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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526937/molecular-confirmation-of-intraspecific-tomato-solanum-lycopersicum-hybrids-and-their-evaluation-against-late-blight-and-cucumber-mosaic-virus
#1
Amjad Hameed, Muhammad Yussouf Saleem, Khalid Pervaiz Akhtar, Muhammad Shoaib, Qumer Iqbal, Muhammad Asghar
Tomato is one of the most consumed vegetables in the world. Diseases are the number one concern in the development of high-yield and disease-resistant tomato hybrids which is the foremost priority of breeders. Present study was conducted (1) to develop DNA-based markers for genetic confirmation of tomato F1 hybrids, (2) to utilize sequenced characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker linked to the Ph-3 gene for Phytophthora infestans resistance in tomato and (3) to evaluate male and female parental genotypes and their F1 hybrids against late blight (LB) and cucumber mosaic virus (CMV)...
May 19, 2017: Molecular Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522546/the-rxlr-motif-of-the-host-targeting-effector-avr3a-of-phytophthora-infestans-is-cleaved-before-secretion
#2
Stephan Wawra, Franziska Trusch, Anja Matena, Kostis Apostolakis, Uwe Linne, Igor Zhukov, Jan Stanek, Wiktor Koźmiński, Ian Davidson, Chris J Secombes, Peter Bayer, Pieter van West
When plant-pathogenic oomycetes infect their hosts, they employ a large arsenal of effector proteins to establish a successful infection. Some effector proteins are secreted and are destined to be translocated and function inside host cells. The largest group of translocated proteins from oomycetes are the RxLR effectors, defined by their conserved N-terminal Arg-Xaa-Leu-Arg (RxLR) motif. However, the precise role of this motif in the host cell translocation process is unclear. Here detailed biochemical studies of the RxLR effector AVR3a from the potato pathogen Phytophthora infestans are presented...
May 18, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512457/the-25-26-nt-small-rnas-in-phytophthora-parasitica-are-associated-with-efficient-silencing-of-homologous-endogenous-genes
#3
Jinbu Jia, Wenqin Lu, Chengcheng Zhong, Ran Zhou, Junjie Xu, Wei Liu, Xiuhong Gou, Qinhu Wang, Junliang Yin, Cheng Xu, Weixing Shan
Small RNAs (sRNAs) are important non-coding RNA regulators, playing key roles in developmental regulation, transposon suppression, environmental response, host-pathogen interaction and other diverse biological processes. However, their roles in oomycetes are poorly understood. Here, we performed sRNA sequencing and RNA sequencing of Phytophthora parasitica at stages of vegetative growth and infection of Arabidopsis roots to examine diversity and function of sRNAs in P. parasitica, a model hemibiotrophic oomycete plant pathogen...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510502/the-impact-of-steroidal-glycoalkaloids-on-the-physiology-of-phytophthora-infestans-the-causative-agent-of-potato-late-blight
#4
Paul Dahlin, Marion C Müller, Sophia Ekengren, Lauren S McKee, Vincent Bulone
Steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs) are plant secondary metabolites known to be toxic to animals and humans and that have putative roles in defense against pests. The proposed mechanisms of SGA toxicity are sterol-mediated disruption of membranes and inhibition of cholinesterase activity in neurons. It has been suggested that phytopathogenic microorganisms can overcome SGA toxicity by enzymatic deglycosylation of SGAs. Here, we have explored SGA-mediated toxicity toward the invasive oomycete Phytophthora infestans, the causative agent of the late blight disease in potato and tomato, as well as the potential for SGA deglycosylation by this species...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451820/analysis-of-the-potato-calcium-dependent-protein-kinase-family-and-characterization-of-stcdpk7-a-member-induced-upon-infection-with-phytophthora-infestans
#5
Elisa Fantino, María Eugenia Segretin, Franco Santin, Federico Gabriel Mirkin, Rita M Ulloa
We describe the potato CDPK family and place StCDPK7 as a player in potato response to Phytophthora infestans infection, identifying phenylalanine ammonia lyase as its specific phosphorylation target in vitro. Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) decode calcium (Ca(2+)) signals and activate different signaling pathways involved in hormone signaling, plant growth, development, and both abiotic and biotic stress responses. In this study, we describe the potato CDPK/CRK multigene family; bioinformatic analysis allowed us to identify 20 new CDPK isoforms, three CDPK-related kinases (CRKs), and a CDPK-like kinase...
April 27, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435885/phylogenomic-reconstruction-of-the-oomycete-phylogeny-derived-from-37-genomes
#6
Charley G P McCarthy, David A Fitzpatrick
The oomycetes are a class of microscopic, filamentous eukaryotes within the Stramenopiles-Alveolata-Rhizaria (SAR) supergroup which includes ecologically significant animal and plant pathogens, most infamously the causative agent of potato blight Phytophthora infestans. Single-gene and concatenated phylogenetic studies both of individual oomycete genera and of members of the larger class have resulted in conflicting conclusions concerning species phylogenies within the oomycetes, particularly for the large Phytophthora genus...
March 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402161/ein2-mediated-signaling-is-involved-in-pre-invasion-defense-in-nicotiana-benthamiana-against-potato-late-blight-pathogen-phytophthora-infestans
#7
Soriya Rin, Yuri Mizuno, Yusuke Shibata, Mayuka Fushimi, Shinpei Katou, Ikuo Sato, Sotaro Chiba, Kazuhito Kawakita, Daigo Takemoto
Nicotiana benthamiana ABCG1 and ABCG2 are ABC transporters which are probably involved in the export of capsidiol, the major phytoalexin of Nicotiana species. While capsidiol export by these transporters plays an essential role in post-invasion defense against Phytophthora infestans, they also export unidentified antimicrobial compound(s) involved in pre-invasion defense. In this study, promoter activity of NbABCG2 (Pabcg2a) was analyzed using a GFP marker. Expression of GFP under the control of Pabcg2a was significantly increased by co-expression with the INF1 elicitor from P...
April 12, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390504/characterization-of-phytophthora-infestans-populations-in-northwestern-algeria-during-2008-2014
#8
Fatma Zohra Rekad, David Edward Llewelyn Cooke, Ivana Puglisi, Eva Randall, Yamina Guenaoui, Zouaoui Bouznad, Maria Evoli, Antonella Pane, Leonardo Schena, Gaetano Magnano di San Lio, Santa Olga Cacciola
A total of 161 Phytophthora infestans isolates, collected from infected potato and tomato plants during 2008-2014, were characterized based on mating type, metalaxyl sensitivity and polymorphism at 12 simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci, in order to investigate the population of P. infestans in the north-west of Algeria, an emerging potato production region. The majority of isolates were of A2 mating type (112 isolates). A high percentage (89 %) of resistance to metalaxyl among isolates was detected. The metalaxyl resistant phenotype was present in both mating types with a higher percentage in A2 mating type isolates...
May 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386988/a-new-proteinaceous-pathogen-associated-molecular-pattern-pamp-identified-in-ascomycete-fungi-induces-cell-death-in-solanaceae
#9
Barbara Franco-Orozco, Adokiye Berepiki, Olaya Ruiz, Louise Gamble, Lucie L Griffe, Shumei Wang, Paul R J Birch, Kostya Kanyuka, Anna Avrova
Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) are detected by plant pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which gives rise to PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). We characterized a novel fungal PAMP, Cell Death Inducing 1 (RcCDI1), identified in the Rhynchosporium commune transcriptome sampled at an early stage of barley (Hordeum vulgare) infection. The ability of RcCDI1 and its homologues from different fungal species to induce cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana was tested following agroinfiltration or infiltration of recombinant proteins produced by Pichia pastoris...
June 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350531/phytophthora-infestans-effectors-ipi-o1-and-ipi-o4-each-contribute-to-pathogen-virulence
#10
Yu Chen, Dennis A Halterman
Potato late blight, caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans, is one of the most destructive plant diseases. Despite decades of intensive breeding efforts, it remains a threat to potato production worldwide, because newly evolved pathogen strains have overcome major resistance genes quickly. The RB protein, from the diploid wild potato species Solanum bulbocastanum, confers partial resistance to most P. infestans strains through its recognition of members of the corresponding pathogen effector protein family IPI-O...
May 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320402/albugo-imposed-changes-to-tryptophan-derived-antimicrobial-metabolite-biosynthesis-may-contribute-to-suppression-of-non-host-resistance-to-phytophthora-infestans-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#11
David C Prince, Ghanasyam Rallapalli, Deyang Xu, Henk-Jan Schoonbeek, Volkan Çevik, Shuta Asai, Eric Kemen, Neftaly Cruz-Mireles, Ariane Kemen, Khaoula Belhaj, Sebastian Schornack, Sophien Kamoun, Eric B Holub, Barbara A Halkier, Jonathan D G Jones
BACKGROUND: Plants are exposed to diverse pathogens and pests, yet most plants are resistant to most plant pathogens. Non-host resistance describes the ability of all members of a plant species to successfully prevent colonization by any given member of a pathogen species. White blister rust caused by Albugo species can overcome non-host resistance and enable secondary infection and reproduction of usually non-virulent pathogens, including the potato late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans on Arabidopsis thaliana...
March 20, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314907/structural-characterization-of-a-putative-chitin-synthase-gene-in-phytophthora-spp-and-analysis-of-its-transcriptional-activity-during-pathogenesis-on-potato-and-soybean-plants
#12
Lauren Hinkel, Manuel D Ospina-Giraldo
Although chitin is a major component of the fungal cell wall, in oomycetes (fungal-like organisms), this compound has only been found in very little amounts, mostly in the cell wall of members of the genera Achlya and Saprolegnia. In the oomycetes Phytophthora infestans and P. sojae the presence of chitin has not been demonstrated; however, the gene putatively encoding chitin synthase (CHS), the enzyme that synthesizes chitin, is present in their genomes. The evolutionary significance of the CHS gene in P. infestans and P...
March 17, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274218/genotypic-background-of-the-recipient-plant-is-crucial-for-conferring-rb-gene-mediated-late-blight-resistance-in-potato
#13
Rajesh K Shandil, Swarup K Chakrabarti, Bir Pal Singh, Sanjeev Sharma, S Sundaresha, Surinder K Kaushik, Arvind K Bhatt, Nitya Nand Sharma
BACKGROUND: Late blight, caused by oomycetes pathogen Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary, is the most devastating potato disease in the world. RB gene from Solanum bulbocastanum has been shown to impart broad spectrum resistance against P. infestans races. In this study Katahdin transgenic event SP951 was used as male parent to cross with the popular Indian potato cultivars viz., Kufri Bahar (KB) and Kufri Jyoti (KJ) to enhance the late blight resistance. RESULTS: Populations of 271 F1seedlings from the crosses KB × SP951 (87) and KJ × SP951 (184) were screened for inheritance of RB transgene through PCR and bioassay...
March 9, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270626/rxlr-effector-avr2-up-regulates-a-brassinosteroid-responsive-bhlh-transcription-factor-to-suppress-immunity
#14
Dionne Turnbull, Lina Yang, Shaista Naqvi, Susan Breen, Lydia Welsh, Jennifer Stephens, Jenny Morris, Petra C Boevink, Pete E Hedley, Jiasui Zhan, Paul R J Birch, Eleanor M Gilroy
An emerging area in plant research focuses on antagonism between regulatory systems governing growth and immunity. Such cross talk represents a point of vulnerability for pathogens to exploit. AVR2, an RXLR effector secreted by the potato blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans, interacts with potato BSL1, a putative phosphatase implicated in growth-promoting brassinosteroid (BR) hormone signaling. Transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants expressing the effector exhibit transcriptional and phenotypic hallmarks of overactive BR signaling and show enhanced susceptibility to P...
May 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228125/rna-seq-of-life-stages-of-the-oomycete-phytophthora-infestans-reveals-dynamic-changes-in-metabolic-signal-transduction-and-pathogenesis-genes-and-a-major-role-for-calcium-signaling-in-development
#15
Audrey M V Ah-Fong, Kyoung Su Kim, Howard S Judelson
BACKGROUND: The oomycete Phytophthora infestans causes the devastating late blight diseases of potato and tomato. P. infestans uses spores for dissemination and infection, like many other filamentous eukaryotic plant pathogens. The expression of a subset of its genes during spore formation and germination were studied previously, but comprehensive genome-wide data have not been available. RESULTS: RNA-seq was used to profile hyphae, sporangia, sporangia undergoing zoosporogenesis, motile zoospores, and germinated cysts of P...
February 23, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220439/effectoromics-based-identification-of-cell-surface-receptors-in-potato
#16
Emmanouil Domazakis, Xiao Lin, Carolina Aguilera-Galvez, Doret Wouters, Gerard Bijsterbosch, Pieter J Wolters, Vivianne G A A Vleeshouwers
In modern resistance breeding, effectors have emerged as tools for accelerating and improving the identification of immune receptors. Effector-assisted breeding was pioneered for identifying resistance genes (R genes) against Phytophthora infestans in potato (Solanum tuberosum). Here we show that effectoromics approaches are also well suitable for identifying pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) that recognize apoplastic effectors. To detect genotypes that recognize apoplastic proteins of P. infestans, routine agroinfiltration and potato virus X (PVX) agroinfection methods can be applied...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216607/the-cell-death-triggered-by-the-nuclear-localized-rxlr-effector-pitg_22798-from-phytophthora-infestans-is-suppressed-by-the-effector-avr3b
#17
Hongyang Wang, Yajuan Ren, Jing Zhou, Juan Du, Juan Hou, Rui Jiang, Haixia Wang, Zhendong Tian, Conghua Xie
Phytopathogenic oomycetes, such as Phytophthora infestans, potentially secrete many RxLR effector proteins into plant cells to modulate plant immune responses and promote colonization. However, the molecular mechanisms by which these RxLR effectors suppress plant immune responses are largely unknown. Here we describe an RxLR effector PITG_22798 (Gene accession: XM_002998349) that was upregulated during early infection of potato by P. infestans. By employment of agroinfiltration, we observed that PITG_22798 triggers cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana...
February 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197856/determination-of-substrate-preferences-for-desaturases-and-elongases-for-production-of-docosahexaenoic-acid-from-oleic-acid-in-engineered-canola
#18
Jenny Lindberg Yilmaz, Ze Long Lim, Mirela Beganovic, Steven Breazeale, Carl Andre, Sten Stymne, Patricia Vrinten, Toralf Senger
Production of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in plant seed oils has been pursued to improve availability of these omega-3 fatty acids that provide important human health benefits. Canola (Brassica napus), through the introduction of 10 enzymes, can convert oleic acid (OLA) into EPA and ultimately DHA through a pathway consisting of two elongation and five desaturation steps. Herein we present an assessment of the substrate specificity of the seven desaturases and three elongases that were introduced into canola by expressing individual proteins in yeast...
March 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174578/extracellular-alkalinization-as-a-defense-response-in-potato-cells
#19
Natalia Moroz, Karen R Fritch, Matthew J Marcec, Diwaker Tripathi, Andrei Smertenko, Kiwamu Tanaka
A quantitative and robust bioassay to assess plant defense response is important for studies of disease resistance and also for the early identification of disease during pre- or non-symptomatic phases. An increase in extracellular pH is known to be an early defense response in plants. In this study, we demonstrate extracellular alkalinization as a defense response in potatoes. Using potato suspension cell cultures, we observed an alkalinization response against various pathogen- and plant-derived elicitors in a dose- and time-dependent manner...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160617/reinforcing-plant-evolutionary-genomics-using-ancient-dna
#20
REVIEW
Rafal M Gutaker, Hernán A Burbano
Improved understanding of ancient DNA (aDNA) biochemical properties coupled with application of next generation sequencing (NGS) methods enabled sequencing and authenticating genomes of historical samples. This advancement ignited a revolution in plant evolutionary genomics by allowing direct observations of past molecular diversity. Analyses of genomes sequenced from temporally distributed samples of Gossypium sp., Phytophthora infestans and Arabidopsis thaliana improved our understanding of the evolutionary rates and time scales at which genome remodeling takes place...
February 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
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