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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821570/juvenile-hormone-but-not-nutrition-or-social-cues-affects-reproductive-maturation-in-solitary-alkali-bees-nomia-melanderi
#1
Karen M Kapheim, Makenna M Johnson
Eusocial insect colonies are defined by extreme variation in reproductive activity among castes, but the ancestral conditions from which this variation arose are unknown. Investigating the factors that contribute to variation in reproductive physiology among solitary insects that are closely related to social species can help to fill this gap. We experimentally tested the role of nutrition, juvenile hormone, and social cues on reproductive maturation in solitary alkali bees (Halictidae: Nomia melanderi). We find that alkali bee females emerge from overwintering with small Dufour's glands and small ovaries, containing oocytes in the early stages of development...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820667/helping-young-people-stay-afloat-a-qualitative-study-of-community-resources-and-supports-for-lgbtq-adolescents-in-the-us-and-canada
#2
Marla E Eisenberg, Christopher J Mehus, Elizabeth M Saewyc, Heather L Corliss, Amy L Gower, Richard Sullivan, Carolyn M Porta
LGBTQ youth are at increased risk of poor health outcomes. This qualitative study gathered data from LGBTQ adolescents regarding their communities and describes the resources they draw upon for support. We conducted 66 go-along interviews with diverse LGBTQ adolescents (mean age = 16.6) in Minnesota, Massachusetts and British Columbia in 2014-2015, in which interviewers accompanied participants in their communities to better understand those contexts. Their responses were systematically organized and coded for common themes, reflecting levels of the social ecological model...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819293/effects-of-temporal-correlations-in-social-multiplex-networks
#3
Michele Starnini, Andrea Baronchelli, Romualdo Pastor-Satorras
Multi-layered networks represent a major advance in the description of natural complex systems, and their study has shed light on new physical phenomena. Despite its importance, however, the role of the temporal dimension in their structure and function has not been investigated in much detail so far. Here we study the temporal correlations between layers exhibited by real social multiplex networks. At a basic level, the presence of such correlations implies a certain degree of predictability in the contact pattern, as we quantify by an extension of the entropy and mutual information analyses proposed for the single-layer case...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819253/majority-of-human-traits-do-not-show-evidence-for-sex-specific-genetic-and-environmental-effects
#4
Sven Stringer, Tinca Polderman, Danielle Posthuma
Sex differences in the etiology of human trait variation are a major topic of interest in the social and medical sciences given its far-reaching implications. For example, in genetic research, the presence of sex-specific effects would require sex-stratified analysis, and in clinical practice sex-specific treatments would be warranted. Here, we present a study of 2,335,920 twin pairs, in which we tested sex differences in genetic and environmental contributions to variation in 2,608 reported human traits, clustered in 50 trait categories...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817951/cessation-related-information-motivation-and-behavioral-skills-in-smokers-living-with-hiv
#5
Daniel Shirley, Laura Thibodeau, Sheryl L Catz, Katryna McCoy, Douglas E Jorenby, Nasia Safdar, James M Sosman
There is a need for new, targeted smoking cessation interventions for smokers living with HIV. The Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model has been applied effectively to HIV-related health behaviors and was used in this qualitative study to elicit factors that could lead to the development of innovative and successful cessation interventions for this population. Twenty individuals who smoked from two clinics providing care to people living with HIV participated in open-ended interviews, responding to questions covering the domains of the IMB model, as applied to smokers living with HIV...
August 17, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816487/associations-between-bullying-involvement-protective-factors-and-mental-health-among-american-indian-youth
#6
Kari Gloppen, Barbara McMorris, Amy Gower, Marla Eisenberg
Bullying involvement as a victim or perpetrator is associated with depression and suicidality, and American Indian (AI) youth experience a disproportionately high rate of these mental health issues. This study assessed whether AI young people involved in bullying were more likely to experience negative mental health problems than AI youth who were not involved in bullying, and identified protective factors that might support this particularly vulnerable population. Data come from 1,409 8th, 9th, and 11th Grade AI students who completed the 2013 Minnesota Student Survey...
August 17, 2017: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815196/simultaneous-health-risk-behaviors-in-adolescents-associated-with-higher-economic-class-in-the-northeast-of-brazil
#7
Arley Santos Leão, Nara Michelle Moura Soares, Eliane Cristina de Andrade Gonçalves, Diego Augusto Santos Silva, Roberto Jerônimo Dos Santos Silva, Sara Maria Thomazzi
DESIGN: The social, cultural, and economic context can be an important variable in the perception and adoption of risk behaviors in adolescents. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of simultaneous health risk behaviors and associated socioeconomic factors in adolescents living in the metropolitan region of Aracaju, State of Sergipe, Brazil. METHODS: The sample consisted of 2,207 high school students aged 13-18 years...
2017: TheScientificWorldJournal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814481/plausibility-criteria-for-putative-pathophysiological-mechanisms-in-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders-a-consensus-of-experts
#8
Jan Tack, Maura Corsetti, Michael Camilleri, Eamonn Mm Quigley, Magnus Simren, Hidekazu Suzuki, Nicholas J Talley, Hans Tornblom, Lukas Van Oudenhove
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are extremely common conditions associated with a considerable personal, social and health economic burden. Managing FGIDs in clinical practice is challenging because of the uncertainty of symptom-based diagnosis, the high frequency of overlap between these conditions and the limited efficacy of available therapies. It has often been argued that successful drug development and management of FGIDs requires knowledge of the underlying pathophysiology...
August 16, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814108/association-of-anxiety-and-depression-with-pain-and-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-chronic-foot-and-ankle-diseases
#9
Ryosuke Nakagawa, Satoshi Yamaguchi, Seiji Kimura, Aya Sadamasu, Yohei Yamamoto, Yasunori Sato, Ryuichiro Akagi, Takahisa Sasho, Seiji Ohtori
BACKGROUND: The purposes of this study were to clarify the incidence of anxiety and depression among patients with chronic foot and ankle diseases and to examine the independent association of anxiety and depression with pain and quality of life. METHODS: Patients who visited the foot and ankle clinic from April 2015 to November 2016 were recruited. Anxiety and depression in patients were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Pain and quality of life were evaluated using the visual analog scale (VAS) and Self-Administered Foot Evaluation Questionnaire (SAFE-Q), respectively...
August 1, 2017: Foot & Ankle International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812697/fish-pool-their-experience-to-solve-problems-collectively
#10
Mike M Webster, Andrew Whalen, Kevin N Laland
Access to information is a key advantage of grouping. Although experienced animals can lead others to solve problems, less is known about whether partially informed individuals can pool experiences to overcome challenges collectively. Here we provide evidence of such 'experience-pooling'. We presented shoals of sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) with a two-stage foraging task requiring them to find and access hidden food. Individual fish were either inexperienced or had knowledge of just one of the stages...
April 18, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812472/modifiable-risk-factors-associated-with-bronchiolitis
#11
Raffaella Nenna, Renato Cutrera, Antonella Frassanito, Claudia Alessandroni, Ambra Nicolai, Giulia Cangiano, Laura Petrarca, Serena Arima, Serena Caggiano, Nicola Ullman, Paola Papoff, Enea Bonci, Corrado Moretti, Fabio Midulla
BACKGROUND: We sought to clarify possibly modifiable risk factors related to pollution responsible for acute bronchiolitis in hospitalized infants. METHODS: For this observational study, we recruited 213 consecutive infants with bronchiolitis (cases: median age: 2 months; age range: 0.5-12 months; boys: 55.4%) and 213 children aged <3 years (controls: median age: 12 months; age range: 0.5-36 months; boys: 54.5%) with a negative medical history for lower respiratory tract diseases hospitalized at 'Sapienza' University Rome and IRCCS Bambino Gesù Hospital...
August 1, 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812217/what-shall-we-talk-about-in-farsi-content-of-everyday-conversations-in-iran
#12
Mahdi Dahmardeh, R I M Dunbar
Previous empirical studies have suggested that language is primarily used to exchange social information, but our evidence on this derives mainly from English speakers. We present data from a study of natural conversations among Farsi (Persian) speakers in Iran and show that not only are conversation groups the same size as those observed in Europe and North America, but people also talk predominantly about social topics. We argue that these results reinforce the suggestion that language most likely evolved for the transmission of information about the social world...
August 15, 2017: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810167/intimate-partner-violence-as-a-subject-of-study-during-the-training-of-nurses-and-midwives-in-catalonia-spain-a-qualitative-study
#13
María Analía Gómez-Fernández, Josefina Goberna-Tricas, Montserrat Payà-Sánchez
While nurses and midwives are in a unique position to identify and help victims of IPV, since they are often their first point of contact in the healthcare system, they need appropriate training. This study sought to examine the presence of IPV-related contents and the depth to which they are addressed in the bachelor's degree in Nursing and in the Midwifery specialisation programme. The study also explored lecturers' motivations for including IPV in their subjects. The methodology employed was qualitative...
August 7, 2017: Nurse Education in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809957/social-adaptation-in-multi-agent-model-of-linguistic-categorization-is-affected-by-network-information-flow
#14
Julian Zubek, Michał Denkiewicz, Juliusz Barański, Przemysław Wróblewski, Joanna Rączaszek-Leonardi, Dariusz Plewczynski
This paper explores how information flow properties of a network affect the formation of categories shared between individuals, who are communicating through that network. Our work is based on the established multi-agent model of the emergence of linguistic categories grounded in external environment. We study how network information propagation efficiency and the direction of information flow affect categorization by performing simulations with idealized network topologies optimizing certain network centrality measures...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807893/optimizing-the-use-of-electronic-health-records-to-identify-high-risk-psychosocial-determinants-of-health
#15
Nicolas Michel Oreskovic, Jennifer Maniates, Jeffrey Weilburg, Garry Choy
BACKGROUND: Care coordination programs have traditionally focused on medically complex patients, identifying patients that qualify by analyzing formatted clinical data and claims data. However, not all clinically relevant data reside in claims and formatted data. Recently, there has been increasing interest in including patients with complex psychosocial determinants of health in care coordination programs. Psychosocial risk factors, including social determinants of health, mental health disorders, and substance abuse disorders, are less amenable to rapid and systematic data analyses, as these data are often not collected or stored as formatted data, and due to US Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) regulations are often not available as claims data...
August 14, 2017: JMIR Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807457/identification-of-pseudobulbar-affect-symptoms-in-the-nursing-home-setting-development-and-assessment-of-a-screening-tool
#16
Carrie Allen, Barbara Zarowitz, Terrence O'Shea, Edward Peterson, Charles Yonan, Fanta Waterman
Pseudobulbar Affect (PBA) is a neurologic condition characterized by involuntary outbursts of crying and/or laughing disproportionate to patient mood or social context. Although an estimated 9% of nursing home residents have symptoms suggestive of PBA, they are not routinely screened. Our goal was to develop an electronic screening tool based upon characteristics common to nursing home residents with PBA identified through medical record data. Nursing home residents with PBA treated with dextromethorphan hydrobromide/quinidine sulfate (n = 140) were compared to age-, gender-, and dementia-diagnosis-matched controls without PBA or treatment (n = 140)...
August 11, 2017: Geriatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806966/an-exploratory-study-assessing-psychological-distress-of-indigents-in-burkina-faso-a-step-forward-in-understanding-mental-health-needs-in-west-africa
#17
Émilie Pigeon-Gagné, Ghayga Hassan, Maurice Yaogo, Valéry Ridde
BACKGROUND: Poverty is known as an important determinant of health, but empirical data are still missing on the relationships between poverty, other adverse living conditions, and psychological distress, particularly in low-income countries. This study aimed to assess mental health needs and psychological distress among the poorest in rural settings in Burkina Faso where food security and access to water, electricity, schooling, and healthcare are limited. METHODS: We randomly selected 2000 individuals previously identified as indigents by a community-targeting process...
August 14, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806930/factors-associated-with-change-in-objectively-measured-physical-activity-in-older-people-data-from-the-physical-activity-cohort-scotland-study
#18
Clare L Clarke, Falko F Sniehotta, Thenmalar Vadiveloo, Ishbel S Argo, Peter T Donnan, Marion E T McMurdo, Miles D Witham
BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional relationships between physical activity and health have been explored extensively, but less is known about how physical activity changes with time in older people. The aim of this study was to assess baseline predictors of how objectively measured physical activity changes with time in older people. METHODS: Longitudinal cohort study using data from the Physical Activity Cohort Scotland. A sample of community-dwelling older people aged 65 and over were recruited in 2009-2011, then followed up 2-3 years later...
August 14, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806734/mental-health-among-single-and-partnered-parents-in-south-korea
#19
Kyoung Ae Kong, Hee Yeon Choi, Soo In Kim
OBJECTIVE: This study compares the mental health of single parents relative to partnered parents and assesses the contribution of the social and demographic factors to this difference, examining the gender difference in it. METHODS: We analyzed 12,024 single and partnered subjects, aged 30-59 years, living with children, aged 0-19 years, drawn from the 4th, 5th, and 6th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) dataset in South Korea conducted from 2007-2013...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805632/juvenile-hormone-and-hemimetabolan-eusociality-a-comparison-of-cockroaches-with-termites
#20
REVIEW
Judith Korb, Xavier Belles
Termites are social Dictyoptera that evolved eusociality independently from social Hymenoptera. They are characterized by unique developmental plasticity that is the basis of caste differentiation and social organization. As developmental plasticity is a result of endocrine regulation, in order to understand the evolution of termite sociality it is helpful to compare the endocrine underpinning of development between termites and cockroaches. Nijhout and Wheeler (1982) proposed that varying JH titers determine caste differentiation in termites...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
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