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plant polyphenol oxidases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407738/effects-of-treated-industrial-wastewaters-and-temperatures-on-growth-and-enzymatic-activities-of-duckweed-lemna-minor-l
#1
E Basiglini, M Pintore, C Forni
The efficacy of the removal of contaminants from wastewater depends on physico-chemical properties of pollutants and the efficiency of treatment plant. Sometimes, low amounts of toxic compounds can be still present in the treated sewage. In this work we considered the effects of contaminant residues in treated wastewaters and of temperatures on Lemna minor L. Treated effluent waters were collected, analyzed and used as duckweed growth medium. In order to better understand the effects of micropollutants and seasonal variation, the plants were grown under ambient conditions for seven days in summer and winter...
February 2, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394889/comparative-transcriptomic-analysis-of-resistant-and-susceptible-alfalfa-cultivars-medicago-sativa-l-after-thrips-infestation
#2
Xiongbing Tu, Zhongkuan Liu, Zehua Zhang
BACKGROUND: Plant breeding for resistance to agricultural pests is an essential element in the development of integrated crop management systems; however, the molecular and genetic mechanisms underlying resistance are poorly understood. In this pilot study, a transcriptomic analysis of a resistant (R) vs. a susceptible (S) variety of alfalfa, with (+T) or without (-T) thrips (= 4 treatments) was conducted, 'GN-1' (China) was defined as the resistant cultivar, and 'WL323' (America) was defined as the susceptible cultivar...
February 2, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371810/induction-of-defense-related-physiological-and-antioxidant-enzyme-response-against-powdery-mildew-disease-in-okra-abelmoschus-esculentus-l-plant-by-using-chitosan-and-potassium-salts
#3
Mona H Soliman, Riad S R El-Mohamedy
Foliar sprays of three plant resistance inducers, including chitosan (CH), potassium sorbate (PS) (C6H7kO2), and potassium bicarbonates (PB) (KHCO3), were used for resistance inducing against Erysiphe cichoracearum DC (powdery mildew) infecting okra plants. Experiments under green house and field conditions showed that, the powdery mildew disease severity was significantly reduced with all tested treatments of CH, PS, and PB in comparison with untreated control. CH at 0.5% and 0.75% (w/v) plus PS at 1.0% and 2...
December 2017: Mycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323436/molecular-characterization-and-gene-silencing-of-laccase-1-in-the-grain-aphid-sitobion-avenae
#4
Yong Zhang, Jia Fan, Frédéric Francis, Julian Chen
Laccase 1 (Lac1), a polyphenol oxidase, has been proposed to be involved in insect iron metabolism and immunity responses. However, little information is available on the roles of Lac 1 in insect-plant interactions. The grain aphid Sitobion avenae is one of the most destructive pests of cereal, directly drawing phloem sap and transmitting viruses. In the present study, we first cloned the open reading frame (ORF) of Lac 1 from S. avenae, and the putative protein sequence was predicted to have a carboxyl-terminal transmembrane domain...
January 11, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304502/influence-of-nitrogen-additions-on-litter-decomposition-nutrient-dynamics-and-enzymatic-activity-of-two-plant-species-in-a-peatland-in-northeast-china
#5
Yanyu Song, Changchun Song, Jiusheng Ren, Wenwen Tan, Shaofei Jin, Lei Jiang
Nitrogen (N) availability affects litter decomposition and nutrient dynamics, especially in N-limited ecosystems. We investigated the response of litter decomposition to N additions in Eriophorum vaginatum and Vaccinium uliginosum peatlands. These two species dominate peatlands in Northeast China. In 2012, mesh bags containing senesced leaf litter of Eriophorum vaginatum and Vaccinium uliginosum were placed in N addition plots and sprayed monthly for two years with NH4NO3 solution at dose rates of 0, 6, 12, and 24gNm-2year-1 (CK, N1, N2 and N3, respectively)...
January 2, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250085/metalaxyl-effects-on-antioxidant-defenses-in-leaves-and-roots-of-solanum-nigrum-l
#6
Alexandra de Sousa, Hamada AbdElgawad, Han Asard, Ana Pinto, Cristiano Soares, Simão Branco-Neves, Teresa Braga, Manuel Azenha, Samy Selim, Soad Al Jaouni, Fernanda Fidalgo, Jorge Teixeira
Overuse of pesticides has resulted in environmental problems, threating public health through accumulation in food chains. Phytoremediation is a powerful technique to clean up contaminated environments. However, it is necessary to unravel the metabolic mechanisms underlying phytoremediation in order to increase the efficiency of this process. Therefore, growth, physiological and biochemical responses in leaves and roots of Solanum nigrum L. exposed to the commonly used fungicide metalaxyl were investigated...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241566/a-catechol-oxidase-acppo-from-cherimoya-annona-cherimola-mill-is-localized-to-the-golgi-apparatus
#7
Patricio Olmedo, Adrián A Moreno, Dayan Sanhueza, Iván Balic, Christian Silva-Sanzana, Baltasar Zepeda, Julian C Verdonk, César Arriagada, Claudio Meneses, Reinaldo Campos-Vargas
Cherimoya (Annona cherimola) is an exotic fruit with attractive organoleptic characteristics. However, it is highly perishable and susceptible to postharvest browning. In fresh fruit, browning is primarily caused by the polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of o-diphenols to quinones, which polymerize to form brown melanin pigment. There is no consensus in the literature regarding a specific role of PPO, and its subcellular localization in different plant species is mainly described within plastids...
January 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218491/a-specific-amino-acid-residue-in-the-catalytic-site-of-dandelion-polyphenol-oxidases-acts-as-selector-for-substrate-specificity
#8
Sarah M Prexler, Ratna Singh, Bruno M Moerschbacher, Mareike E Dirks-Hofmeister
Successful site-directed mutagenesis combined with in silico modeling and docking studies for the first time offers experimental proof of the role of the 'substrate selector' residue in plant polyphenol oxidases. The plant and fungi enzymes responsible for tissue browning are called polyphenol oxidases (PPOs). In plants, PPOs often occur as families of isoenzymes which are differentially expressed, but little is known about their physiological roles or natural substrates. In a recent study that explored these structure-function relationships, the eleven known dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) PPOs were shown to separate into two different phylogenetic groups differing in catalytic cavity architecture, kinetic parameters, and substrate range...
December 7, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188401/drought-stress-promotes-the-colonization-success-of-a-herbivorous-mite-that-manipulates-plant-defenses
#9
Miguel G Ximénez-Embún, Joris J Glas, Felix Ortego, Juan M Alba, Pedro Castañera, Merijn R Kant
Climate change is expected to bring longer periods of drought and this may affect the plant's ability to resist pests. We assessed if water deficit affects the tomato russet mite (TRM; Aculops lycopersici), a key tomato-pest. TRM thrives on tomato by suppressing the plant's jamonate defenses while these defenses typically are modulated by drought stress. We observed that the TRM population grows faster and causes more damage on drought-stressed plants. To explain this observation we measured several nutrients, phytohormones, defense-gene expression and the activity of defensive proteins in plants with or without drought stress or TRM...
November 29, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186815/characterization-of-the-transcriptome-and-gene-expression-of-tetraploid-black-locust-cuttings-in-response-to-etiolation
#10
(no author information available yet)
Etiolation (a process of growing plants in partial or complete absence of light) promotes adventitious root formation in tetraploid black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) cuttings. We investigated the mechanism underlying how etiolation treatment promotes adventitious root formation in tetraploid black locust and assessed global transcriptional changes after etiolation treatment. Solexa paired-end sequencing of complementary DNAs (cDNAs) from control (non-etiolated, NE) and etiolated (E) samples resulted in 107,564 unigenes...
November 24, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177786/nematicidal-potential-and-specific-enzyme-activity-enhancement-potential-of-neem-azadirachta-indica-a-juss-aerial-parts
#11
Arti Shivraj Nile, Shivraj Hariram Nile, Young Soo Keum, Doo Hwan Kim, Baskar Venkidasamy, Sathishkumar Ramalingam
Nematodes are considered as major plant parasites damaging most of the crops, and neem plant exhibits potential nematicidal and insecticidal properties. This study aimed to check nemato-toxic potential of neem (Azadirachta indica) plant using in vitro and in-planta trials against Meloidogyne incognita. The findings suggested that the neem extracts were lethal to second-stage juvenile (J2) and egg hatching with simultaneous enhancement in treated tomato plant growth. The egg numbers of M. incognita found less sensitive to the aqueous and alcoholic extracts than those of J2 as per LC50 values...
November 25, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161274/bacillus-spp-a-bio-control-agent-enhances-the-activity-of-antioxidant-defense-enzymes-in-rice-against-pyricularia-oryzae
#12
Afroz Rais, Zahra Jabeen, Faluk Shair, Fauzia Yusuf Hafeez, Muhammad Nadeem Hassan
Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are found to control the plant diseases by adopting various mechanisms. Induced systemic resistance (ISR) is an important defensive strategy manifested by plants against numerous pathogens especially infecting at aerial parts. Rhizobacteria elicit ISR by inducing different pathways in plants through production of various metabolites. In the present study, potential of Bacillus spp. KFP-5, KFP-7, KFP-17 was assessed to induce antioxidant enzymes against Pyricularia oryzae infection in rice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149645/xylella-fastidiosa-induces-differential-expression-of-lignification-related-genes-and-lignin-accumulation-in-tolerant-olive-trees-cv-leccino
#13
Erika Sabella, Andrea Luvisi, Alessio Aprile, Carmine Negro, Marzia Vergine, Francesca Nicolì, Antonio Miceli, Luigi De Bellis
Recently, Xylella fastidiosa was reported in Italy, associated with the "Olive Quick Decline Syndrome". The cv. Leccino exhibits an evident tolerance with a slow disease progression compared with the other cultivars. Between the mechanisms proposed to explain the putative tolerance of some hosts to X. fastidiosa diseases, lignin deposition plays an important role. Analysis of phenolic compounds in healthy and infected Leccino and Cellina di Nardò leaves showed, in the two cultivars, a reduction of hydroxytyrosol glucoside (usually associated with drought and cold stress) and, only in Leccino, an increase of quinic acid, precursor of lignin...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142408/correlation-between-polyphenol-oxidase-ppo-activity-and-total-phenolic-contents-in-crocus-sativus-l-corms-during-dormancy-and-sprouting-stages
#14
Nardana Esmaeili, Hassan Ebrahimzadeh, Khosrou Abdi
Purification and characterization of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzyme and determination of total phenolic contents during dormancy and sprouting stages in Crocus sativus corms were performed. PPO enzyme was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and ion-exchange chromatography using DEAE-Sephadex A25 and two isoenzymes were obtained on the SDS-PAGE, which corresponded to molecular weights of 70 and 54 kDa. The Km values of the enzyme were 4.87 and 2.12 mM for l-DOPA in dormancy and waking stages, respectively...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084178/comparative-morphology-transcription-and-proteomics-study-revealing-the-key-molecular-mechanism-of-camphor-on-the-potato-tuber-sprouting-effect
#15
Li-Qin Li, Xue Zou, Meng-Sheng Deng, Jie Peng, Xue-Li Huang, Xue Lu, Chen-Cheng Fang, Xi-Yao Wang
Sprouting regulation in potato tubers is important for improving commercial value and producing new plants. Camphor shows flexible inhibition of tuber sprouting and prolongs the storage period of potato, but its underlying mechanism remains unknown. The results of the present study suggest that camphor inhibition caused bud growth deformities and necrosis, but after moving to more ventilated conditions, new sprouts grew from the bud eye of the tuber. Subsequently, the sucrose and fructose contents as well as polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity were assessed after camphor inhibition...
October 30, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067700/polyphenol-oxidase-from-pectobacterium-atrosepticum-identification-and-cloning-of-gene-and-characteristics-of-the-enzyme
#16
Vladimir Gorshkov, Nadezhda Tarasova, Natalia Gogoleva, Elena Osipova, Olga Petrova, Evgeny Kovtunov, Yuri Gogolev
In the present study, we attempted to elucidate if the harmful phytopathogenic bacteria of Pectobacterium genus (P. atrosepticum) possess the enzymes for oxidation of phenolic compounds. Polyphenol oxidase (laccase) activity was revealed in P. atrosepticum cell lysates. Using bioinformatic analysis, an ORF encoding a putative copper-containing polyphenol oxidase of 241 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 25.9 kDa was found. This protein (named Pal1) shares significant level of identity with laccases of a new type described for several bacterial species...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062306/the-pgpr-stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-sbp-9-augments-resistance-against-biotic-and-abiotic-stress-in-wheat-plants
#17
Rajnish P Singh, Prabhat N Jha
Certain plant growth promoting bacteria have ability to ameliorate abiotic and/or biotic stressors, which can be exploited to enhance plant growth and productivity of the plants under stress conditions. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the role of a rhizospheric bacterial isolate SBP-9 isolated from Sorghum bicolor (i) in promoting the wheat plant growth under salinity stress, and (ii) in enhancing the defense response in wheat against fungal pathogen "Fusarium graminearum." The test isolate possessed plant growth promoting (PGP) traits including ACC deaminase (ACCD), gibberellic acid, indole acetic acid (IAA), siderophore, and inorganic phosphate solubilization...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061198/biochemical-responses-induced-in-galls-of-three-cynipidae-species-in-oak-trees
#18
I Kot, A Jakubczyk, M Karaś, U Złotek
Gall-making Cynipidae manipulate the leaves of host plant to form galls where offspring find shelter and food. The relationship between oak gallwasp and biochemical mechanisms of galls still requires a better understanding. So, in this research, protein and phenolic compound contents, as well as the activity of antioxidative enzymes and pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins were determined. Galls caused by asexual generation of Cynips quercusfolii L., Neuroterus numismalis (Fourc.) and N. quercusbaccarum L., as a model were used...
October 24, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017399/recombinant-expression-purification-and-characterization-of-polyphenol-oxidase-2-vvppo2-from-shine-muscat-vitis-labruscana-bailey-%C3%A3-vitis-vinifera-l
#19
Ayako Katayama-Ikegami, Yuka Suehiro, Takane Katayama, Kazushi Jindo, Hiroyuki Itamura, Tomoya Esumi
Polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) catalyze browning reactions in various plant organs, therefore controlling the reactions is important for the food industry. PPOs have been assumed to be involved in skin browning of white grape cultivars; however, the molecular mechanism underlying PPO-mediated browning process remains elusive. We have recently identified a new PPO gene named VvPPO2 from "Shine Muscat" (Vitis labruscana Bailey × V. vinifera L.), and have shown that the gene is transcribed at a higher level than the previously identified VvPPO1 in browning, physiologically disordered berry skins at the maturation stage...
October 11, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918276/phytoremediation-of-soil-co-contaminated-with-cd-and-bde-209-using-hyperaccumulator-enhanced-by-am-fungi-and-surfactant
#20
Hui Li, Xing Li, Lei Xiang, Hai Ming Zhao, Yan Wen Li, Quan Ying Cai, Li Zhu, Ce Hui Mo, Ming Hung Wong
Pot experiments were conducted to investigate the uptake and translocation of both Cd and decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) in Solanum nigrum, under the treatments of two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi [AMF, Funneliformis mosseae (FM) and Rhizophagus intraradices (RI)] and surfactant β-cyclodextrin (β-CD). Results showed that S. nigrum treated with either FM or β-CD significantly elevated shoot biomass and Cd concentrations and contents in shoots. The concentrations of BDE-209 in shoots and the dissipation and debromination efficiencies of BDE-209 in soil were significantly enhanced in S...
February 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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