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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340198/reasons-to-wait-or-to-treat-naive-patients-affected-by-chronic-hepatitis-c-with-low-fibrosis-stage-and-genotypes-2-or-3
#1
Lucio Boglione, Jessica Cusato, Giuseppe Cariti, Giovanni Di Perri, Antonio D'Avolio
New interferon (IFN)-free therapies are not currently available for all patients with chronic hepatitis C due to higher costs; in Italy, patients with genotype 2 (GT2) or GT3 without severe fibrosis can choose between wait or treatment with pegylated (PEG)-IFN and ribavirin. This study wants to examine the real rate of patients that accept or refused this therapy and the reasons related to decision. This prospective, observational analysis was performed at our centre between January 2014 and June 2015. Epidemiological, social and clinical data were collected in medical records; reasons for treatment acceptance/refusal were recorded through a questionnaire...
March 10, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334847/utilization-and-environmental-availability-of-food-outlets-and-overweight-obesity-among-schoolchildren-in-a-city-in-the-south-of-brazil
#2
Elizabeth Nappi Corrêa, Camila Elizandra Rossi, Janaina das Neves, Diego Augusto Santos Silva, Francisco de Assis Guedes de Vasconcelos
Among the causes of obesity, environmental factors have also been studied, in addition to genetic, social, psychological, and hormonal factors. The distribution of food outlets, facilitating or hindering food acquisition, can promote body weight control by encouraging healthier food habits. The objective of this study was to investigate associations between environmental availability and utilization of food outlets and overweight/obesity in 7 to 14-year-old schoolchildren in Florianópolis, in the South of Brazil...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334348/evaluation-of-the-potential-for-secondary-kill-for-ingested-insecticides-in-the-common-bed-bug-hemiptera-cimicidae
#3
Yvonne K Matos, Angela Sierras, Coby Schal
Baits are a preferred method of urban pest management. Baits enable more targeted insecticide applications with a fraction of the active ingredient used in residual sprays. Bait translocation by foragers, and consequent secondary kill of nonforagers, enhances bait effectiveness in social insects, and in other group-living species like German cockroaches (Blattella germanica L.). We investigated the potential for secondary kill in bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.), another gregarious species, using a liquid bait...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332121/impairment-in-emotion-perception-from-body-movements-in-individuals-with-bipolar-i-and-bipolar-ii-disorder-is-associated-with-functional-capacity
#4
Anja Vaskinn, Trine Vik Lagerberg, Thomas D Bjella, Carmen Simonsen, Ole A Andreassen, Torill Ueland, Kjetil Sundet
BACKGROUND: Individuals with bipolar disorder present with moderate impairments in social cognition during the euthymic state. The impairment extends to theory of mind and to the perception of emotion in faces and voices, but it is unclear if emotion perception from body movements is affected. The main aim of this study was to examine if participants with bipolar disorder perform worse than healthy control participants on a task using point-light displays of human full figures moving in a manner indicative of a basic emotion (angry, happy, sad, fearful, neutral/no emotion)...
December 2017: International Journal of Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331600/bacterial-cell-to-cell-signaling-promotes-the-evolution-of-resistance-to-parasitic-bacteriophages
#5
Pierre Moreau, Stephen P Diggle, Ville-Petri Friman
The evolution of host-parasite interactions could be affected by intraspecies variation between different host and parasite genotypes. Here we studied how bacterial host cell-to-cell signaling affects the interaction with parasites using two bacteria-specific viruses (bacteriophages) and the host bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa that communicates by secreting and responding to quorum sensing (QS) signal molecules. We found that a QS-signaling proficient strain was able to evolve higher levels of resistance to phages during a short-term selection experiment...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331571/clinical-evaluation-of-autistic-symptoms-in-women-with-anorexia-nervosa
#6
Heather Westwood, William Mandy, Kate Tchanturia
BACKGROUND: Despite a suggested link between anorexia nervosa (AN) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), previous studies have used self-report or diagnostic criteria to assess for ASD in AN populations, rather than direct observation of symptom characteristic of ASD. The aim of this study was to use a standardised, clinical assessment of ASD, the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, 2nd Edition (ADOS-2), to investigate the presence of autistic symptoms in a cross-sectional sample of women with AN...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331453/are-pediatricians-diagnosing-obese-children
#7
Katharine Thomas, Fernando Urrego
BACKGROUND: Pediatric obesity is the most prevalent nutritional disorder in American children. The detrimental social, psychological, and physiological effects of obesity call for pediatricians to address this health concern. The literature demonstrates that clinicians are underreporting the diagnosis of obesity in the pediatric setting. The primary purpose of this study was to determine if pediatricians at one pediatrics clinic in the Ochsner Health System are documenting the presence of an overweight or obese body mass index (BMI) as a diagnosis in the medical record...
2017: Ochsner Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331415/structure-of-resilience-among-japanese-adult-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-a-qualitative-study
#8
Ikuko Nishio, Masami Chujo
BACKGROUND: Resilience is the process of overcoming adversities and difficulties. We clarified the structure of resilience and its motivational power among adult Japanese patients with type 1 diabetes. This is likely to help ensure effective nursing support to empower patients with diabetes and help them recuperate and improve their personal lives. METHODS: Participants were 17 patients with type 1 diabetes, and data were collected using semi-structured interviews...
March 2017: Yonago Acta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329836/convoys-of-social-relations-in-cross-national-context
#9
Kristine J Ajrouch, Heather R Fuller, Hiroko Akiyama, Toni C Antonucci
Purpose of the Study: This study examines national variations in social networks among older adults across 4 countries in diverse regions of the world: Japan, Lebanon, Mexico, and the United States. The aim is to provide insights into universal as well as unique attributes of social networks in later life. Design and Methods: The analyses examine convoy characteristics among adults aged 50+ in metropolitan areas of Japan (N = 557), Lebanon (N = 284), Mexico (N = 556), and the United States (N = 583)...
January 19, 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329305/association-between-spousal-suicide-and-mental-physical-and-social-health-outcomes-a-longitudinal-and-nationwide-register-based-study
#10
Annette Erlangsen, Bo Runeson, James M Bolton, Holly C Wilcox, Julie L Forman, Jesper Krogh, M Katherine Shear, Merete Nordentoft, Yeates Conwell
Importance: Bereavement after spousal suicide has been linked to mental disorders; however, a comprehensive assessment of the effect of spousal suicide is needed. Objective: To determine whether bereavement after spousal suicide was linked to an excessive risk of mental, physical, and social health outcomes when compared with the general population and spouses bereaved by other manners. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nationwide, register-based cohort study conducted in Denmark of 6...
March 22, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326752/minimal-role-of-comorbid-personality-disorder-on-the-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-anxiety-spectrum-disorders
#11
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVES: There is no consensus on the definition of Quality of life (QoL). It is considered to be comprised of both psychological and somatical well-being. A variety of tools has been developed to measure subjective and objective (QoL). A number of factors, including demographical and medical may have an impact on QoL. The aim of our study was to compare the QoL in selected anxiety disorders and evaluate the influence of comorbid personality disorder. METHOD: We evaluated data from 278 patients suffering from social phobia, panic disorder and/or agoraphobia, adjustment disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder...
January 22, 2017: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326037/differences-on-brain-connectivity-in-adulthood-are-present-in-subjects-with-iron-deficiency-anemia-in-infancy
#12
Cecilia Algarin, Keerthana Deepti Karunakaran, Sussanne Reyes, Cristian Morales, Betsy Lozoff, Patricio Peirano, Bharat Biswal
Iron deficiency continues to be the most prevalent micronutrient deficit worldwide. Since iron is involved in several processes including myelination, dopamine neurotransmission and neuronal metabolism, the presence of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in infancy relates to long-lasting neurofunctional effects. There is scarce data regarding whether these effects would extend to former iron deficient anemic human adults. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a novel technique to explore patterns of functional connectivity...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325541/the-relationship-between-diabetic-retinopathy-and-nephropathy-in-sudanese-adult-with-diabetes-population-based-study
#13
Mohamed H Ahmed, Einas S Elwali, Heitham Awadalla, Ahmed O Almobarak
INTRODUCTION: Diabetic nephropathy is responsible for nearly third of the world cases of end stage renal disease; it becomes a major public health problem with social and economic burden. The aim of this study is to explore if there is an association between retinopathy and nephropathy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a cross sectional hospital based study a total of 316 individuals with diabetes were recruited from Makkah eye complex retina clinic. Demographic data, medical history and life style characteristics were taken through standard questionnaire...
March 7, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324812/the-effects-of-ovarian-biopsy-and-blood-sampling-methods-on-salivary-cortisol-and-behaviour-in-sows
#14
Jinhyeon Yun, Stefan Björkman, Merja Pöytäkangas, Olli Peltoniemi
In reproductive physiology research, experimental animals are often subjected to stressful procedures, including blood sampling and biopsy. In this present study, presence of pain or distress induced by four different procedures was examined using a measurement of salivary cortisol levels and activity observations in sows. The treatments were: 1) PAL: The ovary was palpated through the rectum without snaring, 2) TUB: transvaginal ultrasound-guided biopsy of the ovary was conducted without snaring, 3) SNA: a soft rope snare was placed around the maxilla, 4) CAT: A soft rope snare was placed around the maxilla, and an intravenous catheter was inserted through the ear vein of the sows...
March 11, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324791/spatio-temporal-neighborhood-impacts-on-internalizing-and-externalizing-behaviors-in-u-s-elementary-school-children-effect-modification-by-child-and-family-socio-demographics
#15
Jamie L Humphrey, Elisabeth D Root
Increasing evidence from experimental and non-experimental research has shown that children residing in disadvantaged neighborhoods exhibit greater levels of internalizing and externalizing behaviors, above and beyond individual characteristics, and family or school contexts. Using the ECLS-K, a nationally representative, longitudinal survey of U.S. school children, this study examined direct neighborhood effects on internalizing (N = 14,870; N = 10,610) and externalizing (N = 14,960; N = 10,730) behaviors at the beginning and end of elementary school...
March 12, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324234/damage-induced-alarm-cues-influence-lateralized-behaviour-but-not-the-relationship-between-behavioural-and-habenular-asymmetry-in-convict-cichlids-amatitlania-nigrofasciata
#16
Michele K Moscicki, Peter L Hurd
Cerebral lateralization, the partitioning of functions into a certain hemisphere of the brain, is ubiquitous among vertebrates. Evidence suggests that the cognitive processing of a stimulus is performed with a specific hemisphere depending in part upon the emotional valence of the stimulus (i.e. whether it is appetitive or aversive). Recent work has implicated a predominance of right-hemisphere processing for aversive stimuli. In fish with laterally placed eyes, the preference to view an object with a specific eye has been used as a proxy for assessing cerebral lateralization...
March 21, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323829/potentially-modifiable-lifestyle-factors-cognitive-reserve-and-cognitive-function-in-later-life-a-cross-sectional-study
#17
Linda Clare, Yu-Tzu Wu, Julia C Teale, Catherine MacLeod, Fiona Matthews, Carol Brayne, Bob Woods
BACKGROUND: Potentially modifiable lifestyle factors may influence cognitive health in later life and offer potential to reduce the risk of cognitive decline and dementia. The concept of cognitive reserve has been proposed as a mechanism to explain individual differences in rates of cognitive decline, but its potential role as a mediating pathway has seldom been explored using data from large epidemiological studies. We explored the mediating effect of cognitive reserve on the cross-sectional association between lifestyle factors and cognitive function in later life using data from a population-based cohort of healthy older people...
March 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323539/guns-in-the-home-and-the-possibility-of-aggressive-tendencies-exploring-a-community-sample-of-adolescents-in-low-income-communities
#18
Brad Lian, Beatrice Abiero, Paula Kamara
Firearm violence has been the second leading cause of death among adolescents and young adults in the United States since 2000 and is a major public health concern. But firearms may be related to less lethal forms of violence as well. Here we examine the relationship between the presence of a gun in the home and several behavioral and psychosocial measures related to aggression and violence among adolescents using data from a community-based survey of nearly 2,000 youths living in low-income neighborhoods. Our results indicate that adolescents living in homes where a gun is present display more aggressive attitudes and behaviors than their counterparts living in homes with no gun present...
March 21, 2017: Social Work in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321289/art-perception-in-the-museum-how-we-spend-time-and-space-in-art-exhibitions
#19
Claus-Christian Carbon
Aesthetics research aiming at understanding art experience is an emerging field; however, most research is conducted in labs without access to real artworks, without the social context of a museum and without the presence of other persons. The present article replicates and complements key findings of art perception in museum contexts. When observing museum visitors (N = 225; 126 female, M(age) = 43.3 years) while perceiving a series of six Gerhard Richter paintings of various sizes (0.26-3.20 sq...
January 2017: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321288/influence-of-coactors-on-saccadic-and-manual-responses
#20
Manuel Oliva, Diederick C Niehorster, Halszka Jarodzka, Kenneth Holmqvist
Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of coaction on saccadic and manual responses. Participants performed the experiments either in a solitary condition or in a group of coactors who performed the same tasks at the same time. In Experiment 1, participants completed a pro- and antisaccade task where they were required to make saccades towards (prosaccades) or away (antisaccades) from a peripheral visual stimulus. In Experiment 2, participants performed a visual discrimination task that required both making a saccade towards a peripheral stimulus and making a manual response in reaction to the stimulus's orientation...
January 2017: I-Perception
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