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plant polyphenol oxidases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821733/three-recombinantly-expressed-apple-tyrosinases-suggest-the-amino-acids-responsible-for-mono-versus-diphenolase-activity-in-plant-polyphenol-oxidases
#1
Ioannis Kampatsikas, Aleksandar Bijelic, Matthias Pretzler, Annette Rompel
Tyrosinases and catechol oxidases belong to the polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzyme family, which is mainly responsible for the browning of fruits. Three cDNAs encoding PPO pro-enzymes have been cloned from leaves of Malus domestica (apple, MdPPO). The three pro-enzymes MdPPO1-3 were heterologously expressed in E. coli yielding substantial amounts of protein and have been characterized with regard to their optimum of activity resulting from SDS, acidic and proteolytic activation. Significant differences were found in the kinetic characterization of MdPPO1-3 when applying different mono- and diphenolic substrates...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818380/molecular-cloning-and-expression-analysis-of-duplicated-polyphenol-oxidase-genes-reveal-their-functional-differentiations-in-sorghum
#2
Song Yan, Sujuan Li, Guowei Zhai, Ping Lu, Hui Deng, Shan Zhu, Renliang Huang, Jianfeng Shao, Yuezhi Tao, Guihua Zou
Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is believed to play a role in plant growth, reproduction, and resistance to pathogens and pests. PPO causes browning of grains in cereals. In this study, genetic mapping of sorghum grain for phenol color reaction (PHR) was performed using a recombinant inbred line population. Only one locus was detected between SSR markers SM06072 and Xtxp176 on chromosome 6. Two linked orthologous genes (Sb06PPO1 and Sb06PPO2) within the mapped region were discovered and cloned. Transformation experiments using Nipponbare (a PHR negative rice cultivar) showed that Sb06PPO1 from LTR108 and two Sb06PPO2 alleles from both varieties could complement Nipponbare, whereas Sb06PPO1 from 654 could not...
October 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808325/phytoremediation-potential-of-acorus-calamus-in-soils-co-contaminated-with-cadmium-and-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons
#3
Nasreen Jeelani, Wen Yang, Lingqian Xu, Yajun Qiao, Shuqing An, Xin Leng
Phytoremediation is a promising technology for the remediation of sites co-contaminated with inorganic (heavy metal) and organic pollutants. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the independent and interactive effects of cadmium (Cd) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the growth of the wetland plant Acorus calamus and its ability to uptake, accumulate, and remove pollutants from soils. Our results showed that growth and biomass of A. calamus were significantly influenced by the interaction of Cd and PAHs after 60 days of growth...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777094/in-crystallo-activity-tests-with-latent-apple-tyrosinase-and-two-mutants-reveal-the-importance-of-the-mutated-sites-for-polyphenol-oxidase-activity
#4
Ioannis Kampatsikas, Aleksandar Bijelic, Matthias Pretzler, Annette Rompel
Tyrosinases are type 3 copper enzymes that belong to the polyphenol oxidase (PPO) family and are able to catalyze both the ortho-hydroxylation of monophenols and their subsequent oxidation to o-quinones, which are precursors for the biosynthesis of colouring substances such as melanin. The first plant pro-tyrosinase from Malus domestica (MdPPO1) was recombinantly expressed in its latent form (56.4 kDa) and mutated at four positions around the catalytic pocket which are believed to influence the activity of the enzyme...
August 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710946/photosynthetic-parameters-and-redox-homeostasis-of-artemisia-santonica-l-under-conditions-of-elton-region
#5
Olga Rozentsvet, Anatoly Kosobryukhov, Ilya Zakhozhiy, Galina Tabalenkova, Viktor Nesterov, Elena Bogdanova
Structural and functional parameters and redox homeostasis in leaves of Artemisia santonica L. under environment conditions of Elton lake (the southeast region of the European part of Russia) were measured. The highest photosynthetic apparatus (PA) activity in A. santonica leaves on CO2 gas exchange as well as the highest content of green pigments was observed in the morning. Maximum share of violaxanthin cycle key pigments - zeaxanthin (Zx) and antheraxanthin (Ax) was observed in the afternoon and decreased in the evening...
July 6, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707323/exogenous-application-of-indole-acetic-acid-alleviates-the-effects-of-supplemental-ultraviolet-b-radiation-in-the-medicinal-plant-withania-somnifera-dunal
#6
S Takshak, S B Agrawal
Supplemental (s)-UV-B radiation has adverse effects on majority of plants. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of exogenous application of the growth hormone indole acetic acid (IAA) on various morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics of Withania somnifera, an indigenous medicinal plant, subjected to s-UV-B. The s-UV-B treated plants received ambient+3.6 kJm(-2) day(-1) biologically effective UV-B and IAA was applied at two doses (200 ppm and 400 ppm) to s-UV-B exposed plants...
July 14, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702068/hyperglycemia-induced-oxidative-stress-and-heart-disease-cardioprotective-effects-of-rooibos-flavonoids-and-phenylpyruvic-acid-2-o-%C3%AE-d-glucoside
#7
REVIEW
Phiwayinkosi V Dludla, Elizabeth Joubert, Christo J F Muller, Johan Louw, Rabia Johnson
Diabetic patients are at an increased risk of developing heart failure when compared to their non-diabetic counter parts. Accumulative evidence suggests chronic hyperglycemia to be central in the development of myocardial infarction in these patients. At present, there are limited therapies aimed at specifically protecting the diabetic heart at risk from hyperglycemia-induced injury. Oxidative stress, through over production of free radical species, has been hypothesized to alter mitochondrial function and abnormally augment the activity of the NADPH oxidase enzyme system resulting in accelerated myocardial injury within a diabetic state...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681699/expression-analysis-of-polyphenol-oxidase-isozymes-by-active-staining-method-and-tissue-browning-of-head-lettuce-lactuca-sativa-l
#8
Takahiro Noda, Kazuhiko Iimure, Shunsuke Okamoto, Akira Saito
Browning of plant tissue is generally considered attributable to enzymatic oxidation by polyphenol oxidase (PPO). Electrophoresis followed by activity staining has been used as an effective procedure to visually detect and isolate isozymes; however, it has not been applied for examination of various PPO isozymes in lettuce. Our study demonstrated that different lettuce PPO isozymes could be detected at different pH in active staining, and multiple isozymes were detected only under alkaline conditions. As a result, we concluded that activity staining with approximately pH 8 enabled to detect various PPO isozymes in lettuce...
August 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669771/antidiabetic-antioxidant-and-anti-inflammatory-properties-of-water-and-n-butanol-soluble-extracts-from-saharian-anvillea-radiata-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#9
Chouaib Kandouli, Mathieu Cassien, Anne Mercier, Caroline Delehedde, Emilie Ricquebourg, Pierre Stocker, Mourad Mekaouche, Zineb Leulmi, Aicha Mechakra, Sophie Thétiot-Laurent, Marcel Culcasi, Sylvia Pietri
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: According to Saharian traditional medicine, Anvillea radiata Coss. & Dur. (Asteraceae) has been valued for treating a variety of ailments such as gastro-intestinal, liver and pulmonary diseases, and has gained awareness for its beneficial effect on postprandial hyperglycemia. However, to best of our knowledge, no detailed study of the antidiabetic curative effects of this plant has been conducted yet. AIM OF THE STUDY: To determine the hypoglycemic and antidiabetic effect of dietary supplementation with Anvillea radiata extracts on high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity and insulin resistance in C57BL/6J mice in relation with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, pancreatic beta-cells and skeletal muscle protection, and digestive enzyme inhibiting properties...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662462/alterations-of-growth-antioxidant-system-and-gene-expression-in-stylosanthes-guianensis-during-colletotrichum-gloeosporioides-infection
#10
Hui Wang, Zhijian Chen, Guodao Liu, Changjun Bai, Hong Qiu, Yanxing Jia, Lijuan Luo
Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is one of the most destructive fungal diseases of many plants, including stylo (Stylosanthes spp.), which is an important tropical forage legume. Although C. gloeosporioides-caused anthracnose is the major constraint limiting the growth and yield of stylo, little information is available regarding the responses of stylo during the infection process of this pathogen. This study investigated the changes in growth, the antioxidant system and gene expression in stylo in response to C...
June 20, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656573/effect-of-tea-saponin-on-phytoremediation-of-cd-and-pyrene-in-contaminated-soils-by-lolium-multiflorum
#11
Xiaoyan Liu, Liya Cao, Qian Wang, Xinying Zhang, Xiaoxin Hu
Tea saponin (TS), a kind of green biosurfactant produced by plants, was added into the Cd-pyrene co-contaminated soils to evaluate its influence on phytoremediation of Cd and pyrene by Lolium multiflorum. The results showed that the accumulation of pyrene in L. multiflorum was significantly promoted by the TS. Compared with no TS treatments (PL and ML), the aboveground concentrations of pyrene in TS treatments (PLT and MLT) increased by 135 and 30%, respectively, and the underground concentrations of pyrene in TS treatments (PLT and MLT) increased by 40 and 25%...
June 27, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652621/silicon-amendment-is-involved-in-the-induction-of-plant-defense-responses-to-a-phloem-feeder
#12
Lang Yang, Yongqiang Han, Pei Li, Fei Li, Shahbaz Ali, Maolin Hou
Plant resistance to herbivores is a key component in integrated pest management. In most cases, silicon (Si) amendment to plants enhances resistance to herbivorous insects. The increase of plant physical barrier and altered insect behaviors are proposed as mechanisms for the enhanced resistance in Si-amended plants, but our understanding of the induced mechanisms involved in Si-enhanced plant resistance to phloem-feeding insects remains unclear. Here, we show that Si amendment to rice (Oryza sativa) plants impacts multiple plant defense responses induced by a phloem-feeder, the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens, BPH)...
June 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611799/endophytic-paecilomyces-formosus-lhl10-augments-glycine-max-l-adaptation-to-ni-contamination-through-affecting-endogenous-phytohormones-and-oxidative-stress
#13
Saqib Bilal, Abdul L Khan, Raheem Shahzad, Sajjad Asaf, Sang-Mo Kang, In-Jung Lee
This study investigated the Ni-removal efficiency of phytohormone-producing endophytic fungi Penicillium janthinellum, Paecilomyces formosus, Exophiala sp., and Preussia sp. Among four different endophytes, P. formosus LHL10 was able to tolerate up to 1 mM Ni in contaminated media as compared to copper and cadmium. P. formosus LHL10 was further assessed for its potential to enhance the phytoremediation of Glycine max (soybean) in response to dose-dependent increases in soil Ni (0.5, 1.0, and 5.0 mM). Inoculation with P...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600687/carnivore-attractant-or-plant-elicitor-multifunctional-roles-of-methyl-salicylate-lures-in-tomato-defense
#14
Elizabeth Rowen, Michael Gutensohn, Natalia Dudareva, Ian Kaplan
Synthetic plant volatile lures attract natural enemies, but may have non-target effects due to the multifunctional nature of volatile signals. For example, methyl salicylate (MeSA) is used to attract predators, yet also serves as a signaling hormone involved in plant pathogen defense. We investigated the consequences of deploying MeSA lures to attract predators for tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) defense against herbivores. To understand the spatial distribution of the lure's effect, we exposed tomatoes in the field to MeSA along a linear distance gradient and induced defenses by simulating feeding by hornworm caterpillars in a fully crossed factorial design (+/- MeSA, +/- herbivory)...
June 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553697/fungal-decomposers-of-leaf-litter-from-an-invaded-and-native-mountain-forest-of-nw-argentina
#15
Romina Daiana Fernandez, Natalia Bulacio, Analía Álvarez, Hipólito Pajot, Roxana Aragón
The impact of plant species invasions on the abundance, composition and activity of fungal decomposers of leaf litter is poorly understood. In this study, we isolated and compared the relative abundance of ligninocellulolytic fungi of leaf litter mixtures from a native forest and a forest invaded by Ligustrum lucidum in a lower mountain forest of Tucuman, Argentina. In addition, we evaluated the relationship between the relative abundance of ligninocellulolytic fungi and properties of the soil of both forest types...
May 28, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533961/transcriptome-analyses-provide-insights-into-the-difference-of-alkaloids-biosynthesis-in-the-chinese-goldthread-coptis-chinensis-franch-from-different-biotopes
#16
Hanting Chen, Cao Deng, Hu Nie, Gang Fan, Yang He
Coptis chinensis Franch., the Chinese goldthread ('Weilian' in Chinese), one of the most important medicinal plants from the family Ranunculaceae, and its rhizome has been widely used in Traditional Chinese Medicine for centuries. Here, we analyzed the chemical components and the transcriptome of the Chinese goldthread from three biotopes, including Zhenping, Zunyi and Shizhu. We built comprehensive, high-quality de novo transcriptome assemblies of the Chinese goldthread from short-read RNA-Sequencing data, obtaining 155,710 transcripts and 56,071 unigenes...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491137/boosting-lpmo-driven-lignocellulose-degradation-by-polyphenol-oxidase-activated-lignin-building-blocks
#17
Matthias Frommhagen, Sumanth Kumar Mutte, Adrie H Westphal, Martijn J Koetsier, Sandra W A Hinz, Jaap Visser, Jean-Paul Vincken, Dolf Weijers, Willem J H van Berkel, Harry Gruppen, Mirjam A Kabel
BACKGROUND: Many fungi boost the deconstruction of lignocellulosic plant biomass via oxidation using lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs). The application of LPMOs is expected to contribute to ecologically friendly conversion of biomass into fuels and chemicals. Moreover, applications of LPMO-modified cellulose-based products may be envisaged within the food or material industry. RESULTS: Here, we show an up to 75-fold improvement in LPMO-driven cellulose degradation using polyphenol oxidase-activated lignin building blocks...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456299/molecular-and-biochemical-characterization-of-dimethachlone-resistant-isolates-of-sclerotinia-sclerotiorum
#18
Jinli Li, Tinghao Kang, Khaled Mohamed Ahmed Talab, Fuxing Zhu, Jianhong Li
Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a necrotrophic fungal plant pathogen with a broad host range. The dicarboximide fungicide dimethachlone has been used to control this pathogen for more than a decade and resistance to dimethachlone has recently been reported in China. Compared with sensitive isolates, the three dimethachlone resistant isolates with resistance ratios of 78.3, 85.5, and 94.8 exhibited significantly (P<0.05) higher cell membrane permeability and peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activities. Dimethachlone at 0...
May 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427621/engineering-design-and-prototype-development-of-a-full-scale-ultrasound-system-for-virgin-olive-oil-by-means-of-numerical-and-experimental-analysis
#19
Maria Lisa Clodoveo, Vito Moramarco, Antonello Paduano, Raffaele Sacchi, Tiziana Di Palmo, Pasquale Crupi, Filomena Corbo, Vito Pesce, Elia Distaso, Paolo Tamburrano, Riccardo Amirante
The aim of the virgin olive oil extraction process is mainly to obtain the best quality oil from fruits, by only applying mechanical actions while guaranteeing the highest overall efficiency. Currently, the mechanical methods used to extract virgin oils from olives are basically of two types: the discontinuous system (obsolete) and the continuous one. Anyway the system defined as "continuous" is composed of several steps which are not all completely continuous, due to the presence of the malaxer, a device that works in batch...
July 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377778/foliar-and-seed-application-of-amino-acids-affects-the-antioxidant-metabolism-of-the-soybean-crop
#20
Walquíria F Teixeira, Evandro B Fagan, Luís H Soares, Renan C Umburanas, Klaus Reichardt, Durval D Neto
In recent years, the application of natural substances on crops has been intensified in order to increase the resistance and yield of the soybean crop. Among these products are included plant biostimulants that may contain algae extracts, amino acids, and plant regulators in their composition. However, there is little information on the isolated effect of each of these constituents. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of the application of isolated amino acids on the antioxidant metabolism of the soybean crop...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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