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immunosuppression and infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050439/pathogenicity-and-immunosuppressive-potential-of-fowl-adenovirus-in-specific-pathogen-free-chickens
#1
Yujuan Niu, Qinqin Sun, Guihua Zhang, Wei Sun, Xingpo Liu, Yihong Xiao, Yingli Shang, Sidang Liu
To elucidate the effect of fowl adenovirus (FAdV)-C in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens, we investigated the pathogenicity, body weights, enzymatic systems, and immune organs of chickens in response to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and avian influenza virus subtype H9 (AIV-H9) vaccination. Chickens were divided randomly into four groups, which included injection groups (FAdV-C, vaccination, and FAdV-C plus vaccination) and a negative control group. The results indicated that FAdV-C was highly pathogenic in SPF chickens and led to a 40% mortality rate and growth retardation, compared with the control birds...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050414/serological-survey-of-reticuloendotheliosis-virus-infection-in-chickens-in-china-in-2005-to-2015
#2
Yanling Yang, Jing Zhao, Zhijun Ma, Meiyu Xu, Jia Xue, Guozhong Zhang
Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) causes an immunosuppressive, oncogenic, and runting syndrome in many avian hosts worldwide. The immunosuppression caused by REV can decrease the antibody levels of vaccines and subsequent increase susceptibility to secondary infections. There are no commercial vaccines or effective drugs to control REV infections at present. To investigate the REV infection status in chickens in China, 25,224 sera from 573 chicken flocks, collected between 2005 and 2015, were measured for REV antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050127/-immune-related-pneumonitis-caused-by-programmed-death-1-inhibitor-pembrolizumab-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#3
Y L Chen, J Zhao, R Jia, H Y Wang, J Zheng, C Q Bai, M Z Wang, J M Xu
Objective: To investigate the risk factors, clinical manifestations, radiological features, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of immune-related pneumonitis caused by programmed death-1(PD-1)/PD-L1 inhibitors. Methods: The clinical data of immune-related pneumonitis caused by PD-1 inhibitor Pembrolizumab in a patient with advanced esophageal carcinoma admitted to the 307(th) Hospital of Chinese People's Liberation Army was retrospectively analyzed and the related literatures were reviewed. We searched Medline database using the keywords"PD-1 inhibitor","PD-L1 inhibitor","Pembrolizumab","Nivolumab","Atezolizumab"combined with"Pneumonitis"by Mar 31, 2017...
October 12, 2017: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049134/in-trauma-patients-the-occurrence-of-early-onset-nosocomial-infections-is-associated-with-increased-plasma-concentrations-of-chromogranin-a
#4
Francis Schneider, Céline Marban, Gharib Ajob, Sophie Helle, Max Guillot, Anne Launoy, Quentin Maestraggi, Francesco Scavello, Olivier Rohr, Marie-Hélène Metz-Boutigue
In previously healthy persons suffering from acute illnesses, nosocomial infections are frequent. Their prevalence suggests the existence of as yet unknown conditions that may promote care-related infection. This study assessed whether 1) the measurement of plasma chromogranin A, a stress-related protein involved in innate defence, is related to nosocomial infection risk and 2) whether any chromogranin-A-derived fragment included in vasostatin-I displays immunosuppressive activities related to AP-1 or NF-kappa B down regulation...
October 18, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048543/cardiac-tamponade-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#5
Rudra Prosad Goswami, Geetabali Sircar, Alakendu Ghosh, Parasar Ghosh
OBJECTIVES: To describe incidence, risk factors and treatment of cardiac tamponade in a large cohort of Indian patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted at the Department of Rheumatology, IPGMER, Kolkata, India from May 2014 to December 2016 on admitted patients with SLE. Lupus-related serositis was diagnosed after excluding other causes, such as infection, malignancy or heart failure. RESULTS: Of 409 patients with SLE, pericarditis was diagnosed in 25...
October 17, 2017: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045740/adding-vancomycin-to-perioperative-prophylaxis-decreases-deep-sternal-wound-infections-in-high-risk-cardiac-surgery-patients
#6
Sylvia Reineke, Thierry P Carrel, Verena Eigenmann, Brigitta Gahl, Urs Fuehrer, Christian Seidl, David Reineke, Eva Roost, Magi Bächli, Jonas Marschall, Lars Englberger
OBJECTIVES: Perioperative prophylaxis with cephalosporins reduces sternal wound infections (SWIs) after cardiac surgery. However, more than 50% of coagulase-negative staphylococci, an important pathogen, are cephalosporin resistant. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of adjunctive vancomycin on SWIs in high-risk patients. METHODS: We conducted a pre- and postintervention study in an academic hospital. Preintervention (2010-2011), all patients received prophylaxis with 1...
October 16, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045261/incidence-and-outcomes-of-central-venous-catheter-related-blood-stream-infection-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-in-routine-clinical-practice-setting
#7
Wataru Shibata, Masako Sohara, Rongrong Wu, Kota Kobayashi, Shin Yagi, Katsuki Yaguchi, Yuki Iizuka, Miho Iwasa, Hitomi Nakahata, Tadashi Yamaguchi, Hiromi Matsumoto, Mao Okada, Kenshiro Taniguchi, Aki Hayashi, Shin Inazawa, Naoko Inagaki, Tomohiko Sasaki, Ryonho Koh, Hiroto Kinoshita, Masafumi Nishio, Tsuyoshi Ogashiwa, Ai Ookawara, Eiji Miyajima, Mari Oba, Hiroki Ohge, Shin Maeda, Hideaki Kimura, Reiko Kunisaki
BACKGROUND: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) occasionally require central venous catheter (CVC) placement to support a therapeutic plan. Given that CVC can predispose patients to infection, this investigation was undertaken to assess the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of CVC-related blood stream infection (CRBSI) in patients with IBD during routine clinical practice. METHODS: Data were compiled using retrospective chart reviews of 1367 patients treated at our IBD center between 2007 and 2012 during routine clinical practice...
November 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044057/clinicodemographic-profile-and-treatment-outcome-in-patients-of-ocular-surface-squamous-neoplasia
#8
Rachna Meel, Rebika Dhiman, Murugesan Vanathi, Neelam Pushker, Radhika Tandon, Saranya Devi
PURPOSE: The aim is to study the clinicodemographic profile and treatment outcome of ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN). METHODS: This was a retrospective observational study of 57 eyes (56 cases) with clinically diagnosed OSSN, presenting in our center over the past year. RESULTS: The median age of presentation was 55 years with male:female ratio being 4.5:1. Systemic predisposing conditions were xeroderma pigmentosa (1) postkidney transplant immunosuppression (1), and human immunodeficiency virus infection (1)...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043965/japanese-encephalitis-virus-transmitted-via-blood-transfusion-hong-kong-china
#9
Vincent C C Cheng, Siddharth Sridhar, Shuk-Ching Wong, Sally C Y Wong, Jasper F W Chan, Cyril C Y Yip, Chi-Hung Chau, Timmy W K Au, Yu-Yan Hwang, Carol S W Yau, Janice Y C Lo, Cheuk-Kwong Lee, Kwok-Yung Yuen
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquitoborne virus endemic to China and Southeast Asia that causes severe encephalitis in <1% of infected persons. Transmission of JEV via blood transfusion has not been reported. We report transmission of JEV via blood donation products from an asymptomatic viremic donor to 2 immunocompromised recipients. One recipient on high-dose immunosuppressive drugs received JEV-positive packed red blood cells after a double lung transplant; severe encephalitis and a poor clinical outcome resulted...
January 15, 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043145/anca-associated-pauci-immune-glomerulonephritis-in-a-patient-with-bacterial-endocarditis-a-challenging-clinical-dilemma
#10
Andrea Cervi, Dylan Kelly, Iakovina Alexopoulou, Nader Khalidi
PURPOSE: We report the case of a 59-year-old man with chronic hepatitis B and C infection presenting with acute kidney injury and enterococcus faecalis-infective endocarditis (IE). An elevated proteinase-3 (PR3)-ANCA and pauci-immune glomerulonephritis (GN) on renal biopsy were discovered, corresponding to ANCA-mediated GN. We conducted a literature review to assess the role of ANCA in IE and treatment implications. METHODS: On systematic review of the literature, we found five previous cases whereby IE caused by streptococcus and bartonella species were related to ANCA vasculitis-associated GN...
2017: Clin Nephrol Case Stud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042988/toll-like-receptor-2-and-dectin-1-function-as-promising-biomarker-for-aspergillus-fumigatus-infection
#11
Peng-Peng Zhang, Xiao-Feng Xin, Xiao-Yong Xu, Li-Ping Fang, Jie Wu, Yi Shi
In recent years, along with the wide application of organ transplantation and immunosuppressive agents, as well as the abuse of broad spectrum antibiotics, the incidence of invasive fungal infections has been increasing gradually. The present study aimed to identify novel biomarkers in cells infected with Aspergillus fumigatus. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were infected with Aspergillus fumigatus and then harvested at different time-points (0, 1, 2, 4 and 6 h). The expression Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and dectin-1 expression were examined using flow cytometry and western blotting, and fluorescence-based microscopy was used to evaluate their distribution...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042952/protective-effect-of-ulinastatin-on-severe-pulmonary-infection-under-immunosuppression-and-its-molecular-mechanism
#12
Wenshuai Liu, Guozhong Pang, Shengyan Wang, Aiqin Sun
The objective of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of ulinastatin on severe pulmonary infection under immunosuppression, and its molecular mechanism. Mice were treated with methylprednisolone and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to establish the model of severe pulmonary infection under immunosuppression. Mice were randomly divided into group A (model group; treated with equal volumes of saline), group B (treated with 1×10(5) U/kg ulinastatin), and group C (normal control group). Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected, and the concentrations of cytokines in BALF were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042667/mg-132-reduces-virus-release-in-bovine-herpesvirus-1-infection
#13
Filomena Fiorito, Valentina Iovane, Antonietta Cantiello, Annarosaria Marullo, Luisa De Martino, Giuseppe Iovane
Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) can provoke conjunctivitis, abortions and shipping fever. BoHV-1 infection can also cause immunosuppression and increased susceptibility to secondary bacterial infections, leading to pneumonia and occasionally to death. Herein, we investigated the influence of MG-132, a proteasome inhibitor, on BoHV-1 infection in bovine kidney (MDBK) cells. Infection of MDBK cells with BoHV-1 induces apoptotic cell death that enhances virus release. Whereas, MG-132 inhibited virus-induced apoptosis and stimulated autophagy...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042456/effects-of-two-immunosuppressive-treatment-protocols-for-iga-nephropathy
#14
Thomas Rauen, Christina Fitzner, Frank Eitner, Claudia Sommerer, Martin Zeier, Britta Otte, Ulf Panzer, Harm Peters, Urs Benck, Peter R Mertens, Uwe Kuhlmann, Oliver Witzke, Oliver Gross, Volker Vielhauer, Johannes F E Mann, Ralf-Dieter Hilgers, Jürgen Floege
The role of immunosuppression in IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is controversial. In the Supportive Versus Immunosuppressive Therapy for the Treatment of Progressive IgA Nephropathy (STOP-IgAN) Trial, 162 patients with IgAN and proteinuria >0.75 g/d after 6 months of optimized supportive care were randomized into two groups: continued supportive care or additional immunosuppression (GFR≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2): 6-month corticosteroid monotherapy; GFR=30-59 ml/min per 1.73 m(2): cyclophosphamide for 3 months followed by azathioprine plus oral prednisolone)...
October 17, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042147/how-immunotherapies-are-targeting-the-glioblastoma-immune-environment
#15
REVIEW
Jonathan Felthun, Rajesh Reddy, Kerrie Leanne McDonald
The diagnosis of glioblastoma remains one of the most dismal in medical practice, with current standard care only providing a median survival of 14.6 months. The need for new therapies is desperately clear. Components of the tumour microenvironment are demonstrating growing importance in the field, given they allow the tumour to utilise pathways involved in autoimmune prevention, something that enables the tumour's establishment and growth. As with many different cancers, the search for a new standard has progressed to the design of immunotherapies, which aim to counteract the immune changes within this microenvironment...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040008/analysis-of-the-clinical-profile-and-management-of-inflammatory-choriodal-neovascular-membranes-in-uveitic-eyes-a-study-from-a-tertiary-referral-center
#16
Sudha Ganesh, Arshee Ahmed, Jyotirmay Biswas
PURPOSE: To analyze clinical profile and management of inflammatory choroidal neovascularization (CNV) seen at a referral uveitis clinic. METHODS: Records of patients with uveitis and inflammatory CNV from January 1989 to April 2012 were retrieved and the data was analyzed. RESULTS: Forty-nine eyes of 43 patients were included. Mean age at presentation was 35.81 years. Eighteen eyes (36.7%) had infective etiology and 31 eyes (63.2%) had non-infective etiology...
October 17, 2017: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039212/propagation-and-titration-of-infectious-bursal-disease-virus-including-non-cell-culture-adapted-strains-using-ex-vivo-stimulated-chicken-bursal-cells
#17
Sebastien Mathieu Soubies, Céline Courtillon, Mouna Abed, Michel Amelot, Alassane Keita, Andrew Broadbent, Sonja Härtle, Bernd Kaspers, Nicolas Eterradossi
Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a Birnaviridae family member of economic importance for poultry. This virus infects and destroys developing B lymphocytes in the cloacal bursa, resulting in a potentially fatal or immunosuppressive disease in chickens. Naturally-occurring viruses and many vaccine strains are not able to grow in in vitro systems without prior adaptation, which process often affects viral properties such as virulence. Primary bursal cells, which are the main target cells of lymphotropic IBDV in vivo, may represent an attractive system for the study of IBDV...
October 17, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038957/-infections-in-rheumatology-differential-diagnosis-or-complication-of-immunosuppressive-therapy
#18
EDITORIAL
B Ehrenstein, U Müller-Ladner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 16, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Rheumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038644/black-box-warning-for-possible-hbv-reactivation-during-daa-therapy-for-chronic-hcv-infection
#19
Paul J Pockros
In 2016, the US Food and Drug Administration issued a warning about the risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation in some patients receiving direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. HBV reactivation can occur soon after the start of DAA therapy; thus, monitoring liver enzymes during DAA therapy is important in patients at risk. The clinical outcomes of HBV reactivation in this patient population may resemble the outcomes seen in immunosuppressed patients receiving chemotherapy...
September 2017: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038280/targeting-human-cytomegalovirus-infected-cells-by-redirecting-t-cells-using-an-anti-cd3-anti-gb-bispecific-antibody
#20
Weixu Meng, Aimin Tang, Xiaohua Ye, Xun Gui, Leike Li, Xuejun Fan, Robbie D Schultz, Daniel C Freed, Sha Ha, Dai Wang, Ningyan Zhang, Tong-Ming Fu, Zhiqiang An
Host immune response to human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is effective against HCMV reactivation from latency although not sufficient to clear the virus. T cells are primarily responsible for control of the viral reactivation. When host immune system is compromised, as in transplant recipients with immunosuppression, HCMV reactivation and progressive infection can cause serious morbidity and mortality. Adoptive T cell therapy is effective for control of HCMV infection in transplant recipients. However, it is a highly personalized therapeutic regimen, and difficult to implement in routine clinical practice...
October 16, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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