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immunosuppression and infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655972/effectiveness-and-safety-of-anti-tnf-therapy-for-inflammatory-bowel-disease-in-liver-transplant-recipients-for-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis-a-nationwide-case-series
#1
Romain Altwegg, Roman Combes, David Laharie, Victor De Ledinghen, Sylvie Radenne, Filomena Conti, Olivier Chazouilleres, Christophe Duvoux, Jérôme Dumortier, Vincent Leroy, Xavier Treton, François Durand, Sébastien Dharancy, Maria Nachury, Félix Goutorbe, Géraldine Lamblin, Lucile Boivineau, Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet, Georges-Philippe Pageaux
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of consensus regarding the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) after liver transplantation (LT) forprimary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). AIM: To investigate the safety and effectiveness of anti-TNF therapy in patients with IBD after a LT for PSC. METHODS: We reviewed the medical files of all of the IBD patients who underwent a LT for PSC and who were treated with anti-TNF therapy at 23 French liver transplantation centers between 1989 and 2012...
March 13, 2018: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655492/isolated-acute-appendicitis-caused-by-aspergillus-in-a-patient-who-underwent-lung-transplantation-a-case-report
#2
H S Kim, H J Yeo, D H Shin, W H Cho, D Kim
Invasive aspergillosis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients who have undergone lung transplantation. Aspergillus infections usually involve the respiratory tract, with vascular invasion and subsequent dissemination. However, acute appendicitis associated with localized aspergillosis is rare, especially among patients who have undergone prophylaxis with voriconazole. We present a case of primary Aspergillus appendicitis diagnosed by histologic examination in a patient who underwent lung transplantation...
April 11, 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650438/hepatitis-e-virus-infection-mimicking-acute-graft-rejection-in-a-liver-transplant-recipient
#3
M Allaire, C Bazille, J Selves, E Salamé, M Altieri
INTRODUCTION: In liver transplant (LT) patients, hepatitis E virus (HEV) can lead to acute liver failure, chronic hepatitis and graft cirrhosis. Few data on graft rejection associated with HEV are available and are subject to discussion. CASE REPORT: Here we report the case of a 58-year-old male patient who underwent LT in July 2015 for cirrhosis due to NASH and chronic alcohol intake complicated by hepatocellular carcinoma. LT was performed with a deceased donor isogroup and a mismatch CMV (donor+ and recipient-)...
April 10, 2018: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649830/healthcare-associated-infections-after-lower-urinary-tract-endoscopic-surgery-analysis-of-risk-factors-associated-microorganisms-and-patterns-of-antibiotic-resistance
#4
Raquel Sopeña-Sutil, José Medina-Polo, Juan Justo-Quintas, Javier Gil-Moradillo, Lucia Garcia-Gonzalez, Raúl Benítez-Sala, Manuel Alonso-Isa, Alba Lara-Isla, Angel Tejido-Sanchez
OBJECTIVES: To review the incidence of healthcare-associated infections/urinary tract infection (UTI), risk factors, microorganisms isolated and antibiotic resistances in patients who underwent lower urinary tract endoscopic surgery (LUTES) in a tertiary care hospital. METHODS: A prospective observational study was carried out including 1,498 patients who undergo LUTES. Patients with and without UTI after surgery were compared. We analysed infection incidence, risk factors, microorganisms isolated and antibiotic resistances...
April 12, 2018: Urologia Internationalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29645080/risk-of-oral-tongue-cancer-among-immunocompromised-transplant-recipients-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-individuals-in-the-united-states
#5
Joseph E Tota, Eric A Engels, Margaret M Madeleine, Christina A Clarke, Charles F Lynch, Ana P Ortiz, Brenda Y Hernandez, Anil K Chaturvedi
BACKGROUND: Oral tongue cancer incidence has increased among whites in the United States; however, the cause remains unknown. If an infectious agent is implicated, then elevated risk would be expected among immunosuppressed individuals. METHODS: By using population-based registry linkage information from the US Transplant Cancer Match and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) Cancer Match studies, the authors examined the risk of oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) among immunocompromised transplantation recipients and HIV-infected individuals...
April 12, 2018: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644537/drug-drug-interaction-profile-of-the-fixed-dose-combination-tablet-regimen-ledipasvir-sofosbuvir
#6
REVIEW
Polina German, Anita Mathias, Diana M Brainard, Brian P Kearney
Ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (Harvoni® ), a fixed-dose combination tablet of an NS5A inhibitor ledipasvir and an NS5B polymerase inhibitor sofosbuvir, is approved for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Ledipasvir/sofosbuvir exhibits a favorable drug-drug interaction profile and can be administered with various medications that may be used by hepatitis C virus-infected patients, including patients with comorbidities, such as co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus or immunosuppression following liver transplantation...
April 11, 2018: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644247/quantification-of-torque-teno-virus-and-epstein-barr-virus-is-of-limited-value-for-predicting-the-net-state-of-immunosuppression-after-lung-transplantation
#7
Rickard Nordén, Jesper Magnusson, Anna Lundin, Ka-Wei Tang, Staffan Nilsson, Magnus Lindh, Lars-Magnus Andersson, Gerdt C Riise, Johan Westin
Background: Major hurdles for survival after lung transplantation are rejections and infectious complications. Adequate methods for monitoring immune suppression status are lacking. Here, we evaluated quantification of torque teno virus (TTV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) as biomarkers for defining the net state of immunosuppression in lung-transplanted patients. Methods: This prospective single-center study included 98 patients followed for 2 years after transplantation...
April 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642960/cyp51-as-drug-targets-for-fungi-and-protozoan-parasites-past-present-and-future
#8
Galina I Lepesheva, Laura Friggeri, Michael R Waterman
The efficiency of treatment of human infections with the unicellular eukaryotic pathogens such as fungi and protozoa remains deeply unsatisfactory. For example, the mortality rates from nosocomial fungemia in critically ill, immunosuppressed or post-cancer patients often exceed 50%. A set of six systemic clinical azoles [sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51) inhibitors] represents the first-line antifungal treatment. All these drugs were discovered empirically, by monitoring their effects on fungal cell growth, though it had been proven that they kill fungal cells by blocking the biosynthesis of ergosterol in fungi at the stage of 14α-demethylation of the sterol nucleus...
April 12, 2018: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642526/construction-and-characterization-of-a-humanized-anti-epstein-barr-virus-gp350-antibody-with-neutralizing-activity-in-cell-culture
#9
Jerome E Tanner, Jing Hu, Caroline Alfieri
Acute Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in immunosuppressed transplant patients can give rise to a malignant B-cell proliferation known as post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD). The EBV major virion surface glycoprotein (gp)350 is a principal target of naturally occurring neutralizing antibodies and is viewed as the best target to prevent acute infection and PTLD in at-risk transplant recipients. We have constructed a humanized (hu) version of the murine anti-gp350 neutralizing monoclonal antibody 72a1...
April 9, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642499/cimetidine-a-safe-treatment-option-for-cutaneous-warts-in-pediatric-heart-transplant-recipients
#10
Bibhuti B Das, Kristin Anton, Nelia Soares, Susan Riojas, Jodi Mcdermott, Leah Knox, Susan Daneman, Bao N Puente
Abstract : Background and Objectives : Immunosuppressed individuals are at particularly increased risk for human papilloma virus-related infections. The primary objective of our study is to determine if there are any adverse effects associated with high-dose cimetidine treatment. A secondary objective is to report our experience with cimetidine in the treatment of cutaneous warts in pediatric heart transplant recipients. Methods and Results : This was a retrospective observational study. A total of 8 pediatric heart transplant recipients diagnosed with multiple recalcitrant warts were the subject of the study...
April 8, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29630082/pulmonary-hydatid-disease-with-aspergillosis-an-unusual-association-in-an-immunocompetent-host
#11
Rahul Chanderhas Goyal, Ruchita Tyagi, Bhavna Garg, Atul Mishra, Neena Sood
Echinococcosis is a common cause of pulmonary cavities. Aspergillus fumigatus, a saprophytic fungus, can colonise pulmonary cavities caused by tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, echinococcosis, bronchiectasis and neoplasms. Infection by Aspergillus is often seen in immunosuppressed cases. However, co-infection of Aspergillus with pulmonary echinococcosis is unexpected and very unusual, especially in an immunocompetent patient. We present the case of a 45-year-old immunocompetent male who came with non-resolving pneumonia and fever for 8 months and dyspnoea since 15 days accompanied by recurrent episodes of hemoptysis since 5 days...
April 9, 2018: Türk Patoloji Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629650/fusarium-keratoplasticum-infection-in-an-hiv-infected-patient
#12
Alice Annalisa Medaglia, Javier Marco-Hernández, José Tomás de Ossó Acuña, Evelyn Hermida Lama, María Martínez-Rebollar, Miguel Caballero, Leonardo Rodríguez-Carunchio, Felipe García
Fusarium infections are very rare in HIV-infected patients, even in patients in advanced stages of immunosuppression. All the reported cases in the literature are of disseminated infection, and with poor outcomes despite prompt and appropriate treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a localized infection with Fusarium keratoplasticum in an HIV-positive patient, successfully treated with a combination of antifungal therapy and surgical removal of the focus.
January 1, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629439/the-dentist-s-role-in-the-prevention-and-management-of-necrotizing-stomatitis-in-the-immunosuppressed
#13
Mahnaz Fatahzadeh
Advances in transplant medicine and availability of effective immunosuppressive regimens have dramatically improved survival for patients afflicted with end-stage organ failure. However, chronic immunosuppression predisposes transplant patients to infection caused by a wide spectrum of endogenous or exogenous pathogens as well as necrotizing periodontal conditions. This article reviews clinical features, diagnosis, and management of necrotizing stomatitis in the context of therapeutic immunosuppression and discusses the integral function of dentists in eliminating oral foci of infection in preparation for transplantation as well as life-long maintenance of oral health post-transplant...
2018: Quintessence International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628891/training-load-immune-status-and-clinical-outcomes-in-young-athletes-a-controlled-prospective-longitudinal-study
#14
Katharina Blume, Nina Körber, Dieter Hoffmann, Bernd Wolfarth
Introduction: Beside positive effects on athlete's health, competitive sport can be linked with an increased risk of illness and injury. Because of high relative increases in training, additional physical and psychological strains, and an earlier specialization and professionalization, adolescent athletes needs an increased attention. Training can alter the immune system by inducing a temporary immunosuppression, finally developing infection symptoms. Previous studies identified Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) as potential indicator for the immune status...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627479/classical-swine-fever-virus-induces-pyroptosis-in-the-peripheral-lymphoid-organs-of-infected-pigs
#15
Jin Yuan, Mengjiao Zhu, Shaofeng Deng, Shuangqi Fan, Hailuan Xu, Jiedan Liao, Peng Li, Jingfang Zheng, Mingqiu Zhao, Jinding Chen
Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) causes a highly lethal disease in pigs, which is characterized by immunosuppression. Leukopenia is known to be a possible mechanism of immunosuppression during CSFV infection. As a new and specialized form of cell death, pyroptosis is the key response of the innate immune system to pathogens, and is widely involved in the occurrence and development of infectious diseases. However, the relationship between CSFV and pyroptosis has not been explored. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of pyroptosis in pigs following CSFV infection...
April 5, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627026/ganciclovir-and-foscarnet-dual-therapy-for-cytomegalovirus-encephalitis-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#16
REVIEW
Adam Baghban, Maricar Malinis
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a ubiquitous herpesvirus which establishes lifelong latency following primary infection. It is then capable of reactivating in the face of immunosuppression. Encephalitis is a less common, but particularly devastating syndrome associated with CMV. Here, we describe a case of CMV encephalitis in an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipient who received dual antiviral therapy with ganciclovir and foscarnet. The case presentation is followed by a summary of cases reported in the last ten years, with the goal of describing vulnerable patient populations, treatment courses, and outcomes...
May 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626672/the-suppressive-effects-of-vochysia-divergens-aqueous-leaf-extract-and-its-5-methoxyflavone-on-murine-macrophages-and-lymphocytes
#17
Maria Fernanda Paresqui Corrêa, Thatiana Lopes Biá Ventura, Michelle Frazão Muzitano, Elaine Dos Anjos da Cruz, Maria Camilla Bergonzi, Anna Rita Bilia, Bartira Rossi-Bergmann, Sônia Soares Costa
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Leaf infusion from the tree Vochysia divergens Pohl (Vochysiaceae), known as "cambará", is used in Brazilian popular medicine against respiratory infections and asthma. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the health-beneficial effects related to the ethnomedicinal uses of V. divergens (Vd), a biomonitored fractionation of an aqueous leaf extract was carried out. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Leaves were extracted by decoction with distilled water, and the extract fractionated by a combination of separation techniques including precipitation, organic partition and chromatography...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626271/bursal-immunopathology-responses-of-specific-pathogen-free-chickens-and-red-jungle-fowl-infected-with-very-virulent-infectious-bursal-disease-virus
#18
Mohd Isa Farhanah, Abdul Rahaman Yasmin, Nguyen Phuc Khanh, Swee Keong Yeap, Mohd Hair-Bejo, Abdul Rahman Omar
Very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) targets B lymphocytes in the bursa of Fabricius (BF), causing immunosuppression and increased mortality rates in young birds. There have been few studies on the host immune response following vvIBDV infection at different inoculum doses in chickens with different genetic backgrounds. In this study, we characterized the immune responses of specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens and Malaysian red jungle fowl following infection with vvIBDV strain UPM0081 at 103...
April 6, 2018: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625147/the-role-of-t-reg-population-in-pathogenesis-of-crimean-congo-hemorrhagic-fever
#19
Umut Gazi, Derya Yapar, Djursun Karasartova, Ayse Semra Gureser, Ozlem Akdogan, Ozgur Unal, Nurcan Baykam, Aysegul Taylan Ozkan
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a severe human infection caused by CCHF virus (CCHFV). Today, although the literature on CCHF pathogenesis is still limited, it is thought to be associated with immunosuppression in the early phase of infection followed by pro-inflammatory immune response that may lead to fatal outcomes. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of regulatory T-cells (Treg cells) in the pathogenesis of CCHFV. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples collected from 14 acute CCHF patients with mild disease course and 13 healthy subjects were included in this study...
April 3, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623845/is-treat-to-target-in-lupus-nephritis-realistic-in-clinical-practice
#20
Chi Chiu Mok
The treat-to-target (T2T) principle has been advocated in a number of inflammatory and non-inflammatory medical illnesses. Tight control of disease activity has been shown to improve the outcome of rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis as compared to the conventional approach. However, whether T2T can be applied to patients with lupus nephritis is still under hot discussion. Treatment of lupus nephritis should target at inducing and maintaining remission of the kidney inflammation so as to preserve renal function and improve survival in the long-term...
April 5, 2018: Current Rheumatology Reviews
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