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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924134/association-between-serotonin-2c-receptor-gene-htr2c-polymorphisms-and-psychopathological-symptoms-in-children-and-adolescents
#1
L A Paes, O H Della Torre, T B Henriques, M P de Mello, E H R V Celeri, P Dalgalarrondo, G Guerra Júnior, A Dos Santos Júnior
Serotonin 2C receptors (5HT2C) are involved in serotonin-driven dynamic equilibrium adjustments responsible for homeostatic stability in brain structures that modulate behavior and emotions. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the serotonin 2C receptor gene (HTR2C) have been associated with several neurological and mental disorders, including abnormalities in cognitive and emotional processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the rs6318 SNP of the HTR2C gene and behavioral characteristics exhibited by children and adolescents based on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/6-18) inventory...
2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916537/liraglutide-improves-cognitive-impairment-via-the-ampk-and-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathways-in-type-2-diabetic-rats
#2
Ying Yang, Hui Fang, Gang Xu, Yanfeng Zhen, Yazhong Zhang, Jinli Tian, Dandan Zhang, Guyue Zhang, Jing Xu
Liraglutide is a type of glucagon‑like‑peptide 1 receptor agonist, which has been reported as a novel type of antidiabetic agent with numerous benefits, including cardiovascular and neuroprotective effects. To the best of our knowledge, few studies to date have reported the potential mechanism underlying the neuroprotective effects of liraglutide on rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The present study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective actions of liraglutide in diabetic rats and to determine the mechanisms underlying these effects...
June 18, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916302/a-realist-review-to-understand-the-efficacy-and-outcomes-of-interventions-designed-to-minimise-reverse-or-prevent-the-progression-of-frailty
#3
Holly Gwyther, Elzbieta Bobrowicz Campos, João Apóstolo, Maura Marcucci, Antonio Cano, Carol Holland
Interventions to minimise, reverse or prevent the progression of frailty in older adults represent a potentially viable route to improving quality of life and care needs in older adults. Intervention methods used across European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP-AHA) collaborators were analysed, along with findings from literature reviews to determine "what works for whom in what circumstances". A realist review of FOCUS study literature reviews, 'real world' studies and grey literature was conducted according to RAMESES standards, and used to populate a framework analysis of theories of why frailty interventions worked, and theories of why frailty interventions did not work...
June 19, 2018: Health Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915616/clinical-characteristics-and-type-of-antithrombotic-treatment-in-a-spanish-cohort-of-elderly-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation-according-to-dependency-frailty-and-cognitive-impairment
#4
Jose María Mostaza, Manuel Jesús Romero Jiménez, Fernando José Ruiz Laiglesia, José Antonio Díaz Peromingo, Manuel Beltrán Robles, Ernesto Guevara Sierra, Ana Santander Bilbao, Carmen Suárez
Background: Available data regarding clinical profile and management of elderly patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) according to dependency, fragility and cognitive impairment are scarce. The objective of the study was to analyze the biodemographic data, clinical profile and antithrombotic treatment according to dependency, fragility and cognitive impairment in elderly AF patients. Methods: Cross-sectional and multi-center study performed in consecutive AF patients ≥ 75 years treated with oral anticoagulants ≥ 3 months attended in Internal Medicine Departments in Spain...
April 2018: Journal of Geriatric Cardiology: JGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913998/early-maladaptive-schemas-in-finnish-adult-chronic-male-and-female-pain-patients
#5
Tom H J Saariaho, Anita S I Saariaho, Irma A Karila, Matti I Joukamaa
Background and aims of the study The connection between chronic pain and traumatic experiences in childhood has been established in several studies. The association of emotional maltreatment with chronic pain has been studied, but to a lesser degree. Schema therapy [24] is an extension of cognitive therapy and presents the early maladaptive schema (EMS) concept. EMSs reflect early, mainly emotional maltreatment. The aim of the present study was to examine the existence of EMSs, the association between EMSs and pain variables and EMS driven patterns...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912655/does-segmentation-really-work-effectiveness-of-matched-graphic-health-warnings-on-cigarette-packaging-by-race-gender-and-chronic-disease-conditions-on-cognitive-outcomes-among-vulnerable-populations
#6
Hana Hayashi, Andy Tan, Ichiro Kawachi, Sara Minsky, Kasisomayajula Viswanath
We examined the differential impact of exposure to smoking-related graphic health warnings (GHWs) on risk perceptions and intentions to quit among different audience segments characterized by gender, race/ethnic group, and presence of chronic disease condition. Specifically, we sought to test whether GHWs that portray specific groups (in terms of gender, race, and chronic disease conditions) are associated with differences in risk perception and intention to quit among smokers who match the portrayed group...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912295/relationships-between-tau-and-glucose-metabolism-reflect-alzheimer-s-disease-pathology-in-cognitively-normal-older-adults
#7
Jenna N Adams, Samuel N Lockhart, Lexin Li, William J Jagust
Tau is associated with hypometabolism in patients with Alzheimer's disease. In normal aging, the association between tau and glucose metabolism is not fully characterized. We used [18F] AV-1451, [18F] Fluorodeoxyglucose, and [11C] Pittsburgh Compound-B (PiB) PET to measure associations between tau and glucose metabolism in cognitively normal older adults (N = 49). Participants were divided into amyloid-negative (PiB-, n = 28) and amyloid-positive (PiB+, n = 21) groups to determine effects of amyloid-β. We assessed both local and across-brain regional tau-glucose metabolism associations separately in PiB-/PiB+ groups using correlation matrices and sparse canonical correlations...
April 18, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911602/nitrous-oxide-analgesia-for-bone-marrow-aspiration-and-biopsy-a-randomized-controlled-and-patient-blinded-study
#8
Anna-Maria Kuivalainen, Freja Ebeling, Eira Poikonen, Per H Rosenberg
Background and aims Bone marrow aspiration and/or biopsy (BMAB), performed under local anaesthesia in adults, is a common and often painful procedure. Anxiety is known to intensify pain during the procedure. Nitrous oxide (N2O), known for its sedative and analgesic benefit in various short medical procedures and labour pain, could be advantageous also for pain relief during bone marrow examination. N2O acts rapidly and is eliminated in a couple of minutes once the inhalation is stopped, and occasional side effects (e...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910747/korsakoff-syndrome-in-non-alcoholic-psychiatric-patients-variable-cognitive-presentation-and-impaired-frontotemporal-connectivity
#9
Georgios Nikolakaros, Timo Kurki, Janina Paju, Sokratis G Papageorgiou, Risto Vataja, Tuula Ilonen
Background: Non-alcoholic Wernicke's encephalopathy and Korsakoff syndrome are greatly underdiagnosed. There are very few reported cases of neuropsychologically documented non-alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data are scarce. Methods: We report clinical characteristics and neuropsychological as well as radiological findings from three psychiatric patients (one woman and two men) with a history of probable undiagnosed non-alcoholic Wernicke's encephalopathy and subsequent chronic memory problems...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910709/a-complex-relationship-between-suicide-dementia-and-amyloid-a-narrative-review
#10
Ismael Conejero, Sophie Navucet, Jacques Keller, Emilie Olié, Philippe Courtet, Audrey Gabelle
Background: Suicide rates are high among older adults and many conditions have been related to suicide in this population: chronic illnesses, physical disabilities, cancer, social isolation, mental disorders and neurocognitive disorders. Objectives: Among neurocognitive disorders, analysis of the relationships between dementia and suicidal behaviors led to conflicting results and some questions are still without answer. Particularly, it is not known whether (i) Alzheimer's disease (AD) increases the risk of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts (SA) or the frequency of death by suicide; (ii) the presence of suicidal ideation or SA in people older than 65 years of age is an early dementia sign; and (iii) amyloid load in frontal areas facilitates SA by modifying the decision-making pathway...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910632/clinimetric-properties-of-the-electronic-pain-assessment-tool-epat-for-aged-care-residents-with-moderate-to-severe-dementia
#11
Kreshnik Hoti, Mustafa Atee, Jeffery D Hughes
Purpose: Accurate pain assessment is critical to detect pain and facilitate effective pain management in dementia patients. The electronic Pain Assessment Tool (ePAT) is a point-of-care solution that uses automated facial analysis in conjunction with other clinical indicators to evaluate the presence and intensity of pain in patients with dementia. This study aimed to examine clini-metric properties (clinical utility and predictive validity) of the ePAT in this population group. Methods: Data were extracted from a prospective validation (observational) study of the ePAT in dementia patients who were ≥65 years of age, living in a facility for ≥3 months, and had Psychogeriatric Assessment Scales - cognitive scores ≥10...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908937/sparking-interest-in-restaurant-dishes-cognitive-and-affective-processes-underlying-dish-design-and-ecological-origin-an-fmri-study
#12
Francisco Muñoz-Leiva, Diego Gómez-Carmona
The objective of the current paper is to verify to what extent the presentation of a restaurant dish and the origin of its food provoke reactions in the consumer's brain during the visualization and the decision-making process, from an exploratory approach. The two independent variables singled out for study were whether the presentation was well or poorly presented and if the ingredients were ecological or non-ecological. The results applying the functional magnetic resonance image (fMRI) methodology reveal that well-presented dishes activate areas in the brain linked to the network of emotions indicating that the visualization in restaurant menus is not a purely cognitive and self-reflexive process but retains a strong affective component...
June 14, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907754/nano-particle-mediated-inhibition-of-parkinson-s-disease-using-computational-biology-approach
#13
Aman Chandra Kaushik, Shiv Bharadwaj, Sanjay Kumar, Dong-Qing Wei
Parkinson's disease (PD) arises as neurodegenerative disorder and characterized by progressive deterioration of motor functions due to forfeiture of dopamine-releasing neurons. During PD, neurons at stake loss their functionality that results into cognition impairment and forgetfulness, commonly called as dementia. Recently, nanoparticles (NPs) have been reported for easy drug delivery through blood-brain barrier (BBB) into the central nervous system (CNS) against the conventional drug delivery systems. However, present study attempted to elucidate the α-synuclein activity, a major factor casing PD, in presence of its inhibitor cerium oxide (CeO2 ) nanoparticle via computational biology approach...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905556/association-between-components-of-metabolic-syndrome-and-cognitive-dysfunction-cross-sectional-study-among-the-population-of-the-turkestan-region
#14
K Madenbay, Zh Shalkharova, Zh Shalkharova, G Nuskabayeva, K Sadykova
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) being a risk factor for many vascular pathologic processes is associated with cognitive dysfunction with vascular genesis. Objective - to study the relationship between clinical and metabolic indicators and the presence of cognitive dysfunction in persons with MetS. A transverse study was conducted in the Turkestan region of Southern Kazakhstan during which a general clinical, laboratory examination and evaluation of cognitive function was performed in 639 patients. To assess the relationship between the MetS, its individual components and cognitive function with Mini Mental State Examination test (MMSE) multinominal logistic regression analysis was used...
May 2018: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904888/olfactory-dysfunction-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Concepció Marin, Dolores Vilas, Cristóbal Langdon, Isam Alobid, Mauricio López-Chacón, Antje Haehner, Thomas Hummel, Joaquim Mullol
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The sense of smell is today one of the focuses of interest in aging and neurodegenerative disease research. In several neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, the olfactory dysfunction is one of the initial symptoms appearing years before motor symptoms and cognitive decline, being considered a clinical marker of these diseases' early stages and a marker of disease progression and cognitive decline. Overall and under the umbrella of precision medicine, attention to olfactory function may help to improve chances of success for neuroprotective and disease-modifying therapeutic strategies...
June 15, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902704/haptic-information-and-cognitive-visual-task-reduce-postural-sway-in-faller-and-non-faller-older-adults
#16
Rosangela Alice Batistela, Alison Oates, Renato Moraes
Understanding the effects of haptic input while performing a cognitive-visual task on postural control can broaden comprehension of the functional integration hypothesis in older adults with and without a history of falls. We aimed to investigate the effect of haptic input provided by light touch (LT) and the anchors while performing a cognitive-visual task in faller and non-faller older adults when standing upright. Twenty-two fallers and twenty-two non-fallers older adults participated in this study. They stood upright with feet together and performed six experimental conditions combining haptic cues (none, LT, and anchors) and the presence/absence of the cognitive-visual task (the adapted visual Stroop test)...
June 11, 2018: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902070/determining-sensitivity-and-specificity-of-the-sport-concussion-assessment-tool-3-scat3-components-in-university-athletes
#17
Rachel I Downey, Michael G Hutchison, Paul Comper
OBJECTIVE: To examine the clinical utility of the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool-3 (SCAT3) in university athletes with concussion in the absence and presence of baseline data over time. METHODS: Athletes with concussion (n = 23) and uninjured controls (n = 22) were prospectively evaluated at three time-points (baseline, 3-5 days, 3 weeks post-injury) with the SCAT3 components: (1) Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS); (2) Standardized Assessment of Concussion (SAC); and (3) modified Balance Error Scoring System (m-BESS)...
June 14, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901697/effects-of-amyloid-pathology-and-neurodegeneration-on-cognitive-change-in-cognitively-normal-adults
#18
Murat Bilgel, Yang An, Jessica Helphrey, Wendy Elkins, Gabriela Gomez, Dean F Wong, Christos Davatzikos, Luigi Ferrucci, Susan M Resnick
Understanding short-term cognitive decline in relation to Alzheimer's neuroimaging biomarkers in early stages of the development of neuropathology and neurodegeneration will inform participant recruitment and monitoring strategies in clinical trials aimed at prevention of cognitive impairment and dementia. We assessed associations among neuroimaging measures of cerebral amyloid pathology, a hallmark Alzheimer's neuropathology, hippocampal atrophy, and prospective cognition among 171 cognitively normal Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging participants (baseline age 56-95 years, 48% female, 562 cognitive assessments, 3...
June 12, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901412/transactive-response-dna-binding-protein-43-tdp-43-abnormalities-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#19
Xin Lin Tan, Mujun Sun, Rhys D Brady, Shijie J Liu, Roxana Llanos, Steve Cheung, David K Wright, Pablo M Casillas-Espinosa, Maithili Sashindranath, Stuart John McDonald, Bradley J Turner, Terence John O'Brien, Sandy Richard Shultz
Initial studies have found some evidence for transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) abnormalities after traumatic brain injury (TBI), and the presence of protein inclusions consisting of TDP-43 are a pathological hallmark of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, a condition associated with TBI. However, no study has characterized changes in TDP-43 phosphorylation, mislocalization, and fragmentation (i.e., abnormalities linked to hallmark TDP-43 pathology) after TBI, and how these relate to functional outcomes...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900802/dementia-and-cognitive-impairment-among-u-s-veterans-with-a-history-of-mdd-or-ptsd-a-retrospective-cohort-study-based-on-sex-and-race
#20
Jagriti Jackie Bhattarai, Mary E Oehlert, Karen D Multon, Scott W Sumerall
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine major depressive disorder (MDD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosed at age < 55 as predictors, and sex and race as potential moderators, of dementia and other forms of cognitive impairment. METHOD: Veterans ( N = 4,800) aged ⩾ 56 years were grouped by psychiatric history, sex, and race. Hierarchical and stepwise regression were employed to determine significant predictors. RESULTS: MDD and PTSD were associated with almost double the risk for developing dementia or cognitive impairment at age ⩾ 56...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Aging and Health
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