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T. Cruzi

Manuel Fresno, Núria Gironès
Chagas disease is a multisystemic disorder caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi , which affects ~8 million people in Latin America, killing 7,000 people annually. Chagas disease is one of the main causes of death in the endemic area and the leading cause of infectious myocarditis in the world. T. cruzi infection induces two phases, acute and chronic, where the infection is initially asymptomatic and the majority of patients will remain clinically indeterminate for life. However, over a period of 10-30 years, ~30% of infected individuals will develop irreversible, potentially fatal cardiac syndromes (chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy [CCC]), and/or dilatation of the gastro-intestinal tract (megacolon or megaesophagus)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Natalia Anahí Juiz, Irma Torrejón, Marianela Burgos, Ana María Fernanda Torres, Tomás Duffy, Nelly Melina Cayo, Anahí Tabasco, Miriam Salvo, Silvia Andrea Longhi, Alejandro Gabriel Schijman
Infection with Trypanosoma cruzi in women at reproductive age is associated with congenital transmission and adverse pregnancy outcome. The placenta is a key barrier to infection. We characterized gene expression profiles of term placental environment from T. cruzi seropositive (SP) and seronegative (SN) mothers performing RNA-seq. Nine pools of placental RNA paired samples were used: three from SN and six from SP tissues. Each pool consisted of female/male newborns and vaginal/caesarean deliveries binomials...
March 12, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
Oneida Espinosa-Álvarez, Paola A Ortiz, Luciana Lima, André G Costa-Martins, Myrna G Serrano, Stephane Herder, Gregory A Buck, Erney P Camargo, Patrick B Hamilton, Jamie R Stevens, Marta M G Teixeira
Trypanosoma rangeli and Trypanosoma cruzi are generalist trypanosomes sharing a wide range of mammalian hosts; they are transmitted by triatomine bugs, and are the only trypanosomes infecting humans in the Neotropics. Their origins, phylogenetic relationships, and emergence as human parasites have long been subjects of interest. In the present study, taxon-rich analyses (20 trypanosome species from bats and terrestrial mammals) using ssrRNA, glycosomal glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH), heat shock protein-70 (HSP70) and Spliced Leader (SL) RNA sequences, and multilocus phylogenetic analyses using 11 single copy genes from 15 selected trypanosomes, provide increased resolution of relationships between species and clades, strongly supporting two main sister lineages: lineage Schizotrypanum, comprising T...
March 12, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Teresa Cruz-Bustos, Silvia N J Moreno, Roberto Docampo
Membrane proteins in trypanosomatids are, in general, weakly expressed and confirmation of their subcellular localization frequently requires their overexpression with epitope tags. However, overexpression can lead to mislocalization of the probes. Viswanathan et al. (Nat. Methods, 2015) described high performance tags for localization of weakly expressed proteins. We report here the use of these protein tags, named "spaghetti monster", for CRISPR /Cas9-mediated C-terminal endogenous tagging of Trypanosoma cruzi to localize two weakly expressed transient receptor potential (TRP) channels to acidic compartments...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Marilda Savoia Nascimento, Anna Maria Simonsen Stolf, Heitor Franco de Andrade Junior, Ramendra Pati Pandey, Eufrosina Setsu Umezawa
BACKGROUND: Vimentin is a main structural protein of the cell, a component of intermediate cell filaments and immersed in cytoplasm. Vimentin is mimicked by some bacterial proteins and anti-vimentin antibodies occur in autoimmune cardiac disease, as rheumatic fever. In this work we studied vimentin distribution on LLC-MK2 cells infected with T. cruzi and anti-vimentin antibodies in sera from several clinical pictures of Chagas' disease or American Trypanosomiasis, in order to elucidate any vimentin involvement in the humoral response of this pathology...
March 12, 2018: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
E Quintero-Troconis, N Buelvas, C Carrasco-López, M R Domingo-Sananes, L González-González, R Ramírez-Molina, L Osorio, A Lobo-Rojas, A J Cáceres, P A Michels, H Acosta, W Quiñones, J L Concepción
Purification of enolase (ENO) from the cytosol of Trypanosoma cruzi indicated that it may interact with at least five other proteins. Two of them were identified as metallocarboxypeptidase-1 (TcMCP-1) and a putative acireductone dioxygenase (ARDp). Subcellular localization studies confirmed the presence of ARDp in the cytosol, as is the case for ENO and TcMCP-1. Analysis of the ARDp sequence showed that this protein has two domains, an N-terminal ARD and a C-terminal TRP14 (thioredoxin-related protein) domain...
March 9, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Fernando Araujo Monteiro, Christiane Weirauch, Márcio Felix, Cristiano Lazoski, Fernando Abad-Franch
In this chapter, we review and update current knowledge about the evolution, systematics, and biogeography of the Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae)-true bugs that feed primarily on vertebrate blood. In the Americas, triatomines are the vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease. Despite declining incidence and prevalence, Chagas disease is still a major public health concern in Latin America. Triatomines occur also in the Old World, where vector-borne T. cruzi transmission has not been recorded...
2018: Advances in Parasitology
Esteban Yefi-Quinteros, Catalina Muñoz-San Martín, Antonella Bacigalupo, Juana P Correa, Pedro E Cattan
BACKGROUND: Trypanosoma cruzi is the agent of Chagas disease, a major public health problem in Latin America. Many wild and domestic animals are naturally infected with T. cruzi; rodents are one of the groups which have been consistently detected infected in different countries. The aim of this work was to characterize blood T. cruzi load in naturally infected rodents from a Chagas disease endemic region in Chile. METHODS: Baited traps were set in domestic and peridomestic areas of rural dwellings...
March 12, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Laura-Isobel McCall, Anupriya Tripathi, Fernando Vargas, Rob Knight, Pieter C Dorrestein, Jair L Siqueira-Neto
Trypanosoma cruzi parasites are the causative agents of Chagas disease. These parasites infect cardiac and gastrointestinal tissues, leading to local inflammation and tissue damage. Digestive Chagas disease is associated with perturbations in food absorption, intestinal traffic and defecation. However, the impact of T. cruzi infection on the gut microbiota and metabolome have yet to be characterized. In this study, we applied mass spectrometry-based metabolomics and 16S rRNA sequencing to profile infection-associated alterations in fecal bacterial composition and fecal metabolome through the acute-stage and into the chronic stage of infection, in a murine model of Chagas disease...
March 12, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Graziano Bargiggia, Maurizio Ruggeri, Gaia Ortalli, Simona Gabrielli, Paola Rodari, Lorenzo D'Antiga, Claudio Farina
Chagas disease (CD) is an uncommon disease in Europe. Its epidemiology has changed because of mass migration from Latin America to Europe. Herein we describe a congenital case of CD in a Bolivian newborn in Bergamo, the main city of residence for the Bolivian community in Italy. At delivery, serological analyses evidenced IgG antibodies against Trypanosoma cruzi both in the child and mother, as expected. Hemoscopic analyses on peripheral blood were repeatedly negative during the first months of life. Eventually, thanks to T...
March 1, 2018: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Jorge David Rojas Márquez, Yamile Ana, Ruth Eliana Baigorrí, Cinthia Carolina Stempin, Fabio Marcelo Cerban
The causative agent of Chagas' disease, Trypanosoma cruzi , affects approximately 10 million people living mainly in Latin America, with macrophages being one of the first cellular actors confronting the invasion during T. cruzi infection and their function depending on their proper activation and polarization into distinct M1 and M2 subtypes. Macrophage polarization is thought to be regulated not only by cytokines and growth factors but also by environmental signals. The metabolic checkpoint kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-mediated sensing of environmental and metabolic cues influences macrophage polarization in a complex and as of yet incompletely understood manner...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Eric Dumonteil, Maria-Jesus Ramirez-Sierra, Silvia Pérez-Carrillo, Christian Teh-Poot, Claudia Herrera, Sébastien Gourbière, Etienne Waleckx
Trypanosoma cruzi is the agent of Chagas disease, transmitted by hematophagous triatomine vectors. Establishing transmission cycles is key to understand the epidemiology of the disease, but integrative assessments of ecological interactions shaping parasite transmission are still limited. Current approaches also lack sensitivity to assess the full extent of this ecological diversity. Here we developed a metabarcoding approach based on next-generation sequencing to identify triatomine gut microbiome, vertebrate feeding hosts, and parasite diversity and their potential interactions...
March 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ana Beatriz Bortolozo de Oliveira, Kaio Cesar Chaboli Alevi, Carlos Henrique Lima Imperador, Fernanda Fernandez Madeira, Maria Tercília Vilela de Azeredo-Oliveira
Trypanosoma cruzi is a protozoan of great importance to public health: it has infected millions of people in the world and is the etiologic agent of Chagas disease, which can cause cardiac and gastrointestinal disorders in patients and may even lead to death. The main vector of transmission of this parasite is triatomine bugs, which have a habit of defecating while feeding on blood and passing the parasite to their own hosts through their feces. Although it has been argued that T. cruzi is not pathogenic for this vector, other studies indicate that the success of the infection depends on several molecules and factors, including the insect's intestinal microbiota, which may experience changes as a result of infection that include decreased fitness...
March 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Ruben D Arroyo-Olarte, Ignacio Martínez, Mayra Cruz-Rivera, Fela Mendlovic, Bertha Espinoza
BACKGROUND: Trypanosoma cruzi is a protozoan parasite and an etiological agent of Chagas disease. There is a wide variability in the clinical outcome of its infection, ranging from asymptomatic individuals to those with chronic fatal mega syndromes. Both parasite and host factors, as well as their interplay, are thought to be involved in the process. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the resistance to complement-mediated killing in two T. cruzi TcI strains with differential virulence and the subsequent effect on their infectivity in mammalian cells...
February 19, 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Angela Maria Lourenço, Cristiane Castro Faccini, Cristiane Aparecida de Jesus Costa, Gabrielle Balestrin Mendes, Abilio Augusto Fragata Filho
INTRODUCTION: Approximately seven to eight million people worldwide have Chagas disease. In Brazil, benznidazole is the most commonly used active drug against Trypanosoma cruzi; however, its efficacy is limited, and side effects are frequent. Recent studies suggest that amiodarone may be beneficial in the treatment of this disease, by exerting anti-T. cruzi action. This study evaluated changes in T. cruzi cell count in in vitro cultures subjected to different doses of benznidazole, amiodarone, and their combination...
January 2018: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
Carlos Edmundo Rodrigues Fontes, Ana Paula de Abreu, Aretuza Zaupa Gasparim
BACKGROUND: Researches on Chagas disease still use several animals and rats, due to size and susceptibility were preferred by many authors. AIM: To develop an experimental model of megacolon in rats inoculated with the strain Y of Trypanosoma cruzi. METHODS: Thirty male Wistar rats were distributed in three groups inoculated with different inoculants: Group A: 600000, Group B: 1000000 and Group C: 1500000 blood trypomastigotes of T. cruzi...
March 1, 2018: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
Ludmila Ferreira de Almeida Fiuza, Raiza Brandão Peres, Marianne Rocha Simões-Silva, Patricia Bernardino da Silva, Denise da Gama Jaen Batista, Cristiane França da Silva, Aline Nefertiti Silva da Gama, Tummala Rama Krishna Reddy, Maria de Nazaré Correia Soeiro
American trypanosomiasis or Chagas disease (CD) is a vector borne pathology caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi), which remains a serious global health problem. The current available treatment for CD is limited to two nitroderivatives with limited efficacy and several side effects. The rational design of ergosterol synthetic route inhibitors (e.g. CYP51 inhibitors) represents a promising strategy for fungi and trypanosomatids, exhibiting excellent anti-T.cruzi activity in pre-clinical assays...
February 23, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Noel-Marie Plonski, Bianca Bissoni, Madara Hetti Arachchilage, Karl Romstedt, Edgar E Kooijman, Helen Piontkivska
Unicellular flagellates that make up the class Kinetoplastida include multiple parasites responsible for public health concerns, including Trypanosoma brucei and T. cruzi (agents of African sleeping sickness and Chagas disease, respectively), and various Leishmania species, which cause leishmaniasis. These diseases are generally difficult to eradicate, with treatments often having lethal side effects and/or being effective only during the acute phase of the diseases, when most patients are still asymptomatic...
February 28, 2018: Gene
Mariane Albuquerque Lima Ribeiro Castro, Gabriela Vieira de Souza Castro, Janis Lunier de Souza, Cláudio Rodrigues de Souza, Leandro José Ramos, Jader de Oliveira, João Aristeu da Rosa, Luis Marcelo Aranha Camargo, Dionatas Ulises de Oliveira Meneguetti
INTRODUCTION: This article reports, for the first time, the occurrence of Panstrongylus megistus in the Brazilian Western Amazon. METHODS: Specimens of P. megistus were collected in the cities of Rio Branco, Acre and Extrema, Rondônia. RESULTS: The number of triatomine species in the State of Acre increased from eight to nine and in Rondônia from seven to eight. This was also the first report of P. megistus in the Brazilian Western Amazon...
February 27, 2018: Acta Tropica
Carolyn L Hodo, Gregory K Wilkerson, Elise C Birkner, Stanton B Gray, Sarah A Hamer
Natural infection of captive nonhuman primates (NHPs) with Trypanosoma cruzi (agent of Chagas disease) is an increasingly recognized problem in facilities across the southern USA, with negative consequences for NHP health and biomedical research. We explored a central Texas NHP facility as a nidus of transmission by characterizing parasite discrete typing units (DTU) in seropositive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), identifying the wildlife reservoirs, and characterizing vector infection. In seropositive NHPs, we documented low and intermittent concentrations of circulating T...
March 1, 2018: EcoHealth
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