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Mattia Di Gaspero, Paolo Ruzza, Rohanah Hussain, Simone Vincenzi, Barbara Biondi, Diana Gazzola, Giuliano Siligardi, Andrea Curioni
Impairment of wine aroma after vinification is frequently associated to bentonite treatments and this can be the result of protein removal, as recently demonstrated for ethyl esters. To evaluate the existence of an interaction between wine proteins and ethyl esters, the effects induced by these fermentative aroma compounds on the secondary structure and stability of VVTL1, a Thaumatin-like protein purified from wine, was analyzed by Synchrotron Radiation Circular Dichroism (SRCD) spectroscopy. The secondary structure of wine VVTL1 was not strongly affected by the presence of selected ethyl esters...
February 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Keren A Bindon, Sijing Li, Stella Kassara, Paul A Smith
For better understanding of the factors which impact proanthocyanidin (PA) adsorption by insoluble cell walls or interaction with soluble cell wall-derived components, application of a commercial polygalacturonase enzyme preparation was investigated in order to modify grape cell wall structure. Soluble and insoluble cell wall material was isolated from the skin and mesocarp components of Vitis vinifera Shiraz grapes. It was observed that significant depolymerization of the insoluble grape cell wall occurred following enzyme application to both grape cell wall fractions, with increased solubilization of rhamnogalacturonan-enriched, low molecular weight polysaccharides...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Carmen Ancín-Azpilicueta, Nerea Jiménez-Moreno, José Antonio Moler, Rodrigo Nieto-Rojo, Henar Urmeneta
Sulphur dioxide (SO2) is an important preservative for wine, but its presence in foods can cause allergies and this has given impetus to the research for alternatives. The aim of this study was to reduce levels of sulfite in wine production using mixtures with lysozyme and dimethyl dicarbonate and examine the influence on levels of volatile and biogenic amines. To do so, vinifications were carried out using lysozyme, dimethyl dicarbonate (DMDC) and mixtures of these with SO2 in different concentrations (25 and 50 mg l(-1))...
October 2016: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Valentina Catalano, Paula Moreno-Sanz, Silvia Lorenzi, Maria Stella Grando
The genetic varietal authentication of wine was investigated according to DNA isolation procedures reported for enological matrices and also by testing 11 commercial extraction kits and various protocol modifications. Samples were collected at different stages of the winemaking process of renowned Italian wines Brunello di Montalcino, Lambruschi Modenesi, and Trento DOC. Results demonstrated not only that grape DNA loss is produced by the fermentation process but also that clarification and stabilization operations contribute to the reduction of double-stranded DNA content on wine...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Mauro Paolini, Luca Ziller, Daniela Bertoldi, Luana Bontempo, Roberto Larcher, Giorgio Nicolini, Federica Camin
The feasibility of using δ(15) N as an additional isotopic marker able to link wine to its area of origin was investigated. The whole production chain (soil-leaves-grape-wine) was considered. Moreover, the research included evaluation of the effect of the fermentation process, the use of different types of yeast and white and red vinification, the addition of nitrogen adjuvants and ultrasound lysis simulating wine ageing. The δ(15) N of grapes and wine was measured in bulk samples and compounds, specifically in proline, for the first time...
September 2016: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
Maria Aponte, Giuseppe Blaiotta
Twelve samples of Aglianico grapes, collected in different locations of the Taurasi DOCG (Appellation of Controlled and Guaranteed Origin) production area were naturally fermented in sterile containers at room temperature. A total of 70 yeast cultures were isolated from countable WL agar plates: 52 in the middle of the fermentation and 18 at the end. On the basis of ITS-RFLP analysis and ITS sequencing, all cultures collected at the end of fermentations were identified as Saccharomyces (S.) cerevisiae; while, the 52 isolates, collected after 1 week, could be referred to the following species: Metschnikowia (M...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Mariana Tristezza, Maria Tufariello, Vittorio Capozzi, Giuseppe Spano, Giovanni Mita, Francesco Grieco
In oenology, the utilization of mixed starter cultures composed by Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts is an approach of growing importance for winemakers in order to enhance sensory quality and complexity of the final product without compromising the general quality and safety of the oenological products. In fact, several non-Saccharomyces yeasts are already commercialized as oenological starter cultures to be used in combination with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, while several others are the subject of various studies to evaluate their application...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Leticia Martínez-Lapuente, Rafael Apolinar-Valiente, Zenaida Guadalupe, Belén Ayestarán, Silvia Pérez-Magariño, Pascale Williams, Thierry Doco
This paper studied how grape maturity affected complex carbohydrate composition during red sparkling wine making and wine aging. Grape ripening stage (premature and mature grapes) showed a significant impact on the content, composition, and evolution of polysaccharides and oligosaccharides of sparkling wines. Polysaccharides rich in arabinose and galactose, mannoproteins, rhamnogalacturonans II, and oligosaccharides in base wines increased with maturity. For both maturity stages, polysaccharides rich in arabinose and galactose, and the glucuronic acid glycosyl residue of the oligosaccharides were the major carbohydrates detected in all vinification stages...
June 22, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Victor Vinciguerra, Ross Stevenson, Karine Pedneault, André Poirier, Jean-François Hélie, David Widory
The (87)Sr/(86)Sr isotope ratios were measured on grape, wine and soil samples collected in 13 commercial vineyards located in three major wine producing areas of Quebec (Canada). The soils yield Sr isotope ratios that are intimately related to the local geology and unambiguously discriminate the different producing areas. A strong relationship exists between the (87)Sr/(86)Sr isotope ratios of the wine and the grapes. This suggests that the vinification process does not alter the overall Sr budget. Although the Sr isotope ratios of the grapes do not show a strong correlation with the bulk Sr isotope composition of the soil, they do correlate strongly with the Sr isotope composition contained in the labile fraction of the soil...
November 1, 2016: Food Chemistry
Valentina Martin, Facundo Giorello, Laura Fariña, Manuel Minteguiaga, Valentina Salzman, Eduardo Boido, Pablo S Aguilar, Carina Gaggero, Eduardo Dellacassa, Albert Mas, Francisco Carrau
Benzyl alcohol and other benzenoid-derived metabolites of particular importance in plants confer floral and fruity flavors to wines. Among the volatile aroma components in Vitis vinifera grape varieties, benzyl alcohol is present in its free and glycosylated forms. These compounds are considered to originate from grapes only and not from fermentative processes. We have found increased levels of benzyl alcohol in red Tannat wine compared to that in grape juice, suggesting de novo formation of this metabolite during vinification...
June 8, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
M Meneses, C M Torres, F Castells
Sustainability in agriculture and food processing is an issue with a clear growing interest; especially in products were consumers have particular awareness regarding its environmental profile. This is the case of wine industry depending on grape production, winemaking and bottling. Also viticulture and generally agricultural production is significantly affected by climate variations. The aim of this article is to determine the environmental load of an aged red wine from a winery in Catalonia, Spain, over its entire life cycle, including sensitivity analysis of the main parameters related to the cultivation, vinification and bottling...
August 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Jin-Chen Li, Si-Yu Li, Fei He, Zheng-Yi Yuan, Tao Liu, Malcolm J Reeves, Chang-Qing Duan
The phenolic and chromatic characteristics of a special red ice wine made from a Vitis amurensis × V. vinifera hybrid cultivar Beibinghong were studied. Results from two different vintages (2013 and 2014) showed that during vinification, the phenolic acid content increased, while the level of flavonoids (flavonols, flavan-3-ols, and anthocyanins) reduced by a variable extent. The color intensity and red % decreased together with a decrease in anthocyanin content. This was accompanied by an increase in hue as well as yellow %...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Ileana Vigentini, David Maghradze, Maurizio Petrozziello, Federica Bonello, Vito Mezzapelle, Federica Valdetara, Osvaldo Failla, Roberto Foschino
In Georgia, one of the most ancient vine-growing environment, the homemade production of wine is still very popular in every rural family and spontaneous fermentation of must, without addition of chemical preservatives, is the norm. The present work investigated the yeast biodiversity in five Georgian areas (Guria, Imereti, Kakheti, Kartli, Ratcha-Lechkhumi) sampling grapes and wines from 22 different native cultivars, in 26 vineyards and 19 family cellars. One hundred and eighty-two isolates were ascribed to 15 different species by PCR-ITS and RFLP, and partial sequencing of D1/D2 domain 26S rDNA gene...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Ana Belén Bautista-Ortín, Alejandro Martínez-Hernández, Yolanda Ruiz-García, Rocío Gil-Muñoz, Encarna Gómez-Plaza
The rate of tannin extraction was studied in a vinification of red grapes and the results compared with another vinification made with white grapes fermented as for typical red wine, in the presence of skins and seeds. Even though the grapes presented a quite similar skin and seed tannin content, the differences in tannin concentration between both vinifications was very large, despite the fact that the only apparent difference between the phenolic composition of both wines was the anthocyanin content. This suggests that anthocyanins play an important role in tannin extractability, perhaps because they affect the extent of the tannin-cell wall interaction, a factor that largely controls the resulting quantity of tannins in wines...
September 1, 2016: Food Chemistry
Louise Jane Kristensen, Mark Patrick Taylor, Andrew James Evans
Air quality data detailing changes to atmospheric composition from Australia's leaded petrol consumption is spatially and temporally limited. In order to address this data gap, wine was investigated as a potential proxy for atmospheric lead conditions. Wine spanning sixty years was collected from two wine regions proximal to the South Australian capital city, Adelaide, and analysed for lead concentration and lead and strontium isotopic composition for source apportionment. Maximum wine lead concentrations (328 μg/L) occur prior to the lead-in-air monitoring in South Australia in the later 1970s...
July 2016: Chemosphere
Cédric Grangeteau, Daniel Gerhards, Christian von Wallbrunn, Hervé Alexandre, Sandrine Rousseaux, Michèle Guilloux-Benatier
Different genera and/or species of yeasts present on grape berries, in musts and wines are widely described. Nevertheless, the community of non-Saccharomyces yeasts present in the cellar is still given little attention. Thus it is not known if the cellar is a real ecological niche for these yeasts or if it is merely a transient habitat for populations brought in by grape berries during the winemaking period. This study focused on three species of non-Saccharomyces yeasts commonly encountered during vinification: Starmerella bacillaris (synonymy with Candida zemplinina), Hanseniaspora guilliermondii and Hanseniaspora uvarum...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Benoit Lecat, Claude Chapuis, Joelle Brouard, Laurence Cogan
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study is to show how the Cruse affair known as the "Winegate" has changed the wine industry in Burgundy. Cruse, one of the major Bordeauxsellers, was caught by the Customs Office in 1973 and condemned for fraud involving 20'000 hl of Bordeaux wine. This affair has generated a loss of trust between consumers and producers and also between small wine-growers who were selling their wine to the Négociants. METHODS: The objective of this study is to focus on the consequences that this affair has generated for Burgundy growers and Négociants...
2016: Recent Patents on Food, Nutrition & Agriculture
Zuzana Godálová, Lucia Kraková, Andrea Puškárová, Mária Bučková, Tomáš Kuchta, Ľubica Piknová, Domenico Pangallo
This is the first study focused to bacterial diversity and dynamic during the vinification of two important Central Europe grape vines: Blaufränkisch and Grüner Veltliner. The investigation strategy included culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches. Four different agar media were utilized for the isolation of various bacteria occurring in several fermentation stages. The isolates were clustered by fluorescent-ITS PCR and, one or more representatives of each cluster, were identified by 16 rRNA gene sequencing...
January 18, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
María Gabriela Merín, María Carolina Martín, Kalliopi Rantsiou, Luca Cocolin, Vilma Inés Morata de Ambrosini
Pectinolytic enzymes are greatly important in winemaking due to their ability to degrade pectic polymers from grape, contributing to enhance process efficiency and wine quality. This study aimed to analyze the occurrence of pectinolytic yeasts during spontaneous fermentation of Argentine Bonarda grape, to select yeasts that produce extracellular pectinases and to characterize their pectinolytic activity under wine-like conditions. Isolated yeasts were grouped using PCR-DGGE and identified by partial sequencing of 26S rRNA gene...
July 2015: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
Rodrigo Nieto-Rojo, Asuncion Luquin, Carmen Ancín-Azpilicueta
The use of sulphur dioxide (SO2) in the treatment of foodstuffs presents some problems as it could lead to pseudo-allergies in some people. The aim of this research work was to study the addition of different preservative mixtures and their influence on the concentration of volatile compounds and sensorial quality in wine. To do so, vinifications were carried out using Garnacha must to which lysozyme, dimethyl dicarbonate (DMDC) and mixtures of these with SO2 were added at different doses (25 and 50 mg l(-1))...
2015: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
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