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plant peroxidases

V A Doss, Dharaniyambigai Kuberapandian
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study is to develop a new animal model based on signaling pathways to understand the pathophysiology, therapy of depression, and to investigate the antidepressant activity of Enicostemma littorale which is not yet established. METHODS: Animal models of depression were raised by physical methods and administration of methyl isobutyl ketone (100 mg/kg b.w., i.p.,) and a protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, sodium orthovanadate (30 mg/kg b...
2016: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
Jing Zhang, Huibin Li, Bin Xu, Jing Li, Bingru Huang
Leaf senescence is a typical symptom in plants exposed to dark and may be regulated by plant growth regulators. The objective of this study was to determine whether exogenous application of melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) suppresses dark-induced leaf senescence and the effects of melatonin on reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging system and chlorophyll degradation pathway in perennial grass species. Mature perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. cv. 'Pinnacle') leaves were excised and incubated in 3 mM 2-(N-morpholino) ethanesulfonic buffer (pH 5...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Qian-Yun Xi, Yong Jiang, Shuai Zhao, Bin Zeng, Fei Wang, Li-Na Wang, Qing-Yan Jiang, Yong-Liang Zhang
There are many reports that dietary supplementation with plant polysaccharides in pigs might promote their growth, but little is known about the maternal effect of ginseng polysaccharides (GPS) on piglets' growth by dietary supplementation to pregnant and lactating sows. In the current study, the effects of dietary supplementation with GPS on the immunity of sows and growth of their piglets were investigated. Results showed no significant difference among the four groups in the total number of piglets, live piglets, weak piglets and birth weight of piglets, indicating the GPS-treatment has no adverse effect on reproduction...
October 18, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
Ravdeep Kaur, Poonam Yadav, Ashwani Kumar Thukral, Amandeep Walia, Renu Bhardwaj
Plant growth regulator-assisted phytoremediation has been assessed as a novel strategy to improve phytoremediation potential of plants. In the present work, potential of castasterone, a plant growth regulator, combined with citric acid was explored for phytoremediation of cadmium in Brassica juncea seedlings. The seedlings were raised under controlled laboratory conditions for 7 days. Results revealed that 0.6 mM cadmium exposure induced toxicity in the seedlings, which was reflected through root growth inhibition, accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde, and loss of cell viability...
October 17, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Antonio López-Orenes, María C Bueso, Héctor M Conesa, Antonio A Calderón, María A Ferrer
Soil pollution by heavy metals/metalloids (HMMs) is a problem worldwide. To prevent dispersion of contaminated particles by erosion, the maintenance of a vegetative cover is needed. Successful plant establishment in multi-polluted soils can be hampered not only by HMM toxicities, but also by soil nutrient deficiencies and the co-occurrence of abiotic stresses. Some plant species are able to thrive under these multi-stress scenarios often linked to marked fluctuations in environmental factors. This study aimed to investigate the metabolic adjustments involved in Zygophyllum fabago acclimative responses to conditions prevailing in HMM-enriched mine-tailings piles, during Mediterranean spring and summer...
October 14, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Hari Bhupathi Krishnan, Alaa Alaswad, Nathan Wayne Oehrle, Jason Gillman
Legumes form symbiotic association with soil-dwelling bacteria collectively called rhizobia. This association results in the formation of nodules, unique plant-derived organs, within which the rhizobia are housed. Rhizobia encoded-nitrogenase facilitates the conversation of atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia, which is utilized by the plants for its growth and development. Fatty acids have been shown to play an important role in root nodule symbiosis. In this study, we have investigated the role of Stearoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Desaturase- isoform C (SACPD-C), a soybean enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of stearic acid into oleic acid, which is expressed in developing seeds and in nitrogen fixing nodules...
October 17, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Sheng Shu, Pan Gao, Lin Li, Yinghui Yuan, Jin Sun, Shirong Guo
With the aim to clarifying the role of the ABA/H2O2 signaling cascade in the regulating the antioxidant capacity of grafted cucumber plants in response to Ca(NO3)2 stress, we investigated the relationship between ABA-mediated H2O2 production and the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the leaves of pumpkin-grafted cucumber seedlings. The results showed that both ABA and H2O2 were detected in pumpkin-grafted cucumber seedlings in response to Ca(NO3)2 treatment within 0.5 h in the leaves and peaked at 3 and 6 h after Ca(NO3)2 treatment, respectively, compared to the levels under control conditions...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Arunava Pradhan, Carla O Silva, Carlos Silva, Cláudia Pascoal, Fernanda Cássio
Commercial applications of nanometal oxides have increased concern about their release into natural waters and consequent risks to aquatic biota and the processes they drive. In forest streams, the invertebrate shredder Allogamus ligonifer plays a key role in detritus food webs by transferring carbon and energy from plant litter to higher trophic levels. We assessed the response profiles of oxidative and neuronal stress enzymatic biomarkers in A. ligonifer after 96h exposure to nanoCuO at concentration ranges <LC30...
September 28, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Maryam Nourimand, Christopher D Todd
Plants apply various molecular, physiological, and morphological strategies in response to undesirable environmental conditions. One of the possible responses which may contribute to surviving stressful conditions is the accumulation of ureides. Ureides are recognized as important nitrogen-rich compounds involved in recycling nitrogen in plants to support growth and reproduction. Amongst them, allantoin not only serves as a transportable nitrogen-rich compound, but has also been suggested to protect plants from abiotic stresses via minimizing oxidative damage...
October 13, 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
Zhao Jiang, Bingbing Ma, Kehinde Olajide Erinle, Bo Cao, Xiaoxue Liu, Siyuan Ye, Ying Zhang
Plants belonging to the genus Pennisetum have been reported to be resistant to atrazine, a widely used herbicide that also can cause serious pollution of soil and water. To evaluate the enzymatic antioxidant defense mechanism to the oxidative stress of atrazine, experiments focusing on the malondialdehyde (MDA) content and antioxidant enzyme in the leaf and root of Pennisetum americanum (L.) K. Schum (P. americanum) during long-term (68days) atrazine exposure were carried out. The test plant had not suffered obvious lipid membrane peroxidation, which was further confirmed by the result that the MDA content in the root and the leaf of the test plant did not significantly increase when treated with various concentrations of atrazine...
October 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Orsolya K Gondor, Tibor Janda, Vilmos Soós, Magda Pál, Imre Majláth, Malay K Adak, Ervin Balázs, Gabriella Szalai
Salicylic acid is a promising compound for the reduction of stress sensitivity in plants. Although several biochemical and physiological changes have been described in plants treated with salicylic acid, the mode of action of the various treatments has not yet been clarified. The present work reports a detailed comparative study on the effects of different modes of salicylic acid application at the physiological, metabolomic, and transcriptomic levels. Seed soaking and hydroponic treatments were found to induce various changes in the protective mechanisms of wheat plants...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Fahim Nawaz, Muhammad Naeem, Muhammad Y Ashraf, Muhammad N Tahir, Bilal Zulfiqar, Muhammad Salahuddin, Rana N Shabbir, Muhammad Aslam
Climate change is one of the most complex challenges that pose serious threats to livelihoods of poor people who rely heavily on agriculture and livestock particularly in climate-sensitive developing countries of the world. The negative effects of water scarcity, due to climate change, are not limited to productivity food crops but have far-reaching consequences on livestock feed production systems. Selenium (Se) is considered essential for animal health and has also been reported to counteract various abiotic stresses in plants, however, understanding of Se regulated mechanisms for improving nutritional status of fodder crops remains elusive...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Nathalie Boissot, Alexandra Schoeny, Flavie Vanlerberghe-Masutti
We review half a century of research on Cucumis melo resistance to Aphis gossypii from molecular to field levels. The Vat gene is unique in conferring resistance to both A. gossypii and the viruses it transmits. This double phenotype is aphid clone-dependent and has been observed in 25 melon accessions, mostly from Asia. It is controlled by a cluster of genes including CC-NLR, which has been characterized in detail. Copy-number polymorphisms (for the whole gene and for a domain that stands out in the LLR region) and single-nucleotide polymorphisms have been identified in the Vat cluster...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Olusoji A T Afuwape, Catherine R Wasser, Thomas Schikorski, Ege T Kavalali
Earlier studies suggest that spontaneous and evoked neurotransmitter release processes are maintained by synaptic vesicles which are segregated into functionally distinct pools. However, direct interrogation of the link between this putative synaptic vesicle pool heterogeneity and neurotransmission has been difficult. To examine this link, we tagged vesicles with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) - a heme containing plant enzyme - or antibodies against synaptotagmin-1 (syt1). Filling recycling vesicles in hippocampal neurons with HRP and subsequent treatment with hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) modified the properties of neurotransmitter release depending on the route of HRP uptake...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Delphine Cerveau, Alexandra Kraut, Henrik U Stotz, Martin J Mueller, Yohann Couté, Pascal Rey
Peroxiredoxins are ubiquitous thiol-dependent peroxidases for which chaperone and signaling roles have been reported in various types of organisms in recent years. In plants, the peroxidase function of the two typical plastidial 2-Cys peroxiredoxins (2-Cys PRX A and B) has been highlighted while the other functions, particularly in ROS-dependent signaling pathways, are still elusive notably due to the lack of knowledge of interacting partners. Using an ex vivo approach based on co-immunoprecipitation of leaf extracts from Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type and mutant plants lacking 2-Cys PRX expression followed by mass spectrometry-based proteomics, 158 proteins were found associated with 2-Cys PRXs...
November 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Masahiro Noshi, Daisuke Mori, Noriaki Tanabe, Takanori Maruta, Shigeru Shigeoka
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced in chloroplasts have been proposed to act as signaling molecules for plant immunity through pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), such as flg22. To elucidate this process, we herein conducted genetic screening of flg22-sensitive mutants from T-DNA insertion lines lacking chloroplastic H2O2-responsive genes. The results obtained showed that knockout mutants lacking a clade IV TGA transcription factor, TGA10, were more sensitive to the flg22 treatment than wild-type plants...
November 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Chandra Prakash, S V Amitha Mithra, Praveen K Singh, T Mohapatra, N K Singh
BACKGROUND: Drought stress tolerance for crop improvement is an important goal worldwide. Drought is a complex trait, and it is vital to understand the complex physiological, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms of drought tolerance to tackle it effectively. Osmotic adjustment, oxidative stress management (OSM), and cell membrane stability (CMS) are major components of cellular tolerance under drought stress. In the current study, we explored the molecular basis of OSM in the drought tolerant rice variety, Nagina 22 and compared it with the popular drought sensitive rice variety, IR 64, under drought imposed at the reproductive stage, to understand how the parental polymorphisms correlate with the superiority of Nagina 22 and tolerant bulk populations under drought...
October 4, 2016: BMC Genomics
Raghu Ram Achar, B K Venkatesh, H K Vivek, B S Priya, S Nanjunda Swamy
Caralluma umbellata peroxidase (CUP) is an acidic heme-containing protein having a molecular weight of ~42 kDa and is specific to guaiacol. It is not a glycoprotein. It was purified to 12.5-fold purity with 6.16 % yield. Its activity is dependent on hydrogen peroxide and has an optimum pH and temperature of 6.2 and 45 °C respectively. It can decolorize dyes, viz., Aniline Blue, Reactive Black 5, and Reactive Blue 19 but not Congo Red, while HRP can decolorize Congo Red also. It has lignin-degrading potentiality as it can decompose veratryl alcohol...
October 6, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Mukesh Meena, Andleeb Zehra, Manish K Dubey, Mohd Aamir, Vijai K Gupta, Ram S Upadhyay
In the present study, we have evaluated the comparative biochemical defense response generated against Alternaria alternata and its purified toxins viz. alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), and tenuazonic acid (TeA). The necrotic lesions developed due to treatment with toxins were almost similar as those produced by the pathogen, indicating the crucial role of these toxins in plant pathogenesis. An oxidative burst reaction characterized by the rapid and transient production of a large amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) occurs following the pathogen infection/toxin exposure...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Rucha Harishbhai Mehta, Manivel Ponnuchamy, Jitendra Kumar, Nagaraja Reddy Rama Reddy
De novo assembly of reads produced by next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies offers a rapid approach to obtain expressed gene sequences for non-model organisms. Senna (Cassia angustifolia Vahl.) is a drought-tolerant annual undershrub of Caesalpiniaceae, a subfamily of Fabaceae. There are insufficient transcriptomic and genomic data in public databases for understanding the molecular mechanism underlying the drought tolerance of senna. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to know the transcriptome profile of senna, with special reference to drought stress...
October 5, 2016: Functional & Integrative Genomics
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