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plant polyphenol oxidases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614829/the-use-of-a-polyphenoloxidase-biosensor-obtained-from-the-fruit-of-jurubeba-solanum-paniculatum-l-in-the-determination-of-paracetamol-and-other-phenolic-drugs
#1
Rafael Souza Antunes, Luane Ferreira Garcia, Vernon Sydwill Somerset, Eric de Souza Gil, Flavio Marques Lopes
The vegetable kingdom is a wide source of a diverse variety of enzymes with broad biotechnological applications. Among the main classes of plant enzymes, the polyphenol oxidases, which convert phenolic compounds to the related quinones, have been successfully used for biosensor development. The oxidation products from such enzymes can be electrochemically reduced, and the sensing is easily achieved by amperometric transducers. In this work, the polyphenoloxidases were extracted from jurubeba ( Solanum paniculatum L...
April 2, 2018: Biosensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611069/influence-of-the-erineum-strain-of-colomerus-vitis-acari-eriophyidae-on-grape-vitis-vinifera-defense-mechanisms
#2
Saeid Javadi Khederi, Mohammad Khanjani, Mansur Gholami, Onofrio Panzarino, Enrico de Lillo
Grape (Vitis vinifera) is commonly affected by the erineum strain of Colomerus vitis (GEM) in Iran and the susceptibility of grape cultivars to GEM is poorly understood. In order to evaluate the impact of GEM on grape and its defense mechanisms against the mite, an exploratory study was carried out on 19 cultivars (18 Iranian and the non-native Muscat Gordo). The differential susceptibility of cultivars to GEM was compared on the basis of the area of leaf damage induced by GEM. The cultivars White Thompson seedless of Bovanat, Atabaki Zarghan, Koladari Ghoochan and Sahebi Uroomie were less susceptible to GEM, whereas Ghalati Dodaj, Rishbaba, Muscat Gordo and Neyshaboori Birjand appeared to be the most affected by the mite...
April 2, 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560590/interaction-of-24-epibrassinolide-and-salicylic-acid-regulates-pigment-contents-antioxidative-defense-responses-and-gene-expression-in-brassica-juncea-l-seedlings-under-pb-stress
#3
Sukhmeen Kaur Kohli, Neha Handa, Anket Sharma, Vandana Gautam, Saroj Arora, Renu Bhardwaj, Leonard Wijaya, Mohammed Nasser Alyemeni, Parvaiz Ahmad
Lead (Pb) is considered one the most hazardous pollutant, and its accumulation in soil and plants is of prime concern. To understand the role of plant hormones in combating heavy metal stress, the present study was planned to assess the interactive effects of 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) (10-7  M) and salicylic acid (SA) (1 mM) in regulating growth, pigment contents, antioxidative defense response, and gene expression in Brassica juncea L. seedlings exposed to different concentrations of Pb metal (0.25, 0.50, and 0...
March 20, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551212/antagonistic-bacillus-spp-reduce-blast-incidence-on-rice-and-increase-grain-yield-under-field-conditions
#4
Afroz Rais, Muhammad Shakeel, Kamran Malik, Fauzia Yusuf Hafeez, Humaira Yasmin, Saqib Mumtaz, Muhammad Nadeem Hassan
Rice blast is a severe threat for agricultural production. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria could be suitable biocontrol agents to reduce the disease incidence. In this study, Bacillus spp. KFP-5, KFP-7, KFP-17 significantly reduced disease severity by 40-52% with grain yield of 3.2-3.9 t ha-1 in two rice varieties i.e., basmati super and basmati 385. Bacillus spp. significantly colonized the rice rhizosphere with a cell population of 2.40E+06-5.6E+07CFU. Rice plants treated with antagonistic bacterial suspension followed by challenge inoculation with P...
March 2018: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505761/proteomic-analysis-of-labial-saliva-of-the-generalist-cabbage-looper-trichoplusia-ni-and-its-role-in-interactions-with-host-plants
#5
Loren J Rivera-Vega, Bruce A Stanley, Anne Stanley, Gary W Felton
Insect saliva is one of the first secretions to come in contact with plants during feeding. The composition and role of caterpillar saliva has not been as thoroughly studied as that of sucking insects. This study focuses on characterizing the proteome of the cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni) saliva using iTRAQ labeling and LC-MS/MS. We also measured how the saliva proteome changed when larvae were reared on different diets - cabbage, tomato, and an artificial pinto bean diet. We identified 254 proteins in the saliva out of which 63 were differentially expressed...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501893/effects-of-long-term-uv-exposure-and-plant-sex-on-the-leaf-phenoloxidase-activities-and-phenolic-concentrations-of-salix-myrsinifolia-salisb
#6
Teija Ruuhola, Line Nybakken, Tendry Randriamanana, Anu Lavola, Riitta Julkunen-Tiitto
The accumulation of flavonoids on the leaf surface is a well-characterized protective mechanism against UV-B radiation. Other protective mechanisms, such as the induction of antioxidative enzymes and peroxidase-mediated lignification may also be important. The effects of UV-B radiation have mainly been considered in short-term studies, whereas ecologically more relevant long-term field studies are still rare. Here we examined the effects of long-term exposure to enhanced UV-B radiation on the activities of two antioxidative enzymes, polyphenol oxidase (PPO; EC 1...
March 1, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407738/effects-of-treated-industrial-wastewaters-and-temperatures-on-growth-and-enzymatic-activities-of-duckweed-lemna-minor-l
#7
E Basiglini, M Pintore, C Forni
The efficacy of the removal of contaminants from wastewater depends on physico-chemical properties of pollutants and the efficiency of treatment plant. Sometimes, low amounts of toxic compounds can be still present in the treated sewage. In this work we considered the effects of contaminant residues in treated wastewaters and of temperatures on Lemna minor L. Treated effluent waters were collected, analyzed and used as duckweed growth medium. In order to better understand the effects of micropollutants and seasonal variation, the plants were grown under ambient conditions for seven days in summer and winter...
February 2, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394889/comparative-transcriptomic-analysis-of-resistant-and-susceptible-alfalfa-cultivars-medicago-sativa-l-after-thrips-infestation
#8
Xiongbing Tu, Zhongkuan Liu, Zehua Zhang
BACKGROUND: Plant breeding for resistance to agricultural pests is an essential element in the development of integrated crop management systems; however, the molecular and genetic mechanisms underlying resistance are poorly understood. In this pilot study, a transcriptomic analysis of a resistant (R) vs. a susceptible (S) variety of alfalfa, with (+T) or without (-T) thrips (= 4 treatments) was conducted, 'GN-1' (China) was defined as the resistant cultivar, and 'WL323' (America) was defined as the susceptible cultivar...
February 2, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371810/induction-of-defense-related-physiological-and-antioxidant-enzyme-response-against-powdery-mildew-disease-in-okra-abelmoschus-esculentus-l-plant-by-using-chitosan-and-potassium-salts
#9
Mona H Soliman, Riad S R El-Mohamedy
Foliar sprays of three plant resistance inducers, including chitosan (CH), potassium sorbate (PS) (C6H7kO2), and potassium bicarbonates (PB) (KHCO3), were used for resistance inducing against Erysiphe cichoracearum DC (powdery mildew) infecting okra plants. Experiments under green house and field conditions showed that, the powdery mildew disease severity was significantly reduced with all tested treatments of CH, PS, and PB in comparison with untreated control. CH at 0.5% and 0.75% (w/v) plus PS at 1.0% and 2...
December 2017: Mycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323436/molecular-characterization-and-gene-silencing-of-laccase-1-in-the-grain-aphid-sitobion-avenae
#10
Yong Zhang, Jia Fan, Frédéric Francis, Julian Chen
Laccase 1 (Lac1), a polyphenol oxidase, has been proposed to be involved in insect iron metabolism and immunity responses. However, little information is available on the roles of Lac 1 in insect-plant interactions. The grain aphid Sitobion avenae is one of the most destructive pests of cereal, directly drawing phloem sap and transmitting viruses. In the present study, we first cloned the open reading frame (ORF) of Lac 1 from S. avenae, and the putative protein sequence was predicted to have a carboxyl-terminal transmembrane domain...
April 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304502/influence-of-nitrogen-additions-on-litter-decomposition-nutrient-dynamics-and-enzymatic-activity-of-two-plant-species-in-a-peatland-in-northeast-china
#11
Yanyu Song, Changchun Song, Jiusheng Ren, Wenwen Tan, Shaofei Jin, Lei Jiang
Nitrogen (N) availability affects litter decomposition and nutrient dynamics, especially in N-limited ecosystems. We investigated the response of litter decomposition to N additions in Eriophorum vaginatum and Vaccinium uliginosum peatlands. These two species dominate peatlands in Northeast China. In 2012, mesh bags containing senesced leaf litter of Eriophorum vaginatum and Vaccinium uliginosum were placed in N addition plots and sprayed monthly for two years with NH4 NO3 solution at dose rates of 0, 6, 12, and 24gNm-2 year-1 (CK, N1, N2 and N3, respectively)...
June 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250085/metalaxyl-effects-on-antioxidant-defenses-in-leaves-and-roots-of-solanum-nigrum-l
#12
Alexandra de Sousa, Hamada AbdElgawad, Han Asard, Ana Pinto, Cristiano Soares, Simão Branco-Neves, Teresa Braga, Manuel Azenha, Samy Selim, Soad Al Jaouni, Fernanda Fidalgo, Jorge Teixeira
Overuse of pesticides has resulted in environmental problems, threating public health through accumulation in food chains. Phytoremediation is a powerful technique to clean up contaminated environments. However, it is necessary to unravel the metabolic mechanisms underlying phytoremediation in order to increase the efficiency of this process. Therefore, growth, physiological and biochemical responses in leaves and roots of Solanum nigrum L. exposed to the commonly used fungicide metalaxyl were investigated...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241566/a-catechol-oxidase-acppo-from-cherimoya-annona-cherimola-mill-is-localized-to-the-golgi-apparatus
#13
Patricio Olmedo, Adrián A Moreno, Dayan Sanhueza, Iván Balic, Christian Silva-Sanzana, Baltasar Zepeda, Julian C Verdonk, César Arriagada, Claudio Meneses, Reinaldo Campos-Vargas
Cherimoya (Annona cherimola) is an exotic fruit with attractive organoleptic characteristics. However, it is highly perishable and susceptible to postharvest browning. In fresh fruit, browning is primarily caused by the polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of o-diphenols to quinones, which polymerize to form brown melanin pigment. There is no consensus in the literature regarding a specific role of PPO, and its subcellular localization in different plant species is mainly described within plastids...
January 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218491/a-specific-amino-acid-residue-in-the-catalytic-site-of-dandelion-polyphenol-oxidases-acts-as-selector-for-substrate-specificity
#14
Sarah M Prexler, Ratna Singh, Bruno M Moerschbacher, Mareike E Dirks-Hofmeister
Successful site-directed mutagenesis combined with in silico modeling and docking studies for the first time offers experimental proof of the role of the 'substrate selector' residue in plant polyphenol oxidases. The plant and fungi enzymes responsible for tissue browning are called polyphenol oxidases (PPOs). In plants, PPOs often occur as families of isoenzymes which are differentially expressed, but little is known about their physiological roles or natural substrates. In a recent study that explored these structure-function relationships, the eleven known dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) PPOs were shown to separate into two different phylogenetic groups differing in catalytic cavity architecture, kinetic parameters, and substrate range...
January 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188401/drought-stress-promotes-the-colonization-success-of-a-herbivorous-mite-that-manipulates-plant-defenses
#15
Miguel G Ximénez-Embún, Joris J Glas, Felix Ortego, Juan M Alba, Pedro Castañera, Merijn R Kant
Climate change is expected to bring longer periods of drought and this may affect the plant's ability to resist pests. We assessed if water deficit affects the tomato russet mite (TRM; Aculops lycopersici), a key tomato-pest. TRM thrives on tomato by suppressing the plant's jamonate defenses while these defenses typically are modulated by drought stress. We observed that the TRM population grows faster and causes more damage on drought-stressed plants. To explain this observation we measured several nutrients, phytohormones, defense-gene expression and the activity of defensive proteins in plants with or without drought stress or TRM...
December 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186815/characterization-of-the-transcriptome-and-gene-expression-of-tetraploid-black-locust-cuttings-in-response-to-etiolation
#16
Nan Lu, Li Dai, Zijing Luo, Shaoming Wang, Yanzhong Wen, Hongjing Duan, Rongxuan Hou, Yuhan Sun, Yun Li
Etiolation (a process of growing plants in partial or complete absence of light) promotes adventitious root formation in tetraploid black locust ( Robinia pseudoacacia L.) cuttings. We investigated the mechanism underlying how etiolation treatment promotes adventitious root formation in tetraploid black locust and assessed global transcriptional changes after etiolation treatment. Solexa paired-end sequencing of complementary DNAs (cDNAs) from control (non-etiolated, NE) and etiolated (E) samples resulted in 107,564 unigenes...
November 24, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177786/nematicidal-potential-and-specific-enzyme-activity-enhancement-potential-of-neem-azadirachta-indica-a-juss-aerial-parts
#17
Arti Shivraj Nile, Shivraj Hariram Nile, Young Soo Keum, Doo Hwan Kim, Baskar Venkidasamy, Sathishkumar Ramalingam
Nematodes are considered as major plant parasites damaging most of the crops, and neem plant exhibits potential nematicidal and insecticidal properties. This study aimed to check nemato-toxic potential of neem (Azadirachta indica) plant using in vitro and in-planta trials against Meloidogyne incognita. The findings suggested that the neem extracts were lethal to second-stage juvenile (J2 ) and egg hatching with simultaneous enhancement in treated tomato plant growth. The egg numbers of M. incognita found less sensitive to the aqueous and alcoholic extracts than those of J2 as per LC50 values...
February 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161274/bacillus-spp-a-bio-control-agent-enhances-the-activity-of-antioxidant-defense-enzymes-in-rice-against-pyricularia-oryzae
#18
Afroz Rais, Zahra Jabeen, Faluk Shair, Fauzia Yusuf Hafeez, Muhammad Nadeem Hassan
Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are found to control the plant diseases by adopting various mechanisms. Induced systemic resistance (ISR) is an important defensive strategy manifested by plants against numerous pathogens especially infecting at aerial parts. Rhizobacteria elicit ISR by inducing different pathways in plants through production of various metabolites. In the present study, potential of Bacillus spp. KFP-5, KFP-7, KFP-17 was assessed to induce antioxidant enzymes against Pyricularia oryzae infection in rice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149645/xylella-fastidiosa-induces-differential-expression-of-lignification-related-genes-and-lignin-accumulation-in-tolerant-olive-trees-cv-leccino
#19
Erika Sabella, Andrea Luvisi, Alessio Aprile, Carmine Negro, Marzia Vergine, Francesca Nicolì, Antonio Miceli, Luigi De Bellis
Recently, Xylella fastidiosa was reported in Italy, associated with the "Olive Quick Decline Syndrome". The cv. Leccino exhibits an evident tolerance with a slow disease progression compared with the other cultivars. Between the mechanisms proposed to explain the putative tolerance of some hosts to X. fastidiosa diseases, lignin deposition plays an important role. Analysis of phenolic compounds in healthy and infected Leccino and Cellina di Nardò leaves showed, in the two cultivars, a reduction of hydroxytyrosol glucoside (usually associated with drought and cold stress) and, only in Leccino, an increase of quinic acid, precursor of lignin...
January 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142408/correlation-between-polyphenol-oxidase-ppo-activity-and-total-phenolic-contents-in-crocus-sativus-l-corms-during-dormancy-and-sprouting-stages
#20
Nardana Esmaeili, Hassan Ebrahimzadeh, Khosrou Abdi
Purification and characterization of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzyme and determination of total phenolic contents during dormancy and sprouting stages in Crocus sativus corms were performed. PPO enzyme was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and ion-exchange chromatography using DEAE-Sephadex A25 and two isoenzymes were obtained on the SDS-PAGE, which corresponded to molecular weights of 70 and 54 kDa. The K m values of the enzyme were 4.87 and 2.12 mM for l-DOPA in dormancy and waking stages, respectively...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
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