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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631695/-chronic-stress-and-mental-disorders-in-patients-with-systemic-scleroderma-results-of-an-interdisciplinary-study
#1
O F Seravina, T A Lisitsyna, M N Starovoytova, O V Desinova, O B Kovalevskaya, D Yu Veltishchev
AIM: To analyze of the prevalence of stressful factors and mental disorders (MDs), as well as their clinical psychopathological and clinical psychological characteristics to improve the comprehensive diagnosis and treatment of systemic scleroderma (SSD). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Examinations were performed in 110 patients (predominantly women (n=97 (88.2%); mean age, 49.9±2.47 years) with a documented diagnosis of SSD (its mean duration, 7.25±0.42 years). 62 (56...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631348/updating-of-working-memory-in-ecstasy-polydrug-users-findings-from-fnirs
#2
Catharine Montgomery, John E Fisk, Carl A Roberts
AIMS/OBJECTIVES: Cognitive deficits are now well documented in ecstasy (MDMA) users with type and relative demand of task emerging as important factors. The updating component of executive processes appears to be particularly affected. The study reported here used functional near infrared spectroscopy imaging to investigate changes in cortical haemodynamics during memory updating. METHOD: Twenty ecstasy users and 20 non-users completed verbal and spatial memory updating tasks and brain blood oxygenation and deoxygenation change was measured using functional near infrared spectroscopy...
June 19, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631336/a-neuroimaging-approach-to-capture-cognitive-reserve-application-to-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
Anna C van Loenhoud, Alle Meije Wink, Colin Groot, Sander C J Verfaillie, Jos Twisk, Frederik Barkhof, Bart van Berckel, Philip Scheltens, Wiesje M van der Flier, Rik Ossenkoppele
Cognitive reserve (CR) explains interindividual differences in the ability to maintain cognitive function in the presence of neuropathology. We developed a neuroimaging approach including a measure of brain atrophy and cognition to capture this construct. In a group of 511 Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarker-positive subjects in different stages across the disease spectrum, we performed 3T magnetic resonance imaging and predicted gray matter (GM) volume in each voxel based on cognitive performance (i.e. a global cognitive composite score), adjusted for age, sex, disease stage, premorbid brain size (i...
June 20, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630450/concurrent-talking-in-immersive-virtual-reality-on-the-dominance-of-visual-speech-cues
#4
Mar Gonzalez-Franco, Antonella Maselli, Dinei Florencio, Nikolai Smolyanskiy, Zhengyou Zhang
Humans are good at selectively listening to specific target conversations, even in the presence of multiple concurrent speakers. In our research, we study how auditory-visual cues modulate this selective listening. We do so by using immersive Virtual Reality technologies with spatialized audio. Exposing 32 participants to an Information Masking Task with concurrent speakers, we find significantly more errors in the decision-making processes triggered by asynchronous audiovisual speech cues. More precisely, the results show that lips on the Target speaker matched to a secondary (Mask) speaker's audio severely increase the participants' comprehension error rates...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630235/ultrasound-markers-of-carotid-atherosclerosis-and-cognition-the-northern-manhattan-study
#5
Hannah Gardener, Michelle R Caunca, Chuanhui Dong, Ying Kuen Cheung, Mitchell S V Elkind, Ralph L Sacco, Tatjana Rundek, Clinton B Wright
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Ultrasound markers of carotid atherosclerosis may be related to cognitive status. We hypothesized that individuals with greater carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and carotid plaque burden would exhibit worse cognition. METHODS: One thousand one hundred sixty-six stroke-free participants from the NOMAS (Northern Manhattan Study) underwent carotid ultrasound and neuropsychological examination. Among them, 826 underwent a second neuropsychological examination an average of 5 years later...
June 19, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629961/tortoises-in-front-of-mirrors-brain-asymmetries-and-lateralized-behaviours-in-the-tortoise-testudo-hermanni
#6
Valeria Anna Sovrano, Caterina Quaresmini, Gionata Stancher
Brain lateralization in response to social stimuli is well known for its involvement of the right hemisphere in several vertebrate species, including humans. This study aimed to investigate the laterality of the social behavior during the mirror-images inspection in tortoises (Testudo hermanni). In a rectangular apparatus, in presence or in absence of two mirrors as the longer walls, we assessed: 1) the animal's position and 2) the monocular viewing compared to the longer walls, 3) the paw used to start a movement from a resting position...
June 16, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628740/stuck-in-the-spin-cycle-avoidance-and-intrusions-following-breast-cancer-diagnosis
#7
Margaret R Bauer, Joshua F Wiley, Karen L Weihs, Annette L Stanton
OBJECTIVES: Theories and research regarding cognitive and emotional processing during the experience of profound stressors suggest that the presence of intrusive thoughts and feelings predicts greater use of avoidance and that the use of avoidance paradoxically predicts more intrusions. However, empirical investigations of their purported bidirectional relationship are limited. DESIGN: This study presents a longitudinal investigation of the reciprocal relationship between intrusions and avoidance coping over a 6-month period in the year following breast cancer diagnosis...
June 19, 2017: British Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628521/experiences-of-acute-pain-in-children-who-present-to-a-healthcare-facility-for-treatment-a-systematic-review-of-qualitative-evidence
#8
Nicole Pope, Mary Tallon, Ruth McConigley, Gavin Leslie, Sally Wilson
BACKGROUND: Pain is a universal and complex phenomenon that is personal, subjective and specific. Despite growing knowledge in pediatric pain, management of children's pain remains sub-optimal and is linked to negative behavioral and physiological consequences later in life. As there is no synthesis of these studies, it was timely to undertake a systematic review. OBJECTIVES: To identify, evaluate and synthesize the existing qualitative evidence on children's experiences of acute pain, including pain management, within a healthcare facility...
June 2017: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628285/-fibromyalgia-state-of-the-issue-in-2017
#9
REVIEW
A Neuprez, J-M Crielaard
Fibromyalgia (FM), whose diagnostic criteria were originally established in 1990 and updated in 2010, consists of a syndrome characterized by the presence of deep and diffuse musculoskeletal pain associated with other subjective manifestations (sleep, mood, cognitive problems). The prevalence is assessed in the general population at 2.2 %. Various risk factors were identified: age, gender, level of education and socio-economic status. Various etiological hypotheses have been explored, whether in neuroimaging or from the point of view of possible neuroendocrine and cytokine perturbations...
June 2017: Revue Médicale de Liège
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627387/observational-fear-learning-in-degus-is-correlated-with-temporal-vocalization-patterns
#10
Navdeep Lidhar, Nathan Insel, June Yue Dong, Kaori Takehara-Nishiuchi
Some animals learn to fear a situation after observing another individual come to harm, and this learning is influenced by the animals' social relationship and history. An important but sometimes overlooked factor in studies of observational fear learning is that social context not only affects observers, but may also influence the behavior and communications expressed by those being observed. Here we sought to investigate whether observational fear learning in the degu (Octodon degus) is affected by social familiarity, and the degree to which vocal expressions of alarm or distress contribute...
June 13, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626280/children-s-executive-function-in-a-cps-involved-sample-effects-of-cumulative-adversity-and-specific-types-of-adversity
#11
Leslie E Roos, Hyoun K Kim, Simone Schnabler, Philip A Fisher
Prior research has identified the presence of executive function (EF) deficits in child protective service (CPS) involved (versus non-involved) children but minimal work has examined predictors that might explain individual differences within these CPS-involved children. Here, we sought to characterize EF in a large sample (N=694) of CPS-involved children and examine how specific adversities (physical abuse, neglect, caregiver domestic violence, and caregiver substance dependence) and cumulative adversity (at ages 0-3 and 3-6 years) predict EF (at approximately 5-6 years)...
December 2016: Children and Youth Services Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625940/prodromal-stage-of-disease-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-how-to-diagnose-in-practice
#12
Frédéric Blanc, Marc Verny
Disease with Lewy bodies or dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), particularly at the prodromal stage, is a complex disease to diagnose because of different clinical beginnings and variable paths in terms of clinical expression. Thus DLB can be entcountered in different input modes: mild cognitive impairment, depression, acute behavioral disorders, confusion and delirium, or sleep disorders. In the aim to better diagnose the disease, should be sought obviously to search for the key symptoms: fluctuations, hallucinations, extra-pyramidal syndrome, and REM sleep behavior disorder...
June 1, 2017: Gériatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625216/symptom-rating-scales-for-schizophrenia-and-other-primary-psychotic-disorders-in-icd-11
#13
J W Keeley, W Gaebel
The subtype system for categorising presentations of schizophrenia will be removed from International Classification of Diseases 11th Revision. In its place will be a system for rating six domains of psychotic disorder pathology: positive symptoms, negative symptoms, depressive symptoms, manic symptoms, psychomotor symptoms and cognitive symptoms. This paper outlines the rationale and description of the proposed symptom rating scale, including current controversies. In particular, the scale could adopt either a 4-point severity rating or a 2-point presence/absence rating...
June 19, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625196/the-effectiveness-of-enhanced-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-cbt-e-a-naturalistic-study-within-an-out-patient-eating-disorder-service
#14
Rachel Signorini, Jeanie Sheffield, Natalie Rhodes, Carmel Fleming, Warren Ward
BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of enhanced cognitive behavioural Therapy (CBT-E) for adults with a range of eating disorder presentations within routine clinical settings has been examined in only two known published studies, neither of which included a follow-up assessment period. AIM: The current study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of CBT-E within an out-patient eating disorder service in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, and incorporated a follow-up assessment period of approximately 20 weeks post-treatment...
June 19, 2017: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623280/ev-3-an-endogenous-human-erythropoietin-isoform-with-distinct-functional-relevance
#15
Christel Bonnas, Liane Wüstefeld, Daniela Winkler, Romy Kronstein-Wiedemann, Ekrem Dere, Katja Specht, Melanie Boxberg, Torsten Tonn, Hannelore Ehrenreich, Herbert Stadler, Inge Sillaber
Generation of multiple mRNAs by alternative splicing is well known in the group of cytokines and has recently been reported for the human erythropoietin (EPO) gene. Here, we focus on the alternatively spliced EPO transcript characterized by deletion of exon 3 (hEPOΔ3). We show co-regulation of EPO and hEPOΔ3 in human diseased tissue. The expression of hEPOΔ3 in various human samples was low under normal conditions, and distinctly increased in pathological states. Concomitant up-regulation of hEPOΔ3 and EPO in response to hypoxic conditions was also observed in HepG2 cell cultures...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622570/the-role-of-premorbid-personality-and-social-cognition-in-suicidal-behaviour-in-first-episode-psychosis-a-one-year-follow-up-study
#16
Manuel Canal-Rivero, J D Lopez-Moriñigo, M L Barrigón, S Perona-Garcelán, C Jimenez-Casado, A S David, J E Obiols-Llandrich, M Ruiz-Veguilla
BACKGROUND: High suicide attempt (SA) rates have been reported in first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients, particularly during the first year after the illness onset. Despite previous studies establishing several risk factors for suicidal behaviour in FEP, premorbid personality and social cognition have not been sufficiently investigated to date. OBJECTIVE: To test whether personality traits and social cognition are associated with SAs in FEP over a 12-month follow-up...
May 31, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621715/neuropsychiatric-burden-in-huntington-s-disease
#17
REVIEW
Ricardo Augusto Paoli, Andrea Botturi, Andrea Ciammola, Vincenzo Silani, Cecilia Prunas, Claudio Lucchiari, Elisa Zugno, Elisabetta Caletti
Huntington's disease is a disorder that results in motor, cognitive, and psychiatric problems. The symptoms often take different forms and the presence of disturbances of the psychic sphere reduces patients' autonomy and quality of life, also impacting patients' social life. It is estimated that a prevalence between 33% and 76% of the main psychiatric syndromes may arise in different phases of the disease, often in atypical form, even 20 years before the onset of chorea and dementia. We present a narrative review of the literature describing the main psychopathological patterns that may be found in Huntington's disease, searching for a related article in the main database sources (Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge, Scopus, and Medscape)...
June 16, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615420/insulin-resistance-among-obese-middle-aged-is-associated-with-decreased-cerebrovascular-reactivity
#18
Olivia H Frosch, Po Lai Yau, Ricardo S Osorio, Henry Rusinek, Pippa Storey, Antonio Convit
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate differences in cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) to mild hypercapnia in obese/overweight individuals with and without insulin resistance (IR) compared to comparable lean controls. METHODS: A total of 60 cognitively normal participants (20 lean controls and 24 obese/overweight individuals with and 16 without IR) were evaluated using a high spatial resolution arterial spin labeling MRI technique at rest and during mild hypercapnia. We analyzed group differences in CVR in cerebral cortex and ascertained the relationships between CVR, IR, and body mass index (BMI)...
June 14, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612690/attachment-as-a-predictor-of-non-response-to-cbt-treatment-in-children-with-anxiety-disorders
#19
Monika Walczak, Barbara Hoff Esbjørn, Sonja Breinholst
Children's and parents' attachment patterns have been linked with the presence of pediatric anxiety disorders. The present study examined the role of attachment in predicting cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) treatment outcomes. A total of 69 children aged 7-13 years were assessed using a semi-structured interview, and treated with CBT. Differences between responders and nonresponders with regard to pretreatment characteristics were explored, and the predictive power of factors significantly different between groups was assessed using binominal logistic regression...
June 14, 2017: Attachment & Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612653/differential-item-functioning-analysis-of-items-on-the-geriatric-depression-scale-15-based-on-the-presence-or-absence-of-cognitive-impairment
#20
Allison J Midden, Benjamin T Mast
OBJECTIVE: The Geriatric Depression Scale-15 (GDS-15) is a screener for depressive symptoms in older adults. The present study aims to investigate the differential item functioning (DIF) of the GDS-15 items to determine whether or not they are biased by the presence of cognitive impairment. METHOD: Data from 215 older patients were used to examine the GDS-15. Individuals were categorized as cognitively impaired if they scored below the 10th percentile on the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale II...
June 14, 2017: Aging & Mental Health
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