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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918914/transformation-of-jaw-muscle-satellite-cells-to-cardiomyocytes
#1
Randall S Daughters, Susan A Keirstead, Jonathan M W Slack
In the embryo a population of progenitor cells known as the second heart field forms not just parts of the heart but also the jaw muscles of the head. Here we show that it is possible to take skeletal muscle satellite cells from jaw muscles of the adult mouse and to direct their differentiation to become heart muscle cells (cardiomyocytes). This is done by exposing the cells to extracellular factors similar to those which heart progenitors would experience during normal embryonic development. By contrast, cardiac differentiation does not occur at all from satellite cells isolated from trunk and limb muscles, which originate from the somites of the embryo...
December 2, 2016: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909687/morphogenesis-of-human-embryonic-stem-cells-into-mature-neurons-under-in-vitro-culture-conditions
#2
Geeta Shroff
AIM: To describe the morphogenesis of different neuronal cells from the human embryonic stem cell (hESC) line, SCT-N, under in vitro culture conditions. METHODS: The directed neuronal cell line was produced from a single, spare, pre-implantation stage fertilized ovum that was obtained during a natural in vitro fertilization process. The hESCs were cultured and maintained as per our proprietary in-house technology in a Good Manufacturing Practice, Good Laboratory Practice and Good Tissue Practice compliant laboratory...
November 20, 2016: World Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907016/direct-unequal-cleavages-embryo-developmental-competence-genetic-constitution-and-clinical-outcome
#3
Qiansheng Zhan, Zhen Ye, Robert Clarke, Zev Rosenwaks, Nikica Zaninovic
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence, developmental potential, chromosomal constitution and clinical outcome of embryos with direct unequal cleavages (DUC). DESIGN: A retrospective observational study. SETTING: Academic Institution. PARTICIPANT: 21,261 embryos from 3,155 cycles cultured in EmbryoScope®. RESULTS: The total incidence of DUCs per embryo occupying the first three cleavages were 26...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894976/comparison-of-the-clinical-outcomes-of-intracytoplasmic-sperm-injection-between-spermatozoa-retrieved-from-testicular-biopsy-and-from-ejaculate-in-cryptozoospermia-patients
#4
Xianfeng Cui, Pan Ding, Ge Gao, Yunshan Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical outcomes of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) between spermatozoa retrieved from testicular biopsy and from ejaculate in cryptozoospermia patients. METHODS: The clinical data of 285 cryptozoospermia patients, who underwent ICSI treatment in our center during the period from March 2009 to November 2013, were retrospectively analyzed. Within them, ejaculated sperms were used in 214 cases (group 1) and testicular sperms extracted by testicular sperm aspiration (TESA) or conventional testis dissection sperm extraction (TESE) were used in 71 cases (group 2)...
November 25, 2016: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856159/pre-implantation-genetic-diagnosis
#5
REVIEW
Joanne Traeger-Synodinos
The aim of pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is to characterize the genetic status of the cells (usually single cells) that have been biopsied from oocytes/zygotes or embryos created in vitro during assisted reproductive treatment. PGD is a multi-step procedure that requires close collaboration between gynaecologists who are experts in assisted reproduction, embryologists who are experts in micromanipulation of germ cells and in embryo biopsy and geneticists who are experts in genetic analysis at the single-cell level...
October 26, 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853913/differences-in-pregnancy-outcomes-in-donor-egg-frozen-embryo-transfer-fet-cycles-following-preimplantation-genetic-screening-pgs-a-single-center-retrospective-study
#6
Alison Coates, Brandon J Bankowski, Allen Kung, Darren K Griffin, Santiago Munne
PURPOSE: This study aims to test the hypothesis, in a single-center retrospective analysis, that live birth rates are significantly different when utilizing preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) compared to not utilizing PGS in frozen-thawed embryo transfers in our patients that use eggs from young, anonymous donors. The question therefore arises of whether PGS is an appropriate intervention for donor egg cycles. METHODS: Live birth rates per cycle and live birth rates per embryo transferred after 398 frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycles were examined from patients who elected to have PGS compared to those who did not...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852683/potential-of-human-twin-embryos-generated-by-embryo-splitting-in-assisted-reproduction-and-research
#7
REVIEW
Laila Noli, Caroline Ogilvie, Yacoub Khalaf, Dusko Ilic
BACKGROUND: Embryo splitting or twinning has been widely used in veterinary medicine over 20 years to generate monozygotic twins with desirable genetic characteristics. The first human embryo splitting, reported in 1993, triggered fierce ethical debate on human embryo cloning. Since Dolly the sheep was born in 1997, the international community has acknowledged the complexity of the moral arguments related to this research and has expressed concerns about the potential for reproductive cloning in humans...
November 16, 2016: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842993/diagnosis-and-clinical-management-of-embryonic-mosaicism
#8
REVIEW
Nidhee M Sachdev, Susan M Maxwell, Andria G Besser, James A Grifo
Embryonic mosaicism occurs when two or more cell populations with different genotypes are present within the same embryo. New diagnostic techniques for preimplantation genetic screening (PGS), such as next-generation sequencing, have led to increased reporting of mosaicism. The interpretation of mosaicism is complicated because the transfer of some mosaic embryos has resulted in live births. Mosaic embryos may represent a third category between normal (euploidy) and abnormal (aneuploidy). This category of mosaic embryos may be characterized by decreased implantation and pregnancy potential as well as increased risk of genetic abnormalities and adverse pregnancy outcomes...
November 11, 2016: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833987/pregnancy-resulting-from-imsi-after-testicular-biopsy-in-a-patient-with-obstructive-azoospermia
#9
Constantin Cristian Văduva, Carmen Constantinescu, Mihaela Mirela Radu, Alice Roxana Văduva, Andrei Pănuş, Mihaela Ţenovici, Damian DiŢescu, Dinu Florin Albu
In this article, we report a case of pregnancy obtained in an infertile couple diagnosed with severe male factor infertility. The couple attended for fertility examination reporting a history of 10 years of infertility. The cause of infertility was obstructive azoospermia. The treatment consists of in vitro fertilization (IVF). The ovarian stimulation of female patient was done with antagonist protocol and after ovarian puncture was obtained nine oocytes. The urologist performed testicular sperm extraction (TESE)...
2016: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822654/number-of-blastocysts-biopsied-as-a-predictive-indicator-to-obtain-at-least-one-normal-balanced-embryo-following-preimplantation-genetic-diagnosis-with-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-microarray-in-translocation-cases
#10
Yi-Zi Wang, Chen-Hui Ding, Jing Wang, Yan-Hong Zeng, Wen Zhou, Rong Li, Can-Quan Zhou, Ming-Fen Deng, Yan-Wen Xu
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to investigate the minimum number of blastocysts for biopsy to increase the likelihood of obtaining at least one normal/balanced embryo in preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for translocation carriers. METHODS: This blinded retrospective study included 55 PGD cycles for Robertsonian translocation (RT) and 181 cycles for reciprocal translocation (rcp) to indicate when only one of the couples carried a translocation. Single-nucleotide polymorphism microarray after trophectoderm biopsy was performed...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816230/type-of-chromosome-abnormality-affects-embryo-morphology-dynamics
#11
Maria Del Carmen Nogales, Fernando Bronet, Natalia Basile, Eva María Martínez, Alberto Liñán, Lorena Rodrigo, Marcos Meseguer
OBJECTIVE: To study the differences in the cleavage time between types of embryo chromosomal abnormalities and elaborate algorithm to exclude aneuploid embryos according to the likelihood to be euploid. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: University affiliated private center. PATIENT(S): Preimplantational genetic screening patients (n = 112) including cases of advanced maternal age, repeated implantation failure, and recurrent miscarriage...
November 2, 2016: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815806/first-successful-trial-of-preimplantation-genetic-diagnosis-for-pantothenate-kinase-associated-neurodegeneration
#12
Objoon Trachoo, Chonthicha Satirapod, Bhakbhoom Panthan, Matchuporn Sukprasert, Angkana Charoenyingwattana, Wasun Chantratita, Wicharn Choktanasiri, Suradej Hongeng
PURPOSE: We aim to present a case of a healthy infant born after intracytoplasmic sperm injection-in vitro fertilization (ICSI-IVF) with a preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) due to PANK2 mutation. METHODS: ICSI-IVF was performed on a Thai couple, 34-year-old female and 33-year-old male, with a family history of PKAN in their first child. Following fertilization, each of the embryos were biopsied in the cleavage stage and subsequently processed for whole-genome amplification...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803591/birth-after-human-chorionic-gonadotropin-primed-oocyte-in-vitro-maturation-and-fertilization-with-testicular-sperm-in-a-normo-ovulatory-patient
#13
Claudia González-Ortega, Raul Eduardo Piña-Aguilar, Patricia Cancino-Villareal, Antonio Martin Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez
In this report, we present a case of in vitro maturation (IVM) with surgical retrieved testicular sperm in a normo-ovulatory female. Human chorionic gonadotropin-primed IVM, testicular biopsy for sperm retrieval and intracytoplasmic sperm injection with fresh sperm were performed. Fourteen cumulus-oocyte complexes were obtained in germinal vesicle or metaphase I stage, eight oocytes reached metaphase II, seven presumptive zygotes were obtained, and three cleavage stages embryos in day 2 were transferred producing a singleton pregnancy...
July 2016: Journal of Human Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803589/embryo-genome-profiling-by-single-cell-sequencing-for-successful-preimplantation-genetic-diagnosis-in-a-family-harboring-col4a1-c-1537g-a-p-g513s-mutation
#14
Nayana H Patel, Harsha K Bhadarka, Kruti B Patel, Salil N Vaniawala, Arpan Acharya, Pratap N Mukhopadhyaya, Nilofar R Sodagar
CONTEXT: Genetic profiling of embryos (also known as preimplantation genetic diagnosis) before implantation has dramatically enhanced the success quotient of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in recent times. The technology helps in avoiding selective pregnancy termination since the baby is likely to be free of the disease under consideration. AIM: Screening of embryos free from c.1537G>A; p.G513S mutation within the COL4A1 gene for which the father was known in before be in heterozygous condition...
July 2016: Journal of Human Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793373/preimplantation-genetic-diagnosis-for-chromosomal-rearrangements-with-the-use-of-array-comparative-genomic-hybridization-at-the-blastocyst-stage
#15
Christodoulos Christodoulou, Annelies Dheedene, Björn Heindryckx, Filip van Nieuwerburgh, Dieter Deforce, Petra De Sutter, Björn Menten, Etienne Van den Abbeel
OBJECTIVE: To establish the value of array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) for preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) in embryos of translocation carriers in combination with vitrification and frozen embryo transfer in nonstimulated cycles. DESIGN: Retrospective data analysis study. SETTING: Academic centers for reproductive medicine and genetics. PATIENT(S): Thirty-four couples undergoing PGD for chromosomal rearrangements from October 2013 to December 2015...
October 25, 2016: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793366/accurate-quantitation-of-mitochondrial-dna-reveals-uniform-levels-in-human-blastocysts-irrespective-of-ploidy-age-or-implantation-potential
#16
Andrea R Victor, Alan J Brake, Jack C Tyndall, Darren K Griffin, Christo G Zouves, Frank L Barnes, Manuel Viotti
OBJECTIVE: To accurately determine mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) levels in human blastocysts. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. SETTING: IVF clinic. PATIENT(S): A total of 1,396 embryos derived from 259 patients. INTERVENTION(S): Blastocyst-derived trophectoderm biopsies were tested by next-generation sequencing (NGS) and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): For each sample the mtDNA value was divided by the nuclear DNA value, and the result was further subjected to mathematical analysis tailored to the genetic makeup of the source embryo...
October 25, 2016: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786563/non-invasive-pre-implantation-aneuploidy-screening-and-diagnosis-of-beta-thalassemia-ivsii654-mutation-using-spent-embryo-culture-medium
#17
WeiQiang Liu, JianQiao Liu, HongZi Du, JiaWei Ling, XiaoFang Sun, DunJin Chen
BACKGROUND: Cell-free nuclear DNA has been isolated from spent embryo culture medium. Whether this small amount of DNA can be amplified at the whole genome level and the concordance rate of karyotypes and specific alleles between biopsied cells and media has not been evaluated. METHODS: Seven couples were recruited, 88 donated embryos and their corresponding media were collected for whole genome amplification (WGA). The efficiency of WGA, the concordance of chromosome status and the HBB gene IVSII654 allele between biopsied cells and media were investigated...
October 27, 2016: Annals of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782833/integrins-%C3%AE-1-and-%C3%AE-3-are-biomarkers-of-uterine-condition-for-embryo-transfer
#18
Guowu Chen, Aijie Xin, Yulin Liu, Changgen Shi, Junling Chen, Xiaofeng Tang, Ying Chen, Min Yu, Xiandong Peng, Lu Li, Xiaoxi Sun
BACKGROUND: Clinical ovulation induction induces blood estrogen (E2) in excess of physiological levels, which can hinder uterine receptivity. In contrast, progesterone produces the opposite clinical effect, suggesting that it might be capable of recovering the lost receptivity resulting from exposure to high estrogen levels. Integrins are the most widely used biological markers for monitoring uterine conditions. We studied progesterone-induced changes in integrin β expression patterns as biomarkers for changes in uterine receptivity in response to increased estrogen levels...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766059/preimplantation-genetic-diagnosis-of-hemophilia-a
#19
Ming Chen, Shun-Ping Chang, Gwo-Chin Ma, Wen-Hsian Lin, Hsin-Fu Chen, Shee-Uan Chen, Horng-Der Tsai, Feng-Po Tsai, Ming-Ching Shen
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is a powerful tool to tackle the transmission of monogenic inherited disorders in families carrying the diseases from generation to generation. It currently remains a challenging task, despite PGD having been developed over 25 years ago. The major difficulty is it does not have an easy and general formula for all mutations. Different gene locus needs individualized, customized design to make the diagnosis accurate enough to be applied on PGD, in which the quantity of DNA is scanty, whereas timely laboratory diagnosis is mandatory if fresh embryo transfer is desired occasionally...
2016: Thrombosis Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760750/random-allocation-of-blastomere-descendants-to-the-trophectoderm-and-icm-of-the-bovine-blastocyst
#20
Lessly P Sepulveda-Rincon, Delphine Dube, Pierre Adenot, Ludivine Laffont, Sylvie Ruffini, Laurence Gall, Bruce K Campbell, Veronique Duranthon, Nathalie Beaujean, Walid E Maalouf
The first lineage specification during mammalian embryo development can be visually distinguished at the blastocyst stage. Two cell lineages are observed on the embryonic-abembryonic axis of the blastocyst: the inner cell mass and the trophectoderm. The timing and mechanisms driving this process are still not fully understood. In mouse embryos, cells seem prepatterned to become certain cell lineage because the first cleavage plane has been related with further embryonic-abembryonic axis at the blastocyst stage...
December 2016: Biology of Reproduction
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