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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738223/engineering-resistance-against-viroids
#1
REVIEW
Ricardo Flores, Beatriz Navarro, Natalia Kovalskaya, Rosemarie W Hammond, Francesco Di Serio
Viroids, the smallest infectious agents endowed with autonomous replication, are tiny single-stranded circular RNAs (∼250 to 400nt) without protein-coding ability that, despite their simplicity, infect and often cause disease in herbaceous and woody plants of economic relevance. To mitigate the resulting losses, several strategies have been developed, the most effective of which include: firstly, search for naturally resistant cultivars and breeding for resistance, secondly, induced resistance by pre-infection with mild strains, thirdly, ribonucleases targeting double-stranded RNAs and catalytic antibodies endowed with intrinsic ribonuclease activity, fourthly, antisense, and sense, RNAs, fifthly, catalytic antisense RNAs derived from hammerhead ribozymes, and sixthly, hairpin RNAs and artificial small RNAs for RNA interference...
July 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737825/combination-of-rapamycin-and-garlic-derived-s-allylmercaptocysteine-induces-colon-cancer-cell-apoptosis-and-suppresses-tumor-growth-in-xenograft-nude-mice-through-autophagy-p62-nrf2-pathway
#2
Siying Li, Guang Yang, Xiaosong Zhu, Lin Cheng, Yueyue Sun, Zhongxi Zhao
The natural plant-derived product S-allylmercapto-cysteine (SAMC) has been studied in cancer therapy as a single and combination chemotherapeutic agent. The present study was employed to verify the combination use of SAMC and rapamycin that is the mTOR inhibitor with anticancer ability but has limited efficacy due to drug resistance, and to explore the underlying mechanisms. We combined rapamycin and SAMC for colorectal cancer treatment in the HCT‑116 cancer cells and a xenograft murine model. The in vivo study was established by xenografting HCT‑116 cells in BALB/c nude mice...
July 24, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737762/mechanism-of-host-substrate-acetylation-by-a-yopj-family-effector
#3
Zhi-Min Zhang, Ka-Wai Ma, Linfeng Gao, Zhenquan Hu, Simon Schwizer, Wenbo Ma, Jikui Song
The Yersinia outer protein J (YopJ) family of bacterial effectors depends on a novel acetyltransferase domain to acetylate signalling proteins from plant and animal hosts. However, the underlying mechanism is unclear. Here, we report the crystal structures of PopP2, a YopJ effector produced by the plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum, in complex with inositol hexaphosphate (InsP6), acetyl-coenzyme A (AcCoA) and/or substrate Resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum 1 (RRS1-R)WRKY. PopP2 recognizes the WRKYGQK motif of RRS1-RWRKY to position a targeted lysine in the active site for acetylation...
July 24, 2017: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737678/an-update-on-jacalin-like-lectins-and-their-role-in-plant-defense
#4
REVIEW
Lara Esch, Ulrich Schaffrath
Plant lectins are proteins that reversibly bind carbohydrates and are assumed to play an important role in plant development and resistance. Through the binding of carbohydrate ligands, lectins are involved in the perception of environmental signals and their translation into phenotypical responses. These processes require down-stream signaling cascades, often mediated by interacting proteins. Fusing the respective genes of two interacting proteins can be a way to increase the efficiency of this process. Most recently, proteins containing jacalin-related lectin (JRL) domains became a subject of plant resistance responses research...
July 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736701/a-comparative-genome-analysis-of-cercospora-sojina-with-other-members-of-the-pathogen-genus-mycosphaerella-on-different-plant-hosts
#5
Fanchang Zeng, Xin Lian, Guirong Zhang, Xiaoman Yu, Carl A Bradley, Ray Ming
Fungi are the causal agents of many of the world's most serious plant diseases causing disastrous consequences for large-scale agricultural production. Pathogenicity genomic basis is complex in fungi as multicellular eukaryotic pathogens. Here, we report the genome sequence of C. sojina, and comparative genome analysis with plant pathogen members of the genus Mycosphaerella (Zymoseptoria. tritici (synonyms M. graminicola), M. pini, M. populorum and M. fijiensis - pathogens of wheat, pine, poplar and banana, respectively)...
September 2017: Genomics Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735408/rapid-quantification-of-abscisic-acid-by-gc-ms-ms-for-studies-of-abiotic-stress-response
#6
Paul E Verslues
Drought and low water potential induce large increases in Abscisic Acid (ABA ) content of plant tissue. This increased ABA content is essential to regulate downstream stress resistance responses; however, the mechanisms regulating ABA accumulation are incompletely known. Thus, the ability to accurately quantify ABA at high throughput and low cost is important for plant stress research. We have combined and modified several previously published protocols to establish a rapid ABA analysis protocol using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735391/toward-a-resilient-functional-microbiome-drought-tolerance-alleviating-microbes-for-sustainable-agriculture
#7
Venkatachalam Lakshmanan, Prasun Ray, Kelly D Craven
In recent years, the utilization of novel sequencing techniques opened a new field of research into plant microbiota and was used to explore a wide diversity of microorganisms both inside and outside of plant host tissues, i.e., the endosphere and rhizosphere, respectively. An early realization from such research was that species richness and diversity of the plant microbiome are both greater than believed even a few years ago, and soil is likely home to the most abundant and diverse microbial habitats known...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734213/enhanced-cadmium-phytoremediation-of-glycine-max-l-through-bioaugmentation-of-cadmium-resistant-bacteria-assisted-by-biostimulation
#8
Pongsarun Rojjanateeranaj, Chirawee Sangthong, Benjaphorn Prapagdee
This study examined the potential of three strains of cadmium-resistant bacteria, including Micrococcus sp., Pseudomonas sp. and Arthrobacter sp., to promote root elongation of Glycine max L. seedlings, soil cadmium solubility and cadmium phytoremediation in G. max L. planted in soil highly polluted with cadmium with and without nutrient biostimulation. Micrococcus sp. promoted root length in G. max L. seedlings under toxic cadmium conditions. Soil inoculation with Arthrobacter sp. increased the bioavailable fraction of soil cadmium, particularly in soil amended with a C:N ratio of 20:1...
July 17, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734097/first-report-of-ser653-asn-mutation-endowing-high-level-resistance-to-imazamox-in-downy-brome-bromus-tectorum-l
#9
Vipan Kumar, Prashant Jha
BACKGROUND: Bromus tectorum L. is one of the most troublesome grass weed species in cropland and non-cropland areas of the northwestern United States. In summer 2016, a B. tectroum accession (R) that survived imazamox at the field-use rate (44 g ha(-1) ) in an imidazolinone-tolerant (IMI-tolerant or Clearfield(™) ) winter wheat field was collected near Hammond, Carter County, MT, USA. The aim of this study was to determine the resistance profile of the B. tectroum R accession to imazamox and other ALS inhibitors, and investigate the mechanism of resistance to imazamox...
July 22, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734070/genome-scans-on-experimentally-evolved-populations-reveal-candidate-regions-for-adaptation-to-plant-resistance-in-the-potato-cyst-nematode-globodera-pallida
#10
D Eoche-Bosy, M Gautier, M Esquibet, F Legeai, A Bretaudeau, O Bouchez, S Fournet, E Grenier, J Montarry
Improving resistance durability involves to be able to predict the adaptation speed of pathogen populations. Identifying the genetic bases of pathogen adaptation to plant resistances is a useful step to better understand and anticipate this phenomenon. Globodera pallida is a major pest of potato crop for which a resistance QTL, GpaVvrn , has been identified in Solanum vernei. However, its durability is threatened as G. pallida populations are able to adapt to the resistance in few generations. The aim of the present study was to investigate the genomic regions involved in the resistance breakdown by coupling experimental evolution and high-density genome scan...
July 22, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733600/%C3%AE-ginkgotides-hyperdisulfide-constrained-peptides-from-ginkgo-biloba
#11
Ka H Wong, Wei Liang Tan, Tianshu Xiao, James P Tam
Hyperdisulfide-constrained peptides are distinguished by their high stability and diverse functions. Thus far, these peptides have been reported from animals only but their occurrence in plants are rare. Here, we report the discovery, synthesis and characterization of a hyperdisulfide-constrained peptides family of approximately 2 kDa, β-ginkgotides (β-gB1 and β-gB2) from Ginkgo biloba. Proteomic analysis showed β-ginkgotides contain 18‒20 amino acids, of which 16 residues form a conserved six-cysteine core with a highly clustered cysteine spacing of C‒CC‒C‒CC, an arrangement that has not been reported in cysteine-rich peptides...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733420/sg2-type-r2r3-myb-transcription-factor-myb15-controls-defense-induced-lignification-and-basal-immunity-in-arabidopsis
#12
William R Chezem, Altamash Memon, Fu-Shuang Li, Jing-Ke Weng, Nicole Kho Clay
Lignification of cell wall appositions is a conserved basal defense mechanism in the plant innate immune response. However, the genetic pathway controlling defense-induced lignification remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate the Arabidopsis thaliana SG2-type R2R3-MYB transcription factor MYB15 as a regulator of defense-induced lignification and basal immunity. Loss of MYB15 reduces the content but not the composition of defense-induced lignin, whereas constitutive expression of MYB15 increases lignin content independently of immune activation...
July 21, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733419/myc2-orchestrates-a-hierarchical-transcriptional-cascade-that-regulates-jasmonate-mediated-plant-immunity-in-tomato
#13
Minmin Du, Jiuhai Zhao, David T W Tzeng, Yuanyuan Liu, Lei Deng, Tianxia Yang, Qingzhe Zhai, Fangming Wu, Zhuo Huang, Ming Zhou, Qiaomei Wang, Qian Chen, Silin Zhong, Chang-Bao Li, Chuanyou Li
The hormone jasmonate (JA), which functions in plant immunity, regulates resistance to pathogen infection and insect attack through triggering genome-wide transcriptional reprogramming in plants. We show that the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor (TF) MYC2 in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) acts downstream of the JA receptor to orchestrate JA-mediated activation of both the wounding and pathogen responses. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) coupled with RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) assays, we identified 655 MYC2-targeted JA-responsive genes...
July 21, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733391/diacylglycerol-acyltransferase-mediated-triacylglyerol-synthesis-augments-basal-thermotolerance
#14
Stephanie P Mueller, Melissa Unger, Lena Guender, Agnes Fekete, Martin J Mueller
High temperatures rapidly induce a genetically programmed heat shock response (HSR) that is essential to establish short-term acquired thermotolerance. In addition, an immediate HSR-independent metabolic response is triggered resulting in an accumulation of unsaturated triacylglycerols (TAGs) in the cytosol. The metabolic processes involved in heat-induced TAG formation in plants and their physiological significance remain to be clarified. Lipidomic analyses of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings indicated that during heat stress polyunsaturated fatty acids from thylakoid galactolipids are incorporated into cytosolic TAGs...
July 21, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733239/protein-carbohydrate-regulation-in-helicoverpa-amigera-and-h-punctigera-and-how-diet-protein-carbohydrate-content-affects-insect-susceptibility-to-bt-toxins
#15
Ashley E Tessnow, Spencer T Behmer, Tom K Walsh, Gregory A Sword
Many animals, including insects, demonstrate a remarkable ability to regulate their intake of key macronutrients (e.g., soluble protein and digestible carbohydrates), which allows them to optimize fitness and performance. Additionally, regulating the intake of these two macronutrients enhances an animal's ability to defend itself against pathogens, mitigate the effects of secondary plant metabolites, and decrease susceptibility to toxins. In this study, we first compared how Bt-resistant and -susceptible lines of Helicoverpa armigera and Helicoverpa punctigera regulate their intake of protein (p) and digestible carbohydrates (c)...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732778/functional-analysis-of-the-mapk-pathways-in-fungi
#16
Domingo Martínez-Soto, José Ruiz-Herrera
The Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways constitute one of the most important and evolutionarily conserved mechanisms for the perception of extracellular information in all the eukaryotic organisms. The MAPK pathways are involved in the transfer to the cell of the information perceived from extracellular stimuli, with the final outcome of activation of different transcription factors that regulate gene expression in response to them. In all species of fungi, the MAPK pathways have important roles in their physiology and development; e...
July 18, 2017: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732400/solar-photocatalytic-disinfection-of-agricultural-pathogenic-fungi-curvularia-sp-in-real-urban-wastewater
#17
Yelitza Aguas, Margarita Hincapie, Pilar Fernández-Ibáñez, María Inmaculada Polo-López
The interest in developing alternative water disinfection methods that increase the access to irrigation water free of pathogens for agricultural purposes is increasing in the last decades. Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) have been demonstrated to be very efficient for the abatement of several kind of pathogens in contaminated water. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate and compare the capability of several solar AOPs for the inactivation of resistant spores of agricultural fungi. Solar photoassisted H2O2, solar photo-Fenton at acid and near-neutral pH, and solar heterogeneous photocatalysis using TiO2, with and without H2O2, have been studied for the inactivation of spores of Curvularia sp...
July 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731826/convergently-evolved-toxic-secondary-metabolites-in-plants-drive-the-parallel-molecular-evolution-of-insect-resistance
#18
Georg Petschenka, Vera Wagschal, Michael von Tschirnhaus, Alexander Donath, Susanne Dobler
Natural selection imposed by natural toxins has led to striking levels of convergent evolution at the molecular level. Cardiac glycosides represent a group of plant toxins that block the Na,K-ATPase, a vital membrane protein in animals. Several herbivorous insects have convergently evolved resistant Na,K-ATPases, and in some species, convergent gene duplications have also arisen, likely to cope with pleiotropic costs of resistance. To understand the genetic basis and predictability of these adaptations, we studied five independent lineages of leaf-mining flies (Diptera: Agromyzidae)...
August 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731794/a-neutral-model-for-the-evolution-of-diet-breadth
#19
Matthew L Forister, Stephen H Jenkins
Variation in diet breadth among organisms is a pervasive feature of the natural world that has resisted general explanation. In particular, trade-offs in the ability to use one resource at the expense of another have been expected but rarely detected. We explore a spatial model for the evolution of specialization, motivated by studies of plant-feeding insects. The model is neutral with respect to the causes and consequences of diet breadth: the number of hosts utilized is not constrained by trade-offs, and specialization or generalization does not confer a direct advantage with respect to the persistence of populations or the probability of diversification...
August 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729874/systematic-analysis-of-hsf-family-genes-in-the-brassica-napus-genome-reveals-novel-responses-to-heat-drought-and-high-co2-stresses
#20
Xiaoyi Zhu, Chunqian Huang, Liang Zhang, Hongfang Liu, Jinhui Yu, Zhiyong Hu, Wei Hua
Drought and heat stress are major causes of lost plant crop yield. In the future, high levels of CO2, in combination of other abiotic stress factors, will become a novel source of stress. Little is known of the mechanisms involved in the acclimation responses of plants to this combination of abiotic stress factors, though it has been demonstrated that heat shock transcription factors (Hsfs) are involved in plant response to various abiotic stresses. In this study, we performed a genome-wide identification and a systematic analysis of genes in the Hsf gene family in Brassica napus...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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