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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550063/an-environment-friendly-engineered-azotobacter-can-replace-substantial-amount-of-urea-fertilizer-and-yet-sustain-same-wheat-yield
#1
Umesh K Bageshwar, Madhulika Srivastava, Pedisetty Pardha-Saradhi, Sangeeta Paul, Sellamuthu Gothandapani, Ranjeet S Jaat, Prabha Shankar, Rajbir Yadav, Dipak R Biswas, Polumetla A Kumar, Jasdeep C Padaria, Pranab K Mandal, Kannepalli Annapurna, Hirendra K Das
In our endeavor to improve upon nitrogen fixation efficiency of a soil diazotroph that would be unaffected by synthetic nitrogenous fertilizers, we have deleted a part of the negative regulatory gene nifL and constitutively expressed the positive regulatory gene nifA in the chromosome of Azotobacter chroococcum CBD15, a strain isolated from the local field soil. No antibiotic resistance gene or other foreign gene was there in the chromosome of the engineered strain. Wheat seeds inoculated with this engineered strain, which we have named Azotobacter chroococcum HKD15, were tested for three years in pots and one year in the field...
May 26, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549856/three-decades-of-managing-tomato-spotted-wilt-virus-in-peanut-in-southeastern-united-states
#2
REVIEW
R Srinivasan, M R Abney, A K Culbreath, R C Kemerait, R S Tubbs, W S Monfort, H R Pappu
Southeastern states namely Georgia, Florida, and Alabama produce two-thirds of the peanuts in the United States. Thrips-transmitted Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), which causes spotted wilt disease, has been a major impediment to peanut production for the past three decades. The cultivars grown in the 1980s were extremely susceptible to TSWV. Early yield losses extended to tens of millions of dollars each year (up to 100% loss in many fields). This situation led to the creation of an interdisciplinary team known as "SWAT: Spotted Wilt Action Team"...
May 23, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549739/characterization-of-a-major-facilitator-superfamily-transporter-in-shiraia-bambusicola
#3
Huaxiang Deng, Ruijie Gao, Xiangru Liao, Yujie Cai
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by photo-activated hypocrellin from Shiraia bambusicola are detrimental to cellular macromolecules. However, S. bambusicola can still maintain excellent morphology during continuous hypocrellin production, indicating an extraordinary autoresistance system that protects against the harmful ROS. In this study, a major facilitator superfamily transporter (MFS) was isolated from S. bambusicola and deleted using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat sequences (CRISPR)/Cas9 system...
May 23, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549373/production-of-a-potential-liquid-plant-bio-stimulant-by-immobilized-piriformospora-indica-in-repeated-batch-fermentation-process
#4
Nikolay Vassilev, Bettina Eichler-Löbermann, Elena Flor-Peregrin, Vanessa Martos, Antonia Reyes, Maria Vassileva
Piriformospora indica, a mycorrhizal-like fungus able to establish associations with roots of a wide range of plants, supporting plant nutrition and increasing plant resistance and tolerance to stress, was shown to solubilise phosphate applied in the form of animal bone char (HABO) in fermentation systems. The process of P solubilisation was caused most likely by proton extrusion and medium pH lowering. The fungal mycelium was successfully immobilized/retained in a polyurethane foam carrier. Further employment of the immobilized mycelium in repeated-batch fermentation process resulted in at least 5 cycles of P solubilization...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549372/pgpr-strain-paenibacillus-polymyxa-sqr-21-potentially-benefits-watermelon-growth-by-re-shaping-root-protein-expression
#5
Yaoyao E, Jun Yuan, Fang Yang, Lei Wang, Jinghua Ma, Jing Li, Xiaowei Pu, Waseem Raza, Qiwei Huang, Qirong Shen
Paenibacillus polymyxa (SQR-21) is not only a plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, but also an effective biocontrol agent against Fusarium wilt disease of watermelon. For the better understanding and clarifying the potential mechanisms of SQR-21 to improve watermelon growth and disease resistance, a split-root methodology in hydroponic and LC-MS technology with the label free method was used to analyze the key root proteins involved in watermelon metabolism and disease resistance after the inoculation of SQR-21...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549197/analysis-of-protein-profile-of-tomato-root-infected-with-fusarium-oxysporum-f-sp-lycopersici
#6
T D Silva, C M A Almeida, C B Malafaia, L M S Oliveira, M V Silva, M T S Correia
Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp lycopersici (Fol) is one of the main diseases affecting tomatoes. The BHRS 2,3 genotype of tomato is, however, resistant to this disease. A proteomic approach was used to understand the defense mechanisms of this genotype using the tomato root, the first tissue that interacts with the fungus, as a target. Protein was extracted and separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by staining with Coomassie brilliant blue. The proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry...
May 25, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549098/high-protein-foods-and-physical-activity-protect-against-age-related-muscle-loss-and-functional-decline
#7
M Loring Bradlee, Jabed Mustafa, Martha R Singer, Lynn L Moore
Background: Some clinical trials suggest that protein supplementation enhances the effects of resistance exercise on skeletal muscle mass (SMM); fewer studies examine the effects of diets rich in protein-source foods on SMM and functional status among community-dwelling adults. Methods: Data from the Framingham Offspring study including diet (three-day records, exams 3 and 5), physical activity (exams 2 and 4), percent SMM (%SMM) (exams 6 and 7), and functional performance (exams 5 through 8) were used to evaluate independent and combined effects of physical activity and high-protein foods on adjusted mean %SMM (using analysis of covariance) and risk of functional decline (using Cox proportional hazard's models)...
May 25, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548656/nlr-locus-mediated-trade-off-between-abiotic-and-biotic-stress-adaptation-in-arabidopsis
#8
Hirotaka Ariga, Taku Katori, Takashi Tsuchimatsu, Taishi Hirase, Yuri Tajima, Jane E Parker, Rubén Alcázar, Maarten Koornneef, Owen Hoekenga, Alexander E Lipka, Michael A Gore, Hitoshi Sakakibara, Mikiko Kojima, Yuriko Kobayashi, Satoshi Iuchi, Masatomo Kobayashi, Kazuo Shinozaki, Yoichi Sakata, Takahisa Hayashi, Yusuke Saijo, Teruaki Taji
Osmotic stress caused by drought, salt or cold decreases plant fitness. Acquired stress tolerance defines the ability of plants to withstand stress following an initial exposure(1). We found previously that acquired osmotolerance after salt stress is widespread among Arabidopsis thaliana accessions(2). Here, we identify ACQOS as the locus responsible for ACQUIRED OSMOTOLERANCE. Of its five haplotypes, only plants carrying group 1 ACQOS are impaired in acquired osmotolerance. ACQOS is identical to VICTR, encoding a nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) protein(3)...
May 26, 2017: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546830/antibiotic-resistance-serogroups-virulence-genes-and-phylogenetic-groups-of-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-yaks-with-diarrhea-in-qinghai-plateau-china
#9
Mujeeb Ur Rehman, Hui Zhang, Muhammad Kashif Iqbal, Khalid Mehmood, Shucheng Huang, Fazul Nabi, Houqiang Luo, Yanfang Lan, Jiakui Li
BACKGROUND: Ruminants serve as one of the most important reservoirs for pathogenic Escherichia coli. Infection with E. coli, a foodborne enteropathogen, can lead to asymptomatic infections that can cause life-threatening complications in humans. Therefore, from a clinical and human health perspective, it is important to know which virulence genes, phylogenetic groups, serogroups, and antibiotic resistance patterns are present in E. coli strains in yaks with diarrheic infections. METHODS: Two-hundred and ninety-two rectal swabs were collected from diarrheic yaks in Qinghai Plateau, China...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546829/vinasse-fertirrigation-alters-soil-resistome-dynamics-an-analysis-based-on-metagenomic-profiles
#10
Lucas P P Braga, Rafael F Alves, Marina T F Dellias, Acacio A Navarrete, Thiago O Basso, Siu M Tsai
Every year around 300 Gl of vinasse, a by-product of ethanol distillation in sugarcane mills, are flushed into more than 9 Mha of sugarcane cropland in Brazil. This practice links fermentation waste management to fertilization for plant biomass production, and it is known as fertirrigation. Here we evaluate public datasets of soil metagenomes mining for changes in antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) of soils from sugarcane mesocosms repeatedly amended with vinasse. The metagenomes were annotated using the ResFam database...
2017: BioData Mining
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546091/comparative-secretome-analysis-of-colletotrichum-falcatum-identifies-a-cerato-platanin-protein-epl1-as-a-potential-pathogen-associated-molecular-pattern-pamp-inducing-systemic-resistance-in-sugarcane
#11
N M R Ashwin, Leonard Barnabas, Amalraj Ramesh Sundar, Palaniyandi Malathi, Rasappa Viswanathan, Antonio Masi, Ganesh Kumar Agrawal, Randeep Rakwal
Colletotrichum falcatum, an intriguing hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen causes the devastating red rot disease of sugarcane. Repeated in vitro subculturing of C. falcatum under dark condition alters morphology and reduces virulence of the culture. Hitherto, no information is available on this phenomenon at molecular level. In this study, the in vitro secretome of C. falcatum cultured under light and dark conditions was analyzed using 2-DE coupled with MALDI TOF/TOF MS. Comparative analysis identified nine differentially abundant proteins...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545854/transcriptome-wide-identification-of-host-genes-targeted-by-tomato-spotted-wilt-virus-derived-small-interfering-rnas
#12
Shunmugiah V Ramesh, Sarah Williams, Madhu Kappagantu, Neena Mitter, Hanu R Pappu
RNA silencing mechanism functions as a major defense against invading viruses. The caveat in the RNA silencing mechanism is that the effector small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) act on any RNA transcripts with sequence complementarity irrespective of target's origin. A subset of highly expressed viral small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) derived from the tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV; Tospovirus: Bunyaviridae) genome was analyzed for their propensity to downregulate the tomato transcriptome. A total of 11898 putative target sites on tomato transcripts were found to exhibit a propensity for down regulation by TSWV-derived vsiRNAs...
May 22, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544492/epistatic-influence-in-tomato-ve1-mediated-resistance
#13
Christian Danve M Castroverde, Xin Xu, Josefa Blaya Fernández, Ross N Nazar, Jane Robb
Resistance to Verticillium wilt disease is associated with the tomato Ve-locus; however, the individual functional roles of Ve1 and Ve2 in host plants remain controversial. As a first step towards Ve mutational analyses in planta, the Ve1 coding region from a resistant tomato near-isoline (cv. Craigella GCR218) was introduced into a susceptible near-isoline (cv. Craigella GCR26). 35S:Ve1 plants segregated into two distinct classes; roughly half were resistant and half were susceptible. Ve1 transcript levels were upregulated in both classes compared to wild-type plants, showing stable transgenic expression...
May 20, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544449/metagenomic-based-impact-study-of-transgenic-grapevine-rootstock-on-its-associated-virome-and-soil-bacteriome
#14
Jean-Michel Hily, Sandrine Demanèche, Nils Poulicard, Mélanie Tannières, Samia Djennane, Monique Beuve, Emmanuelle Vigne, Gérard Demangeat, Véronique Komar, Claude Gertz, Aurélie Marmonier, Caroline Hemmer, Sophie Vigneron, Armelle Marais, Thierry Candresse, Pascal Simonet, Olivier Lemaire
For some crops, the only possible approach to gain a specific trait requires genome modification. The development of virus-resistant transgenic plants based on the pathogen-derived resistance strategy has been a success story for over three decades. However, potential risks associated with the technology, such as horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of any part of the transgene to an existing gene pool, have been raised. Here, we report no evidence of any undesirable impacts of genetically modified (GM) grapevine rootstock on its biotic environment...
May 25, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542624/pathogenic-seedborne-viruses-are-rare-but-phaseolus-vulgaris-endornaviruses-are-common-in-bean-varieties-grown-in-nicaragua-and-tanzania
#15
Noora Nordenstedt, Delfia Marcenaro, Daudi Chilagane, Beatrice Mwaipopo, Minna-Liisa Rajamäki, Susan Nchimbi-Msolla, Paul J R Njau, Deusdedith R Mbanzibwa, Jari P T Valkonen
Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is an annual grain legume that was domesticated in Mesoamerica (Central America) and the Andes. It is currently grown widely also on other continents including Africa. We surveyed seedborne viruses in new common bean varieties introduced to Nicaragua (Central America) and in landraces and improved varieties grown in Tanzania (eastern Africa). Bean seeds, harvested from Nicaragua and Tanzania, were grown in insect-controlled greenhouse or screenhouse, respectively, to obtain leaf material for virus testing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542579/transcriptomic-dissection-reveals-wide-spread-differential-expression-in-chickpea-during-early-time-points-of-fusarium-oxysporum-f-sp-ciceri-race-1-attack
#16
Sumanti Gupta, Anirban Bhar, Moniya Chatterjee, Amartya Ghosh, Sampa Das
Plants' reaction to underground microorganisms is complex as sessile nature of plants compels them to prioritize their responses to diverse microorganisms both pathogenic and symbiotic. Roots of important crops are directly exposed to diverse microorganisms, but investigations involving root pathogens are significantly less. Thus, more studies involving root pathogens and their target crops are necessitated to enrich the understanding of underground interactions. Present study reported the molecular complexities in chickpea during Fusarium oxysporum f...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542545/a-first-insight-into-the-involvement-of-phytohormones-pathways-in-coffee-resistance-and-susceptibility-to-colletotrichum-kahawae
#17
Inês Diniz, Andreia Figueiredo, Andreia Loureiro, Dora Batista, Helena Azinheira, Vítor Várzea, Ana Paula Pereira, Elijah Gichuru, Pilar Moncada, Leonor Guerra-Guimarães, Helena Oliveira, Maria do Céu Silva
Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying coffee-pathogen interactions are of key importance to aid disease resistance breeding efforts. In this work the expression of genes involved in salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET) pathways were studied in hypocotyls of two coffee varieties challenged with the hemibiotrophic fungus Colletotrichum kahawae, the causal agent of Coffee Berry Disease. Based on a cytological analysis, key time-points of the infection process were selected and qPCR was used to evaluate the expression of phytohormones biosynthesis, reception and responsive-related genes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542459/identification-and-evaluation-of-resistance-to-powdery-mildew-and-yellow-rust-in-a-wheat-mapping-population
#18
Lijun Yang, Xuejiang Zhang, Xu Zhang, Jirui Wang, Mingcheng Luo, Mujun Yang, Hua Wang, Libo Xiang, Fansong Zeng, Dazhao Yu, Daolin Fu, Garry M Rosewarne
Deployment of cultivars with genetic resistance is an effective approach to control the diseases of powdery mildew (PM) and yellow rust (YR). Chinese wheat cultivar XK0106 exhibits high levels of resistance to both diseases, while cultivar E07901 has partial, adult plant resistance (APR). The aim of this study was to map resistance loci derived from the two cultivars and analyze their effects against PM and YR in a range of environments. A doubled haploid population (388 lines) was used to develop a framework map consisting of 117 SSR markers, while a much higher density map using the 90K Illumina iSelect SNP array was produced with a subset of 80 randomly selected lines...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542451/mapping-genes-for-resistance-to-stripe-rust-in-spring-wheat-landrace-pi-480035
#19
Jinita Sthapit Kandel, Vandhana Krishnan, Derick Jiwan, Xianming Chen, Daniel Z Skinner, Deven R See
Stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. tritici Erikks. is an economically important disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Hexaploid spring wheat landrace PI 480035 was highly resistant to stripe rust in the field in Washington during 2011 and 2012. The objective of this research was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for stripe rust resistance in PI 480035. A spring wheat, "Avocet Susceptible" (AvS), was crossed with PI 480035 to develop a biparental population of 110 recombinant inbred lines (RIL)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542446/wheat-root-length-and-not-branching-is-altered-in-the-presence-of-neighbours-including-blackgrass
#20
Jessica A Finch, Gaëtan Guillaume, Stephanie A French, Renato D D R Colaço, Julia M Davies, Stéphanie M Swarbreck
The effect of neighbouring plants on crop root system architecture may directly interfere with water and nutrient acquisition, yet this important and interesting aspect of competition remains poorly understood. Here, the effect of the weed blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides Huds.) on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) roots was tested, since a low density of this species (25 plants m-2) can lead to a 10% decrease in wheat yield and herbicide resistance is problematic. We used a simplified growth system based on gelled medium, to grow wheat alongside a neighbour, either another wheat plant, a blackgrass or Brachypodium dystachion individual (a model grass)...
2017: PloS One
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