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phytophthora infestans

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320402/albugo-imposed-changes-to-tryptophan-derived-antimicrobial-metabolite-biosynthesis-may-contribute-to-suppression-of-non-host-resistance-to-phytophthora-infestans-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#1
David C Prince, Ghanasyam Rallapalli, Deyang Xu, Henk-Jan Schoonbeek, Volkan Çevik, Shuta Asai, Eric Kemen, Neftaly Cruz-Mireles, Ariane Kemen, Khaoula Belhaj, Sebastian Schornack, Sophien Kamoun, Eric B Holub, Barbara A Halkier, Jonathan D G Jones
BACKGROUND: Plants are exposed to diverse pathogens and pests, yet most plants are resistant to most plant pathogens. Non-host resistance describes the ability of all members of a plant species to successfully prevent colonization by any given member of a pathogen species. White blister rust caused by Albugo species can overcome non-host resistance and enable secondary infection and reproduction of usually non-virulent pathogens, including the potato late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans on Arabidopsis thaliana...
March 20, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314907/structural-characterization-of-a-putative-chitin-synthase-gene-in-phytophthora-spp-and-analysis-of-its-transcriptional-activity-during-pathogenesis-on-potato-and-soybean-plants
#2
Lauren Hinkel, Manuel D Ospina-Giraldo
Although chitin is a major component of the fungal cell wall, in oomycetes (fungal-like organisms), this compound has only been found in very little amounts, mostly in the cell wall of members of the genera Achlya and Saprolegnia. In the oomycetes Phytophthora infestans and P. sojae the presence of chitin has not been demonstrated; however, the gene putatively encoding chitin synthase (CHS), the enzyme that synthesizes chitin, is present in their genomes. The evolutionary significance of the CHS gene in P. infestans and P...
March 17, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274218/genotypic-background-of-the-recipient-plant-is-crucial-for-conferring-rb-gene-mediated-late-blight-resistance-in-potato
#3
Rajesh K Shandil, Swarup K Chakrabarti, Bir Pal Singh, Sanjeev Sharma, S Sundaresha, Surinder K Kaushik, Arvind K Bhatt, Nitya Nand Sharma
BACKGROUND: Late blight, caused by oomycetes pathogen Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary, is the most devastating potato disease in the world. RB gene from Solanum bulbocastanum has been shown to impart broad spectrum resistance against P. infestans races. In this study Katahdin transgenic event SP951 was used as male parent to cross with the popular Indian potato cultivars viz., Kufri Bahar (KB) and Kufri Jyoti (KJ) to enhance the late blight resistance. RESULTS: Populations of 271 F1seedlings from the crosses KB × SP951 (87) and KJ × SP951 (184) were screened for inheritance of RB transgene through PCR and bioassay...
March 9, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270626/rxlr-effector-avr2-up-regulates-a-brassinosteroid-responsive-bhlh-transcription-factor-to-suppress-immunity
#4
Dionne Turnbull, Lina Yang, Shaista Naqvi, Susan Breen, Lydia Welsh, Jennifer Stephens, Jennifer Morris, Petra C Boevink, Peter E Hedley, Jiasui Zhan, Paul R J Birch, Eleanor M Gilroy
An emerging area in plant research focuses on antagonism between regulatory systems governing growth and immunity. Such crosstalk represents a point of vulnerability for pathogens to exploit. AVR2, an RXLR effector secreted by the potato blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans, interacts with potato BSL1, a putative phosphatase implicated in growth-promoting brassinosteroid (BR) hormone signalling. Transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants expressing the effector exhibit transcriptional and phenotypic hallmarks of over-active BR signalling, and show enhanced susceptibility to P...
March 7, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228125/rna-seq-of-life-stages-of-the-oomycete-phytophthora-infestans-reveals-dynamic-changes-in-metabolic-signal-transduction-and-pathogenesis-genes-and-a-major-role-for-calcium-signaling-in-development
#5
Audrey M V Ah-Fong, Kyoung Su Kim, Howard S Judelson
BACKGROUND: The oomycete Phytophthora infestans causes the devastating late blight diseases of potato and tomato. P. infestans uses spores for dissemination and infection, like many other filamentous eukaryotic plant pathogens. The expression of a subset of its genes during spore formation and germination were studied previously, but comprehensive genome-wide data have not been available. RESULTS: RNA-seq was used to profile hyphae, sporangia, sporangia undergoing zoosporogenesis, motile zoospores, and germinated cysts of P...
February 23, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220439/effectoromics-based-identification-of-cell-surface-receptors-in-potato
#6
Emmanouil Domazakis, Xiao Lin, Carolina Aguilera-Galvez, Doret Wouters, Gerard Bijsterbosch, Pieter J Wolters, Vivianne G A A Vleeshouwers
In modern resistance breeding, effectors have emerged as tools for accelerating and improving the identification of immune receptors. Effector-assisted breeding was pioneered for identifying resistance genes (R genes) against Phytophthora infestans in potato (Solanum tuberosum). Here we show that effectoromics approaches are also well suitable for identifying pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) that recognize apoplastic effectors. To detect genotypes that recognize apoplastic proteins of P. infestans, routine agroinfiltration and potato virus X (PVX) agroinfection methods can be applied...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216607/the-cell-death-triggered-by-the-nuclear-localized-rxlr-effector-pitg_22798-from-phytophthora-infestans-is-suppressed-by-the-effector-avr3b
#7
Hongyang Wang, Yajuan Ren, Jing Zhou, Juan Du, Juan Hou, Rui Jiang, Haixia Wang, Zhendong Tian, Conghua Xie
Phytopathogenic oomycetes, such as Phytophthora infestans, potentially secrete many RxLR effector proteins into plant cells to modulate plant immune responses and promote colonization. However, the molecular mechanisms by which these RxLR effectors suppress plant immune responses are largely unknown. Here we describe an RxLR effector PITG_22798 (Gene accession: XM_002998349) that was upregulated during early infection of potato by P. infestans. By employment of agroinfiltration, we observed that PITG_22798 triggers cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana...
February 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197856/determination-of-substrate-preferences-for-desaturases-and-elongases-for-production-of-docosahexaenoic-acid-from-oleic-acid-in-engineered-canola
#8
Jenny Lindberg Yilmaz, Ze Long Lim, Mirela Beganovic, Steven Breazeale, Carl Andre, Sten Stymne, Patricia Vrinten, Toralf Senger
Production of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in plant seed oils has been pursued to improve availability of these omega-3 fatty acids that provide important human health benefits. Canola (Brassica napus), through the introduction of 10 enzymes, can convert oleic acid (OLA) into EPA and ultimately DHA through a pathway consisting of two elongation and five desaturation steps. Herein we present an assessment of the substrate specificity of the seven desaturases and three elongases that were introduced into canola by expressing individual proteins in yeast...
March 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174578/extracellular-alkalinization-as-a-defense-response-in-potato-cells
#9
Natalia Moroz, Karen R Fritch, Matthew J Marcec, Diwaker Tripathi, Andrei Smertenko, Kiwamu Tanaka
A quantitative and robust bioassay to assess plant defense response is important for studies of disease resistance and also for the early identification of disease during pre- or non-symptomatic phases. An increase in extracellular pH is known to be an early defense response in plants. In this study, we demonstrate extracellular alkalinization as a defense response in potatoes. Using potato suspension cell cultures, we observed an alkalinization response against various pathogen- and plant-derived elicitors in a dose- and time-dependent manner...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160617/reinforcing-plant-evolutionary-genomics-using-ancient-dna
#10
REVIEW
Rafal M Gutaker, Hernán A Burbano
Improved understanding of ancient DNA (aDNA) biochemical properties coupled with application of next generation sequencing (NGS) methods enabled sequencing and authenticating genomes of historical samples. This advancement ignited a revolution in plant evolutionary genomics by allowing direct observations of past molecular diversity. Analyses of genomes sequenced from temporally distributed samples of Gossypium sp., Phytophthora infestans and Arabidopsis thaliana improved our understanding of the evolutionary rates and time scales at which genome remodeling takes place...
February 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152045/comparative-analysis-of-sterol-acquisition-in-the-oomycetes-saprolegnia-parasitica-and-phytophthora-infestans
#11
Paul Dahlin, Vaibhav Srivastava, Sophia Ekengren, Lauren S McKee, Vincent Bulone
The oomycete class includes pathogens of animals and plants which are responsible for some of the most significant global losses in agriculture and aquaculture. There is a need to replace traditional chemical means of controlling oomycete growth with more targeted approaches, and the inhibition of sterol synthesis is one promising area. To better direct these efforts, we have studied sterol acquisition in two model organisms: the sterol-autotrophic Saprolegnia parasitica, and the sterol-heterotrophic Phytophthora infestans...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134594/expression-of-the-potato-late-blight-resistance-gene-rpi-phu1-and-phytophthora-infestans-effectors-in-the-compatible-and-incompatible-interactions-in-potato
#12
Emil Stefańczyk, Sylwester Sobkowiak, Marta Brylińska, Jadwiga Śliwka
This study describes late blight resistance of potato breeding lines resulting from crosses between cv. Sárpo Mira and Rpi-phu1 gene donors. The progeny is investigated for the presence of Rpi-Smira1 and Rpi-phu1 resistance genes. Interestingly, in detached leaflet tests, plants with both R genes withstand the infection of the Phytophthora infestans isolate virulent to each gene separately, either due to interaction of these genes or presence of additional resistance loci. The interaction was studied further in three chosen breeding lines on the transcriptional level...
January 30, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133579/the-wild-tomato-species-solanum-chilense-shows-variation-in-pathogen-resistance-between-geographically-distinct-populations
#13
Remco Stam, Daniela Scheikl, Aurélien Tellier
Wild tomatoes are a valuable source of disease resistance germplasm for tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) breeders. Many species are known to possess a certain degree of resistance against certain pathogens; however, evolution of resistance traits is yet poorly understood. For some species, like Solanum chilense, both differences in habitat and within species genetic diversity are very large. Here we aim to investigate the occurrence of spatially heterogeneous coevolutionary pressures between populations of S. chilense...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080985/emerging-oomycete-threats-to-plants-and-animals
#14
REVIEW
Lida Derevnina, Benjamin Petre, Ronny Kellner, Yasin F Dagdas, Mohammad Nasif Sarowar, Artemis Giannakopoulou, Juan Carlos De la Concepcion, Angela Chaparro-Garcia, Helen G Pennington, Pieter van West, Sophien Kamoun
Oomycetes, or water moulds, are fungal-like organisms phylogenetically related to algae. They cause devastating diseases in both plants and animals. Here, we describe seven oomycete species that are emerging or re-emerging threats to agriculture, horticulture, aquaculture and natural ecosystems. They include the plant pathogens Phytophthora infestans, Phytophthora palmivora, Phytophthora ramorum, Plasmopara obducens, and the animal pathogens Aphanomyces invadans, Saprolegnia parasitica and Halioticida noduliformans For each species, we describe its pathology, importance and impact, discuss why it is an emerging threat and briefly review current research activities...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052487/the-coexistence-of-generalist-and-specialist-clonal-lineages-in-natural-populations-of-the-irish-famine-pathogen-phytophthora-infestans-explains-local-adaptation-to-potato-and-tomato
#15
Alexander Kröner, Romain Mabon, Roselyne Corbière, Josselin Montarry, Didier Andrivon
Phytophthora infestans, causing late blight on Solanaceae, is a serious threat to potato and tomato crops worldwide. P. infestans populations sampled on either potato or tomato differ in genotypes and pathogenicity, suggesting niche exclusion in the field. We hypothesized that such niche separation can reflect differential host exploitation by different P. infestans genotypes. We thus compared genotypes and phenotypes in 21 isolates sampled on potato (n = 11) or tomato (n = 10). Typing at 12 microsatellite loci assigned potato isolates to the 13_A2, 6_A1 and 1_A1 lineages, and tomato isolates to the 23_A1, 2_A1 and unclassified multi-locus genotypes...
January 4, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035737/high-levels-of-diversity-and-population-structure-in-the-potato-late-blight-pathogen-at-the-mexico-centre-of-origin
#16
Jianan Wang, Sylvia P Fernández-Pavía, Meredith M Larsen, Edith Garay-Serrano, Rosario Gregorio-Cipriano, Gerardo Rodríguez-Alvarado, Niklaus J Grünwald, Erica M Goss
Globally destructive crop pathogens often emerge by migrating out of their native ranges. These pathogens are often diverse at their centre of origin and may exhibit adaptive variation in the invaded range via multiple introductions from different source populations. However, source populations are generally unidentified or poorly studied compared to invasive populations. Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of late blight, is one of the most costly pathogens of potato and tomato worldwide. Mexico is the centre of origin and diversity of P...
February 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030580/historic-late-blight-outbreaks-caused-by-a-widespread-dominant-lineage-of-phytophthora-infestans-mont-de-bary
#17
Amanda C Saville, Michael D Martin, Jean B Ristaino
Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary, the causal agent of potato late blight, was responsible for the Irish potato famine of the 1840s. Initial disease outbreaks occurred in the US in 1843, two years prior to European outbreaks. We examined the evolutionary relationships and source of the 19th-century outbreaks using herbarium specimens of P. infestans from historic (1846-1970) and more recent isolates (1992-2014) of the pathogen. The same unique SSR multilocus genotype, named here as FAM-1, caused widespread outbreaks in both US and Europe...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27968994/knocking-down-expression-of-the-auxin-amidohydrolase-iar3-alters-defense-responses-in-solanaceae-family-plants
#18
Sebastian D'Ippolito, Radomira Vankova, Matthieu H A J Joosten, Claudia A Casalongué, Diego F Fiol
In plants, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) amido hydrolases (AHs) participate in auxin homeostasis by releasing free IAA from IAA-amino acid conjugates. We investigated the role of IAR3, a member of the IAA amido hydrolase family, in the response of Solanaceous plants challenged by biotrophic and hemi-biotrophic pathogens. By means of genome inspection and phylogenic analysis we firstly identified IAA-AH sequences and putative IAR3 orthologs in Nicotiana benthamiana, tomato and potato. We evaluated the involvement of IAR3 genes in defense responses by using virus-induced gene silencing...
December 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957885/changing-ploidy-as-a-strategy-the-irish-potato-famine-pathogen-shifts-ploidy-in-relation-to-its-sexuality
#19
Ying Li, He Shen, Qian Zhou, Kun Qian, Theo van der Lee, Sanwen Huang
The oomycete Phytophthora infestans was the causal agent of the Irish Great Famine and is a recurring threat to global food security. The pathogen can reproduce both sexually and asexually, with high potential to adapt to various environments and great risk to break disease resistance genes in potato. As are other oomycetes, P. infestans is regarded to be diploid during the vegetative phase of its life cycle, although some studies reported trisomy and polyploidy. Using microsatellite fingerprinting, genome-wide assessment of single nucleotide polymorphisms, nuclear DNA quantification, and microscopic counting of chromosome numbers, we assessed the ploidy level of a comprehensive selection of isolates...
January 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936244/gene-expression-and-silencing-studies-in-phytophthora-infestans-reveal-infection-specific-nutrient-transporters-and-a-role-for-the-nitrate-reductase-pathway-in-plant-pathogenesis
#20
Melania Abrahamian, Audrey M V Ah-Fong, Carol Davis, Kalina Andreeva, Howard S Judelson
To help learn how phytopathogens feed from their hosts, genes for nutrient transporters from the hemibiotrophic potato and tomato pest Phytophthora infestans were annotated. This identified 453 genes from 19 families. Comparisons with a necrotrophic oomycete, Pythium ultimum var. ultimum, and a hemibiotrophic fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, revealed diversity in the size of some families although a similar fraction of genes encoded transporters. RNA-seq of infected potato tubers, tomato leaves, and several artificial media revealed that 56 and 207 transporters from P...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
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