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plant polyphenol oxidases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071760/origin-and-evolution-of-mir1444-genes-in-salicaceae
#1
Meizhen Wang, Caili Li, Shanfa Lu
miR1444s are functionally significant miRNAs targeting polyphenol oxidase (PPO) genes for cleavage. MIR1444 genes were reported only in Populus trichocarpa. Through the computational analysis of 215 RNA-seq data, four whole genome sequences of Salicaceae species and deep sequencing of six P. trichocarpa small RNA libraries, we investigated the origin and evolution history of MIR1444s. A total of 23 MIR1444s were identified. Populus and Idesia species contain two MIR1444 genes, while Salix includes only one...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042888/ratoon-rice-generated-from-primed-parent-plants-exhibit-enhanced-herbivore-resistance
#2
Mao Ye, Yuan-Yuan Song, Scott R Baerson, Jun Long, Jie Wang, Zhiqiang Pan, Wen-Xiong Lin, Ren-Sen Zeng
Rice ratooning is practiced in many rice-growing countries for achieving increased rice production with limited labor input. Here we report that attack by insect herbivores, or treatment with a defense signaling compound in parent plants, can prime anti-herbivore defense responses in subsequent ratoon plants. We compared the defense responses of rice ratoons generated from parent plants that had been either infested by Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (rice leaffolder, LF) caterpillars or treated with methyl jasmonate (MeJA) during vegetative growth, with ratoons generated from control parent plants...
January 2, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027775/triterpene-derivatives-from-euphorbia-enhance-resistance-against-verticillium-wilt-of-tomato
#3
Amal Smaili, Noureddine Mazoir, Lalla Aicha Rifai, Tayeb Koussa, Kacem Makroum, El Mostafa Kabil, Ahmed Benharref, Mohamed Faize
Oxidation of α-euphorbol and 31-norlanostenol, two triterpenic compounds isolated from the latex of Euphorbia resinifera and Euphorbia officinarum respectively, yielded four products named 3β-tosyloxy-4α,14α-dimethyl-5α-cholesta-7,9-diene; 4α,14α-dimethyl-5α-cholesta-7,9-dien-3β-ol; 24-methylen-elemo-lanosta-8,24-dien-3-one and elemo-lanost-8-en-3,11,24-trione. They were evaluated for protection of tomato plants against Verticillium dahliae in a greenhouse. The four semisynthesized products were phytotoxic at higher concentrations as they completely inhibited tomato germination at 100 and 500 μg/ml...
December 24, 2016: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027025/fall-armyworm-associated-gut-bacteria-modulate-plant-defense-responses
#4
Flor E Acevedo, Michelle Peiffer, Ching-Wen Tan, Bruce A Stanley, Anne Stanley, Jie Wang, Asher G Jones, Kelli Hoover, Cristina Rosa, Dawn S Luthe, Gary Felton
Mechanical damage caused by insect feeding along with components present in their saliva and oral secretions are known to induce JA-mediated defense responses in plants. This study investigated the effects of bacteria from oral secretions of the fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda, on herbivore induced defenses in tomato and maize plants. Using culture-dependent methods, we identified seven different bacterial isolates, belonging to the family Enterobacteriacea, from the oral secretions of field-collected caterpillars...
December 27, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002486/levels-of-salivary-enzymes-of-apolygus-lucorum-hemiptera-miridae-from-1st-instar-nymph-to-adult-and-their-potential-relation-to-bug-feeding
#5
Xiumei Tan, Xiuping Xu, Yong Gao, Qinmin Yang, Yunsheng Zhu, Jiqing Wang, Fanghao Wan, Hongxu Zhou
In recent years, Apolygus lucorum has caused increasing damage to cotton and fruit trees in China. The salivary enzymes secreted by A. lucorum when sucking on host plants induce a series of biochemical reactions in plants, and the pre-oral digestion benefits the bug feeding. In this study, the food intake of A. lucorum from 1st instar nymphs to adults was measured, and the corresponding salivary activity of pectinase, amylase, cellulase, protease, polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase was determined. Daily food intake varied with developmental stage, peaking in 3rd and 4th instar nymphs...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982026/mechanism-of-internal-browning-of-pineapple-the-role-of-gibberellins-catabolism-gene-acga2ox-and-gas
#6
Qin Zhang, Xiuwen Rao, Lubin Zhang, Congcong He, Fang Yang, Shijiang Zhu
Internal browning (IB), a physiological disorder (PD) that causes severe losses in harvested pineapple, can be induced by exogenous gibberellins (GAs). Over the years, studies have focused on roles of Gibberellin 2-oxidase (GA2oxs), the major GAs catabolic enzyme in plants, in the regulation of changes in morphology or biomass. However, whether GA2oxs could regulate PD has not been reported. Here, a full-length AcGA2ox cDNA was isolated from pineapple, with the putative protein sharing 23.59% to 72.92% identity with GA2oxs from five other plants...
December 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915144/antioxidant-enzyme-and-osmotic-adjustment-changes-in-bean-seedlings-as-affected-by-biochar-under-salt-stress
#7
Salar Farhangi-Abriz, Shahram Torabian
Salinity damaged cellular membranes through overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), while osmolytes and antioxidant capacities play a vital role in protecting plants from salinity caused oxidative damages. Biochar also could alleviate the negative impacts of salt stress in crops. The pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of biochar on some antioxidant enzyme activities and osmolyte adjustments of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Derakhshan) under salinity stress. Bean plants were subjected to three salinity levels (non-saline, 6 and 12 dSm(-1) of NaCl) and biochar treatments (non-biochar, 10% and 20% total pot mass)...
March 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895647/exogenous-trehalose-treatment-enhances-the-activities-of-defense-related-enzymes-and-triggers-resistance-against-downy-mildew-disease-of-pearl-millet
#8
Sharathchandra R Govind, Sudisha Jogaiah, Mostafa Abdelrahman, Hunthrike S Shetty, Lam-Son P Tran
In recent years, diverse physiological functions of various sugars are the subject of investigations. Their roles in signal transduction in plant responses to adverse biotic and abiotic stress conditions have become apparent, and growing scientific evidence has indicated that disaccharides like sucrose and trehalose mediate plant defense responses in similar way as those induced by elicitors against the pathogens. Trehalose is a well-known metabolic osmoregulator, stress-protectant and non-reducing disaccharide existing in a variety of organisms, including fungi, bacteria, and plants...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875319/enhanced-oral-bioavailability-of-metoprolol-with-gallic-acid-and-ellagic-acid-in-male-wistar-rats-involvement-of-cyp2d6-inhibition
#9
Bhargavi Latha Athukuri, Prasad Neerati
BACKGROUND: Cytochrome P450-2D6 (CYP2D6), a member of the CYP450 mixed function oxidase system, is an important CYP isoform with regard to herbal-drug interactions and is responsible for the metabolism of nearly 25% of drugs. Until now, studies on the effects of various phytochemicals on CYP2D6 activity in vivo have been very rare. Gallic acid and ellagic acid are natural polyphenols which are widely distributed in fruits and medicinal plants. In the present study, the effects of gallic acid and ellagic acid pretreatment on intestinal transport and oral bioavailability of metoprolol were investigated...
December 1, 2016: Drug Metabolism and Personalized Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872630/control-of-wilt-and-rot-pathogens-of-tomato-by-antagonistic-pink-pigmented-facultative-methylotrophic-delftia-lacustris-and-bacillus-spp
#10
Veeranan Janahiraman, Rangasamy Anandham, Soon W Kwon, Subbiah Sundaram, Veeranan Karthik Pandi, Ramasamy Krishnamoorthy, Kiyoon Kim, Sandipan Samaddar, Tongmin Sa
The studies on the biocontrol potential of pink pigmented facultative methylotrophic (PPFM) bacteria other than the genus Methylobacterium are scarce. In the present study, we report three facultative methylotrophic isolates; PPO-1, PPT-1, and PPB-1, respectively, identified as Delftia lacustris, Bacillus subtilis, and Bacillus cereus by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Hemolytic activity was tested to investigate the potential pathogenicity of isolates to plants and humans, the results indicates that the isolates PPO-1, PPT-1, and PPB-1 are not pathogenic strains...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858273/comparison-of-the-phytoremediation-potentials-of-medicago-falcata-l-and-medicago-sativa-l-in-aged-oil-sludge-contaminated-soil
#11
Leonid Panchenko, Anna Muratova, Olga Turkovskaya
Thirteen-year monitoring of the vegetation growing in the industrial and adjacent areas of an oil refinery showed the prevalence of yellow medick (Medicago falcata L.) over other plant species, including alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). A comparative field study of the two Medicago species established that yellow medick and alfalfa exhibited similar resistance to soil petroleum hydrocarbons and that the pollutant concentration in their rhizosphere was 30% lower than that in the surrounding bulk soil. In laboratory pot experiments, yellow medick reduced the contaminant content by 18% owing to the degradation of the major heavy oil fractions, such as paraffins, naphthenes, and alcohol and benzene tars; and it was more successful than alfalfa...
November 17, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814588/protective-effect-of-tangeritin-in-transgenic-drosophila-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#12
Ambreen Fatima, Saba Khanam, Rahul Rahul, Smita Jyoti, Falaq Naz, Fahad Ali, Yasir Hasan Siddique
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused due to the loss of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra region of midbrain. The disease is characterized by the accumulation of alpha-synuclein into depositions known as lewy bodies. Till date there is no cure for PD but the limited number of medications may provide temporary relief from the PD symptoms. Flavonoids are a group of polyphenols found in plants. The health benefits of flavonoids have been universally accepted. Tangeritin is a pentamethoxy flavone found in the peels of Mandarin oranges (Citrus reticulata)...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808257/physiological-response-and-sulfur-metabolism-of-the-v-dahliae-infected-tomato-plants-in-tomato-potato-onion-companion-cropping
#13
Xuepeng Fu, Chunxia Li, Xingang Zhou, Shouwei Liu, Fengzhi Wu
Companion cropping with potato onions (Allium cepa var. agrogatum Don.) can enhance the disease resistance of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) to Verticillium dahliae infection by increasing the expressions of genes related to disease resistance. However, it is not clear how tomato plants physiologically respond to V. dahliae infection and what roles sulfur plays in the disease-resistance. Pot experiments were performed to examine changes in the physiology and sulfur metabolism of tomato roots infected by V...
November 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752946/co-application-of-6-ketone-type-brassinosteroid-and-metal-chelator-alleviates-cadmium-toxicity-in-b-juncea-l
#14
Ravdeep Kaur, Poonam Yadav, Ashwani Kumar Thukral, Amandeep Walia, Renu Bhardwaj
Plant growth regulator-assisted phytoremediation has been assessed as a novel strategy to improve phytoremediation potential of plants. In the present work, potential of castasterone, a plant growth regulator, combined with citric acid was explored for phytoremediation of cadmium in Brassica juncea seedlings. The seedlings were raised under controlled laboratory conditions for 7 days. Results revealed that 0.6 mM cadmium exposure induced toxicity in the seedlings, which was reflected through root growth inhibition, accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde, and loss of cell viability...
January 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750423/effect-of-plant-age-on-the-quantity-and-quality-of-proteins-extracted-from-sugar-beet-beta-vulgaris-l-leaves
#15
Alexandra Kiskini, Anne Vissers, Jean-Paul Vincken, Harry Gruppen, Peter Alexander Wierenga
Effects of the developmental stage (e.g., young, mature, or senescent) of leaves on their chemical composition have been described in the literature. This study focuses on the variation in chemical composition and quantity and quality of proteins extracted from leaves due to variation in plant age (i.e., harvesting time), using leaves from sugar beets grown in a field (Rhino, Arrival) and in a greenhouse (Isabella). Within the same variety (Rhino, field; Arrival, field; Isabella, greenhouse) the protein content was similar for leaves from young and old plants (22 ± 1, 16 ± 1, and 10 ± 3% w/w db, respectively)...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690004/proteomic-analysis-of-hylocereus-polyrhizus-reveals-metabolic-pathway-changes
#16
Qingzhu Hua, Qianjun Zhou, Susheng Gan, Jingyu Wu, Canbin Chen, Jiaqiang Li, Yaoxiong Ye, Jietang Zhao, Guibing Hu, Yonghua Qin
Red dragon fruit or red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) is the only edible fruit that contains betalains. The color of betalains ranges from red and violet to yellow in plants. Betalains may also serve as an important component of health-promoting and disease-preventing functional food. Currently, the biosynthetic and regulatory pathways for betalain production remain to be fully deciphered. In this study, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based proteomic analyses were used to reveal the molecular mechanism of betalain biosynthesis in H...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686467/stilbene-accumulation-and-expression-of-stilbene-biosynthesis-pathway-genes-in-wild-grapevine-vitis-amurensis-rupr
#17
Konstantin V Kiselev, Olga A Aleynova, Valeria P Grigorchuk, Alexandra S Dubrovina
We detected and quantified six stilbenes ( cis -piceid, t -piceid, t -ε-viniferin, cis -ε-viniferin, t -resveratrol, and t -δ-viniferin) in the leaves, petioles, berry skins, and seeds of wild-growing Vitis amurensis . The highest content of stilbenes and expression of stilbene biosynthesis genes were in the probes collected in the autumn and after ultraviolet elicitation. Stilbenes, including the best-studied stilbene resveratrol, are known to display valuable bioactivities and protect plants against various pathogens...
September 29, 2016: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664922/purification-of-polyphenol-oxidase-from-borage-trachystemon-orientalis-l-by-using-three-phase-partitioning-and-investigation-of-kinetic-properties
#18
Esma Hande Alici, Gulnur Arabaci
In this study a Polyphenol oxidase from borage plant was purified with 3.59-fold enrichment in the specific activity and 68.75% recovery of the total activity by using three-phase partitioning purification technique for the first time. Its molecular weight was found around 80kDa with sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The optimum pH and temperature values of the enzyme for the used four substrates ranged between the pH 5.0-7.5 and 5-30°C. The kcat/Km values showed that the enzyme has the greatest reactivity toward caffeic acid among the substrates used...
December 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647014/flavonoids-gallotannins-and-ellagitannins-in-syzygium-guineense-and-the-traditional-use-among-malian-healers
#19
Thuy Lan Nguyen, Anders Rusten, Mona Skogsrud Bugge, Karl Egil Malterud, Drissa Diallo, Berit Smestad Paulsen, Helle Wangensteen
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Syzygium guineense has been traditionally used in Mali in West Africa for the treatment of different diseases such as stomach problems, wounds, inflammations and various female disorders. AIMS OF THE STUDY: (1) To perform an ethnopharmacological survey on the traditional use of S. guineense among Malian healers. (2) To isolate and identify chemical constituents from S. guineense leaves and to study their radical scavenging and enzyme inhibitory effects...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27575873/dietary-fisetin-supplementation-protects-against-alcohol-induced-liver-injury-in-mice
#20
Qian Sun, Wenliang Zhang, Wei Zhong, Xinguo Sun, Zhanxiang Zhou
BACKGROUND: Overproduction of reactive oxygen species is associated with the development of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Plant polyphenols have been used as dietary interventions for multiple diseases including ALD. The objective of this study was to determine whether dietary supplementation with fisetin, a novel flavonoid, exerts beneficial effect on alcohol-induced liver injury. METHODS: C57BL/6J mice were pair-fed with the Lieber-DeCarli control or ethanol (EtOH) diet for 4 weeks with or without fisetin supplementation at 10 mg/kg/d...
October 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
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