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immunosuppression and infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223319/tuberculosis-in-immunosuppressed-patients
#1
Isabel Machuca, Elisa Vidal, Julián de la Torre-Cisneros, Antonio Rivero-Román
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most significant infections in immunosuppressed patients due to its high frequency and high morbidity and mortality. TB is the leading cause of death among HIV-infected patients. The diagnosis and early treatment of latent tuberculosis infection is vital to preventing it progression to disease. Similarly, the early diagnosis of TB is key to improving the prognosis of patients and preventing its transmission. The clinical expression of TB in immunosuppressed patients is conditioned by the patient's degree of immunosuppression...
December 6, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222615/knockdown-expression-of-il-10r%C3%AE-gene-inhibits-prrsv-replication-and-elevates-immune-responses-in-pbmcs-of-tibetan-pig-in-vitro
#2
Yihui Chen, Ye Wang, Kai Zeng, Yun-Feng Lei, Xiao-Hui Chen, San-Cheng Ying, Xue-Bin Lv, Zezhou Wang, Rong Gao
Increase of interleukin-10 (IL-10) induced by Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) infection has been intensely studied to inhibit the anti-viral responses of host pigs. Blockade of expression of IL-10 receptor (IL-10R) by RNA interference (RNAi) may relieve the immunosuppression caused by excessive IL-10 in PRRSV infection. The recombinant short hairpin expressing plasmid targeted to pig IL-10Rα was transfected into peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Tibetan pig (Tp-PBMCs) prior to PRRSV inoculation, then the replication of PRRSV and immune responses in Tp-PBMCs were evaluated...
December 8, 2017: Veterinary Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222315/extracorporeal-photopheresis-cellular-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-acute-and-chronic-graft-versus-host-disease
#3
REVIEW
Jennifer Schneiderman
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a potentially curative option for many disease states. Despite significant improvements in strategies used to prevent and treat acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (a/cGVHD), they continue to negatively affect outcomes of HSCT significantly. Standard, first-line treatment consists of corticosteroids; beyond this, there is little consistency in therapeutic regimens. Current options include the addition of various immunosuppressive agents, the use of which puts patients at even higher risks for infection and other morbidities...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221884/-efficacy-and-tolerance-of-tocilizumab-for-corticosteroid-sparing-in-giant-cell-arteritis-and-aortitis-experience-of-nimes-university-hospital-about-eleven-patients
#4
J Broner, E Arnaud
INTRODUCTION: Giant cell arteritis is a large-vessels vasculitis, which treatment consists in a slowly-tappered steroid-therapy. Immunosuppressive agents are sometimes used in case of steroid-dependance. We have conducted an observationnal retrospective study including patients treated with tocilizumab for a giant cell arteritis or an aortitis in the internal medicine department at the Nîmes University Hospital. RESULTS: Eleven patients were included between 2011 and 2016, who had been treated only with prednisone...
December 5, 2017: La Revue de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221143/impact-of-human-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-on-antifungal-host-response-against-aspergillus-fumigatus
#5
Stanislaw Schmidt, Lars Tramsen, Andreas Schneider, Ralf Schubert, Ada Balan, Özer Degistirici, Roland Meisel, Thomas Lehrnbecher
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are increasingly given as immunotherapy to hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients with refractory graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). Whereas the immunosuppressive properties of MSCs seem to be beneficial in GvHD, there is, at the same time, major concern that MSCs increase the risk for infection. We therefore investigated the interplay of human MSCs with Aspergillus fumigatus and the impact of MSCs on different arms of the anti-Aspergillus host response in vitro...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219790/hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-kidney-transplant-patients-current-treatment-options
#6
Pavlina Dzekova-Vidimliski, Aleksandar Sikole
Hepatitis C virus infection is highly prevalent among kidney transplant recipients, occurring consequently to their previous treatment with hemodialysis. Hepatitis C virus infection has been associated with lower graft and patient survival compared with that shown in patients without infection. The lower survival has been associated with the posttransplant progression of liver disease and increased risk for development of extrahepatic complications. The choice of immunosuppressive drugs could significantly affect the course of the infection with an accelerated viral replication after kidney transplant...
December 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218257/pulmonary-tuberculosis-versus-recurrent-chemotherapy-induced-pneumonitis-a-clinical-dilemma
#7
Gulrayz Ahmed, Muhammad W Saif
Chemotherapy-induced lung toxicity can affect pulmonary parenchyma, pleura, airways, pulmonary vascular system, mediastinum or the neuromuscular system that is responsible for respiration. Chemotherapy-induced pulmonary toxicity is a diagnosis of exclusion. When the patients with malignancies develop pulmonary toxicity such as pneumonitis and distinguishing it from alternative diseases such as infectious, thrombotic, cardiac, malignant or exacerbation of chronic lung conditions can be difficult. Moreover, such patients are often immunosuppressed, physically stressed from the underlying disease and the cancer treatment and hence, more susceptible to usual and unusual or opportunistic infections...
October 4, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218051/sphingosine-1-phosphate-and-c-c-chemokine-receptor-2-dependent-activation-of-cd4-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cells-in-the-bone-marrow-contributes-to-signs-of-sepsis-induced-immunosuppression
#8
Anna Smirnov, Stephanie Pohlmann, Melanie Nehring, Shafaqat Ali, Ritu Mann-Nüttel, Stefanie Scheu, Anne-Charlotte Antoni, Wiebke Hansen, Manuela Büettner, Miriam J Gardiasch, Astrid M Westendorf, Florian Wirsdörfer, Eva Pastille, Marcel Dudda, Stefanie B Flohé
Sepsis is the dysregulated response of the host to systemic, mostly bacterial infection, and is associated with an enhanced susceptibility to life-threatening opportunistic infections. During polymicrobial sepsis, dendritic cells (DCs) secrete enhanced levels of interleukin (IL) 10 due to an altered differentiation in the bone marrow and contribute to the development of immunosuppression. We investigated the origin of the altered DC differentiation using murine cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), a model for human polymicrobial sepsis...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217957/evaluation-of-parasitological-methods-for-the-detection-of-strongyloides-stercoralis-among-individuals-in-selected-health-institutions-in-addis-ababa-ethiopia
#9
Tamirat Hailegebriel, Beyene Petros, Tekola Endeshaw
Background: Strongyloides stercoralis causes chronic intestinal infection that may lead to disseminated disease during immunosuppression. Therefore, efficient diagnostic methods are essential to detect silent and latent infections. The present study was aimed to compare the efficacy of parasitological methods for the detection of S. stercoralis infection. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 351 subjects (226 HIV positive and 125 HIV negative) from October 2005 to May 2006...
September 2017: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217890/nontubercular-mycobacterial-infection-in-a-renal-allograft-recipient
#10
U Anandh, K Jayanna
A 71-year-old male, a renal allograft recipient, presented to us with a history of fever and right palm swelling. He had a history of fever 7 years back when he was treated with antitubercular treatment (ATT). Three years back, he was diagnosed to have gout and he was started on allopurinol. He developed severe bone marrow toxicity and allopurinol was changed to febuxostat. On admission, routine investigations did not reveal any focus of infection. The fluid aspirate from the palm revealed acid-fast bacilli (AFB)...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217623/prostaglandins-d2-and-e2-have-opposite-effects-on-alveolar-macrophage-infected-with-histoplasma-capsulatum
#11
Priscilla A T Pereira, Patrícia A Assis, Morgana K B Prado, Simone Gusamão Ramos, David M Aronoff, Francisco W G Paula-Silva, Carlos A Sorgi, Lúcia H Faccioli
PGE2 suppresses macrophage effector mechanisms; however, little is known about the function of PGD2 in infected alveolar macrophages (AMs). Using serum opsonized Histoplasma capsulatum (ops-H. capsulatum) in vitro, we demonstrated that AMs produced PGE2 and PGD2 in a time-dependent manner, with PGE2 levels exceeding those of PGD2 by 48 h post-infection. Comparison of the effects of both exogenous PGs on AMs revealed that PGD2 increased phagocytosis and killing through the DP2 receptor, whereas PGE2 had opposite effects, through EP2/EP4-dependent mechanisms...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216911/dynamic-expression-of-cytokine-and-transcription-factor-genes-during-experimental-fasciola-gigantica-infection-in-buffaloes
#12
Wei Shi, Zhi-Yong Wei, Hany M Elsheikha, Fu-Kai Zhang, Zhao-An Sheng, Ke-Jing Lu, Dong-Ying Wang, Wei-Yi Huang, Xing-Quan Zhu
BACKGROUND: Determining the mechanisms involved in the immune-pathogenesis of the tropical liver fluke, Fasciola gigantica, is crucial to the development of any effective therapeutic intervention. Here, we examined the differential gene expression of cytokines and transcription factors in the liver of F. gigantica-infected buffaloes, over the course of infection. METHODS: Water buffaloes (swamp type) were infected orally with 500 F. gigantica encysted metacercariae...
December 8, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216277/immune-mediated-inflammatory-diseases-differently-affect-igras-accuracy-for-latent-tuberculosis-infection-diagnosis-in-clinical-practice
#13
Irene Latorre, Sonia Mínguez, José-Manuel Carrascosa, Juan Naves, Raquel Villar-Hernández, Beatriz Muriel, Cristina Prat, Esther García-García, Irma Casas, Eugeni Domènech, Carlos Ferrándiz, Lourdes Mateo, Jose Domínguez
BACKGROUND: Clinical accuracy of IGRAs remains unclear on patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs). Here, we assess the impact of immunosuppressants and IMIDs on QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFN-G-IT) and T-SPOT.TB accuracy. METHODS: Patients with IMIDs who required latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) screening were enrolled and classified into: (i) 50 patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases, (ii) 50 patients with psoriasis and (iii) 30 patients with Crohn's disease...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215298/echinacea-purpurea-protects-against-restraint-stress-induced-immunosuppression-in-balb-c-mice
#14
Seonyoung Park, Mak-Soon Lee, Sunyoon Jung, Seohyun Lee, Oran Kwon, Matthias Heinrich Kreuter, Tania Perrinjaquet-Moccetti, Bokkee Min, Seong Ho Yun, Yangha Kim
Echinacea purpurea has been widely used for the prevention and treatment of upper respiratory tract infections and the common cold. The restraint stress has been reported to suppress a broad spectrum of immune functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of the pressed juice of E. purpurea (L.) Moench (EFLA®894; Echinacea) against restraint stress-induced immunosuppression in BALB/c mice. Echinacea significantly normalized the restraint stress-induced reduction in splenocyte proliferation and splenic natural killer (NK) cell activity (P < ...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213274/natural-killer-cells-in-antifungal-immunity
#15
REVIEW
Stanislaw Schmidt, Lars Tramsen, Thomas Lehrnbecher
Invasive fungal infections are still an important cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients such as patients suffering from hematological malignancies or patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantion. In addition, other populations such as human immunodeficiency virus-patients are at higher risk for invasive fungal infection. Despite the availability of new antifungal compounds and better supportive care measures, the fatality rate of invasive fungal infection remained unacceptably high...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213206/hiv-transmission-clusters-among-injecting-drug-users-in-romania
#16
Aura Temereanca, Cristiana Oprea, Joel O Wertheim, Irina Ianache, Emanoil Ceausu, Costin Cernescu, Sanjay R Mehta, Simona Ruta
Injection drug use is increasingly an important route of HIV transmission in Romania (from 1.5% of the newly diagnosed cases prior to 2010 to 31% in 2013). In this study we investigated the viral characteristics and relationships in newly HIV infected persons who inject drugs in Bucharest, Romania. Results: HIV-1 pol sequencing, followed by phylogenetic and clustering analysis was performed on blood from 37 injecting drug users (IDUs) newly diagnosed with HIV infection. While HIV subtype F1, the dominant strain in Romania since 1990, remains prevalent, new subtypes were found including G, B, B/G and B/F recombinants...
January 2017: Romanian Biotechnological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213074/galectin-3-impacts-cryptococcus-neoformans-infection-through-direct-antifungal-effects
#17
Fausto Almeida, Julie M Wolf, Thiago Aparecido da Silva, Carlos M DeLeon-Rodriguez, Caroline Patini Rezende, André Moreira Pessoni, Fabrício Freitas Fernandes, Rafael Silva-Rocha, Roberto Martinez, Marcio L Rodrigues, Maria Cristina Roque-Barreira, Arturo Casadevall
Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated fungal pathogen that causes cryptococcosis, which is a major opportunistic infection in immunosuppressed individuals. Mammalian β-galactoside-binding protein Galectin-3 (Gal-3) modulates the host innate and adaptive immunity, and plays significant roles during microbial infections including some fungal diseases. Here we show that this protein plays a role also in C. neoformans infection. We find augmented Gal-3 serum levels in human and experimental infections, as well as in spleen, lung, and brain tissues of infected mice...
December 6, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213029/generation-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-biofilm-infection-in-an-immunosuppressed-rat-model
#18
Tangjuan Liu, Yan Chen, Guan Bi, Jin Luo, Zhongye Du, Jinliang Kong, Yiqiang Chen
BACKGROUND Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a common pathogen responsible for many related infections, and immunosuppressed individuals are more susceptible. Its pathogenicity is associated with its virulence factors, resistance to antibiotics, and ability to form biofilm (BF). MRSA-BF infections in immunosuppressed patients pose great difficulties to clinical treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study aimed to establish a model of MRSA-BF infection in rats with cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced immunosuppression...
December 7, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212473/case-report-bilateral-mooren-ulcer-in-association-with-hepatitis-c
#19
Vesa Aaltonen, Mari Alavesa, Laura Pirilä, Eija Vesti, Mohammad Al-Juhaish
BACKGROUND: Mooren ulcer has been considered as an idiopathic autoimmune keratitis. However, it has been in some cases suggested to be associated with hepatitis C, although the evidence is very vague. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of a man who was diagnosed with a primary Mooren ulcer in his right eye. The eye became blind despite of intensive treatment with local medications and extensive surgical procedures. After 10 years, the patient was diagnosed with the same disease, now in his left, previously healthy eye...
December 6, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211841/perioperative-benefit-and-outcome-of-thoracic-epidural-in-esophageal-surgery-a-clinical-review
#20
P Feltracco, A Bortolato, S Barbieri, E Michieletto, E Serra, A Ruol, S Merigliano, C Ori
Surgery for esophageal cancer is a highly stressful and painful procedure, and a significant amount of analgesics may be required to eliminate perioperative pain and blunt the stress response to surgery. Proper management of postoperative pain has invariably been shown to reduce the incidence of postoperative complications and accelerate recovery. Neuraxial analgesic techniques after major thoracic and upper abdominal surgery have long been established to reduce respiratory, cardiovascular, metabolic, inflammatory, and neurohormonal complications...
December 2, 2017: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
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