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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898110/effect-of-herbicides-in-the-oxidative-stress-in-crop-winter-species
#1
Carla Alves, Eduarda Costa, Jessica R Sofiatti, Cesar T Forte, Fábio L Winter, Cinthia M Holz, Rosilene R Kaizer, Leandro Galon
Most herbicides applied in crop field, stay in the soil for a period, affecting next crop or even the plants using as green manure. Nowadays, the use of herbicides grow to increase productivity, mainly in the grain producing region north of Rio Grande do Sul state. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of herbicides fomesafen and sulfentrazone on antioxidant system in Avena sativa1, Vicia sativa2, Raphanus sativus and Lupinus albus. The plants were exposed to varying concentrations of fomesafen3 (0, 0...
April 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896213/silicon-priming-created-an-enhanced-tolerance-in-alfalfa-medicago-sativa-l-seedlings-in-response-to-high-alkaline-stress
#2
Duo Liu, Miao Liu, Xiao-Long Liu, Xian-Guo Cheng, Zheng-Wei Liang
Alkaline stress as a result of higher pH usually triggers more severe physiological damage to plants than that of saline stress with a neutral pH. In the present study, we demonstrated that silicon (Si) priming of alfalfa ( Medicago sativa L.) seedlings increased their tolerance to high alkaline stress situations. Gongnong No. 1 seedlings were subjected to alkaline stress simulated by 25 mM Na2 CO3 (pH 11.2). Alkaline stress greatly decreased the biomass and caused severe lodging or wilting of alfalfa seedlings...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895371/biomarkers-of-selenium-status-and-antioxidant-effect-in-workers-occupationally-exposed-to-mercury
#3
Renata Kuras, Edyta Reszka, Edyta Wieczorek, Ewa Jablonska, Jolanta Gromadzinska, Beata Malachowska, Lucyna Kozlowska, Magdalena Stanislawska, Beata Janasik, Wojciech Wasowicz
The present observation based research was designed to evaluate the influence of occupational human exposure to metallic mercury (Hg°) vapor on the biomarkers of selenium status involved in the antioxidant defense system. For this purpose we determined Hg and selenium (Se) concentrations in body fluids, the markers of antioxidant effect measured as an activity of Se-dependent enzymes (red blood cell and plasma glutathione peroxidase: GPx1-RBC and GPx3-P), concentration of selenoprotein P in the plasma (SeP-P) and total antioxidant activity in the plasma (TAA-P) in 131 male workers from a chloralkali plant exposed to Hg° and 67 non-exposed males (control group)...
September 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29894956/molecular-mechanism-investigation-on-the-interactions-of-copper-ii-ions-with-glutathione-peroxidase-6-from-arabidopsis-thaliana
#4
Kun Wang, Si-Fu Tang, Xiaomin Hou
Accumulation of copper (II) ions in plant leads to the excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) which attributes to the depletion of the antioxidants in the cell and destruction to antioxidant enzymes. The antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase has been used as biomarkers to reflect metal-induced oxidative stress. However, the underlying toxic mechanisms of the copper ions(II)-induced oxidative damage to plants remain unknown. In the work, a detailed molecular interaction of copper (II) ions with Arabidopsis thaliana glutathione peroxidase 6 (AtGPX6) in relation with poisonous effects of exposure to heavy metal was investigated by multiple spectroscopic techniques...
May 28, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29894895/phosphate-alleviation-of-glyphosate-induced-toxicity-in-hydrocharis-dubia-bl-backer
#5
Guidi Zhong, Zhonghua Wu, Nian Liu, Jun Yin
Glyphosate, as a broad-spectrum herbicide, is frequently detected in water, and phosphorus widely enters the water due to the extensive use of phosphorus-containing substances in agriculture, industries and daily life. Thus, aquatic ecosystems are exposed to both glyphosate and phosphorus, which may affect aquatic organisms. In the present research, we studied the physiological responses of the floating aquatic plant species H. dubia to different concentrations of glyphosate (0, 1, 5, 15 mg/L) with different levels of phosphate (0, 50, 100 mg/L) after 14 days (d) of treatment...
May 30, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29894808/deciphering-the-tri-dimensional-effect-of-endophytic-streptomyces-sp-on-chickpea-for-plant-growth-promotion-helper-effect-with-mesorhizobium-ciceri-and-host-plant-resistance-induction-against-botrytis-cinerea
#6
Rajendran Vijayabharathi, Subramaniam Gopalakrishnan, Arumugam Sathya, Vadlamudi Srinivas, Mamta Sharma
A total of 219 endophytic actinobacteria, isolated from roots, stems and leaves of chickpea, were characterized for antagonistic potential against Botrytis cinerea, causal organism of Botrytis grey mold (BGM) disease, in chickpea. Among them, three most potential endophytes, AUR2, AUR4 and ARR4 were further characterized for their plant growth-promoting (PGP) and nodulating potentials and host-plant resistance against B. cinerea, in chickpea. The sequences of 16 S rDNA gene of the three endophytes were matched with Streptomyces but different species...
June 9, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893613/orobanche-foetida-resistance-in-two-new-faba-bean-genotypes-produced-by-radiation-mutagenesis
#7
Sonia Mejri, Yassine Mabrouk, Omrane Belhadj, Mouldi Saidi
PURPOSE: Broomrape produces serious damage to many legume crops and particularly becomes a limiting factor for faba bean (Vicia faba L.) production in the Mediterranean basin. Currently, several traditional methods of control have been developed, but none has proved to be effective for this parasite. However, breeding for resistance to this pest remains as one of the most feasible and environmentally friendly methods for managing broomrape, but the mechanisms governing the interaction between the parasite and the host are not yet well understood...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890434/indole-3-butyric-acid-mediates-antioxidative-defense-systems-to-promote-adventitious-rooting-in-mung-bean-seedlings-under-cadmium-and-drought-stresses
#8
Shi-Weng Li, Xiao-Ying Zeng, Yan Leng, Lin Feng, Xiao-Hu Kang
In vitro experiments were performed to determine whether auxin can mediate the formation of adventitious roots in response to heavy metal and drought stresses using a model rooting plant, mung bean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek]. The treatments with CdCl2 or mannitol alone significantly inhibited the formation and growth of adventitious roots in mung bean seedlings. In contrast, when CdCl2 or mannitol was applied together with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), IBA considerably cancelled the inhibition of adventitious rooting by stresses...
June 8, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890432/heavy-metal-tolerance-in-contrasting-ecotypes-of-alyssum-montanum
#9
Ewa Muszyńska, Mateusz Labudda, Elżbieta Różańska, Ewa Hanus-Fajerska, Ewa Znojek
The response of metallicolous (M) and nonmetallicolous (NM) Alyssum montanum ecotypes to multi-metal stress was investigated under in vitro condition and compared in this study. Shoot cultures were simultaneously treated with 0.7 mM ZnSO4 , 3.0 μM Pb(NO3 )2 and 16.4 μM CdCl2 for 8 weeks and evaluated for their morphogenetic and ultrastructural reaction, growth tolerance as well as ability to Zn, Pb, and Cd uptake. Moreover, tissue localization and concentrations of antioxidant compounds were determined in order to elucidate the potential role of ROS-scavenging machinery in plant tolerance to metal toxicity...
June 8, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888285/ecotoxicological-and-interactive-effects-of-copper-and-chromium-on-physiochemical-ultrastructural-and-molecular-profiling-in-brassica-napus-l
#10
Lan Li, Kangni Zhang, Rafaqat A Gill, Faisal Islam, Muhammad A Farooq, Jian Wang, Weijun Zhou
Heavy metal accumulation causes huge environmental problems, particularly in agricultural ecosystems which have deteriorative effects on the yield and quality of crops. Individual copper (Cu) and chromium (Cr) effects have been investigated extensively in plants; however, co-contamination of Cu and Cr induced stress on Brassica napus L. is still unclear. In the present experiment, the interactive effects of Cu and Cr were studied in two B. napus cultivars (Zheda 622 and ZS 758). Results showed that the application of Cr was more toxic than Cu, and their combined stress had shown a significant adverse effect on plant growth...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29881875/antioxidant-activity-and-induction-of-mechanisms-of-resistance-to-stresses-related-to-the-inoculation-with-azospirillum-brasilense
#11
Josiane Fukami, Francisco Javier Ollero, Clara de la Osa, Rocio Valderrama-Fernández, Marco Antonio Nogueira, Manuel Megías, Mariangela Hungria
We investigated the effects of Azospirillum brasilense strains Ab-V5 and Ab-V6 in the induction of mechanisms of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and induced system resistance (ISR) on maize (Zea mays L.) plants. Under normal growth conditions, the treatments consisted of the standard inoculation of cells at sowing, and leaf spray of cells or their metabolites at the V2.5 growth stage; under saline stress (170 mM NaCl), the treatment consisted of standard single and co-inoculation of A. brasilense and Rhizobium tropici...
June 7, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29880861/28-homobrassinolide-regulates-antioxidant-enzyme-activities-and-gene-expression-in-response-to-salt-and-temperature-induced-oxidative-stress-in-brassica-juncea
#12
Harpreet Kaur, Geetika Sirhindi, Renu Bhardwaj, M N Alyemeni, Kadambot H M Siddique, Parvaiz Ahmad
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a group of naturally occurring plant steroid hormones that can induce plant tolerance to various plant stresses by regulating ROS production in cells, but the underlying mechanisms of this scavenging activity by BRs are not well understood. This study investigated the effects of 28-homobrassinolide (28-HBL) seed priming on Brassica juncea seedlings subjected to the combined stress of extreme temperatures (low, 4 °C or high, 44 °C) and salinity (180 mM), either alone or supplemented with 28-HBL treatments (0, 10-6 , 10-9 , 10-12  M)...
June 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29870863/the-effect-of-graphene-oxide-on-adventitious-root-formation-and-growth-in-apple
#13
Feihong Li, Chao Sun, Xuehan Li, Xinyi Yu, Chao Luo, Yanying Shen, Shenchun Qu
Graphene, a new type of nanomaterial, has unique physical properties and important potential biological applications. However, few studies have been conducted on the environmental impact of graphene. Therefore, to explore the effect of graphene on plants, three-week-old, tissue-cultured 'Gala' apple plants (Malus domestica) were treated with different concentrations (0, 0.1, 1, 10 mg/L) of graphene oxide (GO) and examined after 40 days. Results indicated that adventitious root length, moisture content and the number of lateral roots were all inhibited by 0...
May 30, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29870862/oxalic-acid-mediated-biochemical-and-physiological-changes-in-the-common-bean-sclerotinia-sclerotiorum-interaction
#14
I R F Fagundes-Nacarath, D Debona, F A Rodrigues
The success of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum infection relies mainly on the production of the non-host selective toxin named oxalic acid (OA). This toxin is known to play multiple roles in a host infected by the fungus, but its effect on photosynthesis and the antioxidant system of common bean plants remain elusive. Therefore, we performed detailed analysis of leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll a fluorescence, activities of antioxidant enzymes, concentrations of reactive oxygen species and photosynthetic pigments to investigate the OA's role during the S...
May 28, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29870563/stress-cross-response-of-the-antioxidative-system-promoted-by-superimposed-drought-and-cold-conditions-in-coffea-spp
#15
José C Ramalho, Ana P Rodrigues, Fernando C Lidon, Luís M C Marques, A Eduardo Leitão, Ana S Fortunato, Isabel P Pais, Maria J Silva, Paula Scotti-Campos, António Lopes, F H Reboredo, Ana I Ribeiro-Barros
The understanding of acclimation strategies to low temperature and water availability is decisive to ensure coffee crop sustainability, since these environmental conditions determine the suitability of cultivation areas. In this context, the impacts of single and combined exposure to drought and cold were evaluated in three genotypes of the two major cropped species, Coffea arabica cv. Icatu, Coffea canephora cv. Apoatã, and the hybrid Obatã. Crucial traits of plant resilience to environmental stresses have been examined: photosynthesis, lipoperoxidation and the antioxidant response...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29866036/lignin-metabolism-involves-botrytis-cinerea-bcgs1-induced-defense-response-in-tomato
#16
Chenyu Yang, Yingbo Liang, Dewen Qiu, Hongmei Zeng, Jingjing Yuan, Xiufen Yang
BACKGROUND: BcGs1, a cell wall-degrading enzyme (CWDE), was originally derived from Botrytis cinerea. Our previous study revealed that BcGs1 could trigger defense responses and protect plants against various pathogens. We researched the defense response mechanism underlying this BcGs1 elicitation in tomato. RESULTS: We revealed that the two domains were required for BcGs1's full necrosis activity. According to analysis and quantitative real-time PCR of the up-regulated proteins and genes filtered by iTRAQ-based quantitative proteome approach, oxidative metabolism and phenylpropanoid metabolism were speculated to be involved in BcGs1-triggered defense response in tomato...
June 4, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29862250/genome-wide-expression-profiles-of-hemp-cannabis-sativa-l-in-response-to-drought-stress
#17
Chunsheng Gao, Chaohua Cheng, Lining Zhao, Yongting Yu, Qing Tang, Pengfei Xin, Touming Liu, Zhun Yan, Yuan Guo, Gonggu Zang
Drought is the main environmental factor impairing hemp growth and yield. In order to decipher the molecular responses of hemp to drought stress, transcriptome changes of drought-stressed hemp (DS1 and DS2), compared to well-watered control hemp (CK1 and CK2), were studied with RNA-Seq technology. RNA-Seq generated 9.83, 11.30, 11.66, and 11.31 M clean reads in the CK1, CK2, DS1, and DS2 libraries, respectively. A total of 1292 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), including 409 (31.66%) upregulated and 883 (68...
2018: International Journal of Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29807580/autophagy-mediates-hydrotropic-response-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-roots
#18
Gladys Jiménez-Nopala, Angel Eduardo Salgado-Escobar, Diego Cevallos-Porta, Luis Cárdenas, Gabriela Sepúlveda-Jiménez, Gladys Cassab, Helena Porta
This work shows that autophagy plays a key role in the hydrotropic curvature of Arabidopsis thaliana roots. An analysis of GFP-ATG8a transgenic plants showed that autophagosomes accumulated in the root curvature 2 h after the transfer of seedlings to Normal Medium-Water Stress Medium (NM-WSM). Autophagy flux was required for root bending. Remarkably, several atg mutants did not show hydrotropic curvature in NM-WSM or the splitting-agar system. Hyper, an H2 O2 sensor showed that H2 O2 preferentially accumulated in the root curvature at a similar rate as the autophagosomes did during hydrotropic response...
July 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29805035/structure-based-engineering-of-a-plant-fungal-hybrid-peroxidase-for-enhanced-temperature-and-ph-tolerance
#19
Amanda C Kohler, Blake A Simmons, Kenneth L Sale
In an age of ever-increasing biotechnological and industrial demand for new and specialized biocatalysts, rational protein engineering offers a direct approach to enzyme design and innovation. Heme peroxidases, as indispensable oxidative biocatalysts, provide a relatively mild alternative to the traditional harsh, and often toxic, chemical catalysts, and subsequently, have found widespread application throughout industry. However, the potential for these enzymes is far greater than their present use, as processes are currently restricted to the more stable, but less catalytically powerful, subset of peroxidases...
April 28, 2018: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29804017/effect-of-the-exogenous-anthocyanin-extract-on-key-metabolic-pathways-and-antioxidant-status-of-brazilian-elodea-egeria-densa-planch-casp-exposed-to-cadmium-and-manganese
#20
Maria Maleva, Elena Garmash, Nadezhda Chukina, Przemysław Malec, Andrzej Waloszek, Kazimierz Strzałka
Present study deals with the effect of 24 h pre-incubation with exogenous anthocyanins (ANTH), extracted from red cabbage leaves, on key metabolic processes (photosynthesis and respiration) and pro-/antioxidant balance in the aquatic macrophyte Egeria densa (Planch.) Casp., Hydrocharitaceae family, treated with Cd and Mn (in sulfate form) at a concentration of 100 μmol. After five days of metal treatments, Cd was accumulated and the damage caused to metabolic processes was stronger than Mn. In Cd-treated leaves, the protein level, chlorophyll concentration and maximal photochemical efficiency of PS II decreased twofold, and net-photosynthesis was significantly inhibited, whereas lipid peroxidation and H2 O2 production increased...
May 24, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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