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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145720/phospholipase-d-and-its-essential-role-in-cancer
#1
Ju Hwan Cho, Joong-Soo Han
The role of Phospholipase D (PLD) in cancer development and management has been a major area of interest for researchers. The purpose of this mini-review is to explore PLD and its distinct role during chemotherapy including anti-apoptotic function. PLD is an enzyme that belongs to the phospholipase super family and is found in a broad range of organisms such as viruses, yeast, bacteria, animals, and plants. The function and activity of PLD are widely dependent on and regulated by neurotransmitters, hormones, small monomeric GTPases, and lipids...
November 16, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145163/spread-of-multidrug-resistant-escherichia-coli-harboring-integron-via-swine-farm-waste-water-treatment-plant
#2
Jin-Hyeong Park, Young-Ji Kim, Binn-Kim, Kun-Ho Seo
Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) that release treated wastewater into the environment have emerged as a major threat to public health. In this study, we investigated Escherichia coli load and antibiotic-resistance profiles across different treatment processes at a swine farm WWTP. The frequency of the detection of class 1 and 2 integrons, and their association with antibiotic resistance, were also analyzed. Samples were obtained at each of five sampling sites that represented each processing step within the WWTP...
November 13, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144774/strategies-for-enhanced-crop-resistance-to-insect-pests
#3
Angela E Douglas
Insect pests are responsible for substantial crop losses worldwide through direct damage and transmission of plant diseases, and novel approaches that complement or replace broad-spectrum chemical insecticides will facilitate the sustainable intensification of food production in the coming decades. Multiple strategies for improved crop resistance to insect pests, especially strategies relating to plant secondary metabolism and immunity and microbiome science, are becoming available. Recent advances in metabolic engineering of plant secondary chemistry offer the promise of specific toxicity or deterrence to insect pests; improved understanding of plant immunity against insects provides routes to optimize plant defenses against insects; and the microbiomes of insect pests can be exploited, either as a target or as a vehicle for delivery of insecticidal agents...
November 16, 2017: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144552/simultaneous-determination-of-tilianin-and-its-metabolites-in-mice-using-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-with-tandem-mass-spectrometry-and-its-application-to-a-pharmacokinetic-study
#4
Liping Wang, Qingwei Chen, Lijun Zhu, Xuejun Zeng, Qiang Li, Ming Hu, Xinchun Wang, Zhongqiu Liu
Tilianin is an active flavonoid glycoside found in many medical plants. Data are lacking regarding its pharmacokinetics and disposition in vivo. The objective of this study was to develop a sensitive, reliable, and validated ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method to simultaneously quantify tilianin and its main metabolites and to determine its pharmacokinetics in wild-type and breast cancer resistance protein knockout (Bcrp1-/-) FVB mice. Chromatographic separation was accomplished on a C18 column by utilizing acetonitrile and 0...
November 16, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144438/bioactive-components-in-moringa-oleifera-leaves-protect-against-chronic-disease
#5
REVIEW
Marcela Vergara-Jimenez, Manal Mused Almatrafi, Maria Luz Fernandez
Moringa Oleifera (MO), a plant from the family Moringacea is a major crop in Asia and Africa. MO has been studied for its health properties, attributed to the numerous bioactive components, including vitamins, phenolic acids, flavonoids, isothiocyanates, tannins and saponins, which are present in significant amounts in various components of the plant. Moringa Oleifera leaves are the most widely studied and they have shown to be beneficial in several chronic conditions, including hypercholesterolemia, high blood pressure, diabetes, insulin resistance, non-alcoholic liver disease, cancer and overall inflammation...
November 16, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144204/specific-hypersensitive-response-associated-recognition-of-new-apoplastic-effectors-from-cladosporium-fulvum-in-wild-tomato
#6
Carl H Mesarich, Bilal Ӧkmen, Hanna Rovenich, Scott A Griffiths, Changchun Wang, Mansoor Karimi Jashni, Aleksandar Mihajlovski, Jérôme Collemare, Lukas Hunziker, Cecilia H Deng, Ate van der Burgt, Henriek G Beenen, Matthew D Templeton, Rosie E Bradshaw, Pierre J G M de Wit
Tomato leaf mold disease is caused by the biotrophic fungus Cladosporium fulvum. During infection, C. fulvum produces extracellular small secreted protein (SSP) effectors that function to promote colonization of the leaf apoplast. Resistance to the disease is governed by Cf immune receptor genes that encode receptor-like proteins (RLPs). These RLPs recognize specific SSP effectors to initiate a hypersensitive response (HR) that renders the pathogen avirulent. C. fulvum strains capable of overcoming one or more of all cloned Cf genes have now emerged...
November 16, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144021/quantitative-extracellular-matrix-proteomics-suggests-cell-wall-reprogramming-in-host-specific-immunity-during-vascular-wilt-caused-by-fusarium-oxysporum-in-chickpea
#7
Eman Elagamey, Kanika Narula, Arunima Sinha, Sudip Ghosh, Magdi A E Abdellatef, Niranjan Chakraborty, Subhra Chakraborty
Extracellular matrix (ECM) is the unique organelle that perceives stress signals and reprograms molecular events of host cell during patho-stress. However, our understanding of how ECM dictates plant immunity is largely unknown. Vascular wilt caused by the soil borne filamentous fungus Fusarium oxysporum is a major impediment for global crop productivity. To elucidate the role of ECM proteins and molecular mechanism associated with cell wall mediated immunity, the temporal changes of ECM proteome was studied in vascular wilt resistant chickpea cultivar upon F...
November 16, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143854/in-vitro-biotransformation-of-pyrrolizidine-alkaloids-in-different-species-part%C3%A2-i-microsomal-degradation
#8
Franziska Kolrep, Jorge Numata, Carsten Kneuer, Angelika Preiss-Weigert, Monika Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Dieter Schrenk, Anja These
Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA) are secondary metabolites of certain flowering plants. The ingestion of PAs may result in acute and chronic effects in man and livestock with hepatotoxicity, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity being identified as predominant effects. Several hundred PAs sharing the diol pyrrolizidine as a core structure are formed by plants. Although many congeners may cause adverse effects, differences in the toxic potency have been detected in animal tests. It is generally accepted that PAs themselves are biologically and toxicologically inactive and require metabolic activation...
November 16, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143658/a-key-enzyme-of-animal-steroidogenesis-can-function-in-plants-enhancing-their-immunity-and-accelerating-the-processes-of-growth-and-development
#9
George V Shpakovski, Svetlana G Spivak, Irina N Berdichevets, Olga G Babak, Svetlana V Kubrak, Alexander V Kilchevsky, Andrey V Aralov, Ivan Yu Slovokhotov, Dmitry G Shpakovski, Ekaterina N Baranova, Marat R Khaliluev, Elena K Shematorova
BACKGROUND: The initial stage of the biosynthesis of steroid hormones in animals occurs in the mitochondria of steroidogenic tissues, where cytochrome P450SCC (CYP11A1) encoded by the CYP11A1 gene catalyzes the conversion of cholesterol into pregnenolone - the general precursor of all the steroid hormones, starting with progesterone. This stage is missing in plants where mitochondrial cytochromes P450 (the mito CYP clan) have not been found. Generating transgenic plants with a mitochondrial type P450 from animals would offer an interesting option to verify whether plant mitochondria could serve as another site of P450 monooxygenase reaction for the steroid hormones biosynthesis...
November 14, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143606/metabolic-pathways-and-genes-identified-by-rna-seq-analysis-of-barley-near-isogenic-lines-differing-by-allelic-state-of-the-black-lemma-and-pericarp-blp-gene
#10
Anastasiya Y Glagoleva, Nikolay A Shmakov, Olesya Y Shoeva, Gennady V Vasiliev, Natalia V Shatskaya, Andreas Börner, Dmitry A Afonnikov, Elena K Khlestkina
BACKGROUND: Some plant species have 'melanin-like' black seed pigmentation. However, the chemical and genetic nature of this 'melanin-like' black pigment have not yet been fully explored due to its complex structure and ability to withstand almost all solvents. Nevertheless, identification of genetic networks participating in trait formation is key to understanding metabolic processes involved in the expression of 'melanin-like' black seed pigmentation. The aim of the current study was to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in barley near-isogenic lines (NILs) differing by allelic state of the Blp (black lemma and pericarp) locus...
November 14, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143605/impact-of-the-7-bp-deletion-in-hvga20ox2-gene-on-agronomic-important-traits-in-barley-hordeum-vulgare-l
#11
Serafima Teplyakova, Marina Lebedeva, Nadezhda Ivanova, Valentina Horeva, Nina Voytsutskaya, Olga Kovaleva, Elena Potokina
BACKGROUND: Alike to Reduced height-1 (Rht-1) genes in wheat and the semi dwarfing (sd-1) gene in rice, the sdw1/denso locus involved in the metabolism of the GA, was designated as the 'Green Revolution' gene in barley. The recent molecular characterization of the candidate gene HvGA20ox2 for sdw1/denso locus allows to estimate the impact of the functional polymorphism of this gene on the variation of agronomically important traits in barley. RESULTS: We investigated the effect of the 7-bp deletion in exon 1 of HvGA20ox2 gene (sdw1...
November 14, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143601/morphological-description-and-dna-barcoding-study-of-sand-rice-agriophyllum-squarrosum-chenopodiaceae-collected-in-kazakhstan
#12
Yuliya Genievskaya, Saule Abugalieva, Aibatsha Zhubanysheva, Yerlan Turuspekov
BACKGROUND: Sand rice (Agriophyllum squarrosum (L.) Moq.) is an annual shrub-like plant adapted to the mobile sand dunes in desert and semi-desert regions of Asia. It has a balanced nutrient composition with relatively high concentration of lipids and proteins, which results in its nutrition being similar to legumes. Sand rice's proteins contain the full range of essential amino acids. However, calories content is more similar to wheat. These features together with desert stress resistance make sand rice a potential food crop resilient to ongoing climate change...
November 14, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143178/transgenic-cotton-co-expressing-chimeric-vip3acaa-and-cry1ac-confers-effective-protection-against-cry1ac-resistant-cotton-bollworm
#13
Wen-Bo Chen, Guo-Qing Lu, Hong-Mei Cheng, Chen-Xi Liu, Yu-Tao Xiao, Chao Xu, Zhi-Cheng Shen, Mario Soberón, Alejandra Bravo, Kong-Ming Wu
Wide planting of transgenic Bt cotton in China since 1997 to control cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) has increased yields and decreased insecticide use, but the evolution of resistance to Bt cotton by H. armigera remains a challenge. Toward developing a new generation of insect-resistant transgenic crops, a chimeric protein of Vip3Aa1 and Vip3Ac1, named Vip3AcAa, having a broader insecticidal spectrum, was specifically created previously in our laboratory. In this study, we investigated cross resistance and interactions between Vip3AcAa and Cry1Ac with three H...
November 15, 2017: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142389/bioactive-constituents-radical-scavenging-and-antibacterial-properties-of-the-leaves-and-stem-essential-oils-from-peperomia-pellucida-l-kunth
#14
Sunday O Okoh, Benson C Iweriebor, Omobola O Okoh, Anthony I Okoh
Background: Peperomia pellucida is an annual herbaceous ethnomedicinal plant used in the treatment of a variety of communicable and noncommunicable diseases in the Amazon region. Objective: The study aimed at profiling the bioactive constituents of the leaves and stem essential oils (LEO and SEO) of P. pellucida, their in vitro antibacterial and radical scavenging properties as probable lead constituents in the management of oxidative stress and infectious diseases...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141655/long-term-balancing-selection-contributes-to-adaptation-in-arabidopsis-and-its-relatives
#15
Qiong Wu, Ting-Shen Han, Xi Chen, Jia-Fu Chen, Yu-Pan Zou, Zi-Wen Li, Yong-Chao Xu, Ya-Long Guo
BACKGROUND: In contrast to positive selection, which reduces genetic variation by fixing beneficial alleles, balancing selection maintains genetic variation within a population or species and plays crucial roles in adaptation in diverse organisms. However, which genes, genome-wide, are under balancing selection and the extent to which these genes are involved in adaptation are largely unknown. RESULTS: We performed a genome-wide scan for genes under balancing selection across two plant species, Arabidopsis thaliana and its relative Capsella rubella, which diverged about 8 million generations ago...
November 15, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141129/recent-trends-in-salmonella-outbreaks-and-emerging-technology-for-biocontrol-of-salmonella-using-phages-in-foods-a-review
#16
REVIEW
Jun-Hyun Oh, Mi-Kyung Park
Salmonella is one of the principal causes of foodborne outbreaks. As traditional control methods have shown efficacy against emerging Salmonella serotypes or antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella, new approaches have been attempted. The use of lytic phages for the biocontrol of Salmonella in food industry has become an attractive method owing to the many advantages offered by the use of phages as biocontrol agents. Phages are natural alternatives to traditional antimicrobial agents; they have proven effective in the control of bacterial pathogens in food industry, which has led to the development of different phage products...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141039/identification-of-isolates-of-the-plant-pathogen-leptosphaeria-maculans-with-resistance-to-the-triazole-fungicide-fluquinconazole-using-a-novel-in-planta-assay
#17
Angela P Van de Wouw, Vicki L Elliott, Steven Chang, Francisco J López-Ruiz, Steven J Marcroft, Alexander Idnurm
Leptosphaeria maculans is the major pathogen of canola (oilseed rape, Brassica napus) worldwide. In Australia, the use of azole fungicides has contributed to the 50-fold increase in canola production in the last 25 years. However, extensive application of fungicides sets the stage for the selection of fungal populations with resistance. A high-throughput in planta assay was developed to allow screening of thousands of isolates from multiple populations. Using this screen, isolates were identified with decreased sensitivity to the fungicide fluquinconazole when applied at field rates as a protective seed dressing: these isolates cause significantly larger lesions on cotyledons and true leaves and increased disease severity at plant maturity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141004/lack-of-mitochondrial-muts-homolog-1-in-toxoplasma-gondii-disrupts-maintenance-and-fidelity-of-mitochondrial-dna-and-reveals-metabolic-plasticity
#18
Tamila Garbuz, Gustavo Arrizabalaga
The importance of maintaining the fidelity of the mitochondrial genome is underscored by the presence of various repair pathways within this organelle. Presumably, the repair of mitochondrial DNA would be of particular importance in organisms that possess only a single mitochondrion, like the human pathogens Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii. Understanding the machinery that maintains mitochondrial DNA in these parasites is of particular relevance, as mitochondrial function is a validated and effective target for anti-parasitic drugs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140990/cultivar-architecture-modulates-spore-dispersal-by-rain-splash-a-new-perspective-to-reduce-disease-progression-in-cultivar-mixtures
#19
Tiphaine Vidal, Pauline Lusley, Marc Leconte, Claude de Vallavieille-Pope, Laurent Huber, Sébastien Saint-Jean
Cultivar mixtures can be used to improve the sustainability of disease management within farming systems by growing cultivars that differ in their disease resistance level in the same field. The impact of canopy aerial architecture on rain-splash dispersal could amplify disease reduction within mixtures. We designed a controlled conditions experiment to study single splash-dispersal events and their consequences for disease. We quantified this impact through the spore interception capacities of the component cultivars of a mixture...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140727/population-genomics-of-herbicide-resistance-adaptation-via-evolutionary-rescue
#20
Julia M Kreiner, John R Stinchcombe, Stephen I Wright
The evolution of herbicide resistance in weed populations is a highly replicated example of adaptation surmounting the race against extinction, but the factors determining its rate and nature remain poorly understood. Here, we explore theory and empirical evidence for the importance of population genetic parameters-including effective population size, dominance, mutational target size, and gene flow-in influencing the probability and mode of herbicide resistance adaptation and its variation across species. We compiled data on the number of resistance mutations across populations for 79 herbicide-resistant species...
November 15, 2017: Annual Review of Plant Biology
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