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immunosuppression and infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470945/porcine-circovirus-2-in-the-north-eastern-region-of-india-disease-prevalence-and-genetic-variation-among-the-isolates-from-areas-of-intensive-pig-rearing
#1
Priyanka Mukherjee, Amarjit Karam, Luit Barkalita, Prabodh Borah, Amit Kr Chakraborty, Samir Das, Kekungo Puro, Rajkumari Sanjukta, Sandeep Ghatak, Ingudam Shakuntala, Ram Gopal Laha, Arnab Sen, Indu Sharma
Porcine Circovirus type-2 (PCV-2) is considered as a major threat to the piggery sector in India. To ascertain the epidemiological status and infection level of PCV2, a pilot study was undertaken to find out the prevalence of PCV2 in swine population by ELISA and PCR in the interior and border areas of Meghalaya which includes the area where accessibility and medical aid is a rare phenomenon. A total of 249 serum samples were collected from October 2014 to February 2016 from three divisions of Meghalaya: Khasi, Jaintia and Garo Hills Divisions...
February 19, 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470349/impaired-secretion-of-tnf-%C3%AE-by-monocytes-stimulated-with-ebv-peptides-associates-with-infectious-complications-following-kidney-transplantation
#2
Patrice Vallin, Olivier Désy, Stéphanie Béland, François Bouchard-Boivin, Isabelle Houde, S A De Serres
BACKGROUND: The successful development of immunosuppressive agents has paradoxically led to an era in which adverse effects of immunosuppression, such as infections and cancer, are now a major concern in solid organ recipients. Nevertheless, the main focus of immune monitoring research remains the identification of rejection. There is currently no clinical tool to assess the net state of immunosuppression or to identify patients at increased risk of infectious complications. METHODS: We report a prospective, longitudinal study in which we conducted detailed phenotyping of over 300 peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples from 45 kidney recipients during the first 24 months posttransplant...
February 20, 2018: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469780/non-dermatomal-varicella-zoster-skin-infection-disseminated-cutaneous-herpes-zoster-without-dermatome-in-an-immunosuppressed-woman
#3
Lindsay P Osborn, Philip R Cohen
Disseminated herpes zoster is defined as the presence of more than 20 lesions outside the dermatome. This unusual presentation is more common in immunosuppressed patients. Complications such as hepatitis, encephalitis, and pneumonitis are more likely in individuals with disseminated varicella zoster virus infection.A 63-year-old woman being treated for breast cancer developed multiple pustules and vesicles days after starting doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy. Ten individual lesions appeared on her chest, abdomen, back, and leg...
October 15, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469742/unique-urticarial-presentation-of-minocycline-induced-lupus-erythematosus
#4
Ashley K Clark, Vivian Y Shi, Raja K Sivamani
The association between guttate psoriasis and infection with group A Streptococcus (GAS) has been well established in the medical literature. However, responses to treatments aimed at GAS eradication such as systemic antibiotics or tonsillectomy are inconsistent. Further complicating treatment recommendations for a disease with a suspected microbial trigger, the standard therapy for severe psoriasis is with systemic immunosuppressant medications. This case report illustrates the role of GAS as a trigger for acute onset severe psoriasis in a child whose skin disease initially worsened with a trial of methotrexate...
August 15, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469723/mycobacterium-haemophilum-infection-in-a-renal-transplant-patient-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#5
Steven Krueger, Jillian Rork, Jennifer Lee, Kristine Cornejo, Laura Gibson, Jennifer S Daly, Nikki A Levin
A 61-year-old immunosuppressed renal transplant patient with inflammatory bowel disease presented with tender pink nodules on the trunk and extremities. An initial biopsy was suggestive of metastatic Crohn disease, but after disease persistence, a second biopsy revealed disseminated Mycobacterium haemophilum. Atypical mycobacterial infections should be considered in immunosuppressed patients. This case highlights the complexities of diagnosing such infections in patients with an underlying granulomatous condition and the particular growth requirements of M...
September 15, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469701/disseminated-cutaneous-sporotrichosis-presenting-as-a-necrotic-facial-mass-case-and-review
#6
Yong He, Chelsea Ma, Maxwell Fung, Sarah Fitzmaurice
Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous mycotic infection caused by Sporothrix schenckii, a group of common saprophytes of soil, plants, and organic debris. Disseminated forms may be seen in the setting of immunosuppression and are typically treated initially with intravenous lipidized amphotericin B. We report an unusual case of a 65-year-old woman who developed disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis with extensive facial involvement in the absence of a known primary inoculation. Her cutaneous lesions completely resolved after treatment with intravenous posaconazole without amphotericin B...
July 15, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467548/epidemiology-determinants-and-management-of-aids-cholangiopathy-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Maliha Naseer, Francis E Dailey, Alhareth Al Juboori, Sami Samiullah, Veysel Tahan
Diseases of the liver and biliary tree have been described with significant frequency among patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and its advanced state, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Through a variety of mechanisms, HIV/AIDS has been shown to affect the hepatic parenchyma and biliary tree, leading to liver inflammation and biliary strictures. One of the potential hepatobiliary complications of this viral infection is AIDS cholangiopathy, a syndrome of biliary obstruction and liver damage due to infection-related strictures of the biliary tract...
February 21, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467314/a-prominent-role-of-the-human-cytomegalovirus-ul8-glycoprotein-restraining-pro-inflammatory-cytokine-production-by-myeloid-cells-at-late-times-during-infection
#8
Natàlia Pérez-Carmona, Pablo Martínez-Vicente, Domènec Farré, Ildar Gabaev, Martin Messerle, Pablo Engel, Ana Angulo
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) persistence in infected individuals relies on a plethora of mechanisms to efficiently reduce host immune responses. To that end, HCMV commits a variety of gene products, some of which have not been identified yet. Here we characterized the UL8 gene, which consists of two exons, sharing the first with the HCMV RL11 family member UL7 UL8 is a transmembrane protein with an N-terminal immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domain in common with UL7 but with an extended stalk and a distinctive cytoplasmic tail...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466918/multiple-sclerosis-and-hiv-a-case-of-multiple-sclerosis-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-associated-with-antiretroviral-therapy-initiation
#9
Pria Anand, Deanna Saylor
Studies have suggested that the incidence of multiple sclerosis (MS) in HIV-infected (HIV+) patients is lower than that of the general population. Here, we present a case of MS in an HIV+ patient with a relatively suppressed CD4 cell count who developed clinical and radiographic disease worsening in the setting of antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. A 47-year-old HIV+ woman (CD4 cell count 216 cells/µl) presented with decreased vision in her right eye. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed optic nerve enhancement and open ring-enhancing lesions in the brain concerning for demyelinating disease...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466409/il-7-treatment-augments-and-prolongs-sepsis-induced-expansion-of-il-10-producing-b-lymphocytes-and-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells
#10
Upasana Kulkarni, Christoph Herrmenau, Stephanie J Win, Michael Bauer, Thomas Kamradt
Immunological dysregulation in sepsis is associated with often lethal secondary infections. Loss of effector cells and an expansion of immunoregulatory cell populations both contribute to sepsis-induced immunosuppression. The extent and duration of this immunosuppression are unknown. Interleukin 7 (IL-7) is important for the maintenance of lymphocytes and can accelerate the reconstitution of effector lymphocytes in sepsis. How IL-7 influences immunosuppressive cell populations is unknown. We have used the mouse model of peritoneal contamination and infection (PCI) to investigate the expansion of immunoregulatory cells as long-term sequelae of sepsis with or without IL-7 treatment...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466395/dynamics-of-monocytic-hla-dr-expression-differs-between-bacterial-etiologies-during-the-course-of-bloodstream-infection
#11
Sara Cajander, Gunlög Rasmussen, Elisabet Tina, Anders Magnuson, Bo Söderquist, Jan Källman, Kristoffer Strålin
OBJECTIVE: In the pathogenesis of sepsis, activation of both pro- and anti-inflammatory responses are key components, but knowledge is lacking on the association between bacterial etiology and development of dysregulated responses with sustained immunosuppression. The aim of this study was to evaluate how the immunosupression marker HLA-DR on monocytes (mHLA-DR) is associated with bacterial etiology and markers of inflammation during the clinical trajectory of bloodstream infection (BSI)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465465/pneumonia-as-a-systemic-illness
#12
Charles Feldman, Ronald Anderson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The manuscript reviews the recent literature describing the occurrence, risk factors, recognition and treatment of sepsis, respiratory failure, and multiple organ dysfunction in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). RECENT FINDINGS: CAP may present with varying degrees of disease severity ranging from an almost asymptomatic infection to a fulminant systemic disease with both respiratory failure and multiple organ dysfunction. Severe sepsis occurs early in the course of the infection in more than 30% of cases...
February 19, 2018: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465205/-participation-of-aromatic-microbial-metabolites-in-the-development-of-severe-infection-and-sepsis
#13
N V Beloborodova, V V Moroz, A Yu Bedova, A A Osipov, Yu N Sarshor, E A Chemevskaya
Background Actuality of the problem of infection in critically ill patients remains high. Addition a local infectious processes have a tendency to rapid generalization and sepsis. Neutrophilsfunction failure plays a key role in the patho- genesis of infectious complications and sepsis. The hypothesis about the role of microbial metabolites in the formation of immunosuppression, in particular in the inhibition of phagocytic activity of neutrophils as the first line of defense against bacteria is acquiring more and more supporters...
September 2017: Anesteziologiia i Reanimatologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464203/rituximab-induction-to-prevent-the-recurrence-of-psc-after-liver-transplantation-the-lessons-learned-from-abo-incompatible-living-donor-liver-transplantation
#14
Yohei Yamada, Ken Hoshino, Yasushi Fuchimoto, Kentaro Matsubara, Taizo Hibi, Hiroshi Yagi, Yuta Abe, Masahiro Shinoda, Minoru Kitago, Hideaki Obara, Takahito Yagi, Hideaki Okajima, Toshimi Kaido, Shinji Uemoto, Tatsuya Suzuki, Keiichi Kubota, Tomoharu Yoshizumi, Yoshihiko Maehara, Yukihiro Inomata, Yuko Kitagawa, Hiroto Egawa, Tatsuo Kuroda
Background: Multiple studies have failed to reveal an effective method for preventing the recurrence of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) after liver transplantation (LTx). A national study conducted in Japan revealed several risk factors for the recurrence after living donor LTx (LDLTx); however, recipients of ABO-blood type incompatible (ABO-I) LTx were excluded from the previous analysis. In the present study, we investigated the efficacy of an immunosuppressive protocol in ABO-I LTx on the recurrence of PSC after LDLTx...
February 2018: Transplantation Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464202/prevalence-and-clinical-correlates-of-chronic-hepatitis-e-infection-in-german-renal-transplant-recipients-with-elevated-liver-enzymes
#15
Mira Choi, Jörg Hofmann, Anja Köhler, Bo Wang, Claus-Thomas Bock, Eckart Schott, Petra Reinke, Peter Nickel
Background: Elevated liver enzymes are frequently observed in renal transplant recipients and warrant further exploration. In immunosuppressed patients, hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection may cause chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and extrahepatic manifestations such as renal injury. Methods: We performed a retrospective cross-sectional study investigating the prevalence, clinical correlates, and outcome of chronic HEV infection in a cohort of renal transplant recipients with elevated liver enzymes...
February 2018: Transplantation Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463658/functional-and-expression-analyses-of-the-pneumocystis-mat-genes-suggest-obligate-sexuality-through-primary-homothallism-within-host-lungs
#16
S Richard, J M G C F Almeida, O H Cissé, A Luraschi, O Nielsen, M Pagni, P M Hauser
Fungi of the genus Pneumocystis are obligate parasites that colonize mammals' lungs and are host species specific. Pneumocystis jirovecii and Pneumocystis carinii infect, respectively, humans and rats. They can turn into opportunistic pathogens in immunosuppressed hosts, causing severe pneumonia. Their cell cycle is poorly known, mainly because of the absence of an established method of culture in vitro It is thought to include both asexual and sexual phases. Comparative genomic analysis suggested that their mode of sexual reproduction is primary homothallism involving a single mating type ( MAT ) locus encompassing plus and minus genes ( matMc , matMi , and matPi ; Almeida et al...
February 20, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462391/combination-immunosuppression-in-ibd
#17
Steven Bots, Krisztina Gecse, Murray Barclay, Geert D'Haens
Whether to use biologic treatment for inflammatory bowel disease as monotherapy or in combination with immunosuppressives has been a matter of debate in the last 2 decades. Combination therapy was not superior in any of the registration trials for Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis for TNF antagonists, vedolizumab, or ustekinumab. It needs to be mentioned, though, that none of these trials were powered to detect such differences, and that many patients entered the trial after having failed conventional immunosuppressives...
February 15, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461978/surface-receptor-toso-controls-b-cell-mediated-regulation-of-t-cell-immunity
#18
Jinbo Yu, Vu Huy Hoang Duong, Katrin Westphal, Andreas Westphal, Abdulhadi Suwandi, Guntram A Grassl, Korbinian Brand, Andrew C Chan, Niko Föger, Kyeong-Hee Lee
The immune system is tightly controlled by regulatory processes that allow for the elimination of invading pathogens, while limiting immunopathological damage to the host. In the present study, we found that conditional deletion of the cell surface receptor Toso on B cells unexpectedly resulted in impaired proinflammatory T cell responses, which led to impaired immune protection in an acute viral infection model, while, in a chronic inflammatory context, was associated with reduced immunopathological tissue damage...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461465/septic-shock-alters-mitochondrial-respiration-of-lymphoid-cell-lines-and-human-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-the-role-of-plasma
#19
Raphael Clere-Jehl, Julie Helms, Mohamad Kassem, Pierrick Le Borgne, Xavier Delabranche, Anne-Laure Charles, Bernard Geny, Ferhat Meziani, Pascal Bilbault
INTRODUCTION: In septic shock patients, post-septic immunosuppression state following the systemic inflammatory response syndrome is responsible for nosocomial infections, with subsequent increased mortality. The aim of the present study was to assess the underlying cellular mechanisms of the post-septic immunosuppression state, by investigating mitochondrial functions of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from septic shock patients over 7 days. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen patients admitted to a French intensive care unit for septic shock were included...
February 14, 2018: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461329/cancer-in-adolescents-and-young-adults-living-with-hiv
#20
Julia Bohlius, Caroline Foster, Gita Naidu, Mazvita Sengayi, Anna Turkova
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Adults living with HIV have an increased risk of malignancy yet there is little data for adolescents and young adults. We reviewed recently published cancer epidemiology, treatment, and outcome data for adolescents and young adults living with HIV (AYALHIV) aged 10 to less than 25 years between 2016 and 2017. RECENT FINDINGS: AYALHIV are at increased risk of developing cancer compared to their uninfected peers. Kaposi sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma occur most frequently with variation by geographical region...
February 15, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
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