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Cognitive presence

Eleonora Fiorenzato, Luca Weis, Klaus Seppi, Marco Onofrj, Pietro Cortelli, Stefano Zanigni, Caterina Tonon, Horacio Kaufmann, Timothy Michael Shepherd, Werner Poewe, Florian Krismer, Gregor Wenning, Angelo Antonini, Roberta Biundo
Current consensus diagnostic criteria for multiple system atrophy (MSA) consider dementia a non-supporting feature, although cognitive impairment and even frank dementia are reported in clinical practice. Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is a commonly used global cognitive scale, and in a previous study, we established an MSA-specific screening cut-off score <27 to identify cognitive impairment. Finally, MSA neuroimaging findings suggest the presence of structural alterations in patients with cognitive deficits, although the extent of the anatomical changes is unclear...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
Franklin P Tamborello, J Gregory Trafton
OBJECTIVE: A computational process model could explain how the dynamic interaction of human cognitive mechanisms produces each of multiple error types. BACKGROUND: With increasing capability and complexity of technological systems, the potential severity of consequences of human error is magnified. Interruption greatly increases people's error rates, as does the presence of other information to maintain in an active state. METHOD: The model executed as a software-instantiated Monte Carlo simulation...
October 24, 2016: Human Factors
Natalie S Ryan, Jennifer M Nicholas, Philip S J Weston, Yuying Liang, Tammaryn Lashley, Rita Guerreiro, Gary Adamson, Janna Kenny, Jon Beck, Lucia Chavez-Gutierrez, Bart de Strooper, Tamas Revesz, Janice Holton, Simon Mead, Martin N Rossor, Nick C Fox
BACKGROUND: The causes of phenotypic heterogeneity in familial Alzheimer's disease with autosomal dominant inheritance are not well understood. We aimed to characterise clinical phenotypes and genetic associations with APP and PSEN1 mutations in symptomatic autosomal dominant familial Alzheimer's disease (ADAD). METHODS: We retrospectively analysed genotypic and phenotypic data (age at symptom onset, initial cognitive or behavioural symptoms, and presence of myoclonus, seizures, pyramidal signs, extrapyramidal signs, and cerebellar signs) from all individuals with ADAD due to APP or PSEN1 mutations seen at the Dementia Research Centre in London, UK...
October 21, 2016: Lancet Neurology
Mengxuan Tang, Davis C Ryman, Eric McDade, Mateusz S Jasielec, Virginia D Buckles, Nigel J Cairns, Anne M Fagan, Alison Goate, Daniel S Marcus, Chengjie Xiong, Ricardo F Allegri, Jasmeer P Chhatwal, Adrian Danek, Martin R Farlow, Nick C Fox, Bernardino Ghetti, Neill R Graff-Radford, Christopher Laske, Ralph N Martins, Colin L Masters, Richard P Mayeux, John M Ringman, Martin N Rossor, Stephen P Salloway, Peter R Schofield, John C Morris, Randall J Bateman
BACKGROUND: Autosomal dominant familial Alzheimer's disease (ADAD) is a rare disorder with non-amnestic neurological symptoms in some clinical presentations. We aimed to compile and compare data from symptomatic participants in the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network observational study (DIAN-OBS) with those reported in the literature to estimate the prevalences of non-amnestic neurological symptoms in participants with ADAD. METHODS: We prospectively collected data from the DIAN-OBS database, which recruited participants from study centres in the USA, Europe, and Australia, between Feb 29, 2008, and July 1, 2014...
October 21, 2016: Lancet Neurology
Li Hui, Mei Han, Guang Zhong Yin, Yingyang Zhang, Xu Feng Huang, Zheng Kang Qian, Wei Guo Gu, Xiao Chu Gu, Xiao Min Zhu, Jair C Soares, Yuping Ning, Yingjun Zheng, Xiang Dong Du, Xiang Yang Zhang
Long-term antipsychotic treatment for schizophrenia is associated with the development of tardive dyskinesia (TD), which is involved in increased cognitive impairment. Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) gene associated with dopamine and norepinephrine systems influences cognition. Schizophrenia with TD have higher DBH activity than those without TD. This study examined whether DBH5'-insertion/deletion (-Ins/Del) polymorphism could influence cognitive function in schizophrenia with and without TD. The presence of DBH5'-Ins/Del polymorphism was determined in 345 schizophrenia with TD and 397 schizophrenia without TD...
October 21, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Lucia Romo, Cindy Legauffre, Alice Guilleux, Marc Valleur, David Magalon, Mélina Fatséas, Isabelle Chéreau-Boudet, Amandine Luquiens, Jean-Luc Vénisse, Marie Grall-Bronnec, Gaëlle Challet-Bouju
Introduction The primary outcome of our study was to assess the links between the level of cognitive distortions and the severity of gambling disorder. We also aimed at assessing the links between patient gambling trajectories and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Materials and methods The study population (n = 628) was comprised of problem and non-problem gamblers of both sexes between 18 and 65 years of age, who reported gambling on at least one occasion during the previous year. Data encompassed socio-demographic characteristics, gambling habits, the South Oaks Gambling Screen, the Gambling Attitudes and Beliefs Survey - 23, the Wender Utah Rating Scale - Child, and the Adult ADHD Self-report Scale...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Katie M de Almondes, Mônica V Costa, Leandro F Malloy-Diniz, Breno S Diniz
Aim: In this manuscript, we report data on the association between executive functions screened by Frontal Assessment Battery, Five Digit Test and Digit Span with self-reported depressive symptoms and sleep complaints in non-demented older adults. Methods: A total sample of 95 non-demented older adults performed Geriatric Depression Scale short version, Frontal Assessment Battery, Five Digit Test, Digit Span, and clinical interview. We split participants in groups stratified by age according to: young-old (60-69 years of age), old-old (70-79 years), and oldest-old (>80 years) and compared these three groups on the sociodemographic characteristics and executive functions performance...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Takaya Kitano, Makoto Kinoshita, Kohki Shimazu, Hiroaki Fushimi, Kenichi Omori, Takanori Hazama
A 87-year-old female presented with subacute progression of cognitive decline. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images of brain MRI showed multifocal high-intensity lesions. Thoracic CT image revealed the presence of thymoma, and serum autoantibody screening showed positivity for anti-gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor antibody. Histopathological analysis confirmed type B3 thymoma after thymectomy. The patient received both plasmapheresis and intravenous methylprednisolone therapy, and showed remarkable amelioration of clinical symptoms and MRI abnormal high intensity...
October 21, 2016: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
Vishal Kothari, Yuwen Luo, Talia Tornabene, Ann Marie O'Neill, Michael W Greene, Geetha Thangiah, Jeganathan Ramesh Babu
High fat diet-induced obesity is associated with insulin resistance (IR) and other chronic, diet related illnesses, including dementia. Alzheimer disease is the most common form of dementia, and is characterized by the presence of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in brain. This study was designed to determine whether diet-induced changes in peripheral insulin sensitivity could contribute to alterations in brain insulin signaling and cognitive functions. Four week old, male C57BL/6NHsd mice were randomly assigned a high fat diet (40% energy from fat) with 42g/L liquid sugar (HFS) added to the drinking water or a normal chow diet (12% energy from fat) for 14weeks...
October 19, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Jiangjun Hui, Gaifeng Feng, Caifeng Zheng, Hui Jin, Ning Jia
Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common neurodegenerative disorder that gradually destroys memory and cognitive abilities in the elderly, makes a huge emotional and economic burden on the patients and their families. The presence of senile plaques and the loss of cholinergic neurons in the brain are two neuropathological hallmarks of AD. Maternal separation (MS) is an animal paradigm designed to make early life stress. Studies on wild type rodents showed that MS could induce AD-like cognitive deficit and pathological changes...
October 19, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Annemiek Dols, Filip Bouckaert, Pascal Sienaert, Didi Rhebergen, Kristof Vansteelandt, Mara Ten Kate, Francois-Laurent de Winter, Hannie C Comijs, Louise Emsell, Mardien L Oudega, Eric van Exel, Sigfried Schouws, Jasmien Obbels, Mike Wattjes, Frederik Barkhof, Piet Eikelenboom, Mathieu Vanderbulcke, Max L Stek
OBJECTIVE: The clinical profile of late-life depression (LLD) is frequently associated with cognitive impairment, aging-related brain changes, and somatic comorbidity. This two-site naturalistic longitudinal study aimed to explore differences in clinical and brain characteristics and response to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in early- (EOD) versus late-onset (LOD) late-life depression (respectively onset <55 and ≥55 years). METHODS: Between January 2011 and December 2013, 110 patients aged 55 years and older with ECT-treated unipolar depression were included in The Mood Disorders in Elderly treated with ECT study...
September 22, 2016: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Amanda Reichard, Michelle Stransky, Kimberly Phillips, Monica McClain, Charles Drum
BACKGROUND: While it is commonly accepted that disparities in unmet need for care vary by age, race/ethnicity, income, education, and access to care, literature documenting unmet needs experienced by adults with different types of disabilities is developing. OBJECTIVE: The main objective was to determine whether subgroups of people with disabilities are more likely than people without disabilities to delay/forgo necessary care, in general and among the insured. METHODS: We used pooled Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data (2004-2010) to examine delaying or forgoing medical, dental, and pharmacy care among five disability subgroups (physical, cognitive, visual, hearing, multiple) and the non-disabled population...
September 13, 2016: Disability and Health Journal
Gro Gujord Tangen, Astrid Bergland, Knut Engedal, Anne Marit Mengshoel
Parkinsonian signs are common in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) of mild degree and predict functional decline, but their relationship with gait speed and balance is unclear. The aims of this study were to describe characteristics of patients with parkinsonian signs among 98 patients with AD of mild degree (with no comorbid Parkinson's disease), and to examine associations between parkinsonian signs with gait speed and balance. A cross sectional study at a memory clinic was conducted. Presence of each parkinsonian sign (bradykinesia, rigidity and tremor) was derived from the UPDRS, regular gait speed was recorded over 10m and balance were assessed using the Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test (Mini-BESTest)...
October 14, 2016: Gait & Posture
Giovanni Sala, Fernand Gobet
Experts' remarkable ability to recall meaningful domain-specific material is a classic result in cognitive psychology. Influential explanations for this ability have focused on the acquisition of high-level structures (e.g., schemata) or experts' capability to process information holistically. However, research on chess players suggests that experts maintain some reliable memory advantage over novices when random stimuli (e.g., shuffled chess positions) are presented. This skill effect cannot be explained by theories emphasizing high-level memory structures or holistic processing of stimuli, because random material does not contain large structures nor wholes...
October 21, 2016: Memory & Cognition
Thomas Maran, Pierre Sachse, Markus Martini, Marco Furtner
Hunger is an everyday motivational state, which biases cognition to detect food. Although evidence exists on how hunger affects basic attentional and mnemonic processes, less is known about how motivational drive for food modulates higher cognition. We aimed to investigate the effects of food deprivation on proactive interference resolution, in the presence and absence of food. Normal-weight participants performed a recency probes paradigm providing an experimental block with food and object stimuli as well as a control block with object stimuli only, in a fasted and a sated state...
October 18, 2016: Appetite
Olivia Geisseler, Tobias Pflugshaupt, Ladina Bezzola, Katja Reuter, David Weller, Bernhard Schuknecht, Peter Brugger, Michael Linnebank
BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that cortical lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS) substantially contribute to clinical disease severity. The present study aimed at investigating clinical, neuroanatomical, and cognitive correlates of these cortical lesions with a novel approach, i.e. by comparing two samples of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients, one group with and the other without cortical lesions. METHODS: High-resolution structural MRI was acquired from 42 RRMS patients and 43 controls (HC)...
October 21, 2016: BMC Neurology
Frank J Wolters, Daniel Bos, Meike W Vernooij, Oscar H Franco, Albert Hofman, Peter J Koudstaal, Aad van der Lugt, M Arfan Ikram
The association of aortic valve calcification (AVC) with dementia remains unknown. In 2,428 non-demented participants from the population-based Rotterdam Study, we investigated the association of CT-assessed AVC with risk of dementia and cognitive decline. AVC was present in 33.1% of the population. During a median follow-up of 9.3 years, 160 participants developed dementia. We found no association between presence of AVC and risk of all-cause dementia [hazard ratio (HR): 0.89 (95% confidence interval (CI):0...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Hossein Derakhshankhah, Mohammad Javad Hajipour, Ebrahim Barzegari, Alireza Lotfabadi, Maryam Ferdousi, Ali Akbar Saboury, Eng-Poh Ng, Mohammad Raoufi, Hussein Awala, Svetlana Mintova, Rassoul Dinarvand, Morteza Mahmoudi
EMT-type zeolite nanoparticles (EMT NPs) with diameter smaller than 12 nm and uniform pore size of 7.3 Å have shown high selective affinity toward plasma protein (fibrinogen). Besides, the EMT NPs have demonstrated no adverse effect on blood coagulation hemostasis. Therefore, it was envisioned that the EMT NPs could inhibit possible β-Amyloid (Aβ)-fibrinogen interactions that result in the formation of structurally abnormal clots, which are resistant to lysis, in cerebral vessels of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD)...
October 21, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Xenia Schmalz, Gianmarco Altoè, Claudio Mulatti
The existing literature on developmental dyslexia (hereafter: dyslexia) often focuses on isolating cognitive skills which differ across dyslexic and control participants. Among potential correlates, previous research has studied group differences between dyslexic and control participants in performance on statistical learning tasks. A statistical learning deficit has been proposed to be a potential cause and/or a marker effect for early detection of dyslexia. It is therefore of practical importance to evaluate the evidence for a group difference...
October 20, 2016: Annals of Dyslexia
Julia Granerod, Nicholas W S Davies, Parashar P Ramanuj, Ava Easton, David W G Brown, Sara L Thomas
The true extent of sequelae in encephalitis survivors relative to rates within the general population is not known. This study aimed to quantify increased risks of epilepsy, depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, psychotic disorders, bipolar disorder, cognitive problems, dementia, headache, and alcohol abuse among encephalitis cases. 2460 exposed individuals diagnosed with incident encephalitis in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink and 47,914 unexposed individuals without a history of encephalitis were included...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neurology
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