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plant disease

Chaoqiong Liang, Jianjun Hao, Yan Meng, Laixin Luo, Jianqiang Li
Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) is an economically important pathogen and causes significant reduction of both yield and quality of cucumber (Cucumis sativus). Currently, there were no satisfied strategies for controlling the disease. A better understanding of microRNA (miRNA) expression related to the regulation of plant-virus interactions and virus resistance would be of great assistance when developing control strategies for CGMMV. However, accurate expression analysis is highly dependent on robust and reliable reference gene used as an internal control for normalization of miRNA expression...
2018: PloS One
Nilam Borah, Emad Albarouki, Jan Schirawski
Many plant-pathogenic fungi are highly host-specific. In most cases, host-specific interactions evolved at the time of speciation of the respective host plants. However, host jumps have occurred quite frequently, and still today the greatest threat for the emergence of new fungal diseases is the acquisition of infection capability of a new host by an existing plant pathogen. Understanding the mechanisms underlying host-switching events requires knowledge of the factors determining host-specificity. In this review, we highlight molecular methods that use a comparative approach for the identification of host-specificity factors...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Katarzyna Otulak-Kozieł, Edmund Kozieł, Benham E L Lockhart
The cell wall provides the structure of the plant, and also acts as a barier against biotic stress. The vein necrosis strain of Potato virus Y (PVYNTN ) induces necrotic disease symptoms that affect both plant growth and yield. Virus infection triggers a number of inducible basal defense responses, including defense proteins, especially those involved in cell wall metabolism. This study investigates the comparison of cell wall host dynamics induced in a compatible (potato cv. Irys) and incompatible (potato cv...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Enxiang Zhang, Shutao Yin, Xiaotong Lu, Linhu Ye, Lihong Fan, Hongbo Hu
Glycycoumarin (GCM) is a representative of bioactive coumarin compounds isolated from licorice, an edible and medicinal plant widely used for treating various diseases including liver diseases. The purpose of the present study is to examine the possibility of GCM as a sensitizer to improve the efficacy of BH3 mimetic ABT-737 against liver cancer. Three liver cancer cell lines (HepG2, Huh-7 and SMMC-7721) were used to evaluate the in vitro combinatory effect of ABT-737/GCM. HepG2 xenograft model was employed to assess the in vivo efficacy of ABT-737/GCM combination...
March 15, 2018: Nutrients
Carine Smith
The modern lifestyle is characterised by various factors that cause accelerating ageing by the upregulation of oxidative stress and inflammation-two processes that are inextricably linked in an endless circle of self-propagation. Inflammation in particular is commonly accepted as aetiological factor in many chronic disease states, such as obesity, diabetes and depression. In terms of disease prevention or treatment, interventions aimed at changing dietary and/or exercise habits have had limited success in practise, mostly due to poor long-term compliance...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
G Vinayarani, H S Prakash
Endophytic fungi have been isolated from the healthy turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) rhizomes from South India. Thirty-one endophytes were identified based on morphological and ITS-rDNA sequence analysis. The isolated endophytes were screened for antagonistic activity against Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp., and Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn., causing rhizome rot and leaf blight diseases in turmeric respectively. Results revealed that only six endophytes showed > 70% suppression of test pathogens in antagonistic dual culture assays...
March 14, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Fei Tao, Junjuan Wang, Zhongfeng Guo, Jingjing Hu, Xiangming Xu, Jiarong Yang, Xianming Chen, Xiaoping Hu
Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici ( Pst ), is a destructive disease of wheat worldwide. The disease is preferably controlled by growing resistant cultivars. Wheat cultivar Xiaoyan 6 (XY 6) has been resistant to stripe rust since its release. In the previous studies, XY 6 was found to have higher-temperature seedling-plant (HTSP) resistance. However, the molecular mechanisms of HTSP resistance were not clear. To identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) involved in HTSP resistance, we sequenced 30 cDNA libraries constructed from XY 6 seedlings exposed to several temperature treatments...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Hong Li, Xiaonan Li, Yuanhu Xuan, Jing Jiang, Yangdou Wei, Zhongyun Piao
Plasmodiophora brassicae is a soil borne pathogen and the causal agent of clubroot, a devastating disease of Brassica crops. The pathogen lives inside roots, and hijacks nutrients from the host plants. It is suggested that clubroot galls created an additional nutrient sink in infected roots. However, the molecular mechanism underlying P. brassicae infection and sugar transport is unclear. Here, we analyzed sugar contents in leaves and roots before and after P. brassicae infection using a pair of Chinese cabbage near-isogenic lines (NILs), carrying either a clubroot resistant (CR) or susceptible (CS) allele at the CRb locus...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Woojin Scott Kim, Eve Jary, Russell Pickford, Ying He, Rebekah M Ahmed, Olivier Piguet, John R Hodges, Glenda M Halliday
Behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is the most prevalent form of FTD syndromes. bvFTD is characterized clinically by changes in behavior and cognition and pathologically by focal brain atrophy and concomitant loss of lipids. bvFTD is further characterized by eating abnormalities that result in dyslipidemia. Although dyslipidemia is apparent in bvFTD, very little is known about global lipid changes in bvFTD and lipid dysregulation underlying bvFTD. Here, we undertook a comprehensive lipidomics analysis of blood plasma from patients with bvFTD, patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and controls, using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, with the aim of understanding lipid dysregulation in bvFTD...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
José F Muñoz, Juan G McEwen, Oliver K Clay, Christina A Cuomo
Dimorphic fungal pathogens cause a significant human disease burden and unlike most fungal pathogens affect immunocompetent hosts. To examine the origin of virulence of these fungal pathogens, we compared genomes of classic systemic, opportunistic, and non-pathogenic species, including Emmonsia and two basal branching, non-pathogenic species in the Ajellomycetaceae, Helicocarpus griseus and Polytolypa hystricis. We found that gene families related to plant degradation, secondary metabolites synthesis, and amino acid and lipid metabolism are retained in H...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Milla-Maria Tauriainen, Ville Männistö, Dorota Kaminska, Maija Vaittinen, Vesa Kärjä, Pirjo Käkelä, Sari Venesmaa, Helena Gylling, Jussi Pihlajamäki
Background & aims : Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) associates with low levels of serum plant sterols in cross-sectional studies. However, parenterally given plant sterols may lead to liver injury. In addition, it has been suggested that the hepatic sterol transport mechanisms are altered in NAFLD. Therefore, we investigated the association between serum, liver and bile plant sterols and sitostanol with NAFLD. Methods : Out of the 138 individuals (age: 46.3±8.9, BMI: 43.3±6.9 kg/m², 28% men and 72% women), 44 could be histologically categorized to have normal liver, and 94 to have NAFLD...
March 14, 2018: Bioscience Reports
Abdullah M S Al-Hatmi, Sarah A Ahmed, Anne D van Diepeningen, Miranda Drogari-Apiranthitou, Paul E Verweij, Jacques F Meis, G Sybren de Hoog
The Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) is the most common group of fusaria associated with superficial and life-threatening infections in humans. Here we formally introduce Fusarium metavorans sp. nov., widely known as FSSC6 (Fusarium solani species complex lineage 6), one of the most frequent agents of human opportunistic infections. The species is described with multilocus molecular data including sequences of internal transcribed spacer region (ITS), portions of the translation elongation factor 1-a gene (TEF1), and the partial RNA polymerase II gene (rPB2)...
April 1, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Xin Li, Shengfu Zhong, Wanquan Chen, Syeda Akash Fatima, Qianglan Huang, Qing Li, Feiquan Tan, Peigao Luo
Fusarium head blight (FHB), mainly caused by Fusarium graminearum , is one of the most destructive fungal diseases of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.). Because of the quantitative nature of FHB resistance, its mechanism is poorly understood. We conducted a comparative transcriptome analysis to identify genes that are differentially expressed in FHB-resistant and FHB-susceptible wheat lines grown under field conditions for various periods after F. graminearum infection and determined the chromosomal distribution of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs)...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Linkun Wu, Jun Chen, Zhigang Xiao, Xiaocheng Zhu, Juanying Wang, Hongmiao Wu, Yanhong Wu, Zhongyi Zhang, Wenxiong Lin
The production and quality of Rehmannia glutinosa can be dramatically reduced by replant disease under consecutive monoculture. The root-associated microbiome, also known as the second genome of the plant, was investigated to understand its impact on plant health. Culture-dependent and culture-independent pyrosequencing analysis was applied to assess the shifts in soil bacterial communities in the rhizosphere and rhizoplane under consecutive monoculture. The results show that the root-associated microbiome (including rhizosphere and rhizoplane microbiomes) was significantly impacted by rhizocompartments and consecutive monoculture...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Hans Thordal-Christensen, Paul R J Birch, Pietro D Spanu, Ralph Panstruga
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Javed Iqbal, Banzeer Ahsan Abbasi, Riffat Batool, Tariq Mahmood, Barkat Ali, Ali Talha Khalil, Sobia Kanwal, Sayed Afzal Shah, Riaz Ahmad
Breast cancer (BC) is a devastating disease in female around the world causing significant health care burden in both developed and developing countries. In many cases BC has shown resistance to chemotherapy, radiation and hormonal therapy. Development of new, cost effective, affordable treatment method is the need of hour. Chemical compounds isolated from plants are often biologically active and is attracting the attention of scientific community. Different in vitro and in vivo studies have shown a potential role in reducing the risk of cancer metastasis...
March 10, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Yanfeng Zhang, Longyan Tian, Dong-Hui Yan, Wei He
Marssonina leaf spot disease of poplar (MLDP), caused by the hemibiotrophic pathogen Marssonina brunnea , frequently results in damage to many poplar species. In nature, two formae speciales of M. brunnea exist that are susceptible to different poplar subgenera. Marssonina brunnea f. sp. monogermtubi infects poplar hosts from Populus sect. Aigeiros (Aig), while M. brunnea f. sp. multigermtubi always infects poplar hosts from Populus sect. Leuce Duby (Leu). Based on the fungal penetration structures, a comprehensive transcriptomic approach was used to investigate the gene expression patterns of these two poplar subgenera at three crucial infection stages...
March 12, 2018: Genes
Soisungwan Satarug
Cadmium (Cd) is a food-chain contaminant that has high rates of soil-to-plant transference. This phenomenon makes dietary Cd intake unavoidable. Although long-term Cd intake impacts many organ systems, the kidney has long been considered to be a critical target of its toxicity. This review addresses how measurements of Cd intake levels and its effects on kidneys have traditionally been made. These measurements underpin the derivation of our current toxicity threshold limit and tolerable intake levels for Cd...
March 10, 2018: Toxics
Daniel Nicodemo, Fábio Ermínio Mingatto, Amanda de Carvalho, Paulo Francisco Veiga Bizerra, Marco Aurélio Tavares, Kamila Vilas Boas Balieira, William Cesar Bellini
Silkworm cocoon production has been reduced due to a number of problems other than those inherent in sericulture, such as diseases, malnutrition, and inappropriate management. The use of pesticides in areas surrounding mulberry fields can contaminate these plants and consequently harm caterpillars. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the application of the fungicide pyraclostrobin in mulberry plants interferes with the mitochondrial bioenergetics and the productive performance of silkworms. Mulberry plants were treated with pyraclostrobin (0, 100, 200, and 300 g ha-1)...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Maryam Malmir, Rita Serrano, Manuela Caniça, Beatriz Silva-Lima, Olga Silva
Abstract : Plant-based systems continue to play an essential role in healthcare, and their use by different cultures has been extensively documented. Asphodelus L. ( Asphodelaceae ) is a genus of 18 species and of a total of 27 species, sub-species and varieties, distributed along the Mediterranean basin, and has been traditionally used for treating several diseases particularly associated with inflammatory and infectious skin disorders. The present study aimed to provide a general review of the available literature on ethnomedical, phytochemical, and biological data related to the genus Asphodelus as a potential source of new compounds with biological activity...
March 13, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
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