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plant polyphenol oxidases

María Eugenia Molero de Ávila, María Victoria Alarcón, David Uriarte, Luis Alberto Mancha, Daniel Moreno, Javier Francisco-Morcillo
Phenolics are involved in many of plants' biological functions. In particular, they play important roles in determining the quality of grape berries and the wine made from them, and can also act as antioxidants with beneficial effects for human health. Several enzymes are involved in the synthesis of phenolic compounds. Among them, stilbene synthase (STS) is a key to the biosynthesis of stilbenes, which are considered to be important secondary metabolites in plants. Other enzymes, such as polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD), are involved in the degradation of phenolics, and become activated during late stages of berry ripening...
June 20, 2018: Protoplasma
Guidi Zhong, Zhonghua Wu, Nian Liu, Jun Yin
Glyphosate, as a broad-spectrum herbicide, is frequently detected in water, and phosphorus widely enters the water due to the extensive use of phosphorus-containing substances in agriculture, industries and daily life. Thus, aquatic ecosystems are exposed to both glyphosate and phosphorus, which may affect aquatic organisms. In the present research, we studied the physiological responses of the floating aquatic plant species H. dubia to different concentrations of glyphosate (0, 1, 5, 15 mg/L) with different levels of phosphate (0, 50, 100 mg/L) after 14 days (d) of treatment...
May 30, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Rajendran Vijayabharathi, Subramaniam Gopalakrishnan, Arumugam Sathya, Vadlamudi Srinivas, Mamta Sharma
A total of 219 endophytic actinobacteria, isolated from roots, stems and leaves of chickpea, were characterized for antagonistic potential against Botrytis cinerea, causal organism of Botrytis grey mold (BGM) disease, in chickpea. Among them, three most potential endophytes, AUR2, AUR4 and ARR4 were further characterized for their plant growth-promoting (PGP) and nodulating potentials and host-plant resistance against B. cinerea, in chickpea. The sequences of 16 S rDNA gene of the three endophytes were matched with Streptomyces but different species...
June 9, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Sonia Mejri, Yassine Mabrouk, Omrane Belhadj, Mouldi Saidi
PURPOSE: Broomrape produces serious damage to many legume crops and particularly becomes a limiting factor for faba bean (Vicia faba L.) production in the Mediterranean basin. Currently, several traditional methods of control have been developed, but none has proved to be effective for this parasite. However, breeding for resistance to this pest remains as one of the most feasible and environmentally friendly methods for managing broomrape, but the mechanisms governing the interaction between the parasite and the host are not yet well understood...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Wan-Lei Xue, Wei Pan, Qi Lu, Qian-Ru Xu, Cai-Nan Wu, Shao-Ting Du
The retention of aquatic plant debris in freshwater systems favors a reduction in soluble reactive phosphorus (P) in overlying water through microbe-mediated mechanisms in sediment. For a more complete view of the changes in sediment microbial structure and functioning when receiving plant debris, the enzyme activities and microbial community structure in sediments incubated with or without plant debris were investigated. Significantly higher fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis, alkaline phosphatase, polyphenol oxidase, cellulase, β-glucosidase, and dehydrogenase activities were observed with plant debris treatment...
May 23, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Nasreen Jeelani, Wen Yang, Yajun Qiao, Jingjing Li, Shuqing An, Xin Leng
Soil contamination with heavy metals and organic pollutants continues to cause major ecological damage and human health problems. Phytoremediation offers a highly promising technology for the recovery of sites contaminated with mixed pollutants. In this study, we performed a greenhouse experiment to investigate the individual and combined effects of cadmium (Cd) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination on the growth of Xanthium sibiricum, and also the ability of this species to accumulate and remove Cd and to reduce PAHs over a period of 75 days...
July 3, 2018: International Journal of Phytoremediation
Sobiya Shafique, Shazia Shafique, Aqeel Ahmad
Pakistan holds the position of top chilies producers. So Capsicum annuum L. production in Pakistan should be promoted by combating against diseases. The only solution is to cultivate resistant varieties. Presently six chili varieties were treated with Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. and screened for the most resistant and the most susceptible varieties. Representative varieties were evaluated for their biochemical and transcriptional profiles to discover the bases of antifungal-resistance. Results concluded that the most resistant variety was "Dandicut" and the most susceptible was "Ghotki"...
April 2018: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
Murugesan Chandrasekaran, Se Chul Chun
Vitamin B6 (VitB6) is an essential cofactor for >140 biochemical reactions. Also, VitB6 is a potent antioxidant and helps plants cope with both biotic and abiotic stress conditions. However, the role of VitB6 in plant disease resistance has yet to be confirmed using molecular biology approaches. Here, we analyzed the expression patterns of VitB6 biosynthetic genes, including the de novo (PDX1 [PDX1.2 and 1.3] and PDX2) and the salvage (SOS4) pathways during the response to Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora...
May 5, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Kai Kai Zhang, Shuang Zhao, Hui Jie Chen, Jia Qi Ni, Xiao Fan Jiang, Fa di Chen, Wei Min Fang
The chrysanthemum black spot caused by Alternaria alternata significantly reduced the quality and yield of chrysanthemum. The crude toxin secreted by A. alternata in the metabolic process have elopathic effects on plants, which is the main pathogenic factor for the occurrence of chrysanthemum black spot. The pathogenic fungi A. alternate was isolated from chrysanthemum black spot leaves, The effects of crude toxin on plant height, stem diameter, root length, resistant material content, membrane relative permeability, polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POD), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) in different treatments of chrysanthemum 'Jinba' seedlings were investigated...
April 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Rabia Naz, Asia Nosheen, Humaira Yasmin, Asghari Bano, Rumana Keyani
Two experiments (pot and field experiments) were conducted in two consecutive years to evaluate the protective effects of botanical-chemical formulations on physiological, biochemical performance and grain yield of wheat inoculated with Bipolaris sorokiniana. We compared different formulations comprising Calotropis procera, Jacaranda mimosifolia, Thevetia peruviana extracts, chemical fungicide (mefenoxam) and salicylic acid to modulate the defense system of wheat host plants. Among the selected plant species J...
2018: PloS One
Mireille Andriamihaja, Annaïg Lan, Martin Beaumont, Marta Grauso, Martin Gotteland, Edgar Pastene, Maria Jose Cires, Catalina Carrasco-Pozo, Daniel Tomé, François Blachier
Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S), a metabolic end product synthesized by the microbiota from L-cysteine, has been shown to act at low micromolar concentration as a mineral oxidative substrate in colonocytes while acting as an inhibitor of oxygen consumption at higher luminal concentrations (65 µM and above). From the previous works showing that polyphenols can bind volatile sulfur compounds, we hypothesized that different dietary proanthocyanidin-containing polyphenol (PACs) plant extracts might modulate the inhibitory effect of H2 S on colonocyte respiration...
June 2018: Amino Acids
Wei Qin Yin, Hao Qi Jing, Ya Bo Wang, Si Yu Wei, Yue Sun, Sheng Sen Wang, Xuai Zhi Wang
The elevated concentration of tropospheric ozone (O3 ) is an important global climate change driver, with adverse impacts on soil ecological environment and crop growth. In this study, a pot experiment was carried out in an open top chamber (OTC), to investigate the effects of elevated ozone concentration on soil enzyme activities (catalase, polyphenol oxidase, dehydrogenase and invertase), organic acids contents (oxalic acid, citric acid and malic acid) at different growth stages (tillering, jointing, heading and ripening stages) of wheat, and combined with the rhizospheric soil physicochemical properties and plant root characteristics to analyze the underlying reasons...
February 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Rafael Souza Antunes, Luane Ferreira Garcia, Vernon Sydwill Somerset, Eric de Souza Gil, Flavio Marques Lopes
The vegetable kingdom is a wide source of a diverse variety of enzymes with broad biotechnological applications. Among the main classes of plant enzymes, the polyphenol oxidases, which convert phenolic compounds to the related quinones, have been successfully used for biosensor development. The oxidation products from such enzymes can be electrochemically reduced, and the sensing is easily achieved by amperometric transducers. In this work, the polyphenoloxidases were extracted from jurubeba ( Solanum paniculatum L...
April 2, 2018: Biosensors
Saeid Javadi Khederi, Mohammad Khanjani, Mansur Gholami, Onofrio Panzarino, Enrico de Lillo
Grape (Vitis vinifera) is commonly affected by the erineum strain of Colomerus vitis (GEM) in Iran and the susceptibility of grape cultivars to GEM is poorly understood. In order to evaluate the impact of GEM on grape and its defense mechanisms against the mite, an exploratory study was carried out on 19 cultivars (18 Iranian and the non-native Muscat Gordo). The differential susceptibility of cultivars to GEM was compared on the basis of the area of leaf damage induced by GEM. The cultivars White Thompson seedless of Bovanat, Atabaki Zarghan, Koladari Ghoochan and Sahebi Uroomie were less susceptible to GEM, whereas Ghalati Dodaj, Rishbaba, Muscat Gordo and Neyshaboori Birjand appeared to be the most affected by the mite...
May 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Sukhmeen Kaur Kohli, Neha Handa, Anket Sharma, Vandana Gautam, Saroj Arora, Renu Bhardwaj, Leonard Wijaya, Mohammed Nasser Alyemeni, Parvaiz Ahmad
Lead (Pb) is considered one the most hazardous pollutant, and its accumulation in soil and plants is of prime concern. To understand the role of plant hormones in combating heavy metal stress, the present study was planned to assess the interactive effects of 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) (10-7  M) and salicylic acid (SA) (1 mM) in regulating growth, pigment contents, antioxidative defense response, and gene expression in Brassica juncea L. seedlings exposed to different concentrations of Pb metal (0.25, 0.50, and 0...
March 20, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Afroz Rais, Muhammad Shakeel, Kamran Malik, Fauzia Yusuf Hafeez, Humaira Yasmin, Saqib Mumtaz, Muhammad Nadeem Hassan
Rice blast is a severe threat for agricultural production. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria could be suitable biocontrol agents to reduce the disease incidence. In this study, Bacillus spp. KFP-5, KFP-7, KFP-17 significantly reduced disease severity by 40-52% with grain yield of 3.2-3.9 t ha-1 in two rice varieties i.e., basmati super and basmati 385. Bacillus spp. significantly colonized the rice rhizosphere with a cell population of 2.40E+06-5.6E+07CFU. Rice plants treated with antagonistic bacterial suspension followed by challenge inoculation with P...
March 2018: Microbiological Research
Loren J Rivera-Vega, Bruce A Stanley, Anne Stanley, Gary W Felton
Insect saliva is one of the first secretions to come in contact with plants during feeding. The composition and role of caterpillar saliva has not been as thoroughly studied as that of sucking insects. This study focuses on characterizing the proteome of the cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni) saliva using iTRAQ labeling and LC-MS/MS. We also measured how the saliva proteome changed when larvae were reared on different diets - cabbage, tomato, and an artificial pinto bean diet. We identified 254 proteins in the saliva out of which 63 were differentially expressed...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Teija Ruuhola, Line Nybakken, Tendry Randriamanana, Anu Lavola, Riitta Julkunen-Tiitto
The accumulation of flavonoids on the leaf surface is a well-characterized protective mechanism against UV-B radiation. Other protective mechanisms, such as the induction of antioxidative enzymes and peroxidase-mediated lignification may also be important. The effects of UV-B radiation have mainly been considered in short-term studies, whereas ecologically more relevant long-term field studies are still rare. Here we examined the effects of long-term exposure to enhanced UV-B radiation on the activities of two antioxidative enzymes, polyphenol oxidase (PPO; EC 1...
May 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
E Basiglini, M Pintore, C Forni
The efficacy of the removal of contaminants from wastewater depends on physico-chemical properties of pollutants and the efficiency of treatment plant. Sometimes, low amounts of toxic compounds can be still present in the treated sewage. In this work we considered the effects of contaminant residues in treated wastewaters and of temperatures on Lemna minor L. Treated effluent waters were collected, analyzed and used as duckweed growth medium. In order to better understand the effects of micropollutants and seasonal variation, the plants were grown under ambient conditions for seven days in summer and winter...
May 30, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Xiongbing Tu, Zhongkuan Liu, Zehua Zhang
BACKGROUND: Plant breeding for resistance to agricultural pests is an essential element in the development of integrated crop management systems; however, the molecular and genetic mechanisms underlying resistance are poorly understood. In this pilot study, a transcriptomic analysis of a resistant (R) vs. a susceptible (S) variety of alfalfa, with (+T) or without (-T) thrips (= 4 treatments) was conducted, 'GN-1' (China) was defined as the resistant cultivar, and 'WL323' (America) was defined as the susceptible cultivar...
February 2, 2018: BMC Genomics
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