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A Walkden, J Huxtable, M Senior, H Lee, S Naylor, S Turner, K Ivanova, J Koppens, B Todd, A Macleod, F Sii, N Anand, P Shah, A King, D C Broadway, J F Kirwan, A McNaught, A Bhan-Bhargava
OBJECTIVES: To define the safety profile of trainee trabeculectomy surgery in the United Kingdom. Surgical exposure for trainees in England is limited due to service requirements, the European working time directive constraints and increasing sub-specialisation of glaucoma surgery. Limited knowledge exists on the outcomes of supervised glaucoma surgery. The aim is to determine the safety of supervised trabeculectomy surgery performed by trainee ophthalmologists. METHODS: Retrospective case note review of all patients that had trabeculectomy surgery with MMC by consultant and trainee surgeons across multiple UK centres...
March 12, 2018: Eye
Alberto Ferrarini, Claudio Forcato, Genny Buson, Paola Tononi, Valentina Del Monaco, Mario Terracciano, Chiara Bolognesi, Francesca Fontana, Gianni Medoro, Rui Neves, Birte Möhlendick, Karim Rihawi, Andrea Ardizzoni, Semini Sumanasuriya, Penny Flohr, Maryou Lambros, Johann de Bono, Nikolas H Stoecklein, Nicolò Manaresi
Chromosomal instability and associated chromosomal aberrations are hallmarks of cancer and play a critical role in disease progression and development of resistance to drugs. Single-cell genome analysis has gained interest in latest years as a source of biomarkers for targeted-therapy selection and drug resistance, and several methods have been developed to amplify the genomic DNA and to produce libraries suitable for Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS). However, most protocols require several enzymatic and cleanup steps, thus increasing the complexity and length of protocols, while robustness and speed are key factors for clinical applications...
2018: PloS One
S Vernygorodskyi, V Shkolnikov, D Suhan
AIM: To analyze the glycoprotein binding sites of the gastric mucosa and its secreted mucus using lectin histochemistry in patients with chronic non-atrophic gastritis (CNAG) associated or not-associated with Helicobacter pylori infection with or without dysplasia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In order to identify the areas with glycoconjugates expression in gastric mucosa, 6 lectins (Canavalia ensiformis agglutinin - Con A, Sambucus nigra agglutinin - SNA, wheat germ agglutinin - WGA, soybean agglutinin - SBA, Helix pomatia agglutinin - HPA, peanut agglutinin - PNA) were used...
July 2017: Experimental Oncology
Ahva Shahabi, Desi Peneva, Devin Incerti, Kimmie McLaurin, Warren Stevens
BACKGROUND: The variability in cost of palivizumab treatment, indicated for prevention of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections in high-risk infants, has not been robustly estimated in prior studies. This study aimed to determine the cost variations of palivizumab from a US payer perspective for otherwise healthy preterm infants born 29-35 weeks gestational age (wGA) using infant characteristics and applied dosing regimens. METHODS: Fenton Growth Charts were merged with World Health Organization Child Growth Standards to estimate preterm infant growth patterns...
March 2018: PharmacoEconomics Open
Xugang Xi, Minyan Tang, Zhizeng Luo
Surface electromyography (sEMG) signals are commonly used in activity monitoring and rehabilitation applications as they reflect effectively the motor intentions of users. However, real-time sEMG signals are non-stationary and vary to a large extent within the time frame of signals. Although previous studies have focused on the issues, their results have not been satisfactory. Therefore, we present a new method of conducting feature-level fusion to obtain a new feature space for sEMG signals. Eight activities of daily life (ADLs), including falls, were performed to obtain raw data from EMG signals from the lower limb...
February 17, 2018: Sensors
Luiza Rayanna Amorim de Lima, Lúcia Patrícia Bezerra Gomes da Silva, Sinara Mônica Vitalino de Almeida, Thiago Barbosa Cahú, Eduardo Isidoro Carneiro Beltrão, Luiz Bezerra de Carvalho Júnior
In order to characterize the affinity between specific carbohydrate-binding proteins such as lectins, a model is proposed to study these interactions using a polysaccharide membrane to simulate such adsorption. Here, lectin-carbohydrate interactions were chemiluminescently investigated using lectins conjugated to acridinium ester (AE) and polysaccharides composed of their respective specific carbohydrates. The lectin-AE conjugates were incubated with discs (0.0314-0.6358 cm2 ) of phytagel, chitosan and carrageenan...
February 16, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
Mark W Urban, Biswarup Ghosh, Laura R Strojny, Cole G Block, Sara M Blazejewski, Megan C Wright, George M Smith, Angelo C Lepore
Damage to respiratory neural circuitry and consequent loss of diaphragm function is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in individuals suffering from traumatic cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). Repair of CNS axons after SCI remains a therapeutic challenge, despite current efforts. SCI disrupts inspiratory signals originating in the rostral ventral respiratory group (rVRG) of the medulla from their phrenic motor neuron (PhMN) targets, resulting in loss of diaphragm function. Using a rat model of cervical hemisection SCI, we aimed to restore rVRG-PhMN-diaphragm circuitry by stimulating regeneration of injured rVRG axons via targeted induction of Rheb (ras homolog enriched in brain), a signaling molecule that regulates neuronal-intrinsic axon growth potential...
February 14, 2018: Experimental Neurology
Wataru Yoshida, Hiroki Saikyo, Kazuhiko Nakabayashi, Hitomi Yoshioka, Daniyah Habiballah Bay, Keisuke Iida, Tomoko Kawai, Kenichiro Hata, Kazunori Ikebukuro, Kazuo Nagasawa, Isao Karube
G-quadruplex (G4) is a DNA secondary structure that has been found to play regulatory roles in the genome. The identification of G4-forming sequences is important to study the specific structure-function relationships of such regions. In the present study, we developed a method for identification of G4 clusters on genomic DNA by high-throughput sequencing of genomic DNA amplified via whole-genome amplification (WGA) in the presence of a G4 ligand. The G4 ligand specifically bound to G4 structures on genomic DNA; thus, DNA polymerase was arrested on the G4 structures stabilised by G4 ligand...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
J Danzberger, M Donovan, C Rankl, R Zhu, S Vicic, C Baltenneck, R Enea, P Hinterdorfer, G S Luengo
BACKGROUND: The glycosylation of proteins on the surface of corneocytes is believed to play an important role in cellular adhesion in the stratum corneum (SC) of human skin. Mapping with accuracy the localization of glycans on the surface of corneocytes through traditional methods of immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy remains a challenging task as both approaches lack enough resolution or need to be performed in high vacuum conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used an advanced mode of atomic force microscope (AFM), with simultaneous topography and recognition imaging to investigate the distribution of glycans on native (no chemical preparation) stripped samples of human SC...
February 7, 2018: Skin Research and Technology
Lieselot Deleye, Ann-Sophie Vander Plaetsen, Jana Weymaere, Dieter Deforce, Filip Van Nieuwerburgh
To allow multiple genetic analyses on a single cell, whole genome amplification (WGA) is required. Unfortunately, studies comparing different WGA methods for downstream human identification Short Tandem Repeat (STR) analysis remain absent. Therefore, the aim of this work was to assess the performance of four commercially available WGA kits for downstream human identification STR profiling on a B-lymphoblastoid cell line. The performance was assessed using an input of one or three micromanipulated cells. REPLI-g showed a very low dropout rate, as it was the only WGA method in this study that could provide a complete STR profile in some of its samples...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Dov Kesten, Miriam Horovitz-Fried, Tamar Brutman-Barazani, Sanford R Sampson
Insulin binding to its cell surface receptor (IR) activates a cascade of events leading to its biological effects. The Insulin-IR complex is rapidly internalized and then is either recycled back to the plasma membrane or sent to lysosomes for degradation. Although most of the receptor is is recycled or degraded, a small amount may escape this pathway and migrate to the nucleus of the cell where it might be important in promulgation of receptor signals. In this study we explored the mechanism by which insulin induces IR translocation to the cell nucleus...
January 6, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Qian Zhang, Liang Cui, Jiang-Ping Gao, Wen-Hua Yan, Nan Jin, Kang Chen, Li Zang, Jin Du, Xian-Ling Wang, Qing-Hua Guo, Guo-Qing Yang, Li-Juan Yang, Jian-Ming Ba, Wei-Jun Gu, Zhao-Hui Lv, Jing-Tao Dou, Yi-Ming Mu, Ju-Ming Lu
Primary macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (PMAH), also known in the past as bilateral macronodular adrenalhyperplasia or adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia, is a rare type of Cushing's syndrome (CS) and is associated with bilateralenlargement of the adrenal glands. It accounts for <1% of all endogenous cases of CS. In order toidentify the pathogenic mutations in the causative gene of (AIMAH pedigrees, Whole-genome sequencing of three patients in family I was used to retrieve candidate causative genes...
December 27, 2017: Endocrine Journal
Tomasz Walski, Kristof De Schutter, Kaat Cappelle, Els J M Van Damme, Guy Smagghe
Glycans are involved in many biological phenomena, including signal transduction, cell adhesion, immune response or differentiation. Although a few papers have reported on the role of glycans in the development and proper functioning of the insect midgut, no data are available regarding the localization of the glycan structures on the surface of the cells in the gut of insects. In this paper, we analyzed the spatial distribution of glycans present on the surface of the midgut cells in larvae of the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis, an important agricultural pest insect worldwide...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Chika Shigeyasu, Masakazu Yamada, Yoko Akune, Masaki Fukui
PURPOSE: To evaluate the changes in ocular surface mucins with 2%rebamipide ophthalmic suspension treatment in soft contact lens (SCL) wearers. Rebamipide suspension is a mucin secretagogue approved for the treatment of dry eye syndrome in Japan. In this study, the fluorescence intensity of wheat germ agglutinin conjugate of fluorescein (F-WGA) was used as a marker of membrane-associated mucins, and sialic acid concentration in tear fluids as a marker of secreted mucins. METHODS: Thirty-two eyes of 16 SCL wearers with discomfort were treated with rebamipide suspension at a dose of one drop in each eye four times daily for two weeks...
December 13, 2017: Contact Lens & Anterior Eye: the Journal of the British Contact Lens Association
E Hauzman, D M O Bonci, E Y Suárez-Villota, M Neitz, D F Ventura
BACKGROUND: Morphological divergences of snake retinal structure point to complex evolutionary processes and adaptations. The Colubridae family has a remarkable variety of retinal structure that can range from all-cone and all-rod to duplex (cone/rod) retinas. To explore whether nocturnal versus diurnal activity is responsible for constraints on molecular evolution and plays a role in visual opsin spectral tuning of colubrids, we carried out molecular evolution analyses of the visual opsin genes LWS, RH1, and SWS1 from 17 species and performed morphological analyses...
December 11, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Lieselot Deleye, Dieter De Coninck, Dieter Deforce, Filip Van Nieuwerburgh
Shallow whole genome sequencing has recently been introduced for genome-wide detection of chromosomal copy number alterations (CNAs) in preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), using only 4-7 trophectoderm cells biopsied from day-5 embryos. This chapter describes the complete method, starting from whole genome amplification (WGA) on isolated blastomere(s), up to data analysis for CNA detection. The process is described generically and can also be used to perform CNA analysis on a limited number of cells (down to a single cell) in other applications...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Ann-Sophie Vander Plaetsen, Lieselot Deleye, Senne Cornelis, Laurentijn Tilleman, Filip Van Nieuwerburgh, Dieter Deforce
The growing interest in liquid biopsies for cancer research and cell-based non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) invigorates the need for improved single cell analysis. In these applications, target cells are extremely rare and fragile in peripheral circulation, which makes the genetic analysis very challenging. To overcome these challenges, cell stabilization and unbiased whole genome amplification are required. This study investigates the performance of four WGA methods on single or a limited number of cells after 24 hour of Streck Cell-Free DNA BCT preservation...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
Judith J de Haan, Lena Bosch, Anouska Borgman, Marissa Bastemeijer, Maike A D Brans, Sander M van de Weg, Dominique P V de Kleijn, Joost P G Sluijter, Hamid El Azzouzi, Saskia C A de Jager
Hypertension is one of the most common risk factors for the development heart failure in the general population. Inflammation plays a central role in this adverse remodeling and eventually to the development of heart failure. Circulating levels of Complement factor 5a (C5a) are increased in hypertensive patients and the C5a receptor is associated with the presence of cardiac fibrosis and inflammation in an experimental hypertension model. To test if C5aR is involved in adverse cardiac remodeling following pressure-overload, we induced transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in wildtype and C5a receptor deficient mice (C5aR-/- )...
December 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
Tsung Lin Tsai, Hao Chen Wang, Chun Hua Hung, Peng Chan Lin, Yi San Lee, Helen H W Chen, Wu Chou Su
Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) is a lectin that specifically binds cell surface glycoproteins and disrupts nuclear pore complex function through its interaction with POM121. Our data indicate WGA induces paraptosis-like cell death without caspase activation. We observed the main features of paraptosis, including cytoplasmic vacuolation, endoplasmic reticulum dilation and increased ER stress, and the unfolded protein response in WGA-treated cervical carcinoma cells. Conversion of microtubule-associated protein I light chain 3 (LC3-I) into LC3-II and punctuate formation suggestive of autophagy were observed in WGA-treated cells...
October 31, 2017: Oncotarget
Jesús E Serrano-Negrón, Zhenbo Zhang, Andrea P Rivera-Ruiz, Aditi Banerjee, Eva C Romero-Nutz, Neysharie Sánchez-Torres, Krishna Baksi, Dipak K Banerjee
GRP78 (an Mr 78 kDa calcium dependent glucose binding protein) is located in ER lumen. It functions as ER chaperone and translocates proteins for glycosylation at the asparagine residue present in the sequon Asn-X-Ser/Thr. Paraffin sections from N-glycosylation inhibitor tunicamycin treated ER-/PR-/HER2+ (double negative) breast tumor in athymic nude mice exhibited reduced N-glycan but increased GRP78 expression. We have evaluated the effect of tunicamycin on cellular localization of GRP78 in metastatic human breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 (ER-/PR-/HER2-)...
February 1, 2018: Glycobiology
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