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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058145/vitamin-status-and-the-development-of-postoperative-cognitive-decline-in-elderly-surgical-oncologic-patients
#1
Linda B M Weerink, Barbara L van Leeuwen, Sofie A M Gernaat, Anthony R Absalom, Monique G Huisman, Hanneke van der Wal-Huisman, Gerbrand J Izaks, Geertruida H de Bock
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the influence that serum levels of vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine have on the development of short-term postoperative cognitive decline in the elderly surgical oncology patient. METHODS: This study was part of a prospective cohort study focused on postoperative cognitive outcomes for patients 65 years of age or older undergoing surgery for a solid malignancy. Postoperative cognitive decline was defined as the change in the combined results of the Ruff Figural Fluency Test and the Trail-Making Test Parts A and B...
October 20, 2017: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056906/random-forest-algorithm-for-the-classification-of-neuroimaging-data-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
Alessia Sarica, Antonio Cerasa, Aldo Quattrone
Objective: Machine learning classification has been the most important computational development in the last years to satisfy the primary need of clinicians for automatic early diagnosis and prognosis. Nowadays, Random Forest (RF) algorithm has been successfully applied for reducing high dimensional and multi-source data in many scientific realms. Our aim was to explore the state of the art of the application of RF on single and multi-modal neuroimaging data for the prediction of Alzheimer's disease. Methods: A systematic review following PRISMA guidelines was conducted on this field of study...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055465/radiologically-isolated-syndrome-and-multiple-sclerosis
#3
REVIEW
B Yamout, M Al Khawajah
BACKGROUND: Incidental white matter lesions (WML) are increasingly seen on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in clinical practice. Demyelination consistent with MS is seen in 0.1-0.7% of the population as evident by autopsy and MRI studies. The term radiologically isolated syndrome (RIS) was coined to define a subgroup of patients with demyelinating lesions highly suggestive of multiple sclerosis (MS). The Okuda criteria for diagnosing RIS help in stratifying the risk of conversion to MS but RIS is still not considered a distinct MS phenotype...
October 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055258/cognitive-functioning-in-first-episode-bipolar-i-disorder-patients-with-and-without-history-of-psychosis
#4
Chakrabarty Trisha, Alamian Golnoush, Kozicky Jan-Marie, Ivan J Torres, Lakshmi N Yatham
BACKGROUND: Psychosis in bipolar I disorder (BDI) has been associated with increased cognitive dysfunction, which may relate to poorer functional outcomes. However, it is not known whether cognition differs between BDI patients with (BDP+) or without (BDP-) history of psychosis early in the disease course, or if it is impacted by the presence of mood congruent (MCP) versus incongruent (MIC) psychotic features. We compare cognition between these groups in BDI patients recently recovered from first episode of mania...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054536/decreasing-body-mass-index-is-associated-with-cerebrospinal-fluid-markers-of-alzheimer-s-pathology-in-mci-and-mild-dementia
#5
Jules Mathys, Mehdi Gholamrezaee, Hugues Henry, Armin von Gunten, Julius Popp
BACKGROUND: Several studies have identified an association between body mass index (BMI) and the incidence and severity of Alzheimer's disease (AD) but this relationship is not fully understood. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study was to assess the possible association between BMI and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of AD pathology in subjects with normal cognition and cognitive impairment. The secondary objective was to test whether BMI may contribute to improve the accuracy of a clinical model to predict AD pathology in memory clinic patients with cognitive impairment...
October 17, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053973/duration-of-moderate-to-vigorous-daily-activity-is-negatively-associated-with-slow-walking-speed-independently-from-step-counts-in-elderly-women-aged-75-years-or-over-a-cross-sectional-study
#6
Takuji Adachi, Yuji Kono, Kotaro Iwatsu, Yuko Shimizu, Sumio Yamada
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed 1) to examine whether objectively measured duration of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was associated with slow walking speed, independent from step counts, in elderly women aged 75 or over (old-old) and 2) to determine a possible cut-off value for duration of MVPA related to slow walking speed. METHODS: Participants were 350 community-dwelling old-old women. Slow walking speed was defined as usual walking speed <1.0m/s...
October 12, 2017: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051842/is-there-a-premotor-phase-of-essential-tremor
#7
REVIEW
Abhishek Lenka, Julian Benito-León, Elan D Louis
BACKGROUND: Essential tremor (ET) is the most common tremor disorder. In addition to its hallmark feature, kinetic tremor of the upper limbs, patients may have a number of non-motor symptoms and signs (NMS). Several lines of evidence suggest that ET is a neurodegenerative disorder and certain NMS may antedate the onset of tremor. This article comprehensively reviews the evidence for the existence of a "premotor phase" of ET, and discusses plausible biological explanations and implications...
2017: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051731/parp-1-and-p53-regulate-the-increased-susceptibility-to-oxidative-death-of-lymphocytes-from-mci-and-ad-patients
#8
Felipe Salech, Daniela P Ponce, Carol D SanMartín, Nicole K Rogers, Carlos Chacón, Mauricio Henríquez, Maria I Behrens
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a clinically detectable initial stage of cognitive deterioration with a high conversion rate to dementia. There is increasing evidence that some of the cerebral alterations present in Alzheimer type dementia can be found in peripheral tissues. We have previously shown that lymphocytes from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients have increased susceptibility to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced death that depends on dementia severity. We here investigated whether lymphocytes from MCI patients show increased vulnerability to death, and explored the involvement of Poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase (PARP-1) and p53 in the regulation of this process...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051106/can-teamwork-and-situational-awareness-sa-in-ed-resuscitations-be-improved-with-a-technological-cognitive-aid-design-and-a-pilot-study-of-a-team-situation-display
#9
A Parush, G Mastoras, A Bhandari, K Momtahan, K Day, B Weitzman, B Sohmer, A Cwinn, S J Hamstra, L Calder
Effective teamwork in ED resuscitations, including information sharing and situational awareness, could be degraded. Technological cognitive aids can facilitate effective teamwork. OBJECTIVE: This study focused on the design of an ED situation display and pilot test its influence on teamwork and situational awareness during simulated resuscitation scenarios. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The display design consisted of a central area showing the critical dynamic parameters of the interventions with an events time-line below it...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049601/age-related-changes-in-objective-and-subjective-speech-perception-in-complex-listening-environments
#10
Karen S Helfer, Gabrielle R Merchant, Peter A Wasiuk
Purpose: A frequent complaint by older adults is difficulty communicating in challenging acoustic environments. The purpose of this work was to review and summarize information about how speech perception in complex listening situations changes across the adult age range. Method: This article provides a review of age-related changes in speech understanding in complex listening environments and summarizes results from several studies conducted in our laboratory. Results: Both degree of high frequency hearing loss and cognitive test performance limit individuals' ability to understand speech in difficult listening situations as they age...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048724/longitudinal-perspectives-on-the-psychosis-spectrum-in-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome
#11
REVIEW
Sunny X Tang, Raquel E Gur
The prevalence of psychotic disorders in individuals with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS) reaches 25-35% in young adulthood and may provide a neurogenetic model for clinical risk of psychotic disorders in the general population. This review focuses on prospective longitudinal studies in 22q11DS, which capture fluctuations in psychosis symptoms over time and may provide insights into potential demographic, clinical, cognitive, and neuroimaging predictors of psychosis-spectrum outcomes in the general population...
October 19, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048554/social-risk-and-resilience-factors-in-adolescent-chronic-pain-examining-the-role-of-parents-and-peers
#12
Alexandra C Ross, Laura E Simons, Amanda B Feinstein, Isabel A Yoon, Rashmi P Bhandari
Objective: The current study focuses on social risk and resilience in an adolescent population with chronic pain. Prior research identifies parental cognitions and behaviors as influential in youths' experiences of chronic pain and pain-related disability. Adolescent development is characterized by greater autonomy from parents and an increased emphasis on peer relationships. Study aims explore the potential protective effect of high-quality adolescent peer relationships on associations between parent and adolescent cognitive and behavioral responses to pain...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048321/spanish-validation-of-the-job-insecurity-scale-jis-8-viability-of-the-cognitive-and-affective-model
#13
José A Llosa, Sara Menéndez-Espina, Julio Rodríguez-Suárez, Esteban Agulló-Tomás, Joan Boada-Grau
BACKGROUND: This instrumental study is the Spanish adaptation and validation of the Job Insecurity Scale in its 8-item version (JIS-8). This is one of the reference tests in this field and it also allows the distinction between affect and cognition in quantitative job insecurity to be tested. METHOD: The JIS-8 was carried out on a Spanish sample with 592 participants (186 men, 406 women; Mean age = 36.68), together with mental health and job satisfaction tests. An exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were carried out, and the relationship between the scale and other variables was examined...
November 2017: Psicothema
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047246/social-support-as-a-mediator-of-posttraumatic-embitterment-and-perceptions-of-meaning-in-life-among-danwon-survivors-of-the-sewol-ferry-disaster
#14
So Hee Lee, Hee Sun Nam, Hak Beom Kim, Eun Ji Kim, Sung Doo Won, Jeong Ho Chae
PURPOSE: Our research was designed to test and explore the relationships among embitterment, social support, and perceptions of meaning in life in the Danwon High School survivors of the Sewol ferry disaster. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-five Sewol ferry disaster survivors were eligible for participation, and were invited to participate in the study 28 months after the disaster. Forty-eight (64%) survivors (24 males, 24 females) completed questionnaires; the Posttraumatic Embitterment Disorder (PTED) scale, the Functional Social Support Questionnaire (FSSQ), and the Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ)...
November 2017: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046154/neural-network-alterations-across-eating-disorders-a-narrative-review-of-fmri-studies
#15
Trevor Steward, José M Menchón, Susana Jiménez-Murcia, Carles Soriano-Mas, Fernando Fernández-Aranda
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has provided insight on how neural abnormalities are related to the symptomatology of the eating disorders (EDs): anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED). More specifically, an increasingly growing number of brain imaging studies has shed light on how functionally connected brain networks contribute not only to disturbed eating behavior, but also to transdiagnostic alterations in body/interoceptive perception, reward processing and executive functions...
October 17, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045911/fuzzy-rough-cognitive-networks
#16
Gonzalo Nápoles, Carlos Mosquera, Rafael Falcon, Isel Grau, Rafael Bello, Koen Vanhoof
Rough Cognitive Networks (RCNs) are a kind of granular neural network that augments the reasoning rule present in Fuzzy Cognitive Maps with crisp information granules coming from Rough Set Theory. While RCNs have shown promise in solving different classification problems, this model is still very sensitive to the similarity threshold upon which the rough information granules are built. In this paper, we cast the RCN model within the framework of fuzzy rough sets in an attempt to eliminate the need for a user-specified similarity threshold while retaining the model's discriminatory power...
September 28, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045578/effectiveness-of-enhanced-pulse-oximetry-sonifications-for-conveying-oxygen-saturation-ranges-a-laboratory-comparison-of-five-auditory-displays
#17
E Paterson, P M Sanderson, N A B Paterson, R G Loeb
Background: Anaesthetists monitor auditory information about a patient's vital signs in an environment that can be noisy and while performing other cognitively demanding tasks. It can be difficult to identify oxygen saturation (SpO2) values using existing pulse oximeter auditory displays (sonifications). Methods: In a laboratory setting, we compared the ability of non-clinician participants to detect transitions into and out of an SpO2 target range using five different sonifications while they performed a secondary distractor arithmetic task in the presence of background noise...
October 13, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044445/development-of-a-screening-test-for-cognitive-impairment-in-alcoholic-population-tedca
#18
Rosa Jurado-Barba, Andrés Martínez, Ana Sion, María J Álvarez-Alonso, Adán Robles, Rafael Quinto-Guillen, Gabriel Rubio
INTRODUCTION: Several studies have found cognitive impairment in patients with a history of alcohol use disorder, affecting their psychosocial functioning and the achievement of therapeutic goals. In order to identify these effects, several cognitive screening tests have been used, though they were not specific for alcoholic population, possibly leading to an increase in the risk of error. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to assess the main cognitive deficits in patients with history of alcohol use disorders, through the development of a specific screening test for alcohol-related cognitive impairment...
September 2017: Actas Españolas de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042572/diagonal-earlobe-crease-is-a-visible-sign-for-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-and-amyloid-%C3%AE
#19
Jin San Lee, Seongbeom Park, Hee Jin Kim, Yeshin Kim, Hyemin Jang, Ko Woon Kim, Hak Young Rhee, Sung Sang Yoon, Kyoung Jin Hwang, Key-Chung Park, Seung Hwan Moon, Sung Tae Kim, Samuel N Lockhart, Duk L Na, Sang Won Seo
We investigated the frequency and clinical significance of diagonal earlobe crease (DELC) in cognitively impaired patients using imaging biomarkers, such as white matter hyperintensities (WMH) on MRI and amyloid-β (Aβ) PET. A total of 471 cognitively impaired patients and 243 cognitively normal (CN) individuals were included in this study. Compared with CN individuals, cognitively impaired patients had a greater frequency of DELC (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.2, P = 0.007). This relationship was more prominent in patients with dementia (OR 1...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040554/frailty-syndrome-an-emerging-clinical-problem-in-the-everyday-management-of-clinical-arrhythmias-the-results-of-the-european-heart-rhythm-association-survey
#20
Stefano Fumagalli, Tatjana S Potpara, Torben Bjerregaard Larsen, Kristina H Haugaa, Dan Dobreanu, Alessandro Proclemer, Nikolaos Dagres
The age of patients presenting with complex arrhythmias is increasing. Frailty is a multifaceted syndrome characterized by an increased vulnerability to stressors and a decreased ability to maintain homeostasis. The prevalence of frailty is associated with age. The aims of this European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) EP Wire survey were to evaluate the proportion of patients with frailty and its influence on the clinical management of arrhythmias. A total of 41 centres-members of the EHRA Electrophysiology Research Network-in 14 European countries completed the web-based questionnaire in June 2017...
October 10, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
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