holds good promise for contributing to relieve this problem. Non-Saccharomyces wine yeast species comprise a high number or species, so encompassing a wider physiological diversity than Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Indeed, the current oenological interest of these microorganisms was initially triggered by their potential positive contribution to the sensorial complexity of quality wines, through the production of aroma and other sensory-active compounds...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
María Jesús Cejudo-Bastante, Bruno Rodríguez-Morgado, M José Jara-Palacios, Julián C Rivas-Gonzalo, Juan Parrado, Francisco J Heredia
The effect of adding an enzymatic hydrolysate of grape seeds (EH-GS) during Syrah wine fermentation in a warm climate has been evaluated. We focused on the polyphenolic composition as well as the application of differential and tristimulus colorimetry to colour data. This is the first attempt at using this oenological alternative to avoid common colour losses of red wines elaborated in a warm climate. The addition of 250g (simple dose, SW) of EH-GS to 120kg of fermentation material promoted a significant (p<0...
October 15, 2016: Food Chemistry
Luigi Bavaresco, Luigi Lucini, Matteo Busconi, Riccardo Flamini, Mirko De Rosso
The ability of the grapevine to activate defense mechanisms against some pathogens has been shown to be linked to the synthesis of resveratrol and other stilbenes by the plant (inducible viniferins). Metabolized viniferins may also be produced or modified by extracellular enzymes released by the pathogen in an attempt to eliminate undesirable toxic compounds. Because of the important properties of resveratrol, there is increasing interest in producing wines with higher contents of this compound and a higher nutritional value...
2016: Nutrients
Tomás Román Villegas, Loris Tonidandel, Bruno Fedrizzi, Roberto Larcher, Giorgio Nicolini
Grape pomace is a winemaking by-product that can be used to extract oenological tannins. Recently, some grape skin tannins were shown to contain very high amounts of two polyfunctional thiol precursors (3-S-glutathionylhexan-1-ol, 3-S-cysteinylhexan-1-ol) whose free forms are responsible for appreciated tropical-like flavours. This study shows that an oxidative treatment (no SO2) of white grape pomace and the presence of grape leaves and stems can increase the content of the above mentioned precursors. Moreover, it shows significant differences between Sauvignon Blanc, Gewuerztraminer and Mueller-Thurgau grape pomace for the 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol precursors and 4-S-cysteinyl-4-methylpentan-2-one...
September 15, 2016: Food Chemistry
Beatriz Padilla, José V Gil, Paloma Manzanares
It is well established that non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts, considered in the past as undesired or spoilage yeasts, can enhance the analytical composition, and aroma profile of the wine. The contribution of non-Saccharomyces yeasts, including the ability to secret enzymes and produce secondary metabolites, glycerol and ethanol, release of mannoproteins or contributions to color stability, is species- and strain-specific, pointing out the key importance of a clever strain selection. The use of mixed starters of selected non-Saccharomyces yeasts with strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae represents an alternative to both spontaneous and inoculated wine fermentations, taking advantage of the potential positive role that non-Saccharomyces wine yeast species play in the organoleptic characteristics of wine...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Virginie Guastella, Nathalie Raynaud
The "wine bar" in the palliative care unit of Clermont-Ferrand general hospital is an example of a different way of providing care. It defends the right of patients at the end of life to treat themselves and others. Acknowledging that life is present right up until the end, patients are invited to drink wine at mealtimes and caregivers are encouraged to learn the basics of oenology.
April 2016: Revue de L'infirmière
Ileana Vigentini, David Maghradze, Maurizio Petrozziello, Federica Bonello, Vito Mezzapelle, Federica Valdetara, Osvaldo Failla, Roberto Foschino
In Georgia, one of the most ancient vine-growing environment, the homemade production of wine is still very popular in every rural family and spontaneous fermentation of must, without addition of chemical preservatives, is the norm. The present work investigated the yeast biodiversity in five Georgian areas (Guria, Imereti, Kakheti, Kartli, Ratcha-Lechkhumi) sampling grapes and wines from 22 different native cultivars, in 26 vineyards and 19 family cellars. One hundred and eighty-two isolates were ascribed to 15 different species by PCR-ITS and RFLP, and partial sequencing of D1/D2 domain 26S rDNA gene...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Ignacio Belda, Eva Navascués, Domingo Marquina, Antonio Santos, Fernando Calderón, Santiago Benito
During the last decade, the use of innovative yeast cultures of both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces yeasts as alternative tools to manage the winemaking process have turned the oenology industry. Although the contribution of different yeast species to wine quality during fermentation is increasingly understood, information about their role in wine ageing over lees is really scarce. This work aims to analyse the incidence of three non-Saccharomyces yeast species of oenological interest (Torulaspora delbrueckii, Lachancea thermotolerans and Metschnikowia pulcherrima) and of a commercial mannoprotein-overproducer S...
July 2016: Yeast
Ángel Benito, Daniel Jeffares, Felipe Palomero, Fernando Calderón, Feng-Yan Bai, Jürg Bähler, Santiago Benito
At present, wine is generally produced using Saccharomyces yeast followed by Oenococus bacteria to complete malolactic fermentation. This method has some unsolved problems, such as the management of highly acidic musts and the production of potentially toxic products including biogenic amines and ethyl carbamate. Here we explore the potential of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe to solve these problems. We characterise an extensive worldwide collection of S. pombe strains according to classic biochemical parameters of oenological interest...
2016: PloS One
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