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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080985/emerging-oomycete-threats-to-plants-and-animals
#1
REVIEW
Lida Derevnina, Benjamin Petre, Ronny Kellner, Yasin F Dagdas, Mohammad Nasif Sarowar, Artemis Giannakopoulou, Juan Carlos De la Concepcion, Angela Chaparro-Garcia, Helen G Pennington, Pieter van West, Sophien Kamoun
Oomycetes, or water moulds, are fungal-like organisms phylogenetically related to algae. They cause devastating diseases in both plants and animals. Here, we describe seven oomycete species that are emerging or re-emerging threats to agriculture, horticulture, aquaculture and natural ecosystems. They include the plant pathogens Phytophthora infestans, Phytophthora palmivora, Phytophthora ramorum, Plasmopara obducens, and the animal pathogens Aphanomyces invadans, Saprolegnia parasitica and Halioticida noduliformans For each species, we describe its pathology, importance and impact, discuss why it is an emerging threat and briefly review current research activities...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052487/the-coexistence-of-generalist-and-specialist-clonal-lineages-in-natural-populations-of-the-irish-famine-pathogen-phytophthora-infestans-explains-local-adaptation-to-potato-and-tomato
#2
Alexander Kröner, Romain Mabon, Roselyne Corbière, Josselin Montarry, Didier Andrivon
Phytophthora infestans, causing late blight on Solanaceae, is a serious threat to potato and tomato crops worldwide. P. infestans populations sampled on either potato or tomato differ in genotypes and pathogenicity, suggesting niche exclusion in the field. We hypothesized that such niche separation can reflect differential host exploitation by different P. infestans genotypes. We thus compared genotypes and phenotypes in 21 isolates sampled on potato (n = 11) or tomato (n = 10). Typing at 12 microsatellite loci assigned potato isolates to the 13_A2, 6_A1 and 1_A1 lineages, and tomato isolates to the 23_A1, 2_A1 and unclassified multi-locus genotypes...
January 4, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035737/high-levels-of-diversity-and-population-structure-in-the-potato-late-blight-pathogen-at-the-mexico-center-of-origin
#3
Jianan Wang, Sylvia P Fernândez-Pavía, Meredith M Larsen, Edith Garay-Serrano, Rosario Gregorio-Cipriano, Gerardo Rodríguez-Alvarado, Niklaus J Grünwald, Erica M Goss
Globally destructive crop pathogens often emerge by migrating out of their native ranges. These pathogens are often diverse at their center of origin, and may exhibit adaptive variation in the invaded range via multiple introductions from different source populations. However, source populations are generally unidentified or poorly studied compared to invasive populations. Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of late blight, is one of the most costly pathogens of potato and tomato worldwide. Mexico is the center of origin and diversity of P...
December 30, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030580/historic-late-blight-outbreaks-caused-by-a-widespread-dominant-lineage-of-phytophthora-infestans-mont-de-bary
#4
Amanda C Saville, Michael D Martin, Jean B Ristaino
Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary, the causal agent of potato late blight, was responsible for the Irish potato famine of the 1840s. Initial disease outbreaks occurred in the US in 1843, two years prior to European outbreaks. We examined the evolutionary relationships and source of the 19th-century outbreaks using herbarium specimens of P. infestans from historic (1846-1970) and more recent isolates (1992-2014) of the pathogen. The same unique SSR multilocus genotype, named here as FAM-1, caused widespread outbreaks in both US and Europe...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27968994/knocking-down-expression-of-the-auxin-amidohydrolase-iar3-alters-defense-responses-in-solanaceae-family-plants
#5
Sebastian D'Ippolito, Radomira Vankova, Matthieu H A J Joosten, Claudia A Casalongué, Diego F Fiol
In plants, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) amido hydrolases (AHs) participate in auxin homeostasis by releasing free IAA from IAA-amino acid conjugates. We investigated the role of IAR3, a member of the IAA amido hydrolase family, in the response of Solanaceous plants challenged by biotrophic and hemi-biotrophic pathogens. By means of genome inspection and phylogenic analysis we firstly identified IAA-AH sequences and putative IAR3 orthologs in Nicotiana benthamiana, tomato and potato. We evaluated the involvement of IAR3 genes in defense responses by using virus-induced gene silencing...
December 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957885/changing-ploidy-as-a-strategy-the-irish-potato-famine-pathogen-shifts-ploidy-in-relation-to-its-sexuality
#6
Ying Li, He Shen, Qian Zhou, Kun Qian, Theo van der Lee, Sanwen Huang
The oomycete Phytophthora infestans was the causal agent of the Irish Great Famine and is a recurring threat to global food security. The pathogen can reproduce both sexually and asexually, with high potential to adapt to various environments and great risk to break disease resistance genes in potato. As other oomycetes, P. infestans is regarded to be diploid during the vegetative phase of its life cycle, although some studies reported trisomy, and polyploidy. Using microsatellite fingerprinting, genome-wide assessment of SNP polymorphism, nuclear DNA quantification, and microscopic counting of chromosome numbers we assessed the ploidy level of isolates...
December 13, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936244/gene-expression-and-silencing-studies-in-phytophthora-infestans-reveal-infection-specific-nutrient-transporters-and-a-role-for-the-nitrate-reductase-pathway-in-plant-pathogenesis
#7
Melania Abrahamian, Audrey M V Ah-Fong, Carol Davis, Kalina Andreeva, Howard S Judelson
To help learn how phytopathogens feed from their hosts, genes for nutrient transporters from the hemibiotrophic potato and tomato pest Phytophthora infestans were annotated. This identified 453 genes from 19 families. Comparisons with a necrotrophic oomycete, Pythium ultimum var. ultimum, and a hemibiotrophic fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, revealed diversity in the size of some families although a similar fraction of genes encoded transporters. RNA-seq of infected potato tubers, tomato leaves, and several artificial media revealed that 56 and 207 transporters from P...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905931/a-temporal-assessment-of-nematode-community-structure-and-diversity-in-the-rhizosphere-of-cisgenic-phytophthora-infestans-resistant-potatoes
#8
Vilma Ortiz, Sinead Phelan, Ewen Mullins
BACKGROUND: Nematodes play a key role in soil processes with alterations in the nematode community structure having the potential to considerably influence ecosystem functioning. As a result fluctuations in nematode diversity and/or community structure can be gauged as a 'barometer' of a soil's functional biodiversity. However, a deficit exists in regards to baseline knowledge and on the impact of specific GM crops on soil nematode populations and in particular in regard to the impact of GM potatoes on the diversity of nematode populations in the rhizosphere...
December 1, 2016: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852223/diversity-evolution-and-expression-profiles-of-histone-acetyltransferases-and-deacetylases-in-oomycetes
#9
Xiao-Wen Wang, Li-Yun Guo, Miao Han, Kun Shan
BACKGROUND: Oomycetes are a group of fungus-like eukaryotes with diverse microorganisms living in marine, freshwater and terrestrial environments. Many of them are important pathogens of plants and animals, causing severe economic losses. Based on previous study, gene expression in eukaryotic cells is regulated by epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation and histone modification. However, little is known about epigenetic mechanisms of oomycetes. RESULTS: In this study, we investigated the candidate genes in regulating histone acetylation in oomycetes genomes through bioinformatics approaches and identified a group of diverse histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs), along with three putative novel HATs...
November 16, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827009/phenazine-1-carboxylic-acid-production-by-pseudomonas-fluorescens-lbum636-alters-phytophthora-infestans-growth-and-late-blight-development
#10
Christopher K Morrison, Tanya Arseneault, Amy Novinscak, Martin Filion
Phytophthora infestans causes late blight of potato, one of the most devastating diseases affecting potato production. Alternative approaches for controlling late blight are being increasingly sought due to increasing environmental concerns over the use of chemical pesticides and the increasing resistance of P. infestans to fungicides. Our research group has isolated a new strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens (LBUM636) of biocontrol interest producing the antibiotic phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA). Wild-type LBUM636 was shown to significantly inhibit the growth of Phytophthora infestans in in vitro confrontational assays whereas its isogenic mutant (phzC-; not producing PCA) only slightly altered the pathogen's growth...
December 30, 2016: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812174/genetic-variation-within-clonal-lineages-of-phytophthora-infestans-revealed-through-genotyping-by-sequencing-and-implications-for-late-blight-epidemiology
#11
Zachariah R Hansen, Kathryne L Everts, William E Fry, Amanda J Gevens, Niklaus J Grünwald, Beth K Gugino, Dennis A Johnson, Steven B Johnson, Howard S Judelson, Brian J Knaus, Margaret T McGrath, Kevin L Myers, Jean B Ristaino, Pamela D Roberts, Gary A Secor, Christine D Smart
Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) was performed on 257 Phytophthora infestans isolates belonging to four clonal lineages to study within-lineage diversity. The four lineages used in the study were US-8 (n = 28), US-11 (n = 27), US-23 (n = 166), and US-24 (n = 36), with isolates originating from 23 of the United States and Ontario, Canada. The majority of isolates were collected between 2010 and 2014 (94%), with the remaining isolates collected from 1994 to 2009, and 2015. Between 3,774 and 5,070 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified within each lineage and were used to investigate relationships among individuals...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801966/comparative-transcriptome-analysis-between-resistant-and-susceptible-tomato-allows-the-identification-of-lncrna16397-conferring-resistance-to-phytophthora-infestans-by-co-expressing-glutaredoxin
#12
Jun Cui, Yushi Luan, Ning Jiang, Hang Bao, Jun Meng
The rapid development of omics sequencing technology has facilitated the identification of thousands of lncRNAs in plant species, but the role of lncRNAs in plant-pathogen interactions remains largely unexplored. We used comparative transcriptome analysis of Phytophthora infestans-resistant and susceptible tomatoes to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and lncRNAs (DELs) and examine lncRNA-mRNA networks. A total of 1,037 DEGs and 688 DELs were identified between P. infestans-resistant and susceptible tomatoes...
November 1, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779242/mir1918-enhances-tomato-sensitivity-to-phytophthora-infestans-infection
#13
Yushi Luan, Jun Cui, Weichen Wang, Jun Meng
Late blight of tomato is caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans. In our previous work, we identified and characterized a miR1918 in P. infestans (pi-miR1918), and showed that its sequence is similar to the sequence of tomato miR1918 (sly-miR1918). In this study, we used Arabidopsis thaliana pre-miR159a as a backbone to synthesize pi-miR1918 via PCR and mutagenesis. The artificial pi-miR1918 was used to investigate the role of miR1918 in tomato-P. infestans interaction. Trangenic tomato plants that overexpressed the artificial pi-miR1918 displayed more serious disease symptoms than wild-type tomato plants after infection with P...
October 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744101/comparison-of-antifungal-activity-of-extracts-from-different-juglans-regia-cultivars-and-juglone
#14
D Wianowska, S Garbaczewska, A Cieniecka-Roslonkiewicz, A L Dawidowicz, A Jankowska
This study discusses the similarities and differences between the antifungal activity of extracts from walnut green husks of Lake, Koszycki, UO1, UO2 and non-grafted cultivars as well as juglone against the plant pathogenic fungi such as Alternaria alternata, Rhizoctonia solani, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium culmorum, Phytophthora infestans as well as Ascosphaera apis causing chalkbrood disease in honey bees. The obtained data show that the antifungal activities of the extracts do not always depend on the antifungal activity of juglone, and that they can be modulated by their other components...
November 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723513/the-cell-biology-of-late-blight-disease
#15
REVIEW
Stephen C Whisson, Petra C Boevink, Shumei Wang, Paul Rj Birch
Late blight, caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, is a major global disease of potato and tomato. Cell biology is teaching us much about the developmental stages associated with infection, especially the haustorium, which is a site of intimate interaction and molecular exchange between pathogen and host. Recent observations suggest a role for the plant endocytic cycle in specific recruitment of host proteins to the Extra-Haustorial Membrane, emphasising the unique nature of this membrane compartment...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714409/filamentous-actin-accumulates-during-plant-cell-penetration-and-cell-wall-plug-formation-in-phytophthora-infestans
#16
Kiki Kots, Harold J G Meijer, Klaas Bouwmeester, Francine Govers, Tijs Ketelaar
The oomycete Phytophthora infestans is the cause of late blight in potato and tomato. It is a devastating pathogen and there is an urgent need to design alternative strategies to control the disease. To find novel potential drug targets, we used Lifeact-eGFP expressing P. infestans for high resolution live cell imaging of the actin cytoskeleton in various developmental stages. Previously, we identified actin plaques as structures that are unique for oomycetes. Here we describe two additional novel actin configurations; one associated with plug deposition in germ tubes and the other with appressoria, infection structures formed prior to host cell penetration...
October 6, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695047/contrasting-regulation-of-no-and-ros-in-potato-defense-associated-metabolism-in-response-to-pathogens-of-different-lifestyles
#17
Jolanta Floryszak-Wieczorek, Magdalena Arasimowicz-Jelonek
Our research provides new insights into how the low and steady-state levels of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in potato leaves are altered after the challenge with the hemibiotroph Phytophthora infestans or the necrotroph Botrytis cinerea, with the subsequent rapid and invader-dependent modification of defense responses with opposite effects. Mainly in the avirulent (avr) P. infestans-potato system, NO well balanced with the superoxide level was tuned with a battery of SA-dependent defense genes, leading to the establishment of the hypersensitive response (HR) successfully arresting the pathogen...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648246/local-adaptation-to-temperature-in-populations-and-clonal-lineages-of-the-irish-potato-famine-pathogen-phytophthora-infestans
#18
Nicolas Mariette, Annabelle Androdias, Romain Mabon, Roselyne Corbière, Bruno Marquer, Josselin Montarry, Didier Andrivon
Environmental factors such as temperature strongly impact microbial communities. In the current context of global warming, it is therefore crucial to understand the effects of these factors on human, animal, or plant pathogens. Here, we used a common-garden experiment to analyze the thermal responses of three life-history traits (latent period, lesion growth, spore number) in isolates of the potato late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans from different climatic zones. We also used a fitness index (FI) aggregating these traits into a single parameter...
September 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27602267/microbe-id-an-open-source-toolbox-for-microbial-genotyping-and-species-identification
#19
Javier F Tabima, Sydney E Everhart, Meredith M Larsen, Alexandra J Weisberg, Zhian N Kamvar, Matthew A Tancos, Christine D Smart, Jeff H Chang, Niklaus J Grünwald
Development of tools to identify species, genotypes, or novel strains of invasive organisms is critical for monitoring emergence and implementing rapid response measures. Molecular markers, although critical to identifying species or genotypes, require bioinformatic tools for analysis. However, user-friendly analytical tools for fast identification are not readily available. To address this need, we created a web-based set of applications called Microbe-ID that allow for customizing a toolbox for rapid species identification and strain genotyping using any genetic markers of choice...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27599726/establishment-of-a-simple-and-efficient-agrobacterium-mediated-transformation-system-for-phytophthora-palmivora
#20
Dongliang Wu, Natasha Navet, Yingchao Liu, Janice Uchida, Miaoying Tian
BACKGROUND: As an agriculturally important oomycete genus, Phytophthora contains a large number of destructive plant pathogens that severely threaten agricultural production and natural ecosystems. Among them is the broad host range pathogen P. palmivora, which infects many economically important plant species. An essential way to dissect their pathogenesis mechanisms is genetic modification of candidate genes, which requires effective transformation systems. Four methods were developed for transformation of Phytophthora spp...
2016: BMC Microbiology
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