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Kelly Jones, Ngara Keeler, Chris Morris, David Brennan, Kaye Roberts-Thompson, Lisa Jamieson
OBJECTIVE: To explore and document self-reported factors contributing to Indigenous Australians' attendance and non-attendance at South Australian public dental clinics. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with people (18 males and 26 females) referred for oral care through the Aboriginal Liaison Program of the South Australian Dental Service. Thematic analysis was performed on 44 transcribed conversations and a conceptual model developed. RESULTS: Persons completing all recommended treatment reported high self-efficacy, health literacy, social cohesion and previous use of dental services and presence of a health advocate...
2016: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
Miguel Ceballos, Gail Wallace, Glenda Goodwin
BACKGROUND: The presence of postpartum depression can lead to poor maternal-child attachment, failure to thrive, and even infant death. Postpartum depression affects 13-19 % of parturients. However, among racial and ethnic minority parturients, postpartum depression rates have been shown to reach up to 35-67 % (as reported by O'Hara and McCabe, Annu Rev Clin Psychol 9:379-407, 2013; Boury et al., Women Health. 39(3):19-34, 2004; Ramos-Marcuse et al.. J Affect Disord. 122(1-2):68-75, 2010; Lucero et al...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Jeffrey A Walker
BACKGROUND: Self-contained tests estimate and test the association between a phenotype and mean expression level in a gene set defined a priori. Many self-contained gene set analysis methods have been developed but the performance of these methods for phenotypes that are continuous rather than discrete and with multiple nuisance covariates has not been well studied. Here, I use Monte Carlo simulation to evaluate the performance of both novel and previously published (and readily available via R) methods for inferring effects of a continuous predictor on mean expression in the presence of nuisance covariates...
2016: PeerJ
Laura Huicochea-Gómez, Lynnette Leidy Sievert, Daniel E Brown, Diana Cahuich-Campos
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to better understand the experience of calores (hot flashes) in the state of Campeche, Mexico, and characteristics of women's lives. This study was carried out to understand the sociocultural context of women's lives before conducting a larger semistructured survey in the same communities. METHODS: Eighty-five women from rural and urban settings participated in open-ended interviews about the menopausal transition, with particular attention to hot flashes...
October 10, 2016: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
Luis-Joaquin Garcia-Lopez, Natalia Bonilla, Jose-Antonio Muela-Martinez
Social anxiety disorder is a highly prevalent psychiatric disorder, with elevated comorbidity rates with other mental health disorders and may cause severe negative consequences. In adolescence, there is a lack of research on how comorbid disorders to social anxiety tends to form particular associations. With a large sample of adolescents with a clinical diagnosis of social anxiety disorder, data have revealed that certain disorders are more frequent and tend to dwell on concrete aggregates. Thus, it may be particularly useful and efficient for mental health providers, pediatricians and school counselors to screen for generalized anxiety disorder and specific phobia when assessing SAD in youth...
September 2016: Psychiatry Investigation
Mylène Quervel-Chaumette, Gaëlle Mainix, Friederike Range, Sarah Marshall-Pescini
Pro-social behaviors are defined as voluntary actions that benefit others. Comparative studies have mostly focused on investigating the presence of pro-sociality across species in an intraspecific context. Taken together, results on both primates and non-primate species indicate that reliance on cooperation may be at work in the selection and maintenance of pro-social sentiments. Dogs appear to be the ideal model when investigating a species' propensity for pro-sociality in an interspecific context because it has been suggested that as a consequence of domestication, they evolved an underlying temperament encouraging greater propensity to cooperate with human partners...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Takeshi Akiyama, Tiengkham Pongvongsa, Souraxay Phrommala, Tomoyo Taniguchi, Yuba Inamine, Rie Takeuchi, Tadashi Watanabe, Futoshi Nishimoto, Kazuhiko Moji, Shigeyuki Kano, Hisami Watanabe, Jun Kobayashi
BACKGROUND: Asymptomatic malaria can be observed in both stable endemic areas and unstable transmission areas. However, although much attention has been given to acute malaria infections, relatively little attention has been paid to asymptomatic malaria. Nonetheless, because the asymptomatic host serves as a reservoir for the malaria parasite, asymptomatic malaria is now recognized as an important obstacle to malaria elimination. Asymptomatic malaria is also associated with anaemia, a global public health problem with serious consequences on human health as well as social and economic development...
October 18, 2016: Malaria Journal
Graham Cameron Thompson, Ellen Morrison, Marshall Ross, Helena Liu, Otto G Vanderkooi, Robin Eccles
OBJECTIVES: To determine the proportion of true-positive blood culture results in children presenting to the ED with suspected appendicitis. To describe the current practice of obtaining blood cultures in children with suspected appendicitis. METHODS: We performed a 2-year retrospective health record review of all children aged 2 through 17 years investigated for suspected appendicitis at a tertiary Pediatric Emergency Department. Subjects were identified by searching (a) institutional records for ICD-10-CA coding, (b) diagnostic imaging records of ultrasounds for appendicitis, and (c) surgical database records for nonincidental appendectomies...
October 17, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Giovanni Veronesi
In Italy, the European SCORE Project risk score is the recommended tool for cardiovascular disease risk stratification in the primary prevention setting. Among non-diabetic subjects aged 40 to 64, the model estimates the 10-year probability of death due to cardiovascular disease based on individual's age, total cholesterol, blood pressure and smoking status. A growing body of evidence suggests that in middle-aged adults this stratification may suffer from two major drawbacks. First, mortality risk severely underestimates the global burden of disease incidence...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Tazeen Jafar
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) defined as reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) or presence of albuminuria, progresses to end stage renal disease (ESRD), needing dialysis or kidney transplant to sustain life, and is associated with increased risks of premature cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. CKD ranked 18 leading (and most rapidly rising cause of mortality by the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. The social and economic consequences of CKD are far worse in low and middle income countries (LMICs) including India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Charles DiMaggio, Stephen Mooney, Spiros Frangos, Stephen Wall
BACKGROUND: Pedestrian and bicyclist injury is an important public health issue. The retail environment, particularly the presence of alcohol outlets, may contribute the the risk of pedestrian or bicyclist injury, but this association is poorly understood. METHODS: This study quantifies the spatial risk of alcohol-related pedestrian injury in New York City at the census tract level over a recent 10-year period using a Bayesian hierarchical spatial regression model with Integrated Nested Laplace approximations...
December 2016: Injury Epidemiology
Maria Kovacs, Lauren M Bylsma, Ilya Yaroslavsky, Jonathan Rottenberg, Charles J George, Enikő Kiss, Kitti Halas, István Benák, Ildiko Baji, Ágnes Vetro, Krisztina Kapornai
While hedonic capacity is diminished during clinical depression, it is unclear whether that deficit constitutes a risk factor and/or persists after depression episodes remit. To examine these issues, adolescents with current/past major depression (probands; n=218), never depressed biological siblings of probands (n=207), and emotionally-well controls (n=183) were exposed to several positively valenced probes. Across baseline and hedonic probe conditions, controls consistently reported higher levels of positive affect than high-risk siblings, and siblings reported higher levels of positive affect than probands (remitted and depressed probands' reports were similar)...
July 2016: Clinical Psychological Science
Huluagresh Bitew, Gashaw Andargie, Agitu Tadesse, Amsalu Belete, Wubalem Fekadu, Tesfa Mekonen
Background. Suicide is a serious cause of mortality worldwide and is considered as a psychiatric emergency. Suicide is more frequent in peoples living with HIV/AIDS than in general population. Objective. To assess the proportion and determining factors of suicidal ideation and attempt among peoples living with HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia. Methods. Institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted from May to June 2015 by selecting 393 participants using systematic random sampling technique. Suicide manual of Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was used to collect data...
2016: Depression Research and Treatment
G Iakimova, S Dimitrova, T Burté
OBJECTIVES: Computer-delivered Cognitive Behavioral Therapies (C-CBT) are emerging as therapeutic techniques which contribute to overcome the barriers of health care access in adult populations with depression. The C-CBTs provide CBT techniques in a highly structured format comprising a number of educational lessons, homework, multimedia illustrations and supplementary materials via interactive computer interfaces. Programs are often administrated with a minimal or regular support provided by a clinician or a technician via email, telephone, online forums, or during face-to-face consultations...
October 10, 2016: L'Encéphale
Márton Pósfai, Jianxi Gao, Sean P Cornelius, Albert-László Barabási, Raissa M D'Souza
The paradigm of layered networks is used to describe many real-world systems, from biological networks to social organizations and transportation systems. While recently there has been much progress in understanding the general properties of multilayer networks, our understanding of how to control such systems remains limited. One fundamental aspect that makes this endeavor challenging is that each layer can operate at a different time scale; thus, we cannot directly apply standard ideas from structural control theory of individual networks...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
Channa Jayasumana, Carlos Orantes, Raul Herrera, Miguel Almaguer, Laura Lopez, Luis Carlos Silva, Pedro Ordunez, Sisira Siribaddana, Sarath Gunatilake, Marc E De Broe
Increase in the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is observed in Central America, Sri Lanka and other tropical countries. It is named chronic interstitial nephritis in agricultural communities (CINAC). CINAC is defined as a form of CKD that affects mainly young men, occasionally women. Its aetiology is not linked to diabetes, hypertension, glomerulopathies or other known causes. CINAC patients live and work in poor agricultural communities located in CINAC endemic areas with a hot tropical climate, and are exposed to toxic agrochemicals through work, by ingestion of contaminated food and water, or by inhalation...
October 13, 2016: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Hirotaka Sekiguchi, Masatsugu Moriwaki, Shuji Iritani, Chikako Habuchi, Youta Torii, Kentaro Umeda, Hiroshige Fujishiro, Mari Yoshida, Kiyoshi Fujita
We herein report the case of a 75-year-old male who had shown many psychiatric symptoms, but whose autopsy disclosed the presence of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). When he was 70 years old, the patient had presented with stereotyped behavior, dietary changes, and a decline in social interpersonal conduct in clinical settings, and it was thought that these symptoms were consistent with a behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), and he lacked the core features of DLB. Nevertheless, this case was pathologically defined as the limbic type of DLB after he died at the age of 75 years...
October 14, 2016: Clinical Neuropathology
Juliana Nichterwitz Scherer, Roberta Silvestrin, Felipe Ornell, Vinícius Roglio, Tanara Rosangela Vieira Sousa
BACKGROUND: Substance use disorders are associated with the increased risk of driving under the influence (DUI), but little is known about crack-cocaine and its relationship with road traffic crashes (RTC). METHOD: A multicenter sample of 765 crack-cocaine users was recruited in six Brazilian capitals in order to estimate the prevalence of DUI and RTC involvement. Legal, psychiatric, and drug-use aspects related with traffic safety were evaluated using the Addiction Severity Index - 6th version (ASI-6) and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview...
October 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Li Dong, Matteo Cornaglia, Thomas Lehnert, Martin A M Gijs
Like other animals, C. elegans nematodes have the ability to socially interact and to communicate through exchange and sensing of small soluble signaling compounds that help them cope with complex environmental conditions. For the time being, worm biocommunication assays are being performed mainly on agar plates; however, microfluidic assays may provide significant advantages compared to traditional methods, such as control of signaling molecule concentrations and gradients or confinement of distinct worm populations in different microcompartments...
October 13, 2016: Lab on a Chip
Michael A Rieger, Joseph D Dougherty
Mice produce ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) in multiple communicative contexts, including adult social interaction (e.g., male to female courtship), as well as pup calls when separated from the dam. Assessment of pup USV has been widely applied in models of social and communicative disorders, dozens of which have shown alterations to this conserved behavior. However, features such as call production rate can vary substantially even within experimental groups and it is unclear to what extent aspects of USV represent stable trait-like influences or are vulnerable to an animal's state...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
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