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immunosuppression and infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426153/a-non-pathogenic-recombinant-leishmania-expressing-lipophosphoglycan-3-against-experimental-infection-with-leishmania-infantum
#1
Leila Pirdel, Safar Farajnia
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is caused by Leishmania infantum in the Mediterranean basin and affects primarily children and immunosuppressed individuals. Various strategies of vaccination have so far been examined by either protein or DNA without achievable complete protection against the disease. The live non-pathogenic lizard parasite, Leishmania tarentolae, expressing elected Leishmania antigens has recently provided a promising new approach as a safe and effective live vaccine candidate to prevent leishmaniasis...
April 20, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425928/porcine-circoviruses-and-xenotransplantation
#2
REVIEW
Joachim Denner, Annette Mankertz
Allotransplantation and xenotransplantation may be associated with the transmission of pathogens from the donor to the recipient. Whereas in the case of allotransplantation the transmitted microorganisms and their pathogenic effect are well characterized, the possible influence of porcine microorganisms on humans is mostly unknown. Porcine circoviruses (PCVs) are common in pig breeds and they belong to porcine microorganisms that still have not been fully addressed in terms of evaluating the potential risk of xenotransplantation using pig cells, tissues, and organs...
April 20, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424453/comorbid-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-and-muscle-specific-kinase-musk-myasthenia-gravis-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#3
Michael Sherpa, Ravi K Metai, Viki Kumar, Tinu Hirachan, Kawser U Ahmed, Sharon J Atkinson
BACKGROUND HIV infections with concomitant immunologically-mediated disorders have been frequently described but there has been little research on the association between HIV and myasthenia gravis. MuSK myasthenia gravis coexisting with HIV is an even a rarer entity and can occur as a part of immune restoration disease. We report the case of a patient with asymptomatic HIV infection who presented with new-onset MuSK myasthenia gravis. CASE REPORT A 44-year-old African-American woman with HIV since 2004 and on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) presented to the ED with complains of double vision and difficulty swallowing for 2 weeks...
April 20, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423464/high-clinical-suspicion-of-donor-derived-disease-leads-to-timely-recognition-and-early-intervention-to-treat-solid-organ-transplant-transmitted-lymphocytic-choriomeningitis-virus
#4
Gagan Mathur, Kunal Yadav, Bradley Ford, Ilana J Schafer, Shridhar V Basavaraju, Barbara Knust, Wun-Ju Shieh, Sam Hill, Garret D Locke, Patricia Quinlisk, Shelley Brown, Ardith Gibbons, Deborah Cannon, Matthew Kuehnert, Stuart T Nichol, Pierre E Rollin, Ute Ströher, Rachel Miller
Despite careful donor screening, unexpected donor-derived infections continue to occur in organ transplant recipients (OTRs). Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) is one such transplant-transmitted infection that in previous reports has resulted in a high mortality among the affected OTRs. We report a LCMV case cluster that occurred 3 weeks post-transplant in three OTRs who received allografts from a common organ donor in March 2013. Following confirmation of LCMV infection at Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, immunosuppression was promptly reduced and ribavirin and/or intravenous immunoglobulin therapy were initiated in OTRs...
April 19, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423197/diabetic-kidney-transplant-recipients-impaired-infection-control-and-increased-alloreactivity
#5
Thomas Schachtner, Maik Stein, Petra Reinke
BACKGROUND: Posttransplantation diabetes mellitus (PTDM) has been associated with inferior patient and allograft outcomes. However, previous studies didn't identify differences in infection control and alloreactivity. METHODS: We studied 449 kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) between 2005 and 2013. 50 (11.1%) KTRs were diagnosed with PTDM and 60 (13.4%) KTRs with pre-existing diabetes. Samples were collected pretransplantation, at +1, +2, +3 months posttransplantation...
April 19, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422773/infections-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#6
Fabiola Atzeni, Ignazio Francesco Masala, Manuela di Franco, Piercarlo Sarzi-Puttini
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to provide an update concerning recent advances in the evidence- based study of serious infections in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treated with biological drugs or conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), concentrating on studies published in the last 18 months. RECENT FINDINGS: New studies have further strengthened existing evidence relating the use of biological drugs to serious infections...
April 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422003/efficacy-and-safety-of-leflunomide-as-an-adjuvant-drug-in-refractory-dermatomyositis-with-primarily-cutaneous-activity
#7
Renata C de Souza, Fernando H C de Souza, Renata Miossi, Samuel K Shinjo
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate leflunomide as an adjuvant drug in refractory dermatomyositis (DM) with primarily cutaneous activity. METHODS: A retrospective, single-centre, cohort study including 18 adult patients with DM (classical or clinically amyopathic DM) and cutaneous activity from 2001 to 2016 was conducted. Patients were dependent on glucocorticoid and refractory to at least two full-dose immunosuppressants/immunomodulators or presented previous adverse events with immunobiological drugs...
April 18, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420890/endoscopic-manifestations-and-clinical-characteristics-of-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-the-upper-gastrointestinal-tract
#8
Masaya Iwamuro, Eisei Kondo, Takehiro Tanaka, Hideharu Hagiya, Seiji Kawano, Yoshiro Kawahara, Fumio Otsuka, Hiroyuki Okada
We retrospectively analyzed the cases of 14 patients (9 women, 5 men, mean age: 51.6 years) with cytomegalovirus (CMV) involvement in the esophagus, stomach, and/or duodenum diagnosed at a single center, to determine their endoscopic features and clinical backgrounds. Thirteen patients (92.9%) had hematologic disease; the other had rheumatoid arthritis. Of the former, 12 patients underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and 9 of these patients had graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) before undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD)...
April 2017: Acta Medica Okayama
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420570/herpesviradae-infections-in-severely-burned-children
#9
Paul Wurzer, Megan R Cole, Robert P Clayton, Gabriel Hundeshagen, Omar Nunez Lopez, Janos Cambiaso-Daniel, Raimund Winter, Ludwik K Branski, Hal K Hawkins, Celeste C Finnerty, David N Herndon, Jong O Lee
OBJECTIVE: Burn-related immunosuppression can promote human herpesviridae infections. However, the effect of these infections on morbidity and mortality after pediatric burn injuries is unclear. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed pediatric patients with burns ≥10% of the total body surface area (TBSA) who were admitted between 2010 and 2015. On clinical suspicion of a viral infection, antiviral therapy was initiated. Viral infection was confirmed via Tzanck smear, viral culture, and/or PCR...
April 15, 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419988/neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio-is-an-independent-predictor-for-in-hospital-mortality-in-spontaneous-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#10
Antje Giede-Jeppe, Tobias Bobinger, Stefan T Gerner, Jochen A Sembill, Maximilian I Sprügel, Vanessa D Beuscher, Hannes Lücking, Philip Hoelter, Joji B Kuramatsu, Hagen B Huttner
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Stroke-associated immunosuppression and inflammation are increasingly recognized as factors that trigger infections and thus, potentially influence the outcome after stroke. Several studies demonstrated that elevated neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a significant predictor of adverse outcomes in patients with ischemic stroke. However, little is known about the impact of NLR on short-term mortality in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). METHODS: This observational study included 855 consecutive ICH-patients...
April 19, 2017: Cerebrovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419314/adverse-drug-reactions-during-drug-resistant-tb-treatment-in-high-hiv-prevalence-settings-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
Kathryn Schnippel, Cynthia Firnhaber, Rebecca Berhanu, Liesl Page-Shipp, Edina Sinanovic
Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of adverse drug reactions or events (ADR) during drug-resistant TB (DR-TB) treatment in the context of settings with high HIV prevalence (at least 20% of patients). Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of articles in PubMed and Scopus. Pooled proportions of patients experiencing adverse events and relative risk with 95% CI were calculated. Results: The search yielded 24 studies, all observational cohorts...
April 16, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416540/in-vivo-efficacy-of-liposomal-amphotericin-b-against-wild-type-and-azole-resistant-aspergillus-fumigatus-isolates-in-two-different-immunosuppressed-models-of-invasive-aspergillosis
#12
Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi, Johan W Mouton, Willem J G Melchers, Paul E Verweij
Using an immunocompetent murine model of invasive aspergillosis (IA), we previously reported (AAC, 2013, 57, 4, 1866-1871) that the efficacy of liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB) is not hampered by the presence of azole resistance mutations in Aspergillus fumigatus We here investigated the role of immune suppression, i.e. neutropenic and steroid-treated, on L-AmB efficacy in mice infected with a wild type (WT) and azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus harboring TR34/L98H mutation in cyp-51A gene.Survival of treated animals at day 14 in both immunosuppressed models was significantly better than that of non-treated controls...
April 17, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416423/dietary-administration-of-sodium-alginate-ameliorated-stress-and-promoted-immune-resistance-of-grouper-epinephelus-coioides-under-cold-stress
#13
Pai-Po Lee, Yu-Hung Lin, Min-Chieh Chen, Winton Cheng
Grouper, Epinephelus coioides, fed a diet containing sodium alginate at 0 (control, named C) and 1.0 g kg(-1) (named S) at a temperature of 28 °C for 12 days, were then further individually transferred to 28 (two groups named C-28 and S-28) or 20 °C (two groups named C-20 and S-20), and immune parameters and stress indexes were measured at the beginning and after 6, 12, 24 and 48 h of exposure. Examination of immune parameters revealed that the alternative complement activity (ACH50), lysozyme activity, phagocytic activity, superoxide dismutase, and respiratory bursts significantly increased in groupers fed the sodium alginate-containing diet for 12 days, and were higher in the S-28 than those of the C-28 and S-20 groups, which were higher than those of the C-20 group from 6 to 48 h except for ACH50 at 48 h, respiratory bursts at 48 h, and lysozymes at 6 h...
April 14, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414687/disseminated-cryptococcal-disease-with-diffuse-pulmonary-infiltrates-in-a-non-hiv-host
#14
M Hughes, K Trivedi, M Rudrappa
INTRODUCTION: We present a case of disseminated Cryptococcus in a non-HIV host, where the primary manifestation was pulmonary with diffuse pulmonary infiltrates. This patient was on high dose corticosteroids for autoimmune hemolytic anemia. CASE: A 79 year old Caucasian man with a history of autoimmune hemolytic anemia on 100 mg of prednisone daily, coronary artery disease s/p bypass surgery, ischemic cardiomyopathy, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, sleep apnea, chronic kidney disease, and history of bilateral pulmonary emboli presented to Hematology/Oncology clinic with symptoms of productive cough, worsening shortness of breath, hemoptysis...
March 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414677/a-rare-case-of-tropical-pyomysitis-acquired-on-vacation-in-a-healthy-male
#15
K Poole, T Tran
INTRODUCTION: Pyomyositis has traditionally been considered a tropical disease. Increasing prevalence has been observed in more northern climates, especially with HIV, immunosuppression, and IV drug abuse as predisposing factors. Pyomyositis has the tendency to mimic other conditions, such as muscle contusion, necrotizing fasciitis, or septic arthritis. The rarity of this disease and non-specificity of its symptoms often lead to delay in appropriate diagnosis and treatment. CASE: 24-year-old man, seen 2 days prior in orthopedics clinic and the Emergency Department for persistent gluteal pain thought to be due to right-sided sciatica, was admitted following worsening pain, diffuse generalized weakness with polyarthralgias and myalgias These symptoms were associated with night sweats, shaking chills, and difficulty walking...
March 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412974/acute-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-with-delayed-appearance-of-hepatitis-b-core-antibody-in-an-immunocompromised-patient-a-case-report
#16
Nicholas Brousseau, Donald G Murphy, Vladimir Gilca, Jacynthe Larouche, Sema Mandal, Richard S Tedder
BACKGROUND: Despite the introduction of universal hepatitis B immunization programs worldwide, outbreaks of acute infection still occur in unimmunized individuals. A timely diagnosis of hepatitis B is necessary to ensure adequate clinical care and public health interventions that will reduce transmission. Yet, interpretation of hepatitis B serological markers can be complex. We present a case of hepatitis B with atypical markers, including delayed appearance of hepatitis B core antibody...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412202/the-immunosuppressive-effects-of-a-novel-recombinant-lipq-rv2485c-protein-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-on-human-macrophage-cell-lines
#17
Anjani Kumar, Manisha, Gurkamaljit Kaur Sangha, Anju Shrivastava, Jagdeep Kaur
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), an intracellular pathogen, still represents a major global health challenge. A number of mycobacterial macromolecules have been shown to target biological processes within host macrophages; however, the exact mechanism for the majority of these host pathogen interactions is still poorly understood. Moreover, the lipid metabolic pathway is one of the most important physiologic pathways that plays a vital role in the survival and infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In present study, we investigated the effect of rLipQ from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv on macrophage functions in vitro...
April 12, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410454/transcriptomic-analysis-of-host-immune-response-in-the-skin-of-chickens-infected-with-marek-s-disease-virus
#18
Mohammad Heidari, Phillip C Delekta
Marek's disease virus (MDV), a highly cell-associated oncogenic α-herpesvirus, is the causative agent of T cell lymphoma and neuropathic disease called Marek's disease. The skin is the only anatomical site where infectious enveloped cell-free virions are produced and shed into the environment. Studies have demonstrated that MDV infection induces immunological responses within the skin, including the release of cytokines and the recruitment of T lymphocytes. The host immune response, however, is not sufficient to block replication and shedding of the virus particles from the skin...
April 14, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409239/macrophage-activation-syndrome-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-a-multicenter-case-control-study-in-china
#19
Ai-Chun Liu, Yue Yang, Meng-Tao Li, Yuan Jia, Sheng Chen, Shuang Ye, Xiang-Zong Zeng, Zhao Wang, Jin-Xia Zhao, Xiang-Yuan Liu, Jian Zhu, Yan Zhao, Xiao-Feng Zeng, Zhan-Guo Li
The objective of this study was to describe the clinical and laboratory characteristics, precipitating factors, treatment, and outcome of macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) complicating systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). A multicenter case-control study was performed across six tertiary hospitals from 1997 to 2014. A total of 32 patients with SLE-associated MAS were enrolled. Sixty-four age- and sex-matched SLE patients diagnosed in the same period without MAS episodes were selected as controls. The most frequent clinical feature was fever, followed by splenomegaly...
April 13, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409126/genomics-and-comparative-genomic-analyses-provide-insight-into-the-taxonomy-and-pathogenic-potential-of-novel-emmonsia-pathogens
#20
Ying Yang, Qiang Ye, Kang Li, Zongwei Li, Xiaochen Bo, Zhen Li, Yingchun Xu, Shengqi Wang, Peng Wang, Huipeng Chen, Junzhi Wang
Over the last 50 years, newly described species of Emmonsia-like fungi have been implicated globally as sources of systemic human mycosis (emmonsiosis). Their ability to convert into yeast-like cells capable of replication and extra-pulmonary dissemination during the course of infection differentiates them from classical Emmonsia species. Immunocompromised patients are at highest risk of emmonsiosis and exhibit high mortality rates. In order to investigate the molecular basis for pathogenicity of the newly described Emmonsia species, genomic sequencing and comparative genomic analyses of Emmonsia sp...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
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