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plant polyphenol oxidases

Ravdeep Kaur, Poonam Yadav, Ashwani Kumar Thukral, Amandeep Walia, Renu Bhardwaj
Plant growth regulator-assisted phytoremediation has been assessed as a novel strategy to improve phytoremediation potential of plants. In the present work, potential of castasterone, a plant growth regulator, combined with citric acid was explored for phytoremediation of cadmium in Brassica juncea seedlings. The seedlings were raised under controlled laboratory conditions for 7 days. Results revealed that 0.6 mM cadmium exposure induced toxicity in the seedlings, which was reflected through root growth inhibition, accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde, and loss of cell viability...
October 17, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Alexandra Kiskini, Anne Vissers, Jean-Paul Vincken, Harry Gruppen, Peter Alexander Wierenga
Effects of the developmental stage (e.g. young, mature or senescent) of leaves on their chemical composition have been described in literature. This study focuses on the variation in chemical composition and quantity and quality of proteins extracted from leaves due to variation in plant age (i.e. harvesting time), using leaves from sugar beets grown in field (Rhino, Arrival) and in greenhouse (Isabella). Within the same variety (Rhino-field, Arrival-field, Isabella-greenhouse) the protein content was similar for leaves from young and old plants (22±1, 16±1, and 10±3% w/w db, respectively)...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Qingzhu Hua, Qianjun Zhou, Susheng Gan, Jingyu Wu, Canbin Chen, Jiaqiang Li, Yaoxiong Ye, Jietang Zhao, Guibing Hu, Yonghua Qin
Red dragon fruit or red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) is the only edible fruit that contains betalains. The color of betalains ranges from red and violet to yellow in plants. Betalains may also serve as an important component of health-promoting and disease-preventing functional food. Currently, the biosynthetic and regulatory pathways for betalain production remain to be fully deciphered. In this study, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based proteomic analyses were used to reveal the molecular mechanism of betalain biosynthesis in H...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Konstantin V Kiselev, Olga A Aleynova, Valeria P Grigorchuk, Alexandra S Dubrovina
We detected and quantified six stilbenes ( cis -piceid, t -piceid, t -ε-viniferin, cis -ε-viniferin, t -resveratrol, and t -δ-viniferin) in the leaves, petioles, berry skins, and seeds of wild-growing Vitis amurensis . The highest content of stilbenes and expression of stilbene biosynthesis genes were in the probes collected in the autumn and after ultraviolet elicitation. Stilbenes, including the best-studied stilbene resveratrol, are known to display valuable bioactivities and protect plants against various pathogens...
September 29, 2016: Planta
Esma Hande Alici, Gulnur Arabaci
In this study a Polyphenol oxidase from borage plant was purified with 3.59-fold enrichment in the specific activity and 68.75% recovery of the total activity by using three-phase partitioning purification technique for the first time. Its molecular weight was found around 80kDa with sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The optimum pH and temperature values of the enzyme for the used four substrates ranged between the pH 5.0-7.5 and 5-30°C. The kcat/Km values showed that the enzyme has the greatest reactivity toward caffeic acid among the substrates used...
September 21, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Thuy Lan Nguyen, Anders Rusten, Mona Skogsrud Bugge, Karl Egil Malterud, Drissa Diallo, Berit Smestad Paulsen, Helle Wangensteen
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Syzygium guineense has been traditionally used in Mali in West Africa for the treatment of different diseases such as stomach problems, wounds, inflammations and various female disorders. AIMS OF THE STUDY: (1) To perform an ethnopharmacological survey on the traditional use of S. guineense among Malian healers. (2) To isolate and identify chemical constituents from S. guineense leaves and to study their radical scavenging and enzyme inhibitory effects...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Qian Sun, Wenliang Zhang, Wei Zhong, Xinguo Sun, Zhanxiang Zhou
BACKGROUND: Overproduction of reactive oxygen species is associated with the development of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Plant polyphenols have been used as dietary interventions for multiple diseases including ALD. The objective of this study was to determine whether dietary supplementation with fisetin, a novel flavonoid, exerts beneficial effect on alcohol-induced liver injury. METHODS: C57BL/6J mice were pair-fed with the Lieber-DeCarli control or ethanol (EtOH) diet for 4 weeks with or without fisetin supplementation at 10 mg/kg/d...
October 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Yuexia Sha, Qi Wang, Yan Li
Magnaporthe oryzae, the causative pathogen of rice blast, has caused extensive losses to rice cultivation worldwide. Strains of the bacterium Bacillus subtilis have been used as biocontrol agents against rice blast. However, little has been reported about the interaction between B. subtilis and the rice plant and its mechanism of action. Here, the colonization process and induced disease resistance by B. subtilis SYX04 and SYX20 in rice plants was examined. Strains of B. subtilis labeled with green fluorescent protein reached population of more than 5 × 10(6) CFU/g after 20 days on mature rice leaves and were detected after 3 days on newly grown leaves...
2016: SpringerPlus
Sumera Yasmin, Abha Zaka, Asma Imran, Muhammad Awais Zahid, Sumaira Yousaf, Ghulam Rasul, Muhammad Arif, Muhammad Sajjad Mirza
The present study was conducted to evaluate the potential of rice rhizosphere associated antagonistic bacteria for growth promotion and disease suppression of bacterial leaf blight (BLB). A total of 811 rhizospheric bacteria were isolated and screened against 3 prevalent strains of BLB pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) of which five antagonistic bacteria, i.e., Pseudomonas spp. E227, E233, Rh323, Serratia sp. Rh269 and Bacillus sp. Rh219 showed antagonistic potential (zone of inhibition 1-19 mm)...
2016: PloS One
Vinicius Paula Venancio, Marcella Camargo Marques, Mara Ribeiro Almeida, Lilian Regina Barros Mariutti, Vanessa Cristina de Oliveira Souza, Fernando Barbosa, Maria Lourdes Pires Bianchi, Cleni Mara Marzocchi-Machado, Adriana Zerlotti Mercadante, Lusânia Maria Greggi Antunes
Chrysobalanus icaco L. is an underexplored plant found in tropical areas around the globe. Currently, there is no apparent information regarding the effects C. icaco fruits may exert in vivo or potential role in health promotion. This study aimed at providing evidence regarding the in vivo influence of this fruit on antigenotoxicity, antimutagenicity, and oxidative stress in rats. Male Wistar rats were treated with 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg body weight (bw)/d C. icaco fruit for 14 d. Doxorubicin (DXR, 15 mg/kg bw, ip) was used for DNA damaging and as an oxidant to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Tuo Liu, Lianshuang Wei, Min Qiao, Dexun Zou, Xiaojin Yang, Aijun Lin
This study was conducted to investigate the capability of pyrene-degrading bacterium Ochrobactrum sp. PW and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) grown alone and in combination on the degradation of pyrene in soil. After 60 days of ryegrass growth, plant biomass, pyrene-degrading microbial mass, soil enzyme activity (catalase activity and polyphenol oxidase activity) and residual concentration of pyrene in soils were determined. Higher dissipation rates were observed in PW inoculation treatments: ryegrass+PW rhizosphere soil (RP-r) and ryegrass+PW non-rhizosphere soil (RP-nr), than planting of ryegrass alone, rhizosphere (R-r) or non-rhizosphere (R-nr)...
November 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Francisco Les, Simon Deleruyelle, Laure-Estelle Cassagnes, Jean A Boutin, Balázs Balogh, José M Arbones-Mainar, Simon Biron, Picard Marceau, Denis Richard, Françoise Nepveu, Pascale Mauriège, Christian Carpéné
Piceatannol is a hydroxylated derivative of resveratrol. While both dietary polyphenols coexist in edible plants and fruits, and share equivalent concentrations in several wines, the influence of piceatannol on adiposity has been less studied than that of resveratrol. Though resveratrol is now recognized to limit fat deposition in various obesity models, the benefit of its dietary supplementation remains under debate regarding human obesity treatment or prevention. The research for more potent resveratrol analogs is therefore still undergoing...
October 25, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
Hong Shen, Xinhua He, Yiqing Liu, Yi Chen, Jianming Tang, Tao Guo
Limited information is available if plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) can promote the growth of fruit crops through improvements in soil fertility. This study aimed to evaluate the capacity of PGPB, identified by phenotypic and 16S rRNA sequencing from a vegetable purple soil in Chongqing, China, to increase soil nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) availability and growth of kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis). In doing so, three out of 17 bacterial isolates with a high capacity of N2-fixation (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, XD-N-3), P-solubilization (B...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Nirlep Chhiber, Tanzeer Kaur, Surinder Singla
BACKGROUND: Oxalate and/or calcium oxalate, is known to induce free radical production, subsequently leading to renal epithelial injury. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction have emerged as new targets for managing oxalate induced renal injury. HYPOTHESIS: Plant products and antioxidants have gained tremendous attention in the prevention of lithiatic disease. Rottlerin, a polyphenolic compound from the fruits of Mallotus phillipensis (Lam.) Müll.Arg., has shown free radical scavenging, antioxidant activity and has been reported to interfere in signaling pathways leading to inflammation and apoptosis...
September 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Anukool Vaishnav, Sarita Kumari, Shekhar Jain, Ajit Varma, Narendra Tuteja, Devendra Kumar Choudhary
Increasing evidence shows that nitric oxide (NO), a typical signaling molecule plays important role in development of plant and in bacteria-plant interaction. In the present study, we tested the effect of sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-a nitric oxide donor, on bacterial metabolism and its role in establishment of PGPR-plant interaction under salinity condition. In the present study, we adopted methods namely, biofilm formation assay, GC-MS analysis of bacterial volatiles, chemotaxis assay of root exudates (REs), measurement of electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation, and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) for gene expression...
July 21, 2016: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Murugesan Chandrasekaran, Se Chul Chun
The present study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a biocontrol agent Bacillus subtilis CBR05 for control of soft rot disease (Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora) in tomato, and the possible mechanisms of its resistance induction have been investigated under pot conditions. Results showed that plants inoculated with B. subtilis CBR05 had lower disease incidence (36%). A significant increase in superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, and polyphenol oxidase activities was observed in plants inoculated with B...
July 13, 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Robert Nawrot, Jakub Barylski, Rico Lippmann, Lothar Altschmied, Hans-Peter Mock
A novel annotated Chelidonium majus L. transcriptome database composed of 23,004 unique coding sequences allowed to significantly improve the sensitivity of proteomic C. majus assessments, which showed novel defense-related proteins characteristic to its latex. To date, the composition of Chelidonium majus L. milky sap and biosynthesis of its components are poorly characterized. We, therefore, performed de novo sequencing and assembly of C. majus transcriptome using Illumina technology. Approximately, 119 Mb of raw sequence data was obtained...
July 11, 2016: Planta
B S Bhau, Bitupon Borah, Reshma Ahmed, P Phukon, Barbi Gogoi, D K Sarmah, M Lal, S B Wann
Plants adapt themselves to overcome adverse environmental conditions, and this involves a plethora of concurrent cellular activities. Physiological experiments or metabolic profiling can quantify this response. Among several diseases of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. (Patchouli), root-knot nematode infection caused by Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood causes severe damage to the plant and hence, the oil production. In the present study, we identified M. incognita morphologically and at molecular level using sequenced characterized amplified region marker (SCAR)...
April 2016: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
Jie Wang, Seung Ho Chung, Michelle Peiffer, Cristina Rosa, Kelli Hoover, Rensen Zeng, Gary W Felton
Insect symbiotic bacteria affect host physiology and mediate plant-insect interactions, yet there are few clear examples of symbiotic bacteria regulating defense responses in different host plants. We hypothesized that plants would induce distinct defense responses to herbivore- associated bacteria. We evaluated whether preferred hosts (horsenettle) or non-preferred hosts (tomato) respond similarly to oral secretions (OS) from the false potato beetle (FPB, Leptinotarsa juncta), and whether the induced defense triggered by OS was due to the presence of symbiotic bacteria in OS...
June 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
J E Mackay, S C Cunningham, T R Cavagnaro
Reforestation of pastures in riparian zones has the potential to decrease nutrient runoff into waterways, provide both terrestrial and aquatic habitat, and help mitigate climate change by sequestering carbon (C). Soil microbes can play an important role in the soil C cycle, but are rarely investigated in studies on C sequestration. We surveyed a chronosequence (0-23years) of mixed-species plantings in riparian zones to investigate belowground (chemical and biological) responses to reforestation. For each planting, an adjacent pasture was surveyed to account for differences in soil type and land-use history among plantings...
October 1, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
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