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immunosuppression and infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087648/effect-of-in-vivo-neutralisation-of-tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-on-the-efficacy-of-antibiotic-treatment-in-systemic-salmonella-enterica-infections
#1
Omar Rossi, Andrew J Grant, Pietro Mastroeni
Immunity can co-operate with antibiotics, but can also antagonize drug efficacy by segregating the bacteria to areas of the body that are less accessible to antimicrobials, and by selecting for subpopulations with low division rates that are often difficult to eradicate. We studied the effect of an anti-inflammatory/immunosuppressive anti-TNFα treatment, which accelerates bacterial growth in the tissues and inhibits or reverses the formation of granulomas, on the efficacy of ampicillin and ciprofloxacin during a systemic Salmonella enterica infection of the mouse...
January 12, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087591/clinical-trials-in-antineutrophil-cytoplasmic-antibody-associated-vasculitis-what-we-have-learnt-so-far-and-what-we-still-have-to-learn
#2
Divi Cornec, Emilie Cornec-Le Gall, Ulrich Specks
The prognosis of the antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody associated vasculitides (AAV), microscopic polyangiitis (MPA), granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) and eosinophilic GPA (EGPA), has been fundamentally improved over the last five decades by the use of glucocorticoids and immunosuppressants, turning them from consistently fatal diseases into chronic conditions. The long-term course is now largely determined by the frequency of disease flares and by accruing damage caused by disease activity and treatment-related comorbidities...
January 12, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086957/regulatory-t-cells-and-il10-suppress-pulmonary-host-defense-during-early-life-exposure-to-radical-containing-combustion-derived-ultrafine-particulate-matter
#3
Sridhar Jaligama, Jordy Saravia, Dahui You, Nikki Yadav, Greg I Lee, Bishwas Shrestha, Stephania A Cormier
BACKGROUND: Exposure to elevated levels of particulate matter (PM) is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality due to respiratory tract viral infections in infants. Recent identification of environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) in the PM from a variety of combustion sources suggests its role in the enhancement of disease severity of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI). Our previous studies demonstrated that acute exposure to EPFRs induces pulmonary immunosuppression allowing for enhanced influenza disease severity...
January 13, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086922/transcriptional-profiles-in-bursal-b-lymphoid-dt40-cells-infected-with-very-virulent-infectious-bursal-disease-virus
#4
Rong Quan, Shanshan Zhu, Li Wei, Jing Wang, Xu Yan, Zixuan Li, Jue Liu
BACKGROUND: Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) causes a highly contagious, immunosuppressive disease in chickens. The virus mainly infects immature B lymphocytes in the bursa of Fabricius (BF). Chicken B cell line DT40, an avian leukosis virus-induced B cell line, supports very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV) infection in vitro and thereby serves as a good model for investigating the infection and pathogenesis of this virus. However, a transcriptome-wide understanding of the interaction between vvIBDV and B cells has not yet been achieved...
January 13, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086903/negative-immune-factors-might-predominate-local-tumor-immune-status-and-promote-carcinogenesis-in-cervical-carcinoma
#5
Minyi Zhao, Yang Li, Xing Wei, Qian Zhang, Hongran Jia, Shimin Quan, Di Cao, Li Wang, Ting Yang, Juan Zhao, Meili Pei, Sijuan Tian, Yang Yu, Yanping Guo, Xiaofeng Yang
BACKGROUND: The disequilibrium of local immune microenvironment is an essential element during tumorigenesis. METHOD: By conducting real-time polymerase chain reaction, we identified the mRNA level of immune factors, FoxP3 (forkhead box protein P3), CCL22/CCR4 (chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 22/CC chemokine receptor 4), OX40L/OX40 (tumor necrosis factor superfamily member 4/tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 4) and Smad3 (SMAD family member 3) in neoplastic foci and its periphery tissues from 30 cases of squamous cervical carcinoma and 20 cases of normal cervix...
January 13, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086756/concomitant-disseminated-histoplasmosis-and-disseminated-tuberculosis-after-tumor-necrosis-factor-inhibitor-treatment-a-case-report
#6
Juan E Muñoz-Oca, Martha L Villarreal Morales, Aracelis Nieves-Rodriguez, Lemuel Martínez-Bonilla
BACKGROUND: Tumor necrosis factor antagonist inhibitors have transformed the approach to patients with severe autoimmune conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis. Although the therapy can be highly effective, TNF-α inhibitors are associated with an increased risk of opportunistic infections. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we report a case of concomitant disseminated histoplasmosis and tuberculosis in a 65-year-old female with rheumatoid arthritis treated with TNF-α inhibitor...
January 13, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081250/cutaneous-deficiency-of-filaggrin-and-stat3-exacerbates-vaccinia-disease-in-vivo
#7
Yong He, Ishrat Sultana, Kazuyo Takeda, Jennifer L Reed
RATIONALE: Defects in filaggrin and STAT3 are associated with atopic dermatitis (AD) and susceptibility to severe skin infection. METHODS: We evaluated skin infection with the current smallpox vaccine, ACAM-2000, in immunosuppressed mice with combined cutaneous deficiency in filaggrin and STAT3. In parallel, early events post-infection with ACAM-2000 were investigated in cultured keratinocytes in which filaggrin expression was knocked down via siRNA. RESULTS: Immunosuppressed, filaggrin-deficient mice, treated with the topical STAT3 inhibitor Stattic® prior to ACAM-2000 infection, demonstrated rapid weight loss, prolonged vaccinia burden in skin, and dermatitis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079270/treatment-of-adults-with-idiopathic-recurrent-pericarditis-novel-use-of-immunotherapy
#8
Nicholas C Schwier, Genevieve Hale, Marie L Davies
Idiopathic recurrent pericarditis (IRP) can be challenging to treat. Even after guideline-directed, first-line treatment consisting of aspirin (ASA) or a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) in combination with colchicine therapy, recurrences still occur in greater than 20% of patients. Many patients then require treatment with long-term corticosteroids, which is not a favorable option due to their short- and long-term adverse effects. Since it is theorized that the pathophysiology of IRP may possess autoimmune sequelae, the use of immunotherapy for the treatment of IRP has emerged...
January 12, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078864/human-herpesviruses-6-and-7-encephalitis-in-immunocompetent-infants-are-they-really-so-uncommon
#9
L Marseglia, S Manti, G D Angelo, G Stroscio, D Impollonia, S Arena, C Salpietro, E Gitto
Human herpesviruses-6 and -7 (HHV-6 and 7) are considered uncommon causes of central nervous system infection and may occasionally cause encephalitis in young infants, however, the clinical syndrome and incidence are not well defined. In immunosuppressed hosts, reactivation is associated with a worse outcome such as encephalitis, hepatitis, or graft rejection. In immunocompetent hosts, this persistent infection is generally of no consequence. We report 4 cases of immunocompetent critically ill children, affected by HHV-6 and -7 encephalitis, admitted to our Pediatric Intensive Care Unit...
October 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077585/humanized-mice-reproduce-acute-and-persistent-human-adenovirus-infection
#10
Estefanía Rodríguez, Wing Hang Ip, Viktoria Kolbe, Kristin Hartmann, Gundula Pilnitz-Stolze, Nilgün Tekin, Sergio Gómez-Medina, César Muñoz-Fontela, Susanne Krasemann, Thomas Dobner
Severe human adenovirus (HAdV) infections are an increasing threat for immunosuppressed individuals, particularly those who have received stem cell transplants. It has been previously hypothesized that severe infections might be due to reactivation of a persistent infection, but this hypothesis has been difficult to test owing to the lack of a permissive in vivo model of HAdV infection. Here we established a humanized mouse model that reproduces features of acute and persistent HAdV infection. In this model, acute infection correlated with high mortality, weight loss, liver pathology, and expression of viral proteins in several organs...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076562/mycophenolate-mofetil-as-an-immunomodulator-in-refractory-noninfectious-uveitis
#11
Ever Ernesto Caso Rodriguez, Viviane Mayumi Sakata, Daniel Cesar Torres Melo Cavalcanti, Juliana Marques Zaghetto, Edilberto Olivalves, Carlos Eduardo Hirata, Joyce Hisae Yamamoto
Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerance of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) for the treatment of noninfectious uveitis using the methods advocated by the Standardization of Uveitis Nomenclature (SUN) Working Group and to compare this with other studies of immunosuppression in ocular inflammation. Methods: Retrospective case series. Patients with noninfectious uveitis, followed at a tertiary Uveitis Service in São Paulo, Brazil, from 2007 to 2014 and receiving oral MMF for a minimum of 6 months, were retrospectively reviewed...
November 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076390/il-37-confers-protection-against-mycobacterial-infection-involving-suppressing-inflammation-and-modulating-t-cell-activation
#12
Haipeng Liu, Ruijuan Zheng, Peng Wang, Hua Yang, Xin He, Qun Ji, Wenjuan Bai, Hao Chen, Jianxia Chen, Wenxia Peng, Siyu Liu, Zhonghua Liu, Baoxue Ge
Interleukin-37 (IL-37), a novel member of the IL-1 family, plays fundamental immunosuppressive roles by broadly reducing both innate inflammation and acquired immunity, but whether it is involved in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis (TB) has not been clearly elucidated. In this study, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis demonstrated an association of the genetic variant rs3811047 of IL-37 with TB susceptibility. In line with previous report, a significant elevated IL-37 abundance in the sera and increased expression of IL-37 protein in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were observed in TB patients in comparison to healthy controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073208/experience-of-percutaneous-access-under-ultrasound-guidance-in-renal-transplant-patients-with-allograft-lithiasis
#13
Silvano Palazzo, Ottavio Colamonico, Saverio Forte, Matteo Matera, Giuseppe Lucarelli, Pasquale Ditonno, Michele Battaglia, Pasquale Martino
OBJECTIVE: Urolithiasis of the transplanted kidney has an incidence of 0.2 to 1.7%, it increases the risk of infection in immunosuppressed patients and it can lead to ureteral obstruction that is often associated with deterioration of renal function. Urolithiasis of the transplanted kidney has different characteristics compared to the native kidney, due to the absence of innervation, which does not lead to colic pain. Percutaneous approach is an optimal choice in transplant patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Here we report our experience in two cadaveric transplant patients with urolithiasis...
December 30, 2016: Archivio Italiano di Urologia, Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073178/polyclonal-and-monoclonal-antibodies-for-induction-therapy-in-kidney-transplant-recipients
#14
REVIEW
Penny Hill, Nicholas B Cross, A Nicholas R Barnett, Suetonia C Palmer, Angela C Webster
BACKGROUND: Prolonging kidney transplant survival is an important clinical priority. Induction immunosuppression with antibody therapy is recommended at transplantation and non-depleting interleukin-2 receptor monoclonal antibodies (IL2Ra) are considered first line. It is suggested that recipients at high risk of rejection should receive lymphocyte-depleting antibodies but the relative benefits and harms of the available agents are uncertain. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to: evaluate the relative and absolute effects of different antibody preparations (except IL2Ra) when used as induction therapy in kidney transplant recipients; determine how the benefits and adverse events vary for each antibody preparation; determine how the benefits and harms vary for different formulations of antibody preparation; and determine whether the benefits and harms vary in specific subgroups of recipients (e...
January 11, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070877/idiopathic-retroperitoneal-fibrosis-and-its-overlap-with-igg4-related-disease
#15
REVIEW
Giovanni Maria Rossi, Rossana Rocco, Eugenia Accorsi Buttini, Chiara Marvisi, Augusto Vaglio
Retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF) is a rare disease characterised by fibrous tissue proliferation in the retroperitoneum, with encasement of the ureters and large vessels of the abdomen as the most destructive of potentially severe complications. It can either be idiopathic, or secondary to infections, malignancies, or the use of certain drugs. The idiopathic form accounts for approximately 75% of the cases, and is usually responsive to immunosuppressive therapy. In recent years, the emergence of a new clinical entity, IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD), shed light on many fibro-inflammatory disorders once thought to be separate clinical entities, although frequently associated in the so-called multifocal fibrosclerosis...
January 9, 2017: Internal and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068274/dental-care-in-patients-with-antiphospholipid-syndrome-two-case-reports
#16
Karine Cestaro Mesquita, Carolina Rodrigues Teófilo, João Paulo Veloso Perdigão, Fabrício Bitu Sousa, Ana Paula Negreiros Nunes Alves, Wagner Araújo de Negreiros, Mário Rogério Lima Mota
Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a prothrombotic autoimmune disease that may be classified as primary or secondary. Treatment consists of oral anticoagulant, antiplatelet, and/or immunosuppressant drugs. This report describes the dental treatment of 2 women with APS and multiple dental concerns, including periodontal disease, caries, and missing teeth. The invasive dental procedures were performed in an outpatient setting with hematologic monitoring and use of local hemostatic measures. Neither interruption of anticoagulant medications nor administration of blood products was necessary...
January 2017: General Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067969/disseminated-acanthamoeba-infection-in-a-heart-transplant-recipient-treated-successfully-with-a-miltefosine-containing-regimen-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#17
Max N Brondfield, Michael J A Reid, Rachel L Rutishauser, Jennifer R Cope, Jevon Tang, Jana M Ritter, Almea Matanock, Ibne Ali, Sarah B Doernberg, Alexandra Hilts-Horeczko, Teresa DeMarco, Liviu Klein, Jennifer M Babik
Disseminated acanthamoebiasis is a rare, often fatal, infection most commonly affecting immunocompromised patients. We report a case involving sinuses, skin, and bone in a 60-year-old woman 5 months after heart transplantation. She improved with a combination of flucytosine, fluconazole, miltefosine, and decreased immunosuppression. To our knowledge, this is the first case of successfully treated disseminated acanthamoebiasis in a heart transplant recipient and only the second successful use of miltefosine for this infection among solid organ transplant recipients...
January 9, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066871/cysteine-protease-inhibitor-of-schistosoma-japonicum-a-parasite-derived-negative-immunoregulatory-factor
#18
Lin Chen, Baohua He, Wei Hou, Li He
Studies have shown that cysteine protease inhibitors from some parasites have immunosuppressive effects on the host. We previously have cloned a novel cysteine protease inhibitor from Schistosoma japonicum and purified its recombinant version (protein named rSj-C). Its possible inhibitory effect on the host immune response has not been described.This study shows that rSj-C inhibits lysosomal cysteine protease of murine dendritic cells (DCs). After DCs were incubated with rSj-C and then with soluble adult worm antigen (AWA) of S...
January 9, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065838/current-results-and-future-research-priorities-in-late-effects-after-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-hct-for-children-with-sickle-cell-disease-and-thalassemia-a-consensus-statement-from-the-second-pediatric-blood-and-marrow-transplant-consortium-international
#19
Shalini Shenoy, Emanuele Angelucci, Staci D Arnold, K Scott Baker, Monica Bhatia, Dorine Bresters, Andrew C Dietz, Josu De La Fuente, Christine Duncan, Javid Gaziev, Allison A King, Michael A Pulsipher, Angela Smith, Mark C Walters
Sustained donor engraftment after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) converts to healthy donor hemoglobin synthesis and halts disease symptoms in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) and thalassemia major. A disease free survival probability that exceeds 90% has been reported when HCT using an HLA-matched sibling donor is performed in young patients with low risk disease or treatment related risk factors. Alternate donor HCT and HCT in adults is performed infrequently due to a higher risk profile...
January 5, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065646/-what-the-family-doctor-must-know-about-lung-transplantation-complications-health-promotion-and-outcomes-part-2
#20
L Zurbano, F Zurbano
The lung transplantation is a therapeutic procedure indicated for lung diseases that are terminal and irreversible (except lung cancer) despite the best medical current treatment. It is an emergent procedure in medical care. In this review, an analyse is made of the most frequent complications of lung transplant related to the graft (rejection and chronic graft dysfunction), immunosuppression (infections, arterial hypertension, renal dysfunction, and diabetes), as well as others such as gastrointestinal complications, osteoporosis...
January 5, 2017: Semergen
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