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plant disease

Qi-Lei Chen, Lin Zhu, Yi-Na Tang, Hiu-Yee Kwan, Zhong-Zhen Zhao, Hu-Biao Chen, Tao Yi
Herbal healthcare products are used worldwide as relatively safe and effective alternatives to allopathic drugs. Saussurea laniceps Hand.-Mazz.(SL), S. medusa Maxim. (SM) and S. involucrata (Kar. et Kir.) Sch.Bip. (SI) are three sources of the renowned "snow lotus" Chinese Materia Medica for treating inflammatory diseases. The three species have different therapeutic effects, among which SL has been proved to be the most potent, but they are frequently confused on the market and in the academic community. An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-quadrupole time of flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS) method was developed and used to analyze 49 herbal samples for species analysis and overall quality evaluation...
October 20, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Ruijie Zhang, Nana Zhang, Hai Zhang, Chunxiao Liu, Xiaoqing Dong, Xiaoxue Wang, Yu Zhu, Chong Xu, Lei Liu, Sijun Yang, Shile Huang, Long Chen
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Increasing evidence has suggested cadmium (Cd), as an inducer of reactive oxygen species (ROS), is a potential pathogenic factor in human neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, it is important to find effective interventions for Cd-induced oxidative stress in the central nervous system. The purpose of this study was to determine whether and how celastrol, a plant-derived triterpene, could mitigate Cd-induced ROS and cell death in neuronal cells. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: PC12, SH-SY5Y cells and primary murine neurons were chosen as a model to study celastrol neuroprotection against Cd-poisoning...
October 20, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Caroline Honaiser Lescano, Ivan Pires de Oliveira, Tiago Zaminelli, Débora da Silva Baldivia, Luan Ramos da Silva, Mauro Napolitano, Camila Bitencourt Mendes Silvério, Nilton Lincopan, Eliana Janet Sanjinez-Argandoña
Campomanesia adamantium (Myrtaceae) is a medicinal plant distributed in Brazilian Cerrado. Different parts of this plant are used in popular medicine for treatment of several diseases like fever, diarrhea, hypercholesterolemia and rheumatism. The aim of this work was to evaluate the inhibition of heat-stable enterotoxin type A (STa) by gallic acid present in the peel of C. adamantium fruit and assays to assess the antidiarrheal activity, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic properties of peel extract using the T84 cell line model...
2016: PloS One
Essowè Palanga, Denis Filloux, Darren P Martin, Emmanuel Fernandez, Daniel Gargani, Romain Ferdinand, Jean Zabré, Zakaria Bouda, James Bouma Neya, Mahamadou Sawadogo, Oumar Traore, Michel Peterschmitt, Philippe Roumagnac
Cowpea, (Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp)) is an annual tropical grain legume. Often referred to as "poor man's meat", cowpea is one of the most important subsistence legumes cultivated in West Africa due to the high protein content of its seeds. However, African cowpea production can be seriously constrained by viral diseases that reduce yields. While twelve cowpea-infecting viruses have been reported from Africa, only three of these have so-far been reported from Burkina Faso. Here we use a virion-associated nucleic acids (VANA)-based metagenomics method to screen for the presence of cowpea viruses from plants collected from the three agro-climatic zones of Burkina Faso...
2016: PloS One
Andrés Núñez, Guillermo Amo de Paz, Alberto Rastrojo, Ana M García, Antonio Alcamí, A Montserrat Gutiérrez-Bustillo, Diego A Moreno
The first part of this review ("Monitoring of airborne biological particles in outdoor atmosphere. Part 1: Importance, variability and ratios") describes the current knowledge on the major biological particles present in the air regarding their global distribution, concentrations, ratios and influence of meteorological factors in an attempt to provide a framework for monitoring their biodiversity and variability in such a singular environment as the atmosphere. Viruses, bacteria, fungi, pollen and fragments thereof are the most abundant microscopic biological particles in the air outdoors...
March 2016: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
Peter Giovannini, Melanie-Jayne R Howes, Sarah E Edwards
The data described in this article is related to the review article "Medicinal plants used in the traditional management of diabetes and its sequelae in Central America: a review" (Giovannini et al., 2016) [1]. We searched publications on the useful plants of Central America in databases and journals by using selected relevant keywords. We then extracted reported uses of medicinal plants within the disease categories: diabetes mellitus, kidney disease, urinary problems, skin diseases and infections, cardiovascular disease, sexual dysfunction, vision loss, and nerve damage...
June 2016: Data in Brief
Mehmet Erol Yıldırım, Metin Canbal, Ekrem Ozyuvali, Ömer Faruk Karataş
OBJECTIVE: Urinary tract conditions have been an important part of diseases from antiquity until today. Historically, many plants and herbs have been used for the treatment of urinary disorders. METHODS: Celâlüddîn Hızır bin Ali el-Konevi (Hadji Pasha) is one of the most famous physician who lived in Anatolia between 13th and 14th centuries. He has written one of the most important medical books of that era, "Müntehab-ıŞifa" (solution of wellness) in Turkish...
September 2016: Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
Işıl Bavunoğlu, Musa Balta, Zeynep Türkmen
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing interest in herbal products as a self-medication method in recent years. Some plant extracts either turn into drugs over time or are consumed directly without treatment. One of these plants is Nerium oleander L., which is a potentially lethal plant, since it has cardiac glycosides. However, numerous researches of its extracts have been performed against cancer cell lines in recent literature. This contradiction leads to misinterpretation and induces the prevalence of intoxication or fatal cases...
September 2016: Balkan Medical Journal
Lavanya Kakarla, Suresh Babu Katragadda, Ashok K Tiwari, K Srigiridhar Kotamraju, K Madhusudana, D Anand Kumar, Mahendran Botlagunta
BACKGROUND: Cyperus scariosus R. Br and Cyperus rotundus L are widely used in ayurvedic preparation for the treatment of diabetes and other diseases. The early literature, so far, does not indicate the presence of any bioactive principle isolated from these plants. OBJECTIVE: To identify free radical scavenging, anti-diabetic and anti- inflammatory principles from these two species. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The bioassay guided fractionation and isolation of active constituents was done by chromatographic techniques...
July 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Saeed Samarghandian, Mohsen Azimi-Nezhad, Abasalt Borji, Malihe Hasanzadeh, Farahzad Jabbari, Tahereh Farkhondeh, Mohammad Samini
OBJECTIVES: Chrysin, an active natural bioflavonoid found in honey and many plant extracts, was first known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. The fact that antioxidants have several inhibitory effects against different diseases, such as cancer, led to search for food rich in antioxidants. In this study, we investigated the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of chrysin on the cultured human breast cancer cells (MCF-7). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cells were cultured in Roswell Park Memorial Institute medium and treated with different chrysin concentrations for three consecutive days...
July 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Preeti Rawat, Lokesh M Saroj, Anil Kumar, Tryambak D Singh, S K Tewari, Mahesh Pal
BACKGROUND: The plant Launaea procumbens belongs to the family Asteraceae and traditionally used in the treatment rheumatism, kidney, liver dysfunctions and eye diseases. In the present study Phytochemical analysis and fractions of methanolic extract of L. procumbens leaves were tested in vitro for their cytotoxicity. OBJECTIVES: Phytochemical analysis and cytotoxic activity of methanolic extract and fractions of Launaea procumbens against four cancer cell lines K562, HeLa, MIA-Pa-Ca-2 and MCF-2 by SRB assay...
July 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Parayil Varghese Christapher, Subramani Parasuraman, Palanimuthu Vasanth Raj, Sultan Ayesh Mohammed Saghir, Mohd Zaini Asmawi, Murugaiyah Vikneswaran
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the antihyperlipidemic, antioxidant, and cytotoxic effect of aqueous and methanol extract of leaves of Polygonum minus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Acute antihyperlipidemic effect was studied on chemically induced hyperlipidemic rat model. Treated groups received aqueous and methanol extract of leaves of P. minus respectively (1000 mg/kg; oral) whereas standard treated group received atorvastatin (60 mg/kg; oral) for 3 consecutive days. Blood samples were collected at fixed intervals for lipid profile analysis...
July 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Dongsheng Jia, Yu Han, Xiang Sun, Zhenzhen Wang, Zhenguo Du, Qian Chen, Taiyun Wei
BACKGROUND: Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) and Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) are two closely related fijiviruses transmitted by the small brown planthopper (SBPH) and white-backed planthopper (WBPH), respectively. SRBSDV has a latent period 4 days shorter than that of RBSDV, implying a more efficient spread in insect vector. Currently, the mechanisms underlying this higher efficiency are poorly understood. However, our recent studies have implicated a role of virus induced tubular structures in the dissemination of fijiiruses within their insect vectors...
October 19, 2016: Virology Journal
Pei Li, Fei Li, Yongqiang Han, Lang Yang, Xiaolan Liao, Maolin Hou
Plant viruses are mostly transmitted by sucking insects via their piercing behaviors, which may differ due to host plant species and their developmental stages. We characterized the transmission of a fijivirus, southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), by the planthopper vector Sogatella furcifera Horváth (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), between rice and corn plants of varying developmental stages. SRBSDV was transmitted from infected rice to uninfected corn plants as efficiently as its transmission between rice plants, while was acquired by S...
2016: PloS One
Micheline N Ngaki, Bing Wang, Binod B Sahu, Subodh K Srivastava, Mohammad S Farooqi, Sekhar Kambakam, Sivakumar Swaminathan, Madan K Bhattacharyya
Fusarium virguliforme causes the serious disease sudden death syndrome (SDS) in soybean. Host resistance to this pathogen is partial and is encoded by a large number of quantitative trait loci, each conditioning small effects. Breeding SDS resistance is therefore challenging and identification of single-gene encoded novel resistance mechanisms is becoming a priority to fight this devastating this fungal pathogen. In this transcriptomic study we identified a few putative soybean defense genes, expression of which is suppressed during F...
2016: PloS One
Linda Millyard, Jack Lee, Cunjin Zhang, Gary Yates, Ari Sadanandom
Mycosphaerella graminicola (Zymoseptoria tritici commonly known as Septoria), the causal agent of Septoria Leaf Blotch (STB), is considered one of the major threats to European wheat production. Previous studies have shown the importance of ubiquitination in plant defence against a multitude of pathogens. However the ubiquitination machinery in wheat is under studied, particularly E2 enzymes that have the ability to control the ubiquitination and thereby the fate of many different target proteins. In this study we identify an E2 enzyme, Triticum aestivum Ubiquitin conjugating enzyme 4 (TaU4) that functions in wheat defence against Septoria...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Aneela Yasmeen, Sarfraz Kiani, Afshan Butt, Abdul Qayyum Rao, Faheem Akram, Aftab Ahmad, Idrees Ahmad Nasir, Tayyab Husnain, Shahid Mansoor, Imran Amin, Shaheen Aftab, Muhammad Zubair, Muhammad Nouman Tahir, Sohail Akhtar, Jodi Scheffler, Brian Scheffler
The conserved coat or V2 gene of begomoviruses is responsible for viral movement in the plant cells. RNAi technology was used to silence V2 gene for resistance against these viruses in transgenic plants. The transformation of the RNAi-based gene construct targeting V2 gene of CLCuKoV-Bur, cloned under 35S promoter, was done in two elite cotton varieties MNH-786 and VH-289 using shoot apex cut method of gene transformation. The transformation efficiency was found to be 3.75 and 2.88 % in MNH-786 and VH-289, respectively...
October 18, 2016: Molecular Biotechnology
Shaikha Y Al-Abadi, Abdullah M Al-Sadi, Matthew Dickinson, Mohammed S Al-Hammadi, Rashid Al-Shariqi, Rashid A Al-Yahyai, Elham A Kazerooni, Assunta Bertaccini
Witches' broom disease of lime (WBDL) is a serious phytoplasma disease of acid lime in Oman, the UAE and Iran. Despite efforts to study it, no systemic study attempted to characterize the relationship among the associated phytoplasma, 'Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia', from the three countries. This study utilized sequences of the 16S rRNA, imp and secA genes to characterize 57 strains collected from Oman (38), the UAE (9) and Iran (10). Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene showed that the 57 strains shared 98...
2016: SpringerPlus
Bishnu Joshi, Sarah Hendrickx, Lila Bahadur Magar, Niranjan Parajuli, Pierre Dorny, Louis Maes
BACKGROUND: Nepal is very rich in biodiversity, and no extensive effort has yet been carried out to screen plants that are used by traditional healers against parasitic diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antileishmanial and antimalarial activity of crude methanolic or ethanolic extracts of 29 plant species that are currently used by local people of Nepal for treating different ailments. METHODS: Crude extracts of leaves, twigs, aerial parts, and/or roots of the selected plants were evaluated for in vitro inhibitory activity against intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania infantum and against erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum...
September 2016: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
Bachir Benarba
BACKGROUND/AIM: This study aimed to document and analyzes the local knowledge of medicinal plants' use by traditional healers in South-west Algeria. METHODS: The ethnobotanical survey was conducted in two Saharian regions of South-west of Algeria: Adrar and Bechar. In total, 22 local traditional healers were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaire and open questions. Use value (UV), fidelity level (FL), and informant consensus factor (FIC) were used to analyze the obtained data...
September 2016: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
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