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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938749/the-testicular-transcriptome-associated-with-spermatogonia-differentiation-initiated-by-gonadotrophin-stimulation-in-the-juvenile-rhesus-monkey-macaca-mulatta
#1
Suresh Ramaswamy, William H Walker, Paula Aliberti, Rahil Sethi, Gary R Marshall, Alyxzandria Smith, Seyedmehdi Nourashrafeddin, Alicia Belgorosky, Uma R Chandran, Mark P Hedger, Tony M Plant
STUDY QUESTION: What is the genetic landscape within the testis of the juvenile rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) that underlies the decision of undifferentiated spermatogonia to commit to a pathway of differentiation when puberty is induced prematurely by exogenous LH and FSH stimulation? SUMMARY ANSWER: Forty-eight hours of gonadotrophin stimulation of the juvenile monkey testis resulted in the appearance of differentiating B spermatogonia and the emergence of 1362 up-regulated and 225 down-regulated testicular mRNAs encoding a complex network of proteins ranging from enzymes regulating Leydig cell steroidogenesis to membrane receptors, and from juxtacrine and paracrine factors to transcriptional factors governing spermatogonial stem cell fate...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931740/single-sperm-sequencing-reveals-the-accelerated-mitochondrial-mutation-rate-in-male-daphnia-pulex-crustacea-cladocera
#2
Sen Xu, Kenny Van Tran, Swatantra Neupane, Marelize Snyman, Trung Viet Huynh, Way Sung
Mutation rate in the nuclear genome differs between sexes, with males contributing more mutations than females to their offspring. The male-biased mutation rates in the nuclear genome is most likely to be driven by a higher number of cell divisions in spermatogenesis than in oogenesis, generating more opportunities for DNA replication errors. However, it remains unknown whether male-biased mutation rates are present in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Although mtDNA is maternally inherited and male mtDNA mutation typically does not contribute to genetic variation in offspring, male mtDNA mutations are critical for male reproductive health...
September 27, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925797/transcription-driven-dna-methylation-setting-on-the-mouse-peg3-locus
#3
Corey L Bretz, Joomyeong Kim
The imprinting of the mouse Peg3 domain is controlled through the Peg3-DMR, which obtains its maternal-specific DNA methylation during oogenesis. In the current study, we deleted an oocyte-specific alternative promoter, termed U1, which is localized 20 kb upstream of the Peg3-DMR. Deletion of this alternative promoter resulted in complete removal of the maternal-specific DNA methylation on the Peg3-DMR. Consequently, the imprinted genes in the Peg3 domain become biallelic in the mutants with maternal transmission of the deletion...
September 19, 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923976/catch-and-release-14-3-3-controls-ncd-in-meiotic-spindles
#4
Mary Dasso
During Drosophila melanogaster oogenesis, spindle assembly occurs without centrosomes and relies on signals from chromosomes. Beaven et al. (2017. J. Cell. Biol. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201704120) show that 14-3-3 proteins bind and inhibit a key microtubule motor, Ncd, during oogenesis, but Aurora B releases Ncd inhibition near chromosomes, allowing Ncd to work in the right time and place.
September 18, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922870/male-mutation-bias-is-the-main-force-shaping-chromosomal-substitution-rates-in-monotreme-mammals
#5
Vivian Link, Diana Aguilar-Gómez, Ciro Ramírez-Suástegui, Laurence D Hurst, Diego Cortez
In many species, spermatogenesis involves more cell divisions than oogenesis, and the male germline, therefore, accumulates more DNA replication errors, a phenomenon known as male mutation bias. The extent of male mutation bias (α) is estimated by comparing substitution rates of the X, Y, and autosomal chromosomes, as these chromosomes spend different proportions of their time in the germlines of the two sexes. Male mutation bias has been characterized in placental and marsupial mammals as well as birds, but analyses in monotremes failed to detect any such bias...
September 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916758/role-of-the-venus-kinase-receptor-in-the-female-reproductive-physiology-of-the-desert-locust-schistocerca-gregaria
#6
Cynthia Lenaerts, Jolien Palmans, Elisabeth Marchal, Rik Verdonck, Jozef Vanden Broeck
Venus kinase receptors (VKR) are a subfamily of invertebrate receptor tyrosine kinases, which have only recently been discovered. They contain an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain and an extracellular Venus FlyTrap domain. VKRs have been functionally and pharmacologically characterized in only two invertebrate species, namely the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni and the mosquito Aedes aegypti, where they play a crucial role in oogenesis. Here, we report the characterization of a VKR in the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916376/transcriptome-profiling-of-the-plutella-xylostella-lepidoptera-plutellidae-ovary-reveals-genes-involved-in-oogenesis
#7
Lu Peng, Lei Wang, Yi-Fan Yang, Ming-Min Zou, Wei-Yi He, Yue Wang, Qing Wang, Liette Vasseur, Min-Sheng You
BACKGROUND: As a specialized organ, the insect ovary performs valuable functions by ensuring fecundity and population survival. Oogenesis is the complex physiological process resulting in the production of mature eggs, which are involved in epigenetic programming, germ cell behavior, cell cycle regulation, etc. Identification of the genes involved in ovary development and oogenesis is critical to better understand the reproductive biology and screening the potential molecular targets in Plutella xylostella, a worldwide destructive pest of economically major crops...
September 12, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914456/ovarian-structure-and-oogenesis-of-the-extremophile-viviparous-teleost-poecilia-mexicana-poeciliidae-from-an-active-sulfur-spring-cave-in-southern-mexico
#8
Aarón Torres-Martínez, Arlette Hernández-Franyutti, Mari Carmen Uribe, Wilfrido Miguel Contreras-Sánchez
The structure of the ovary and oogenesis of Poecilia mexicana from an active sulfur spring cave is documented. Poecilia mexicana is the only poeciliid adapted to a subterranean environment with high hydrogen sulfide levels and extreme hypoxic conditions. Twenty females were captured throughout one year at Cueva del Azufre, located in the State of Tabasco in Southern Mexico. Ovaries were processed with histological techniques. P. mexicana has a single, ovoid ovary with ovigerous lamella that project to the ovarian lumen...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894941/evolutionary-coincidence-of-adaptive-changes-in-exuperantia-and-the-emergence-of-bicoid-in-cyclorrhapha-diptera
#9
Janaina Lima de Oliveira, Iderval Silva Sobrinho-Junior, Samira Chahad-Ehlers, Reinaldo Alves de Brito
The great radiation in the infraorder Cyclorrhapha involved several morphological and molecular changes, including important changes in anterior egg development. During Drosophila oogenesis, exuperantia (exu) is critical for localizing bicoid (bcd) messenger RNA (mRNA) to the anterior region of the oocyte. Because it is phylogenetically older than bcd, which is exclusive to Cyclorrhapha, we hypothesize that exu has undergone adaptive changes to enable this new function. Although exu has been well studied in Drosophila, there is no functional or transcriptional information about it in any other Diptera...
September 11, 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893182/the-dynamic-landscape-of-gene-regulation-during-bombyx-mori-oogenesis
#10
Qiang Zhang, Wei Sun, Bang-Yong Sun, Yang Xiao, Ze Zhang
BACKGROUND: Oogenesis in the domestic silkworm (Bombyx mori) is a complex process involving previtellogenesis, vitellogenesis and choriogenesis. During this process, follicles show drastic morphological and physiological changes. However, the genome-wide regulatory profiles of gene expression during oogenesis remain to be determined. RESULTS: In this study, we obtained time-series transcriptome data and used these data to reveal the dynamic landscape of gene regulation during oogenesis...
September 11, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887412/enzymatic-modules-of-the-saga-chromatin-modifying-complex-play-distinct-roles-in-drosophila-gene-expression-and-development
#11
Xuanying Li, Christopher W Seidel, Leanne T Szerszen, Jeffrey J Lange, Jerry L Workman, Susan M Abmayr
The Spt-Ada-Gcn5-acetyltransferase (SAGA) chromatin-modifying complex is a transcriptional coactivator that contains four different modules of subunits. The intact SAGA complex has been well characterized for its function in transcription regulation and development. However, little is known about the roles of individual modules within SAGA and whether they have any SAGA-independent functions. Here we demonstrate that the two enzymatic modules of Drosophila SAGA are differently required in oogenesis. Loss of the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity blocks oogenesis, while loss of the H2B deubiquitinase (DUB) activity does not...
September 8, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886138/reproductive-life-history-of-sablefish-anoplopoma-fimbria-from-the-u-s-washington-coast
#12
José M Guzmán, J Adam Luckenbach, Mollie A Middleton, Kenneth C Massee, Cortney Jensen, Frederick W Goetz, Andrew J Jasonowicz, Penny Swanson
Sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria) is a marine groundfish that supports valuable fisheries in the North Pacific Ocean and holds promise for marine aquaculture. Limited information is available, however, about its reproductive biology. This study aimed to characterize the complete reproductive cycle, including seasonal changes in gonadal development (macroscopic and histological), plasma sex steroid levels (17β-estradiol -E2-, and 11-ketotestosterone -11KT-), gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indices (GSI, and HSI), and condition factor (K) of female and male sablefish captured off the Washington coast...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880872/microtubule-actin-crosslinking-factor-1-macf1-domain-function-in-balbiani-body-dissociation-and-nuclear-positioning
#13
Matias Escobar-Aguirre, Hong Zhang, Allison Jamieson-Lucy, Mary C Mullins
Animal-vegetal (AV) polarity of most vertebrate eggs is established during early oogenesis through the formation and disassembly of the Balbiani Body (Bb). The Bb is a structure conserved from insects to humans that appears as a large granule, similar to a mRNP granule composed of mRNA and proteins, that in addition contains mitochondria, ER and Golgi. The components of the Bb, which have amyloid-like properties, include germ cell and axis determinants of the embryo that are anchored to the vegetal cortex upon Bb disassembly...
September 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869353/the-transition-path-from-female-workers-to-neotenic-reproductives-in-the-termite-reticulitermes-labralis
#14
Xiaohong Su, Xiaojuan Yang, Jing Li, Lianxi Xing, He Liu, Jiaoling Chen
Termite workers are characterized by unique flexibility in that a worker can develop in one of three ways: remain a worker, become a soldier within two successive moults, or become a neotenic reproductive (NR) within a single moult. However, is it true that workers can transform into NRs within a single moult? Actually, the developmental pathways of workers turning into NRs remains unclear. In this study, we show for the first time that the female workers of Reticulitermes labralis develop into NRs after a pre-NRs stage...
July 2017: Evolution & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869120/ovaries-and-oogenesis-in-an-epizoic-dermapteran-hemimerus-talpoides-dermaptera-hemimeridae-structural-and-functional-adaptations-to-viviparity-and-matrotrophy
#15
Szczepan M Bilinski, Ali Halajian, Waclaw Tworzydlo
The Dermaptera are traditionally classified in three taxa: the free living Forficulina and two viviparous (matrotrophic) groups, the Hemimerina and Arixeniina. Recent molecular and histological analyses suggest that both matrotrophic groups should be nested among the most derived taxon of the Forficulina, the Eudermaptera. We present results of ultrastructural analyses of ovary/ovariole morphology and oogenesis in a representative of the Hemimerina, Hemimerus talpoides (Walker, 1871). Our results strongly reinforce the idea that the Hemimerina should be classified within the Eudermaptera...
August 2, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864983/epigenetic-influences-during-the-periconception-period-and-assisted-reproduction
#16
Akwasi A Amoako, Tamer M Nafee, Bolarinde Ola
The periconception period starts 6 months before conception and lasts until the tenth week of gestation. In this chapter, we will focus on epigenetic modifications to DNA and gene expression within this period and during assisted reproduction. There are two critical times during the periconception window when significant epigenetic 'reprogramming' occur: one during gametogenesis and another during the pre-implantation embryonic stage. Furthermore, assisted conception treatments, laboratory protocols and culture media can affect the embryo development and birth weights in laboratory animals...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853925/sex-determination-in-the-mammalian-germline
#17
Cassy Spiller, Peter Koopman, Josephine Bowles
Sexual reproduction crucially depends on the production of sperm in males and oocytes in females. Both types of gamete arise from the same precursor, the germ cells. We review the events that characterize the development of germ cells during fetal life as they commit to, and prepare for, oogenesis or spermatogenesis. In females, fetal germ cells enter meiosis, whereas in males they delay meiosis and instead lose pluripotency, activate an irreversible program of prospermatogonial differentiation, and temporarily cease dividing...
August 30, 2017: Annual Review of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851561/ovarian-development-of-captive-f1-wreckfish-h%C3%A4-puku-polyprion-oxygeneios-under-constant-and-varying-temperature-regimes-implications-for-broodstock-management
#18
Matthew J Wylie, Alvin N Setiawan, Glen W Irvine, Jane E Symonds, Abigail Elizur, Marcileida Dos Santos, P Mark Lokman
In order to better understand how photo-thermal conditions affect oogenesis in captive-bred F1 hāpuku, a wreckfish considered for aquaculture in New Zealand, juvenile (pre-pubertal) fish were assigned to one of two regimes: exposed to a constant temperature of 17 °C (CT group) or to seasonally varying temperatures (VT group range: 10-17 °C), both under simulated ambient photoperiod, for nearly 2 years. Development in females was monitored through repeated gonadal biopsies (histology; target gene mRNA levels) and blood sampling (plasma levels of estradiol-17β; E2)...
August 26, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842196/gonadal-ecdysone-titers-are-modulated-by-protein-availability-but-do-not-impact-protein-appetite
#19
Zita Carvalho-Santos, Carlos Ribeiro
How animals survey internal nutrient availability to modulate specific appetites is currently largely unknown. Dietary proteins have a profound impact on the reproductive capacity and the selection of food sources in insects. When deprived of dietary proteins, insects stop producing eggs and develop strong protein appetites. In many adult insects, the ovaries are the site of synthesis of the ecdysone hormone. Therefore, an attractive hypothesis is that protein availability changes the gonadal production of ecdysone, which instructs the brain to increase its preference for yeast...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841917/effects-of-wolbachia-on-ovarian-apoptosis-in-culex-quinquefasciatus-say-1823-during-the-previtellogenic-and-vitellogenic-periods
#20
Fabio Almeida, Lincoln Suesdek
BACKGROUND: Apoptosis is programmed cell death that ordinarily occurs in ovarian follicular cells in various organisms. In the best-studied holometabolous insect, Drosophila, this kind of cell death occurs in all three cell types found in the follicles, sometimes leading to follicular atresia and egg degeneration. On the other hand, egg development, quantity and viability in the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus are disturbed by the infection with the endosymbiont Wolbachia. Considering that Wolbachia alters reproductive traits, we hypothesised that such infection would also alter the apoptosis in the ovarian cells of this mosquito...
August 25, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
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