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plant resistance

Lijie Li, Wanrong Gu, Jing Li, Congfeng Li, Tenglong Xie, Danyang Qu, Yao Meng, Caifeng Li, Shi Wei
Drought stress (DS) is a major environmental factor limiting plant growth and crop productivity worldwide. It has been established that exogenous spermidine (Spd) stimulates plant tolerance to DS. The effects of exogenous Spd on plant growth, photosynthetic performance, and chloroplast ultrastructure as well as changes in endogenous polyamines (PAs) and phytohormones were investigate in DS-resistant (Xianyu 335) and DS-sensitive (Fenghe 1) maize seedlings under well-watered and DS treatments. Exogenous Spd alleviated the stress-induced reduction in growth, photosynthetic pigment content, photosynthesis rate (Pn ) and photochemical quenching (qP ) parameters, including the maximum photochemistry efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) (Fv /Fm ), PSII operating efficiency (ФPSII), and qP coefficient...
May 15, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Ewa Korzeniewska, Monika Harnisz
Biological treatment processes at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), which are the most common methods of sewage treatment, could cause selective elimination and/or changes in the proportions of phenotypes/genotypes within bacterial populations in effluent. Therefore, WWTPs based on activated sludge used in sewage treatment constitute an important reservoir of enteric bacteria which harbour potentially transferable resistance genes. Together with treated wastewater, these microorganisms can penetrate the soil, surface water, rural groundwater supplies and drinking water...
May 20, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Regina G Belz
BACKGROUND: Herbicide hormesis may play a role in weed resistance evolution by increasing resistance selection. A standard herbicide rate may be subtoxic to resistant plants and make them more fit than untreated plants. If this increase in fitness is ultimately expressed in reproductive traits, resistance genes can accumulate more rapidly and exacerbate resistance evolution by magnifying the selection differential between resistant and sensitive plants. The hypothesis of hormetically enhanced reproductive fitness was studied for a PSII target-site resistant (TSR) biotype of Chenopodium album exposed to the triazinone metamitron in comparison to its wild type...
May 23, 2018: Pest Management Science
Karen Thulasi Devendrakumar, Xin Li, Yuelin Zhang
In plants, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are involved in regulating many biological processes including immunity. They relay signals from membrane-residing immune receptors to downstream components for defense activation. Arabidopsis MPK3/6 and MPK4 are activated in two parallel MAPK cascades during PAMP-triggered immunity. MPK3/6 have been implicated in the activation of various immune responses and their inactivation leads to compromised defense against pathogens. On the other hand, the MEKK1-MKK1/2-MPK4 cascade plays critical roles in basal resistance...
May 22, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Wenjing Yu, Gulijimila Mijiti, Ying Huang, Haijuan Fan, Yucheng Wang, Zhihua Liu
Eliciting plant response protein (Epl) is a small Trichoderma secreted protein that acts as an elicitor to induce plant defense responses against pathogens. In the present study, the differential expression, promoter analysis, and phylogenetic tree analysis of Epl1-Tas (GenBank JN966996) from T. asperellum ACCC30536 were performed. The results showed Epl1-Tas could play an important role in the interaction between T. asperellum ACCC30536 and woody plant or woody plant pathogen. Furthermore, the effect of the Escherichia coli recombinant protein rEpl1-e and the Pichia pastoris recombinant protein rEpl1-p on Populus davidiana × P...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Robert Paul Skelton, Todd E Dawson, Sally E Thompson, Yuzheng Shen, Andrew P Weitz, David Ackerly
Although recent findings suggest that xylem embolism represents a significant, drought-induced damaging process in land plants, substantial debate surrounds the capacity of long-vesselled, ring-porous species to resist embolism. We investigated whether recent methodological developments could help resolve this controversy within Quercus, a long-vesselled, ring-porous temperate angiosperm genus, and shed further light on the importance of xylem vulnerability to embolism as an indicator of drought tolerance. We used the optical technique to quantify leaf and stem xylem vulnerability to embolism of eight Quercus species from the Mediterranean-type climate region of California, USA, to examine absolute measures of resistance to embolism as well as any potential hydraulic segmentation between tissue types...
May 22, 2018: Plant Physiology
Pauline Anne, Amelia Amiguet-Vercher, Benjamin Brandt, Lothar Kalmbach, Niko Geldner, Michael Hothorn, Christian S Hardtke
CLAVATA3/EMBRYO SURROUNDING REGION (CLE) peptides are secreted endogenous plant ligands that are sensed by receptor kinases (RKs) to convey environmental and developmental inputs. Typically, this involves an RK with narrow ligand specificity that signals together with a more promiscuous co-receptor. For most CLEs, biologically relevant (co-)receptors are unknown. The dimer of the receptor-like protein CLAVATA 2 (CLV2) and the pseudokinase CORYNE (CRN) conditions perception of so-called root-active CLE peptides, the exogenous application of which suppresses root growth by preventing protophloem formation in the meristem...
May 22, 2018: Development
Guangyuan Du, Feng Feng, Yujie Wang, Melvin T Tyree
Cavitation resistance is a key trait for characterizing the drought adaption in plants and is usually presented in terms of vulnerability curves. Three principal techniques have been developed to produce vulnerability curves, but curves generated with centrifugation are reported to suffer from artifacts when applied to long-vesseled species. The main cause of this artifact is the issue of open vessels, resulting in a nano-particle effect that may seed premature embolism. We used two methods to test the potential mechanism behind the nano-particle effect in centrifuge-based vulnerability curves...
May 19, 2018: Tree Physiology
Wen Liu, Yu Yan, Hongqiu Zeng, Xiaolin Li, Yunxie Wei, Guoyin Liu, Chaozu He, Haitao Shi
Cassava is a major food crop in tropical areas, but its productivity and quality are seriously limited by cassava bacterial blight. So far, the key factors regulating cassava immune response remain elusive. In this study, we identified three cassava Whirly genes (MeWHYs) in cassava variety of South China 124 (SC124), and explored the possible roles and utilization of MeWHYs in cassava disease resistance. Gene expression analysis revealed that the transcripts of three MeWHYs were commonly regulated by the highly conserved N-terminal epitope of f lagellin (flg22) and Xanthomonas axonopodis pv...
May 19, 2018: Tree Physiology
Huachun Sheng, Jie Ma, Junbao Pu, Lijun Wang
Background and Aims: Turgor-driven plant cell growth depends on cell wall structure and mechanics. Strengthening of cell walls on the basis of an association and interaction with silicon (Si) could lead to improved nutrient uptake and optimized growth and metabolism in rice (Oryza sativa). However, the structural basis and physiological mechanisms of nutrient uptake and metabolism optimization under Si assistance remain obscure. Methods: Single-cell level biophysical measurements, including in situ non-invasive micro-testing (NMT) of NH4+ ion fluxes, atomic force microscopy (AFM) of cell walls, and electrolyte leakage and membrane potential, as well as whole-cell proteomics using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ), were performed...
May 16, 2018: Annals of Botany
Florence Volaire, Frederic Lens, Hervé Cochard, Hueng Xu, Larissa Chacon-Doria, Pauline Bristiel, Jennifer Balachowski, Nick Rowe, Cyrille Violle, Catherine Picon-Cochard
Background and Aims: More intense droughts under climate change threaten species resilience. Hydraulic strategies determine drought survival in woody plants but have been hardly studied in herbaceous species. We explored the intraspecific variability of hydraulic and morphological traits as indicators of dehydration tolerance in a perennial grass, cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata), which has a large biogeographical distribution in Europe. Methods: Twelve populations of cocksfoot originating from Mediterranean, Temperate and Northern European areas were grown in a controlled environment in pots...
May 17, 2018: Annals of Botany
André C Velásquez, Christian Danve M Castroverde, Sheng Yang He
Global environmental changes caused by natural and human activities have accelerated in the past 200 years. The increase in greenhouse gases is predicted to continue to raise global temperature and change water availability in the 21st century. In this Review, we explore the profound effect the environment has on plant diseases - a susceptible host will not be infected by a virulent pathogen if the environmental conditions are not conducive for disease. The change in CO2 concentrations, temperature, and water availability can have positive, neutral, or negative effects on disease development, as each disease may respond differently to these variations...
May 21, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Karina Lucas Silva-Brandão, Aline Peruchi, Noemy Seraphim, Natália Faraj Murad, Renato Assis Carvalho, Juliano Ricardo Farias, Celso Omoto, Fernando Luis Cônsoli, Antonio Figueira, Marcelo Mendes Brandão
We applied the ddRAD genotyping-by-sequencing technique to investigate the genetic distinctiveness of Brazilian populations of the noctuid moth Spodoptera frugiperda, the fall armyworm (FAW), and the role of host-plant association as a source of genetic diversification. By strain-genotyping all field-collected individuals we found that populations collected from corn were composed primarily of corn-strain individuals, while the population collected from rice was composed almost entirely of rice-strain individuals...
2018: PloS One
Jia-Cheng Liao, Zhao-Xia Wei, Chang Zhao, Zhong-Ping Ma, Dao-Zhang Cai
Periprosthetic osteolysis belongs to osteolytic diseases, which often occur due to an imbalance between osteoclast and osteoblast number or activity. Fraxetin, a natural plant extract, inhibits osteoblast apoptosis and has therapeutic potential for treating osteolytic diseases. However, data pertaining to the effects of fraxetin on osteoclasts are limited. In the present study, it was demonstrated that the inhibition of osteoclastogenesis by fraxetin had an important role on the therapy of titanium particle‑induced osteolysis in vivo...
May 21, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Gianpiero Vigani, Eleonora Rolli, Ramona Marasco, Marta Dell'Orto, Grégoire Michoud, Asma Soussi, Noura Raddadi, Sara Borin, Claudia Sorlini, Graziano Zocchi, Daniele Daffonchio
It has been previously shown that the transgenic overexpression of the plant root vacuolar proton pumps H+ -ATPase (V-ATPase) and H+ -PPase (V-PPase) confer tolerance to drought. Since plant-root endophytic bacteria can also promote drought tolerance, we hypothesize that such promotion can be associated to the enhancement of the host vacuolar proton pumps expression and activity. To test this hypothesis, we selected two endophytic bacteria endowed with an array of in vitro plant growth promoting traits. Their genome sequences confirmed the presence of traits previously shown to confer drought resistance to plants, such as the synthesis of nitric oxide and of organic volatile organic compounds...
May 22, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Jaime Simbaqueba, Ann-Maree Catanzariti, Carolina González, David A Jones
RNAseq reads from cape-gooseberry plants (Physalis peruviana) infected with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. physali (Foph) were mapped against the lineage-specific transcriptome of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol) to look for putative effector genes. Homologues of Fol SIX1 (designated SIX1a and SIX1b), SIX7, SIX10, SIX12, SIX15 and Ave1 were identified. The near identity of the Foph and Fol SIX7, SIX10 and SIX12 genes and their intergenic regions suggest that this gene cluster may have undergone recent lateral transfer...
May 22, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Anitha Mani, Kavitha Sankaranarayanan
In Oryza sativa (rice) there are seven members in the NRAMP (natural resistance- associated macrophage protein) family of transporter proteins. They have been identified as OsNRAMP1, OsNRAMP2, OsNRAMP3, OsNRAMP4, OsNRAMP5, OsNRAMP6 and OsNRAMP7. Several metal ions like Zn2+ , Mn2+ , Fe2+ , Cd2+ etc. have been studied to be transported via NRAMP transporter proteins in rice plant. In spite of this, very little information is available regarding these transporters. Hence it is important to computationally predict and characterize the OsNRAMP family of transporters for studying and understanding their molecular insights in future studies...
May 21, 2018: Protein Journal
Jie Wang, Mingyu Yang, Yuanyuan Song, Flor E Acevedo, Kelli Hoover, Rensen Zeng, Gary W Felton
Insect-associated microbes can contribute to the physiological and ecological functions of insects. Despite a few examples in beetles and piercing-sucking insects, the varied mechanisms of how insect-associated bacteria mediate plant-insect interactions are still not fully understood. The polyphagous herbivore Helicoverpa zea is a major agricultural pest that harbors certain microbes in their digestive systems. Enterobacter ludwigii is one of the gut-associated bacteria identified from field-collected caterpillars, and it has been shown to indirectly induce defenses in the dicot plant tomato by triggering the biosynthesis of salivary elicitors, but there are no clear mechanisms to show how gut microbes alter these salivary cues and how a different host plant responds to these inducible elicitors...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Samir Alahmad, Eric Dinglasan, Kung Ming Leung, Adnan Riaz, Nora Derbal, Kai P Voss-Fels, Jason A Able, Filippo M Bassi, Jack Christopher, Lee T Hickey
Background: Plant breeding requires numerous generations to be cycled and evaluated before an improved cultivar is released. This lengthy process is required to introduce and test multiple traits of interest. However, a technology for rapid generation advance named 'speed breeding' was successfully deployed in bread wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) to achieve six generations per year while imposing phenotypic selection for foliar disease resistance and grain dormancy. Here, for the first time the deployment of this methodology is presented in durum wheat ( Triticum durum Desf...
2018: Plant Methods
Xiu Tian, Ju-Xin Ruan, Jin-Quan Huang, Chang-Qing Yang, Xin Fang, Zhi-Wen Chen, Hui Hong, Ling-Jian Wang, Ying-Bo Mao, Shan Lu, Tian-Zhen Zhang, Xiao-Ya Chen
Gossypol and related sesquiterpene aldehydes in cotton function as defense compounds but are antinutritional in cottonseed products. By transcriptome comparison and coexpression analyses, we identified 146 candidates linked to gossypol biosynthesis. Analysis of metabolites accumulated in plants subjected to virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) led to the identification of four enzymes and their supposed substrates. In vitro enzymatic assay and reconstitution in tobacco leaves elucidated a series of oxidative reactions of the gossypol biosynthesis pathway...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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