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phytophthora infestans

D Wianowska, S Garbaczewska, A Cieniecka-Roslonkiewicz, A L Dawidowicz, A Jankowska
This study discusses the similarities and differences between the antifungal activity of extracts from walnut green husks of Lake, Koszycki, UO1, UO2 and non-grafted cultivars as well as juglone against the plant pathogenic fungi such as Alternaria alternata, Rhizoctonia solani, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium culmorum, Phytophthora infestans as well as Ascosphaera apis causing chalkbrood disease in honey bees. The obtained data show that the antifungal activities of the extracts do not always depend on the antifungal activity of juglone, and that they can be modulated by their other components...
October 12, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Stephen C Whisson, Petra C Boevink, Shumei Wang, Paul Rj Birch
Late blight, caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, is a major global disease of potato and tomato. Cell biology is teaching us much about the developmental stages associated with infection, especially the haustorium, which is a site of intimate interaction and molecular exchange between pathogen and host. Recent observations suggest a role for the plant endocytic cycle in specific recruitment of host proteins to the Extra-Haustorial Membrane, emphasising the unique nature of this membrane compartment...
October 7, 2016: Current Opinion in Microbiology
Kiki Kots, Harold J G Meijer, Klaas Bouwmeester, Francine Govers, Tijs Ketelaar
The oomycete Phytophthora infestans is the cause of late blight in potato and tomato. It is a devastating pathogen and there is an urgent need to design alternative strategies to control the disease. To find novel potential drug targets, we used Lifeact-eGFP expressing P. infestans for high resolution live cell imaging of the actin cytoskeleton in various developmental stages. Previously, we identified actin plaques as structures that are unique for oomycetes. Here we describe two additional novel actin configurations; one associated with plug deposition in germ tubes and the other with appressoria, infection structures formed prior to host cell penetration...
October 6, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Jolanta Floryszak-Wieczorek, Magdalena Arasimowicz-Jelonek
Our research provides new insights into how the low and steady-state levels of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in potato leaves are altered after the challenge with the hemibiotroph Phytophthora infestans or the necrotroph Botrytis cinerea, with the subsequent rapid and invader-dependent modification of defense responses with opposite effects. Mainly in the avirulent (avr) P. infestans-potato system, NO well balanced with the superoxide level was tuned with a battery of SA-dependent defense genes, leading to the establishment of the hypersensitive response (HR) successfully arresting the pathogen...
2016: PloS One
Nicolas Mariette, Annabelle Androdias, Romain Mabon, Roselyne Corbière, Bruno Marquer, Josselin Montarry, Didier Andrivon
Environmental factors such as temperature strongly impact microbial communities. In the current context of global warming, it is therefore crucial to understand the effects of these factors on human, animal, or plant pathogens. Here, we used a common-garden experiment to analyze the thermal responses of three life-history traits (latent period, lesion growth, spore number) in isolates of the potato late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans from different climatic zones. We also used a fitness index (FI) aggregating these traits into a single parameter...
September 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Javier F Tabima, Sydney E Everhart, Meredith M Larsen, Alexandra J Weisberg, Zhian N Kamvar, Matthew A Tancos, Christine D Smart, Jeff H Chang, Niklaus J Grünwald
Development of tools to identify species, genotypes, or novel strains of invasive organisms is critical for monitoring emergence and implementing rapid response measures. Molecular markers, although critical to identifying species or genotypes, require bioinformatic tools for analysis. However, user-friendly analytical tools for fast identification are not readily available. To address this need, we created a web-based set of applications called Microbe-ID that allow for customizing a toolbox for rapid species identification and strain genotyping using any genetic markers of choice...
2016: PeerJ
Dongliang Wu, Natasha Navet, Yingchao Liu, Janice Uchida, Miaoying Tian
BACKGROUND: As an agriculturally important oomycete genus, Phytophthora contains a large number of destructive plant pathogens that severely threaten agricultural production and natural ecosystems. Among them is the broad host range pathogen P. palmivora, which infects many economically important plant species. An essential way to dissect their pathogenesis mechanisms is genetic modification of candidate genes, which requires effective transformation systems. Four methods were developed for transformation of Phytophthora spp...
2016: BMC Microbiology
Jolanta Floryszak-Wieczorek, Magdalena Arasimowicz-Jelonek, Karolina Izbiańska
In contrast to the in-depth knowledge concerning nitric oxide (NO) function, our understanding of NO synthesis in plants is still very limited. In view of the above, this paper provides a step by step presentation of the reductive pathway for endogenous NO generation involving nitrate reductase (NR) activity and nitrite implication in potato defense to Phytophthora infestans. A biphasic character of NO emission, peaking mainly at 3 and then at 24 hpi, was detected during the hypersensitive response (HR). In avr P...
August 18, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Sophie de Vries, Janina K von Dahlen, Constanze Uhlmann, Anika Schnake, Thorsten Kloesges, Laura E Rose
Phytophthora infestans is a devastating pathogen in agricultural systems. Recently, an RNA silencing suppressor (PSR2, 'Phytophthora suppressor of RNA silencing 2') has been described in P. infestans. PSR2 has been shown to increase the virulence of Phytophthora pathogens on their hosts. This gene is one of the few effectors present in many economically important Phytophthora species. In this study, we investigated: (i) the evolutionary history of PSR2 within and between species of Phytophthora; and (ii) the interaction between sequence variation, gene expression and virulence...
August 9, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
Abbas Maqbool, Richard K Hughes, Yasin F Dagdas, Nicholas Tregidgo, Erin Zess, Khaoula Belhaj, Adam Round, Tolga O Bozkurt, Sophien Kamoun, Mark J Banfield
Filamentous plant pathogens deliver effector proteins to host cells to promote infection. The Phytophthora infestans RXLR-type effector PexRD54 binds potato ATG8 via its ATG8 family-interacting motif (AIM) and perturbs host-selective autophagy. However, the structural basis of this interaction remains unknown. Here, we define the crystal structure of PexRD54, which includes a modular architecture, including five tandem repeat domains, with the AIM sequence presented at the disordered C terminus. To determine the interface between PexRD54 and ATG8, we solved the crystal structure of potato ATG8CL in complex with a peptide comprising the effector's AIM sequence, and we established a model of the full-length PexRD54-ATG8CL complex using small angle x-ray scattering...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Liangliang Gao, James M Bradeen
The late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans can attack both potato foliage and tubers. When inoculated with P. infestans, foliage of nontransformed 'Russet Burbank' (WT) develops late blight disease while that of transgenic 'Russet Burbank' line SP2211 (+RB) does not. We compared the foliar transcriptome responses of these two lines to P. infestans inoculation using an RNA-seq approach. A total of 515 million paired end RNA-seq reads were generated, representing the transcription of 29,970 genes. We also compared the differences and similarities of defense mechanisms against P...
2016: PloS One
Fei Xia, Xueying Li, Xinzheng Li, Desong Zheng, Quanxi Sun, Jiang Liu, Yaxiao Li, Jinping Hua, Baoxiu Qi
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5Δ5,8,11,14,17) and Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6Δ4,7,10,13,16,19) are nutritionally beneficial to human health. Transgenic production of EPA and DHA in oilseed crops by transferring genes originating from lower eukaryotes, such as microalgae and fungi, has been attempted in recent years. However, the low yield of EPA and DHA produced in these transgenic crops is a major hurdle for the commercialization of these transgenics. Many factors can negatively affect transgene expression, leading to a low level of converted fatty acid products...
2016: PloS One
Gang Wang, Zhiguo Liu, Runmao Lin, Erfeng Li, Zhenchuan Mao, Jian Ling, Yuhong Yang, Wen-Bing Yin, Bingyan Xie
Purpureocillium lilacinum of Ophiocordycipitaceae is one of the most promising and commercialized agents for controlling plant parasitic nematodes, as well as other insects and plant pathogens. However, how the fungus functions at the molecular level remains unknown. Here, we sequenced two isolates (PLBJ-1 and PLFJ-1) of P. lilacinum from different places Beijing and Fujian. Genomic analysis showed high synteny of the two isolates, and the phylogenetic analysis indicated they were most related to the insect pathogen Tolypocladium inflatum...
July 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Wen Zhu, Lin-Lin Shen, Zhi-Guo Fang, Li-Na Yang, Jia-Feng Zhang, Dan-Li Sun, Jiasui Zhan
Knowledge of population dynamics of mating types is important for better understanding pathogen's evolutionary potential and sustainable management of natural and chemical resources such as host resistances and fungicides. In this study, 2250 Phytophthora infestans isolates sampled from 61 fields across China were assayed for spatiotemporal dynamics of mating type frequency. Self-fertile isolates dominated in ~50% of populations and all but one cropping region with an average frequency of 0.64 while no A2 isolates were detected...
2016: Scientific Reports
William E Fry
New tools have revealed that migrations of Phytophthora infestans have been a dominant feature of the population biology of this pathogen for the past 50 years, and maybe for the past 170 years. We now have accurate information on the composition of many P. infestans populations. However, migration followed by selection can lead and has led to dramatically rapid changes in populations over large regions. Except for the highlands of central Mexico, many populations of P. infestans have probably been in flux over the past several decades...
August 4, 2016: Annual Review of Phytopathology
Brian J Knaus, Javier Tabima, Carol Davis, Howard Judelson, Niklaus J Grünwald
Populations of the potato and tomato late blight pathogen, Phytophthora infestans, are well known for emerging as novel clonal lineages. These successions of dominant clones have historically been named US1 through US24, in order of appearance, since their first characterization using molecular markers. Hypothetically, these lineages can emerge through divergence from other US lineages, recombination among lineages or as novel, independent lineages originating outside the US. We tested for the presence of phylogenetic relationships among US lineages using a population of 31 whole genome sequences including dominant US clonal lineages as well as available samples from global populations...
June 27, 2016: Phytopathology
Jennifer Town, Patrice Audy, Susan M Boyetchko, Tim J Dumonceaux
Bacillus subtilis strain WAUSV36 inhibits the growth of and decreases disease symptoms caused by the potato pathogen Phytophthora infestans We determined the sequence of the 4.7-Mbp genome of this strain. WAUSV36 shared very high nucleotide sequence identity with previously sequenced strains of B. subtilis.
2016: Genome Announcements
Jennifer Town, Patrice Audy, Susan M Boyetchko, Tim J Dumonceaux
Arthrobacter sp. strain OY3WO11 inhibits the growth of the potato pathogen Phytophthora infestans in in vivo growth challenge assays. We determined the draft genome sequence of this strain, assembling it into 3 scaffolds of 4.2 Mbp total length. OY3WO11 may represent a novel species of Arthrobacter.
2016: Genome Announcements
Jennifer Town, Patrice Audy, Susan M Boyetchko, Tim J Dumonceaux
Pantoea sp. strain OXWO6B1 inhibits the growth of the potato pathogen Phytophthora infestans We determined the 5.2-Mbp genome sequence of this strain, which featured at least 3 confirmed plasmids of up to 250 kbp. The genome sequence of OXWO6B1 is different from that of all previously sequenced strains of Pantoea.
2016: Genome Announcements
Jennifer Town, Patrice Audy, Susan M Boyetchko, Tim J Dumonceaux
Pseudomonas chlororaphis strain 189 is a potent inhibitor of the growth of the potato pathogen Phytophthora infestans We determined the complete, finished sequence of the 6.8-Mbp genome of this strain, consisting of a single contiguous molecule. Strain 189 is closely related to previously sequenced strains of P. chlororaphis.
2016: Genome Announcements
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