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Oenology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289724/disruption-of-the-cell-wall-integrity-gene-ecm33-results-in-improved-fermentation-performance-by-wine-yeast
#1
Jin Zhang, Maria A Astorga, Jennifer M Gardner, Michelle E Walker, Paul R Grbin, Vladimir Jiranek
Limiting assimilable nitrogen restricts yeast's ability to successfully complete fermentation. In the absence of a commercially available deletion collection in a wine yeast background, a screening approach was applied to a transposon library in a wine yeast derivative to identify clones with superior fermentation performance. Eight candidate genes, when disrupted by Ty insertion, were identified as enabling yeast to efficiently complete a model oenological fermentation with limited nitrogen availability. Analogous single gene disruptions were subsequently constructed in the haploid wine yeast strain, C911D and the performance of these during fermentation was analysed...
December 28, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277068/biological-effects-of-polyphenol-rich-extract-and-fractions-from-an-oenological-oak-derived-tannin-on-in%C3%A2-vitro-swine-sperm-capacitation-and-fertilizing-ability
#2
Marcella Spinaci, Vera Muccilli, Diego Bucci, Nunzio Cardullo, Beatrice Gadani, Corrado Tringali, Carlo Tamanini, Giovanna Galeati
Although excessive ROS levels induce sperm damage, sperm capacitation is an oxidative event that requires low amounts of ROS. As the antioxidant activity of the ethanol extract (TRE) of a commercial oenological tannin (Quercus robur toasted oak wood, Tan'Activ R®) and its four fractions (FA, FB, FC, FD) has been recently reported, the present study was set up to investigate the biological effects of TRE and its fractions in an in vitro model of sperm capacitation and fertilization. Boar sperm capacitation or gamete coincubation were performed in presence of TRE or its fractions (0, 1, 10, 100 μg/ml)...
December 14, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258193/colour-value-based-method-for-polydopamine-coating-stability-characterization-on-polyethersulfone-membranes
#3
Thomas Bucher, Juliana I Clodt, Andrej Grabowski, Martin Hein, Volkan Filiz
Porous polyethersulfone membranes as used in oenology were investigated in order to evaluate temperature-dependent permeances in a temperature range from 10 to 35 °C. A temperature correction factor was determined for this type of membrane to get accurate and comparable results for further developments. Moreover, the membranes were modified with a bio-inspired polydopamine coating in order to reduce fouling. The performance of the membranes could be increased with respect to permeance and flux recovery under cross-flow conditions...
December 16, 2017: Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195957/effect-of-a-commercial-tannin-on-the-sensorial-temporality-of-astringency
#4
M Medel-Marabolí, J L Romero, E Obreque-Slier, A Contreras, A Peña-Neira
Astringency is a tactile sensation that is generated by a reduction in lubrication in the oral cavity and is generally attributed to the interaction of procyanidins or condensed tannins with salivary proteins. Several factors influence tannin-protein interactions, such as pH, alcohol, sweetness, oxygen and polyphenol content. A scarcely studied factor is the effect of the tannin content on the perception of astringency. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of commercial oenological tannin (COT) on the timing of the perception of astringency...
December 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194970/headspace-solid-phase-microextraction-and-gas-chromatographic-analysis-of-low-molecular-weight-sulfur-volatiles-with-pulsed-flame-photometric-detection-and-quantification-by-a-stable-isotope-dilution-assay
#5
Sebastian Ullrich, Sylvia K Neef, Hans-Georg Schmarr
Low-molecular-weight volatile sulfur compounds such as thiols, sulfides, disulfides as well as thioacetates cause a sulfidic off-flavor in wines even at low concentration levels. The proposed analytical method for quantification of these compounds in wine is based on headspace solid-phase microextraction, followed by gas chromatographic analysis with sulfur-specific detection using a pulsed flame photometric detector. Robust quantification was achieved via a stable isotope dilution assay using commercial and synthesized deuterated isotopic standards...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131448/saccharomyces-cerevisiae-x-saccharomyces-uvarum-hybrids-generated-under-different-conditions-share-similar-winemaking-features
#6
Origone Andrea Cecilia, Rodríguez María Eugenia, Oteiza Juan Martín, Querol Amparo, Lopes Christian Ariel
Interspecific hybrids among species in the Saccharomyces genus are frequently detected in anthropic habitats and can also be obtained easily in the laboratory. This occurs because the most important genetic barriers among Saccharomyces species are post-zygotic. Depending on several factors, including the involved strains, the hybridisation mechanism and stabilisation conditions, the hybrids that bear differential genomic constitutions, and hence phenotypic variability, can be obtained. In the present study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae x Saccharomyces uvarum hybrids were constructed using genetically and physiologically different S...
November 13, 2017: Yeast
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946318/influence-of-foliar-riboflavin-applications-to-vineyard-on-grape-amino-acid-content
#7
Rosario González-Santamaría, Rubén Ruiz-González, Santi Nonell, Teresa Garde-Cerdán, Eva P Pérez-Álvarez
Nitrogen is an important element for grapevine and winemaking, which affects plant development, grape juice fermentation and has a potential effect in modulating wine quality. The aim was to study the influence of foliar applications of riboflavin (vitamin B2) to vineyard on grape nitrogen composition. This vitamin has a reported capacity to protect different plant species, but its application to favor grape and grape juice quality had not previously been studied. This work reports the oenological properties and the effect on amino acid concentration of grape juices obtained from grapes treated with riboflavin at two different doses compared to control...
February 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941909/use-of-non-saccharomyces-yeasts-and-oenological-tannin-in-red-winemaking-influence-on-colour-aroma-and-sensorial-properties-of-young-wines
#8
Kai Chen, Carlos Escott, Iris Loira, Juan Manuel Del Fresno, Antonio Morata, Wendu Tesfaye, Fernando Calderon, Jose Antonio Suárez-Lepe, Shunyu Han, Santiago Benito
Today, many non-Saccharomyces strains have been verified can be positive for the development of wine anthocyanin and aroma in different fermentation scenarios. Moreover, oenological tannins are widely used in wine industry to improve the colour profile and aroma complexity. The aim of this work is to analyze the fermentation characters of non-Saccharomyces strains and investigate the effects of pre-fermentative addition of oenological tannins on the wine components as well as sensory properties. For this purpose, five selected non-Saccharomyces strains and grape seed tannin were used to carry out the different fermentation trials...
February 2018: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932179/non-invasive-real-time-monitoring-of-yeast-volatilome-by-ptr-tof-ms
#9
Iuliia Khomenko, Irene Stefanini, Luca Cappellin, Valentina Cappelletti, Pietro Franceschi, Duccio Cavalieri, Tilmann D Märk, Franco Biasioli
INTRODUCTION: Producing a wide range of volatile secondary metabolites Saccharomyces cerevisiae influences wine, beer, and bread sensory quality and hence selection of strains based on their volatilome becomes pivotal. A rapid on-line method for volatilome assessing of strains growing on standard solid media is still missing. OBJECTIVES: Methodologically, the aim of this study was to demonstrate the automatic, real-time, direct, and non-invasive monitoring of yeast volatilome in order to rapidly produce a robust large data set encompassing measurements relative to many strains, replicates and time points...
2017: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873656/characterisation-of-poly-phenolic-constituents-of-two-interspecific-red-hybrids-of-rondo-and-regent-vitis-vinifera-by-lc-pda-esi-ms-qtof
#10
Aneta Wojdyło, Justyna Samoticha, Paulina Nowicka, Joanna Chmielewska
The aim of this study was to identify and compare phenolic acids, flavan-3-ols, flavonols, and anthocyanins in two the most popular interspecific hybrids of red grapes, Rondo and Regent, nowadays very popular in red wine production in Poland. The phenolic profiles of these hybrids have not yet been reported. Thirty-three phenolic compounds, including 2 flavan-3-ols, 3 phenolic acids, 5 flavonols, and 23 anthocyanins, were determined in the examined samples using the ultra-performance liquid chromatography photodiode detector-quadrupole/time of flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-PDA-Q/TOF-MS) method...
January 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851526/gas-chromatography-and-isotope-ratio-mass-spectrometry-of-pinot-noir-wine-volatile-compounds-%C3%AE-13-c-and-solid-residues-%C3%AE-13-c-%C3%AE-15-n-for-the-reassessment-of-vineyard-water-status
#11
Jorge E Spangenberg, Maria Vogiatzaki, Vivian Zufferey
This paper describes a novel approach to reassess the water status in vineyards based on compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of wine volatile organic compounds (δ(13)CVOC/VPDB) and bulk carbon and nitrogen isotopes, and the C/N molar ratios of the wine solid residues (δ(13)CSR/VPDB, δ(15)NSR/Air-N2). These analyses link gas chromatography/combustion and elemental analysis to isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS, EA/IRMS). Field-grown cultivars of Pinot Noir grapevines were exposed during six growing seasons (2009-2014) to controlled soil water availability, while maintaining identical the other environmental variables and agricultural techniques...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747041/influence-of-commercial-inactivated-yeast-derivatives-on-the-survival-of-probiotic-bacterium-lactobacillus-rhamnosus-hn001-in-an-acidic-environment
#12
Mingzhan Toh, Shao Quan Liu
This study evaluated the influence of three inactivated yeast derivatives (IYDs) used in wine production, namely OptiRed(®), OptiWhite(®) and Noblesse(®), on the viability of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 in an acidic environment. Addition of the IYDs at 3 g/L significantly enhanced the survival of the probiotic bacteria by 2.75-4.05 log cycles after 10-h exposure in a pH 3.0 buffer. Acid stress assay with IYD components obtained after centrifugation and filtration revealed that water-soluble compounds were responsible for improving the acid tolerance of L...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713352/use-of-native-yeast-strains-for-in-bottle-fermentation-to-face-the-uniformity-in-sparkling-wine-production
#13
Ileana Vigentini, Shirley Barrera Cardenas, Federica Valdetara, Monica Faccincani, Carlo A Panont, Claudia Picozzi, Roberto Foschino
The in-bottle fermentation of sparkling wines is currently triggered by few commercialized Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. This lack of diversity in tirage yeast cultures leads to a prevalent uniformity in sensory profiles of the end products. The aim of this study has been to exploit the natural multiplicity of yeast populations in order to introduce variability in sparkling wines throughout the re-fermentation step. A collection of 133 S. cerevisiae strains were screened on the basis of technological criteria (fermenting power and vigor, SO2 tolerance, alcohol tolerance, flocculence) and qualitative features (acetic acid, glycerol and H2S productions)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610728/cluster-shading-modifies-amino-acids-in-grape-vitis-vinifera-l-berries-in-a-genotype-and-tissue-dependent-manner
#14
Le Guan, Benhong Wu, Ghislaine Hilbert, Shaohua Li, Eric Gomès, Serge Delrot, Zhanwu Dai
Amino acid composition of the grape berry at harvest is important for wine making. The present study investigates the complex interplay between tissue, cultivar and light conditions that determine berry amino acid content. Twenty amino acids were assessed in the berry skin and pulp of two grape cultivars (Gamay Noir and Gamay Fréaux), grown under either light exposure or cluster shading conditions. In all samples, cluster shading significantly reduced most amino acids, except gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and phenylalanine...
August 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585244/characterization-of-phenolic-composition-in-carignan-noir-grapes-vitis-vinifera-l-from-six-wine-growing-sites-in-maule-valley-chile
#15
Ana M Martínez-Gil, Gastón Gutiérrez-Gamboa, Teresa Garde-Cerdán, Eva P Pérez-Álvarez, Yerko Moreno-Simunovic
BACKGROUND: Among Chilean varieties, Carignan noir has had a major resurgence due to its rediscovered wine quality potential. For this, the aim of this study was to characterize phenolic composition of grapes grown in six sites from the Maule Valley. RESULTS: The data showed that myricetin-3-glc and catechin were the most important flavonol and flavanol, respectively. Anthocyanin and flavonol composition was correlated with biologically effective degree days, exhibiting a relationship with grape maturity...
June 5, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551234/oxygen-consumption-rates-by-different-oenological-tannins-in-a-model-wine-solution
#16
Olga Pascual, Adeline Vignault, Jordi Gombau, Maria Navarro, Sergio Gómez-Alonso, Esteban García-Romero, Joan Miquel Canals, Isidro Hermosín-Gutíerrez, Pierre-Louis Teissedre, Fernando Zamora
The kinetics of oxygen consumption by different oenological tannins were measured in a model wine solution using the non-invasive method based on luminiscence. The results indicate that the oxygen consumption rate follows second-order kinetics depending on tannin and oxygen concentrations. They also confirm that the oxygen consumption rate is influenced by temperature in accordance with Arrhenius law. The indications are that ellagitannins are the fastest oxygen consumers of the different oenological tannins, followed in decreasing order by quebracho tannins, skin tannins, seed tannins and finally gallotannins...
November 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511108/wine-yeasts-identification-by-maldi-tof-ms-optimization-of-the-preanalytical-steps-and-development-of-an-extensible-open-source-platform-for-processing-and-analysis-of-an-in-house-ms-database
#17
Cristina Gutiérrez, M Ángeles Gómez-Flechoso, Ignacio Belda, Javier Ruiz, Nour Kayali, Luis Polo, Antonio Santos
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the most important yeast species for the production of wine and other beverages. In addition, nowadays, researchers and winemakers are aware of the influence of non-Saccharomyces in wine aroma complexity. Due to the high microbial diversity associated to several agro-food processes, such as winemaking, developing fast and accurate methods for microbial identification is demanded. In this context, MALDI-TOF MS mass fingerprint provides reliable tool for fast biotyping and classification of microorganisms...
August 2, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382030/sub-optimal-ph-preadaptation-improves-the-survival-of-lactobacillus-plantarum-strains-and-the-malic-acid-consumption-in-wine-like-medium
#18
Mariantonietta Succi, Gianfranco Pannella, Patrizio Tremonte, Luca Tipaldi, Raffaele Coppola, Massimo Iorizzo, Silvia Jane Lombardi, Elena Sorrentino
Forty-two oenological strains of Lb. plantarum were assessed for their response to ethanol and pH values generally encountered in wines. Strains showed a higher variability in the survival when exposed to low pH (3.5 or 3.0) than when exposed to ethanol (10 or 14%). The study allowed to individuate the highest ethanol concentration (8%) and the lowest pH value (4.0) for the growth of strains, even if the maximum specific growth rate (μ max ) resulted significantly reduced by these conditions. Two strains (GT1 and LT11) preadapted to 2% ethanol and cultured up to 14% of ethanol showed a higher growth than those non-preadapted when they were cultivated at 8% of ethanol...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330296/application-of-pectinases-for-recovery-of-grape-seeds-phenolics
#19
Petra Štambuk, Dora Tomašković, Ivana Tomaz, Luna Maslov, Domagoj Stupić, Jasminka Karoglan Kontić
Grape marc seeds contain large amounts of different polyphenolic compounds so they can be used for the recovery of these classes of compounds. A new green extraction method for the recovery of phenols from the grape seeds was developed. To provide a high quality extract sourced from natural product by using enzymes as alternative solvents and spending less energy, it is impeccable to call this method "green". Furthermore, this method was optimized by finding out which conditions provide the best possible results and achieving the maximum recovery of polyphenols from grape seeds...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199009/influence-of-different-yeast-lactic-acid-bacteria-combinations-on-the-aromatic-profile-of-red-bordeaux-wine
#20
Marine Gammacurta, Stéphanie Marchand, Virginie Moine, Gilles de Revel
BACKGROUND: The typical fruity aroma of red Bordeaux wines depends on the grape variety but also on microbiological processes, such as alcoholic and malolactic fermentations. These transformations involve respectively the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the lactic acid bacterium Oenococcus oeni. Both species play a central role in red winemaking but their quantitative and qualitative contribution to the revelation of the organoleptic qualities of wine has not yet been fully described...
February 15, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
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