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plant polyphenol oxidases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208645/polyphenol-oxidases-in-crops-biochemical-physiological-and-genetic-aspects
#1
Francesca Taranto, Antonella Pasqualone, Giacomo Mangini, Pasquale Tripodi, Monica Marilena Miazzi, Stefano Pavan, Cinzia Montemurro
Enzymatic browning is a colour reaction occurring in plants, including cereals, fruit and horticultural crops, due to oxidation during postharvest processing and storage. This has a negative impact on the colour, flavour, nutritional properties and shelf life of food products. Browning is usually caused by polyphenol oxidases (PPOs), following cell damage caused by senescence, wounding and the attack of pests and pathogens. Several studies indicated that PPOs play a role in plant immunity, and emerging evidence suggested that PPOs might also be involved in other physiological processes...
February 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170113/helicoverpa-zea-gut-associated-bacteria-indirectly-induce-defenses-in-tomato-by-triggering-a-salivary-elicitor-s
#2
Jie Wang, Michelle Peiffer, Kelli Hoover, Cristina Rosa, Rensen Zeng, Gary W Felton
Insect gut-associated microbes modulating plant defenses have been observed in beetles and piercing-sucking insects, but the role of caterpillar-associated bacteria in regulating plant induced defenses has not been adequately examined. We identified bacteria from the regurgitant of field-collected Helicoverpa zea larvae using 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. A combination of biochemical, molecular, and confocal electron microscopy methods were used to determine the role of caterpillar-associated bacteria in mediating defenses in Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)...
February 7, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148979/development-of-mesorhizobium-ciceri-based-biofilms-and-analyses-of-their-antifungal-and-plant-growth-promoting-activity-in-chickpea-challenged-by-fusarium-wilt
#3
Krishnashis Das, Mahendra Vikram Singh Rajawat, Anil Kumar Saxena, Radha Prasanna
Biofilmed biofertilizers have emerged as a new improved inoculant technology to provide efficient nutrient and pest management and sustain soil fertility. In this investigation, development of a Trichoderma viride-Mesorhizobium ciceri biofilmed inoculant was undertaken, which we hypothesized, would possess more effective biological nitrogen fixing ability and plant growth promoting properties. As a novel attempt, we selected Mesorhizobium ciceri spp. with good antifungal attributes with the assumption that such inoculants could also serve as biocontrol agents...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135657/trichoderma-harzianum-containing-1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate-deaminase-and-chitinase-improved-growth-and-diminished-adverse-effect-caused-by-fusarium-oxysporum-in-soybean
#4
Fuli Zhang, Can Chen, Fan Zhang, Lidong Gao, Jidong Liu, Long Chen, Xiaoning Fan, Chang Liu, Ke Zhang, Yuting He, Chen Chen, Xiue Ji
An isolate, named Trichoderma harzianum T-soybean, showed growth-promoting for soybean seedlings and induced resistance to Fusarium oxysporum under greenhouse. Compared to control soybean seedlings, fresh weight, dry weight, lateral root number, chlorophyll content, root activity and soluble protein of plants pretreated with T-soybean increased, but initial pod height reduced. Furthermore, we found that T-soybean inhibited the growth of F. oxysporum by parasitic function. In addition, plate test results showed that culture filtrates of T-soybean also inhibited significantly F...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134448/nutritional-value-and-antioxidant-content-of-seed-containing-and-seedless-eggplant-fruits-of-two-cultivars-grown-under-protected-cultivation-during-autumn-winter-and-spring-summer
#5
Despoina I Makrogianni, Anastasia Tsistraki, Ioannis C Karapanos, Harold C Passam
BACKGROUND: Due to their low carbohydrate and high antioxidant content, eggplants are beneficial for the human diet. At <15 °C, pollen production and fertility are reduced and plant-growth regulators may be used to set seedless fruit. Because only the agronomic effects of hormone are well-documented, we investigated the composition and metabolism during the development/maturation of seed-containing and seedless fruits of two cultivars grown over two seasons. RESULTS: The respiration rate of both seedless and seed-containing fruit decreased with development and maturation...
January 30, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103717/baccharis-trimera-inhibits-reactive-oxygen-species-production-through-pkc-and-down-regulation-p47-phox-phosphorylation-of-nadph-oxidase-in-sk-hep-1-cells
#6
Glaucy Rodrigues de Araújo, Ana Carolina Silveira Rabelo, Janaína Serenato Meira, Joamyr Victor Rossoni-Júnior, William de Castro-Borges, Renata Guerra-Sá, Maurício Azevedo Batista, Denise da Silveira-Lemos, Gustavo Henrique Bianco de Souza, Geraldo Célio Brandão, Míriam Martins Chaves, Daniela Caldeira Costa
Baccharis trimera, popularly known as "carqueja", is a native South-American plant possessing a high concentration of polyphenolic compounds and therefore high antioxidant potential. Despite the antioxidant potential described for B. trimera, there are no reports concerning the signaling pathways involved in this process. So, the aim of the present study was to assess the influence of B. trimera on the modulation of PKC signaling pathway and to characterize the effect of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase enzyme (NOX) on the generation of reactive oxygen species in SK Hep-1 cells...
February 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071760/origin-and-evolution-of-mir1444-genes-in-salicaceae
#7
Meizhen Wang, Caili Li, Shanfa Lu
miR1444s are functionally significant miRNAs targeting polyphenol oxidase (PPO) genes for cleavage. MIR1444 genes were reported only in Populus trichocarpa. Through the computational analysis of 215 RNA-seq data, four whole genome sequences of Salicaceae species and deep sequencing of six P. trichocarpa small RNA libraries, we investigated the origin and evolution history of MIR1444s. A total of 23 MIR1444s were identified. Populus and Idesia species contain two MIR1444 genes, while Salix includes only one...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042888/ratoon-rice-generated-from-primed-parent-plants-exhibit-enhanced-herbivore-resistance
#8
Mao Ye, Yuan-Yuan Song, Scott R Baerson, Jun Long, Jie Wang, Zhiqiang Pan, Wen-Xiong Lin, Ren-Sen Zeng
Rice ratooning is practiced in many rice-growing countries for achieving increased rice production with limited labor input. Here we report that attack by insect herbivores, or treatment with a defense signaling compound in parent plants, can prime anti-herbivore defense responses in subsequent ratoon plants. We compared the defense responses of rice ratoons generated from parent plants that had been either infested by Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (rice leaffolder, LF) caterpillars or treated with methyl jasmonate (MeJA) during vegetative growth, with ratoons generated from control parent plants...
January 2, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027775/triterpene-derivatives-from-euphorbia-enhance-resistance-against-verticillium-wilt-of-tomato
#9
Amal Smaili, Noureddine Mazoir, Lalla Aicha Rifai, Tayeb Koussa, Kacem Makroum, El Mostafa Kabil, Ahmed Benharref, Mohamed Faize
Oxidation of α-euphorbol and 31-norlanostenol, two triterpenic compounds isolated from the latex of Euphorbia resinifera and Euphorbia officinarum respectively, yielded four products named 3β-tosyloxy-4α,14α-dimethyl-5α-cholesta-7,9-diene; 4α,14α-dimethyl-5α-cholesta-7,9-dien-3β-ol; 24-methylen-elemo-lanosta-8,24-dien-3-one and elemo-lanost-8-en-3,11,24-trione. They were evaluated for protection of tomato plants against Verticillium dahliae in a greenhouse. The four semisynthesized products were phytotoxic at higher concentrations as they completely inhibited tomato germination at 100 and 500 μg/ml...
March 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027025/fall-armyworm-associated-gut-bacteria-modulate-plant-defense-responses
#10
Flor E Acevedo, Michelle Peiffer, Ching-Wen Tan, Bruce A Stanley, Anne Stanley, Jie Wang, Asher G Jones, Kelli Hoover, Cristina Rosa, Dawn S Luthe, Gary Felton
Mechanical damage caused by insect feeding along with components present in their saliva and oral secretions are known to induce JA-mediated defense responses in plants. This study investigated the effects of bacteria from oral secretions of the fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda, on herbivore induced defenses in tomato and maize plants. Using culture-dependent methods, we identified seven different bacterial isolates, belonging to the family Enterobacteriacea, from the oral secretions of field-collected caterpillars...
December 27, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002486/levels-of-salivary-enzymes-of-apolygus-lucorum-hemiptera-miridae-from-1st-instar-nymph-to-adult-and-their-potential-relation-to-bug-feeding
#11
Xiumei Tan, Xiuping Xu, Yong Gao, Qinmin Yang, Yunsheng Zhu, Jiqing Wang, Fanghao Wan, Hongxu Zhou
In recent years, Apolygus lucorum has caused increasing damage to cotton and fruit trees in China. The salivary enzymes secreted by A. lucorum when sucking on host plants induce a series of biochemical reactions in plants, and the pre-oral digestion benefits the bug feeding. In this study, the food intake of A. lucorum from 1st instar nymphs to adults was measured, and the corresponding salivary activity of pectinase, amylase, cellulase, protease, polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase was determined. Daily food intake varied with developmental stage, peaking in 3rd and 4th instar nymphs...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982026/mechanism-of-internal-browning-of-pineapple-the-role-of-gibberellins-catabolism-gene-acga2ox-and-gas
#12
Qin Zhang, Xiuwen Rao, Lubin Zhang, Congcong He, Fang Yang, Shijiang Zhu
Internal browning (IB), a physiological disorder (PD) that causes severe losses in harvested pineapple, can be induced by exogenous gibberellins (GAs). Over the years, studies have focused on roles of Gibberellin 2-oxidase (GA2oxs), the major GAs catabolic enzyme in plants, in the regulation of changes in morphology or biomass. However, whether GA2oxs could regulate PD has not been reported. Here, a full-length AcGA2ox cDNA was isolated from pineapple, with the putative protein sharing 23.59% to 72.92% identity with GA2oxs from five other plants...
December 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915144/antioxidant-enzyme-and-osmotic-adjustment-changes-in-bean-seedlings-as-affected-by-biochar-under-salt-stress
#13
Salar Farhangi-Abriz, Shahram Torabian
Salinity damaged cellular membranes through overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), while osmolytes and antioxidant capacities play a vital role in protecting plants from salinity caused oxidative damages. Biochar also could alleviate the negative impacts of salt stress in crops. The pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of biochar on some antioxidant enzyme activities and osmolyte adjustments of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Derakhshan) under salinity stress. Bean plants were subjected to three salinity levels (non-saline, 6 and 12 dSm(-1) of NaCl) and biochar treatments (non-biochar, 10% and 20% total pot mass)...
March 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895647/exogenous-trehalose-treatment-enhances-the-activities-of-defense-related-enzymes-and-triggers-resistance-against-downy-mildew-disease-of-pearl-millet
#14
Sharathchandra R Govind, Sudisha Jogaiah, Mostafa Abdelrahman, Hunthrike S Shetty, Lam-Son P Tran
In recent years, diverse physiological functions of various sugars are the subject of investigations. Their roles in signal transduction in plant responses to adverse biotic and abiotic stress conditions have become apparent, and growing scientific evidence has indicated that disaccharides like sucrose and trehalose mediate plant defense responses in similar way as those induced by elicitors against the pathogens. Trehalose is a well-known metabolic osmoregulator, stress-protectant and non-reducing disaccharide existing in a variety of organisms, including fungi, bacteria, and plants...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875319/enhanced-oral-bioavailability-of-metoprolol-with-gallic-acid-and-ellagic-acid-in-male-wistar-rats-involvement-of-cyp2d6-inhibition
#15
Bhargavi Latha Athukuri, Prasad Neerati
BACKGROUND: Cytochrome P450-2D6 (CYP2D6), a member of the CYP450 mixed function oxidase system, is an important CYP isoform with regard to herbal-drug interactions and is responsible for the metabolism of nearly 25% of drugs. Until now, studies on the effects of various phytochemicals on CYP2D6 activity in vivo have been very rare. Gallic acid and ellagic acid are natural polyphenols which are widely distributed in fruits and medicinal plants. In the present study, the effects of gallic acid and ellagic acid pretreatment on intestinal transport and oral bioavailability of metoprolol were investigated...
December 1, 2016: Drug Metabolism and Personalized Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872630/control-of-wilt-and-rot-pathogens-of-tomato-by-antagonistic-pink-pigmented-facultative-methylotrophic-delftia-lacustris-and-bacillus-spp
#16
Veeranan Janahiraman, Rangasamy Anandham, Soon W Kwon, Subbiah Sundaram, Veeranan Karthik Pandi, Ramasamy Krishnamoorthy, Kiyoon Kim, Sandipan Samaddar, Tongmin Sa
The studies on the biocontrol potential of pink pigmented facultative methylotrophic (PPFM) bacteria other than the genus Methylobacterium are scarce. In the present study, we report three facultative methylotrophic isolates; PPO-1, PPT-1, and PPB-1, respectively, identified as Delftia lacustris, Bacillus subtilis, and Bacillus cereus by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Hemolytic activity was tested to investigate the potential pathogenicity of isolates to plants and humans, the results indicates that the isolates PPO-1, PPT-1, and PPB-1 are not pathogenic strains...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858273/comparison-of-the-phytoremediation-potentials-of-medicago-falcata-l-and-medicago-sativa-l-in-aged-oil-sludge-contaminated-soil
#17
Leonid Panchenko, Anna Muratova, Olga Turkovskaya
Thirteen-year monitoring of the vegetation growing in the industrial and adjacent areas of an oil refinery showed the prevalence of yellow medick (Medicago falcata L.) over other plant species, including alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). A comparative field study of the two Medicago species established that yellow medick and alfalfa exhibited similar resistance to soil petroleum hydrocarbons and that the pollutant concentration in their rhizosphere was 30% lower than that in the surrounding bulk soil. In laboratory pot experiments, yellow medick reduced the contaminant content by 18% owing to the degradation of the major heavy oil fractions, such as paraffins, naphthenes, and alcohol and benzene tars; and it was more successful than alfalfa...
November 17, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814588/protective-effect-of-tangeritin-in-transgenic-drosophila-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#18
Ambreen Fatima, Saba Khanam, Rahul Rahul, Smita Jyoti, Falaq Naz, Fahad Ali, Yasir Hasan Siddique
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused due to the loss of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra region of midbrain. The disease is characterized by the accumulation of alpha-synuclein into depositions known as lewy bodies. Till date there is no cure for PD but the limited number of medications may provide temporary relief from the PD symptoms. Flavonoids are a group of polyphenols found in plants. The health benefits of flavonoids have been universally accepted. Tangeritin is a pentamethoxy flavone found in the peels of Mandarin oranges (Citrus reticulata)...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808257/physiological-response-and-sulfur-metabolism-of-the-v-dahliae-infected-tomato-plants-in-tomato-potato-onion-companion-cropping
#19
Xuepeng Fu, Chunxia Li, Xingang Zhou, Shouwei Liu, Fengzhi Wu
Companion cropping with potato onions (Allium cepa var. agrogatum Don.) can enhance the disease resistance of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) to Verticillium dahliae infection by increasing the expressions of genes related to disease resistance. However, it is not clear how tomato plants physiologically respond to V. dahliae infection and what roles sulfur plays in the disease-resistance. Pot experiments were performed to examine changes in the physiology and sulfur metabolism of tomato roots infected by V...
November 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752946/co-application-of-6-ketone-type-brassinosteroid-and-metal-chelator-alleviates-cadmium-toxicity-in-b-juncea-l
#20
Ravdeep Kaur, Poonam Yadav, Ashwani Kumar Thukral, Amandeep Walia, Renu Bhardwaj
Plant growth regulator-assisted phytoremediation has been assessed as a novel strategy to improve phytoremediation potential of plants. In the present work, potential of castasterone, a plant growth regulator, combined with citric acid was explored for phytoremediation of cadmium in Brassica juncea seedlings. The seedlings were raised under controlled laboratory conditions for 7 days. Results revealed that 0.6 mM cadmium exposure induced toxicity in the seedlings, which was reflected through root growth inhibition, accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde, and loss of cell viability...
January 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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