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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913843/molecular-evolution-in-historical-perspective
#1
Edna Suárez-Díaz
In the 1960s, advances in protein chemistry and molecular genetics provided new means for the study of biological evolution. Amino acid sequencing, nucleic acid hybridization, zone gel electrophoresis, and immunochemistry were some of the experimental techniques that brought about new perspectives to the study of the patterns and mechanisms of evolution. New concepts, such as the molecular evolutionary clock, and the discovery of unexpected molecular phenomena, like the presence of repetitive sequences in eukaryotic genomes, eventually led to the realization that evolution might occur at a different pace at the organismic and the molecular levels, and according to different mechanisms...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Molecular Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912856/processes-of-developing-community-livability-in-older-age
#2
Kendra S Heatwole Shank, Malcolm P Cutchin
OBJECTIVE: 'Community livability' is a widely used term that is still under-conceptualized. The purpose of the project was to theorize key dynamics of livability for older adults who are aging in place in their homes and communities. METHODS: Twelve community-dwelling adults (70+) were recruited in a multiple-case study design. Interviews and naturalistic observations were used over the course of 6months. Global positioning system (GPS) devices were used to generate maps (routines, routes, type and duration of activities) to elicit additional insights through interviews...
December 2016: Journal of Aging Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912847/negotiating-positive-aging-in-the-presence-of-age-related-vision-loss-arvl-the-shaping-and-perpetuation-of-disability
#3
Colleen McGrath, Debbie Laliberte Rudman, Jan Polgar, Marlee M Spafford, Barry Trentham
INTRODUCTION: While previous research has explored the meaning of positive aging discourses from the perspective of older adults, the perspective of older adults aging with a disability has not been studied. In fact the intersection of aging and disability has been largely underexplored in both social gerontology and disability studies. METHOD: This critical ethnography engaged ten older adults aging with vision loss in narrative interviews, participant observation sessions, and semi-structured in-depth interviews...
December 2016: Journal of Aging Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909416/combining-gender-work-and-family-identities-the-cross-over-and-spill-over-of-gender-norms-into-young-adults-work-and-family-aspirations
#4
Loes Meeussen, Jenny Veldman, Colette Van Laar
The current study investigates how descriptive and prescriptive gender norms that communicate work and family identities to be (in)compatible with gender identities limit or enhance young men and women's family and career aspirations. Results show that young adults (N = 445) perceived gender norms to assign greater compatibility between female and family identities and male and work identities than vice versa, and that young men and women mirror their aspirations to this traditional division of tasks. Spill-over effects of norms across life domains and cross-over effects of norms across gender-groups indicated that young women, more than young men, aimed to 'have it all': mirroring their career ambitions to a male career model, while keeping their family aspirations high...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909073/accuracy-of-outpatient-service-data-for-activity-based-funding-in-new-south-wales-australia
#5
Esther N Munyisia, David Reid, Ping Yu
BACKGROUND: Despite increasing research on activity-based funding (ABF), there is no empirical evidence on the accuracy of outpatient service data for payment. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify data entry errors affecting ABF in two drug and alcohol outpatient clinic services in Australia. METHODS: An audit was carried out on healthcare workers' (doctors, nurses, psychologists, social workers, counsellors, and aboriginal health education officers) data entry errors in an outpatient electronic documentation system...
December 1, 2016: HIM Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907996/probabilistic-information-transmission-in-a-network-of-coupled-oscillators-reveals-speed-accuracy-trade-off-in-responding-to-threats
#6
Amanda Chicoli, Derek A Paley
Individuals in a group may obtain information from other group members about the environment, including the location of a food source or the presence of a predator. Here, we model how information spreads in a group using a susceptible-infected-removed epidemic model. We apply this model to a simulated shoal of fish using the motion dynamics of a coupled oscillator model, in order to test the biological hypothesis that polarized or aligned shoaling leads to faster and more accurate escape responses. The contributions of this study are the (i) application of a probabilistic model of epidemics to the study of collective animal behavior; (ii) testing the biological hypothesis that group cohesion improves predator escape; (iii) quantification of the effect of social cues on startle propagation; and (iv) investigation of the variation in response based on network connectivity...
November 2016: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907025/measuring-social-motivation-using-signal-detection-and-reward-responsiveness
#7
Coralie Chevallier, Natasha Tonge, Lou Safra, David Kahn, Gregor Kohls, Judith Miller, Robert T Schultz
BACKGROUND: Recent trends in psychiatry have emphasized the need for a shift from categorical to dimensional approaches. Of critical importance to this transformation is the availability of tools to objectively quantify behaviors dimensionally. The present study focuses on social motivation, a dimension of behavior that is central to a range of psychiatric conditions but for which a particularly small number of assays currently exist. METHODS: In Study 1 (N = 48), healthy adults completed a monetary reward task and a social reward task, followed by completion of the Chapman Physical and Social Anhedonia Scales...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905533/five-key-attributes-can-increase-marine-protected-areas-performance-for-small-scale-fisheries-management
#8
Antonio Di Franco, Pierre Thiriet, Giuseppe Di Carlo, Charalampos Dimitriadis, Patrice Francour, Nicolas L Gutiérrez, Alain Jeudy de Grissac, Drosos Koutsoubas, Marco Milazzo, María Del Mar Otero, Catherine Piante, Jeremiah Plass-Johnson, Susana Sainz-Trapaga, Luca Santarossa, Sergi Tudela, Paolo Guidetti
Marine protected areas (MPAs) have largely proven to be effective tools for conserving marine ecosystem, while socio-economic benefits generated by MPAs to fisheries are still under debate. Many MPAs embed a no-take zone, aiming to preserve natural populations and ecosystems, within a buffer zone where potentially sustainable activities are allowed. Small-scale fisheries (SSF) within buffer zones can be highly beneficial by promoting local socio-economies. However, guidelines to successfully manage SSFs within MPAs, ensuring both conservation and fisheries goals, and reaching a win-win scenario, are largely unavailable...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904967/relocation-stress-induces-short-term-fecal-cortisol-increase-in-tonkean-macaques-macaca-tonkeana
#9
Carlo Cinque, Arianna De Marco, Jerome Mairesse, Chiara Giuli, Andrea Sanna, Lorenzo De Marco, Anna Rita Zuena, Paola Casolini, Assia Catalani, Bernard Thierry, Roberto Cozzolino
The level of glucocorticoids, especially if obtained from noninvasive sampling, can be used as an index of animal well-being, allowing evaluation of the animal's response to environmental modifications. Despite evidence that these hormones play a relevant role in energy metabolism regulation in perceived or real stress events, little is known regarding the factors that could modify the capability of animals to cope with relocation events. The aim of this research was to assess fecal cortisol metabolite concentrations before, during and after acute stress (transfer and relocation event) in two well-established social groups of Tonkean macaques (Macaca tonkeana)...
November 30, 2016: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902887/why-do-smokers-talk-about-antismoking-campaigns-predictors-of-the-occurrence-and-content-of-campaign-generated-conversations
#10
Emily Brennan, Sarah J Durkin, Melanie Wakefield, Yoshihisa Kashima
Smokers often talk about antismoking campaigns, and these conversations can contribute to campaign effectiveness. However, little is known about the predictors and content of naturally occurring campaign-generated conversations. In two studies (Study 1, N = 480; Study 2, N = 232), we systematically examined whether the occurrence and content of smokers' conversations after exposure to one of eight antismoking television advertisements were predicted by characteristics of (a) the message, (b) intrapersonal responses to the message, (c) the individual, and (d) the social context in which exposure occurred...
November 30, 2016: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898276/behind-the-mask-a-psychodynamic-exploration-of-the-experiences-of-individuals-diagnosed-with-social-anxiety-disorder
#11
Beth McEvoy, John O'Connor, Odhran McCarthy
The diagnostic category of social anxiety disorder (SAD) is one that is widely drawn upon in mental health settings; SAD is primarily characterized by a marked fear of social performance situations and possible scrutiny by other people (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 1994, 2013). The current study aims to explore the experiences of people diagnosed with SAD. Psychoanalytically informed research interviews, drawing on psychoanalytic ideas around the parameters of engagement and levels of engagement and analysis, were carried out with 4 male and 2 female participants with diagnoses of SAD...
2016: Psychodynamic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897994/disability-physical-inactivity-and-impaired-health-related-quality-of-life-are-not-different-in-metabolically-healthy-vs-unhealthy-obese-subjects
#12
Lorenzo M Donini, Gianluca Merola, Eleonora Poggiogalle, Carla Lubrano, Lucio Gnessi, Stefania Mariani, Silvia Migliaccio, Andrea Lenzi
BACKGROUND: Obesity represents a major health hazard, affecting morbidity, psychological status, physical functionality, quality of life, and mortality. The aim of the present study was to explore the differences between metabolically healthy (MHO) and metabolically unhealthy (MUO) obese subjects with regard to physical activity, disability, and health-related quality of life (HR-QoL). METHODS: All subjects underwent a multidimensional evaluation, encompassing the assessment of body composition, metabolic biomarkers and inflammation, physical activity level (IPAQ questionnaire), disability (TSD-OC test), and HR-QoL (SF-36 questionnaire)...
November 25, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895610/the-origin-of-social-evaluation-social-eavesdropping-reputation-formation-image-scoring-or-what-you-will
#13
REVIEW
Judit Abdai, Ádám Miklósi
Social evaluation is a mental process that leverages the preference toward prosocial partners (positivity bias) against the avoidance of antisocial individuals (negativity bias) in a cooperative context. The phenomenon is well-known in humans, and recently comparative investigations looked at the possible evolutionary origins. So far social evaluation has been investigated mainly in non-human and human primates and dogs, however, there are few data on the presence of negativity/positivity bias in client-cleaner reef fish interactions as well...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895583/matching-adherence-interventions-to-patient-determinants-using-the-theoretical-domains-framework
#14
REVIEW
Samuel S Allemann, Robby Nieuwlaat, Bart J F van den Bemt, Kurt E Hersberger, Isabelle Arnet
Introduction: Despite much research, interventions to improve medication adherence report disappointing and inconsistent results. Tailored approaches that match interventions and patient determinants of non-adherence were seldom used in clinical trials. The presence of a multitude of theoretical frameworks and models to categorize interventions and patient determinants complicated the development of common categories shared by interventions and determinants. We retrieved potential interventions and patient determinants from published literature on medication adherence, matched them like locks and keys, and categorized them according to the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF)...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895520/effectiveness-of-social-work-intervention-with-a-systematic-approach-to-improve-general-health-in-opioid-addicts-in-addiction-treatment-centers
#15
Ghoncheh Raheb, Esmat Khaleghi, Amir Moghanibashi-Mansourieh, Ali Farhoudian, Robab Teymouri
PURPOSE: This study takes a systematic approach to investigate the effect of social work intervention aimed at increasing general health among opioid addicts in addiction treatment centers. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is an experimental plan (pretest to posttest with a control group); the study sample included 60 patients with drug dependencies undergoing treatment in addiction treatment centers. These patients were randomly assigned as case (30) and control (30) groups...
2016: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895198/autism-and-reactive-attachment-disinhibited-social-engagement-disorders-co-occurrence-and-differentiation
#16
Susan Dickerson Mayes, Susan L Calhoun, Daniel A Waschbusch, Raman Baweja
DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition) Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) and Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder (DSED) are rare disorders sharing social difficulties with autism. The DSM-5 and ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases, 10th revsion) state that RAD/DSED should not be diagnosed in children with autism. The purpose of our study is to determine whether children can meet criteria for both autism and RAD/DSED and to identify specific symptoms discriminating the disorders...
November 28, 2016: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894273/prevalence-of-non-febrile-seizures-in-children-with-idiopathic-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-their-unaffected-siblings-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#17
Lena M McCue, Louise H Flick, Kimberly A Twyman, Hong Xian, Thomas E Conturo
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous disorder characterized not only by deficits in communication and social interactions but also a high rate of co-occurring disorders, including metabolic abnormalities, gastrointestinal and sleep disorders, and seizures. Seizures, when present, interfere with cognitive development and are associated with a higher mortality rate in the ASD population. METHODS: To determine the relative prevalence of non-febrile seizures in children with idiopathic ASD from multiplex and simplex families compared with the unaffected siblings in a cohort of 610 children with idiopathic ASD and their 160 unaffected siblings, participating in the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange project, the secondary analysis was performed comparing the life-time prevalence of non-febrile seizures...
November 28, 2016: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891393/day-care-vs-overnight-stay-after-laparoscopic-cholecystectomy-even-with-co-morbidity-and-a-possible-second-surgery-a-patient-s-choice
#18
Aswini Kumar Pujahari
INTRODUCTION: Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy (LC) has become the gold standard for symptomatic gall stone disease. It is being practiced as a day care procedure in healthy individuals in American Society of Anaesthesialogists (ASA) grade I and II. It is not yet established in presence of co-morbidity and when a second surgery is added. In most of the study, patient's choice and the psycho-social factors were not considered in deciding the day care procedure. AIM: To find the safety of LC and a second surgery as day care in presence of compensated co-morbidity...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891188/associations-between-social-cognition-skills-and-function-and-subclinical-negative-and-positive-symptoms-in-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome
#19
A Vangkilde, J R M Jepsen, H Schmock, C Olesen, S Arnarsdóttir, W F C Baaré, K J Plessen, M Didriksen, H R Siebner, T Werge, L Olsen
BACKGROUND: Identification of the early signs of schizophrenia would be a major achievement for the early intervention and prevention strategies in psychiatry. Social impairments are defining features of schizophrenia. Impairments of individual layers of social competencies are frequently described in individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), who have high risk of schizophrenia. It is unclear whether and to what extent social impairments associate with subclinical negative and positive symptoms in 22q11...
2016: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890473/the-persistence-of-and-resistance-to-social-norms-regarding-the-appropriate-amount-to-eat-a-preliminary-investigation
#20
Justin R Feeney, Patricia Pliner, Janet Polivy, C Peter Herman
We conducted a preliminary investigation on the resistance to, and persistence of, social influence regarding the appropriate amount to eat, defined in terms of eating an amount similar to that eaten by a confederate. Participants ate pizza both alone and in the presence of remote confederates presenting either a high or low eating norm. In the portion of the experiment examining resistance to social influence, participants given an initial opportunity to form a personal eating norm by eating alone for one session in the absence of social influence were no more resistant to low eating norms than were those who had no such opportunity; however, those who ate alone for two or three prior sessions did show resistance...
November 24, 2016: Appetite
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