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Appropriate technology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334154/ethical-issues-of-crispr-technology-and-gene-editing-through-the-lens-of-solidarity
#1
John J Mulvihill, Benjamin Capps, Yann Joly, Tamra Lysaght, Hub A E Zwart, Ruth Chadwick
Background: The avalanche of commentaries on CRISPR-Cas9 technology, a bacterial immune system modified to recognize any short DNA sequence, cut it out, and insert a new one, has rekindled hopes for gene therapy and other applications and raised criticisms of engineering genes in future generations. Sources of data: This discussion draws on articles that emphasize ethics, identified partly through PubMed and Google, 2014-2016. Areas of agreement: CRISPR-Cas9 has taken the pace and prospects for genetic discovery and applications to a high level, stoking anticipation for somatic gene engineering to help patients...
February 23, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333280/hcg-activates-the-erk1-2-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-pathway-in-human-endometrial-stromal-cells-transiently-increasing-the-progesterone-receptor-and-regulating-genes-associated-with-endometrial-receptivity
#2
Alejandro Tapia-Pizarro, Sebastián Archiles, Felipe Argandoña, Cecilia Valencia, Keyla Zavaleta, María Cecilia Johnson, Reinaldo González-Ramos, Luigi Devoto
STUDY QUESTION: How does hCG signal in human endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) and what is its role in regulating ESC function? SUMMARY ANSWER: CG signaling in ESCs activates the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (Erk1/2) pathway through exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac) and transiently increases progesterone receptor (PR) transcript and protein expression and its transcriptional function. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: hCG is one of the earliest embryo-derived secreted signals in the endometrium, which abundantly expresses LH/hCG receptors...
March 14, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330420/arthroplasty-treatment-of-proximal-humerus-fractures-14-year-trends-in-the-united-states
#3
William W Schairer, Benedict U Nwachukwu, Stephen Lyman, Lawrence V Gulotta
OBJECTIVES: Proximal humerus fractures are a common injury in the elderly population that can usually be managed non-operatively. However, arthroplasty has become increasingly utilized for complex fractures and poor bone quality. We evaluated national trends in treatment, specifically looking at the adoption of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. METHODS: The incidence of proximal humerus fractures was calculated from the Nationwide Emergency Department Database (NEDD) from 2006-2012...
March 22, 2017: Physician and Sportsmedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328231/use-of-cell-phones-and-computers-for-health-promotion-and-tobacco-cessation-by-american-indian-college-students-in-montana
#4
Jo Ann W Dotson, Lonnie A Nelson, Sara L Young, Dedra Buchwald, John Roll
INTRODUCTION: Cell phones and personal computers have become popular mechanisms for delivering and monitoring health information and education, including the delivery of tobacco cessation education and support. Tobacco smoking is prevalent among American Indians (AIs) and Alaska Natives (ANs), with 26% AI/AN adult men smoking compared to 19% of Caucasian adult males and 22% of African American adult males. Smoking is even more prevalent in Northern Plains AI populations, with 42% of men <i>and</i> women reporting current smoking...
January 2017: Rural and Remote Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327571/insights-from-early-experience-of-a-rare-disease-genomic-medicine-multidisciplinary-team-a-qualitative-study
#5
Elizabeth Ormondroyd, Michael P Mackley, Edward Blair, Jude Craft, Julian C Knight, John Taylor, Jenny C Taylor, Andrew Om Wilkie, Hugh Watkins
Whole-exome/whole-genome sequencing (WES/WGS) has the potential to enhance genetic diagnosis of rare disease, and is increasingly becoming part of routine clinical care in mainstream medicine. Effective translation will require ongoing efforts in a number of areas including: selection of appropriate patients, provision of effective consent, pre- and post-test genetic counselling, improving variant interpretation algorithms and practices, and management of secondary findings including those found incidentally and those actively sought...
March 22, 2017: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326402/total-joint-arthroplasty-in-patients-with-chronic-infectious-liver%C3%A2-disease
#6
Jeremy N Truntzer, Kalpit N Shah, Derek R Jenkins, Lee E Rubin
The opportunity for total joint arthroplasty (TJA) in patients with chronic infectious liver disease is rapidly expanding. This is the product of both superior survival of chronic hepatitis patients, evolving implant technologies, and improvement of techniques in TJA. Unfortunately, treating this group of patients is not without significant challenges that can stem from both intrahepatic and extrahepatic clinical manifestations. Moreover, many subclinical changes occur in this cohort that can alter hemostasis, wound healing, and infection risk even in the asymptomatic patient...
June 2016: Arthroplasty Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325665/volatile-methylsiloxanes-through-wastewater-treatment-plants-a-review-of-levels-and-implications
#7
REVIEW
Daniela Capela, Nuno Ratola, Arminda Alves, Vera Homem
The use of siloxanes has been increasing due to physicochemical properties that are appropriate to be included in the formulations of a large variety of consumer products. This implies a considerable release of these chemicals into the environment, which caught the attention of the scientific community in view of some reports of potential hazardous effects. However, the studies related to the presence and partition of volatile methylsiloxanes (VMSs) in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are still scarce. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive assessment of the current state of the knowledge concerning the presence of VMSs in WWTPs and also a discussion of the efficiency of the removal technologies available...
March 15, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325505/clinical-interpretation-of-urine-drug-tests-what-clinicians-need-to-know-about-urine-drug-screens
#8
REVIEW
Karen E Moeller, Julie C Kissack, Rabia S Atayee, Kelly C Lee
Urine drug testing is frequently used in clinical, employment, educational, and legal settings and misinterpretation of test results can result in significant adverse consequences for the individual who is being tested. Advances in drug testing technology combined with a rise in the number of novel misused substances present challenges to clinicians to appropriately interpret urine drug test results. Authors searched PubMed and Google Scholar to identify published literature written in English between 1946 and 2016, using urine drug test, screen, false-positive, false-negative, abuse, and individual drugs of abuse as key words...
March 18, 2017: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324991/features-of-cerebral-oxygenation-detects-brain-injury-in-premature-infants
#9
John M O'Toole, Mmoloki Kenosi, Daragh Finn, Geraldine B Boylan, Eugene M Dempsey
Babies born prematurely can develop brain injury within days after birth. Early identification of high-risk infants enables appropriate clinical care to mitigate potential lifelong disabilities. Near infra-red spectroscopy is an established technology that can provide continuous measurements of cerebral oxygen saturation (rcSO2) over this critical period. We develop a feature set of the rcSO2 signal for the purpose of detecting brain injury. Our feature set contains amplitude, spectral, and fractal dimension features within 5 frequency bands...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322063/discrepancies-between-blood-glucose-and-interstitial-glucose-technological-artifacts-or-physiology
#10
Thorsten Siegmund, Lutz Heinemann, Ralf Kolassa, Andreas Thomas
BACKGROUND: For decades, the major source of information used to make therapeutic decisions by patients with diabetes has been glucose measurements using capillary blood samples. Knowledge gained from clinical studies, for example, on the impact of metabolic control on diabetes-related complications, is based on such measurements. Different to traditional blood glucose measurement systems, systems for continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) measure glucose in interstitial fluid (ISF). The assumption is that glucose levels in blood and ISF are practically the same and that the information provided can be used interchangeably...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320595/brain-death-during-pregnancy-and-prolonged-corporeal-support-of-the-body-a-critical-discussion
#11
Lynne Staff, Meredith Nash
AIM: To discuss corporeal support of the brain-dead pregnant woman and to critically examine important aspects of this complex situation that remain as yet unexplored. BACKGROUND: When brain death of the woman occurs during pregnancy, the fetus may be kept inside the corporeally supported body for prolonged periods to enable continued fetal growth and development. This has been increasingly reported in medical literature since 1982 and has received considerable media attention in the past few years...
March 17, 2017: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320294/solid-gas-biocatalysis
#12
REVIEW
L M Kulishova, D O Zharkov
Solid/gas biocatalysis is a nontraditional reaction system that employs the ability of some enzymes, being in the solid state, to catalyze reactions of substrates in the gas phase. Manipulation of the reaction parameters (temperature and pressure) in the solid/gas system allows precise control over the thermodynamic activity of water and substrate and creation of a controlled microenvironment for the enzyme, making it an appropriate model for enzymology studies. Owing to such advantages as high stability of dry enzymes and cofactors and easy fractionation of gas mixtures, solid/gas biotechnology has already found several industrial applications...
February 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320158/addressing-post-stroke-care-in-rural-areas-with-peru-as-a-case-study-placing-emphasis-on-evidence-based-pragmatism
#13
REVIEW
J Jaime Miranda, Miguel G Moscoso, Lijing L Yan, Francisco Diez-Canseco, Germán Málaga, Hector H Garcia, Bruce Ovbiagele
Stroke is a major cause of death and disability, with most of its burden now affecting low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). People in rural areas of LMIC who have a stroke receive very little acute stroke care and local healthcare workers and family caregivers in these regions lack the necessary knowledge to assist them. Intriguingly, a recent rapid growth in cell-phone use and digital technology in rural areas has not yet been appropriately exploited for health care training and delivery purposes. What should be done in rural areas, at the community setting-level, where access to healthcare is limited remains a challenge...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319560/rash-diagnostics-an-update-on-the-diagnosis-of-allergic-rashes
#14
Corinne Savides Happel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize recent research regarding the diagnosis of allergic rashes and to suggest future directions for the promotion of accurate diagnosis and endotype specification. RECENT FINDINGS: Multiple cohort studies demonstrate that with appropriate clinical evaluation, drug allergy labels can be removed in up to 90% of cases. Genetic tests can predict severe adverse cutaneous drug reactions in some cases and in vitro tests are being sought to identify causative drugs in others...
March 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318827/measuring-the-benefits-of-using-market-based-approaches-to-provide-water-and-sanitation-in-humanitarian-contexts
#15
S Martin-Simpson, J Parkinson, E Katsou
The use of cash transfers and market based programming (CT/MBP) to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of emergency responses is gaining prominence in the humanitarian sector. However, there is a lack of existing indicators and methodologies to monitor activities designed to strengthen water and sanitation (WaSH) markets. Gender and vulnerability markers to measure the impact of such activities on different stakeholders is also missing. This study identifies parameters to monitor, evaluate and determine the added value of utilising CT/MBP to achieve WaSH objectives in humanitarian response...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317666/transepithelial-crosslinking-retreatment-of-progressive-corneal-ectasia-unresponsive-to-classic-crosslinking
#16
Roy S Rubinfeld, Rachel H Epstein, Parag A Majmudar, Deborah Kim, Michael Choi, Randy J Epstein
A 41-year-old man presented 10 years after uneventful laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) with symptomatic post-LASIK ectasia. He had treatment with the classic Dresden epithelium-off technique and presented 4 years later with progression of the ectasia. He was subsequently retreated with conductive keratoplasty (CK) followed by a new proprietary epithelium-on corneal collagen crosslinking (CXL) procedure using a proprietary transepithelial riboflavin formulation and delivery system on the following day...
January 2017: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317453/ebola-virus-epidemiology-diagnosis-and-control-threat-to-humans-lessons-learnt-and-preparedness-plans-an-update-on-its-40-year-s-journey
#17
Raj Kumar Singh, Kuldeep Dhama, Yashpal Singh Malik, Muthannan Andavar Ramakrishnan, Kumaragurubaran Karthik, Rekha Khandia, Ruchi Tiwari, Ashok Munjal, Mani Saminathan, Swati Sachan, Perumal Arumugam Desingu, Jobin Jose Kattoor, Hafiz M N Iqbal, Sunil Kumar Joshi
Ebola virus (EBOV) is an extremely contagious pathogen and causes lethal hemorrhagic fever disease in man and animals with high fatality rates. The recently occurred Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreaks in the West African countries have categorized it as an international health concern. For the virus maintenance and transmission, the non-human primates and reservoir hosts like fruit bats have played a vital role. Furthermore, the virus may also get transferred through contaminated biological fluids like breast milk, tears, urine, semen, blood, etc...
March 20, 2017: Veterinary Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316007/talimogene-laherparepvec-for-treating-metastatic-melanoma-an-evidence-review-group-perspective-of-a-nice-single-technology-appraisal
#18
REVIEW
Nigel Fleeman, Adrian Bagust, Angela Boland, Sophie Beale, Marty Richardson, Ashma Krishan, Angela Stainthorpe, Ahmed Abdulla, Eleanor Kotas, Lindsay Banks, Miranda Payne
The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited the manufacturer (Amgen) of talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC) to submit clinical and cost-effectiveness evidence for previously untreated advanced (unresectable or metastatic) melanoma as part of the Institute's Single Technology Appraisal process. The Liverpool Reviews and Implementation Group (LRiG) at the University of Liverpool was commissioned to act as the Evidence Review Group (ERG). This article presents a summary of the company's submission of T-VEC, the ERG review and the resulting NICE guidance (TA410), issued in September 2016...
March 18, 2017: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315294/neuronal-cell-sheet-of-cortical-motor-neuron-phenotype-derived-from-human-ips-cells
#19
Noboru Suzuki, Nagisa Arimitsu, Jun Shimizu, Kenji Takai, Chieko Hirotsu, Erika Takada, Yuji Ueda, Sueshige Wakisaka, Naruyoshi Fujiwara, Tomoko Suzuki
<p>Transplantation of stem cells which differentiate into more mature neural cells brings about functional improvement in pre-clinical studies of stroke. Previous transplant approaches in diseased brain have utilized injection of the cells in a cell suspension. In addition, neural stem cells were preferentially used as graft. However, these cells had no specific relationship to the damaged tissue of stroke patients and brain injury. The injection of cells in a suspension destroyed the cell-cell interactions that are suggested to be important for promoting functional integrity as cortical motor neurons...
March 17, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314930/non-reproducible-sequence-artifacts-in-ffpe-tissue-an-experience-report
#20
Richard Ofner, Cathrin Ritter, Selma Ugurel, Lorenzo Cerroni, Mathias Stiller, Thomas Bogenrieder, Flavio Solca, David Schrama, Jürgen C Becker
BACKGROUND: Recent advances in sequencing technologies supported the development of molecularly targeted therapy in cancer patients. Thus, genomic analyses are becoming a routine part in clinical practice and accurate detection of actionable mutations is essential to assist diagnosis and therapy choice. However, this is often challenging due to major problems associated with DNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue which is usually the primary source for genetic testing. OBJECTIVES: Here we want to share our experience regarding major problems associated with FFPE DNA used for PCR-based sequencing as illustrated by the mutational analysis of ERBB4 in melanoma...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
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