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Oogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339639/comparative-structural-study-of-the-zona-radiata-of-the-eggs-of-three-gobiobotia-cyprinidae-teleostei-endemic-korean-freshwaters
#1
Woong Sun Choi, Jae Goo Kim, Jong Young Park
The genus Gobiobotia in Korea has only three species and all are endemic benthic freshwater fishes. Their oocytes were observed by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy to investigate the characteristics of the zona radiata (ZR), a non-cellular envelope, which surrounds the egg. Various developmental cells appeared during the spawning season. During the yolk vesicles stage, which yolk vesicles are spherically developed in periphery of the cytoplasm and gradually increase in its number and size, the ZR becomes visible between its follicular layer and ooplasm...
February 15, 2017: Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339605/uniparental-chicken-offsprings-derived-from-oogenesis-of-chicken-primordial-germ-cells-zz-%C3%A2
#2
Chunhai Liu, Il-Kuk Chang, Kamal A Khazanehdari, Shruti Thomas, Preetha Varghese, Vijaya Baskar, Razan Alkhatib, Wenhai Li, Jörg Kinne, Michael J McGrew, Ulrich Wernery
Cloning (somatic cell nuclear transfer) in avian species has proven unachievable due to the physical structure of the avian oocyte. Here, the sexual differentiation of primordial germ cells with genetic sex ZZ (ZZ PGCs) was investigated in female germline chimeric chicken hosts with the aim to produce uniparental offspring. ZZ PGCs were expanded in culture and transplanted into the same and opposite sex chicken embryos which were partially sterilized using irradiation. All tested chimeric roosters (ZZ/ZZ) showed germline transmission with transmission rates of 3...
February 2, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337864/molecular-basis-of-growth-proliferation-and-differentiation-of-mammalian-follicular-granulosa-cells
#3
W Kranc, J Budna, R Kahan, A Chachuła, A Bryja, S Ciesiółka, S Borys, M P Antosik, D Bukowska, K P Brussow, M Bruska, M Nowicki, M Zabel, B Kempisty
For normal folliculogenesis and oogenesis to occur many intrinsic and extrinsic factors are needed, i.e. positive feedback of hormone secretion and local ovarian-follicular growth factors distribution. During follicle formation, granulosa cells (GCs) change their morphology and physiological properties. The factors needed for GCs to differentiate within each layer are transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF), as well as the activation and modification of biochemical pathways involved in folliculogenesis...
January 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337462/time-and-dose-dependent-effects-of-17-beta-estradiol-on-short-term-real-time-proliferation-and-gene-expression-in-porcine-granulosa-cells
#4
Sylwia Ciesiółka, Joanna Budna, Karol Jopek, Artur Bryja, Wiesława Kranc, Sylwia Borys, Michal Jeseta, Adrian Chachuła, Agnieszka Ziółkowska, Paweł Antosik, Dorota Bukowska, Klaus P Brüssow, Małgorzata Bruska, Michał Nowicki, Maciej Zabel, Bartosz Kempisty
The key mechanisms responsible for achievement of full reproductive and developmental capability in mammals are the differentiation and transformation of granulosa cells (GCs) during folliculogenesis, oogenesis, and oocyte maturation. Although the role of 17 beta-estradiol (E2) in ovarian activity is widely known, its effect on proliferative capacity, gap junction connection (GJC) formation, and GCs-luteal cells transformation requires further research. Therefore, the goal of this study was to assess the real-time proliferative activity of porcine GCs in vitro in relation to connexin (Cx), luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR), follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), and aromatase (CYP19A1) expression during short-term (168 h) primary culture...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333293/intra-individual-purifying-selection-on-mitochondrial-dna-variants-during-human-oogenesis
#5
Sara De Fanti, Saverio Vicario, Martin Lang, Domenico Simone, Cristina Magli, Donata Luiselli, Luca Gianaroli, Giovanni Romeo
Study Question: Does selection for mtDNA mutations occur in human oocytes? Summary Answer: We provide statistical evidence in favor of the existence of purifying selection for mtDNA mutations in human oocytes acting between the expulsion of the first and second polar bodies (PBs). What is Known Already: Several lines of evidence in Metazoa, including humans, indicate that variation within the germline of mitochondrial genomes is under purifying selection...
March 9, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302748/smc5-6-is-required-for-the-formation-of-segregation-competent-bivalent-chromosomes-during-meiosis-i-in-mouse-oocytes
#6
Grace Hwang, Fengyun Sun, Marilyn O'Brien, John J Eppig, Mary Ann Handel, Philip W Jordan
SMC complexes include three major classes: cohesin, condensin, and SMC5/6. However, the localization pattern and genetic requirements for the SMC5/6 complex during mammalian oogenesis had not previously been examined. In mouse oocytes, the SMC5/6 complex is enriched at the pericentromeric heterochromatin, and also localizes along chromosome arms during meiosis. The infertility phenotypes of females with a Zp3-Cre-driven conditional knockout (cKO) of Smc5 demonstrated that maternally expressed SMC5 protein is essential for early embryogenesis...
March 16, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302666/mtorc1-signalling-mediates-pi3k-dependent-large-lipid-droplet-accumulation-in-drosophila-ovarian-nurse-cells
#7
Lawrence B Mensah, Deborah C I Goberdhan, Clive Wilson
Insulin and insulin-like growth factor signalling (IIS), which is primarily mediated by the PI3-kinase (PI3K)/PTEN/Akt kinase signalling cassette, is a highly evolutionary conserved pathway involved in co-ordinating growth, development, ageing and nutrient homeostasis with dietary intake. It controls transcriptional regulators, in addition to promoting signalling by mechanistic Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Complex 1 (mTORC1), which stimulates biosynthesis of proteins and other macromolecules, and drives organismal growth...
March 16, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284906/bone-morphogenetic-protein-bmp-signaling-in-animal-reproductive-system-development-and-function
#8
REVIEW
Amaneet K Lochab, Cassandra G Extavour
In multicellular organisms, the specification, maintenance, and transmission of the germ cell lineage to subsequent generations are critical processes that ensure species survival. A number of studies suggest that the Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) pathway plays multiple roles in this cell lineage. We wished to use a comparative framework to examine the role of BMP signaling in regulating these processes, to determine if patterns would emerge that might shed light on the evolution of molecular mechanisms that may play germ cell-specific or reproductive roles across species...
March 8, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281645/dna-interference-mediated-screening-of-maternal-factors-in-the-chordate-oikopleura-dioica
#9
Tatsuya Omotezako, Masaki Matsuo, Takeshi A Onuma, Hiroki Nishida
The maternal contribution to the oocyte cytoplasm plays an important role during embryogenesis because it is involved in early cell fate specification and embryonic axis establishment. However, screening projects targeting maternal factors have only been conducted in a limited number of animal models, such as nematodes, fruit flies, and zebrafish, while few maternal genes have been analysed because of difficulties encountered in inhibiting gene products already expressed in the ovaries. Therefore, simple and efficient methods for large-scale maternal screening are necessary...
March 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274610/retinoic-acid-signaling-is-dispensable-for-somatic-development-and-function-in-the-mammalian-ovary
#10
Anna Minkina, Robin E Lindeman, Micah D Gearhart, Anne-Amandine Chassot, Marie-Christine Chaboissier, Norbert B Ghyselinck, Vivian J Bardwell, David Zarkower
Retinoic acid (RA) is a potent inducer of cell differentiation and plays an essential role in sex-specific germ cell development in the mammalian gonad. RA is essential for male gametogenesis and hence fertility. However, RA can also disrupt sexual cell fate in somatic cells of the testis, promoting transdifferentiation of male Sertoli cells to female granulosa-like cells when the male sexual regulator Dmrt1 is absent. The feminizing ability of RA in the Dmrt1 mutant somatic testis suggests that RA might normally play a role in somatic cell differentiation or cell fate maintenance in the ovary...
March 6, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274294/mitochondria-during-sea-urchin-oogenesis
#11
Maria Agnello, Maria Carmela Roccheri, Giovanni Morici, Anna Maria Rinaldi
Sea urchin represents an ideal model for studies on fertilization and early development, but the achievement of egg competence and mitochondrial behaviour during oogenesis remain to be enlightened. Oocytes of echinoid, such as sea urchin, unlike other echinoderms and other systems, complete meiotic maturation before fertilization. Mitochondria, the powerhouse of eukaryotic cells, contain a multi-copy of the maternally inherited genome, and are involved directly at several levels in the reproductive processes, as their functional status influences the quality of oocytes and contributes to fertilization and embryogenesis...
March 9, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265462/fine-selection-of-up-regulated-genes-during-ovulation-by-in-vivo-induction-of-oocyte-maturation-and-ovulation-in-zebrafish
#12
Wanlada Klangnurak, Toshinobu Tokumoto
BACKGROUND: Two essential processes, oocyte maturation and ovulation, are independently induced, but proceed cooperatively as the final step in oogenesis before oocytes become fertilizable. Although these two processes are induced by the same maturation-inducing steroid, 17α, 20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17, 20β-DHP), in zebrafish, it has been suggested that the receptor, and thus the signal transduction pathway is different for each process. Although much progress has been made in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the induction of oocyte maturation, the mechanisms for inducing ovulation remain under investigation...
2017: Zoological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258572/the-physiological-role-and-regulation-of-aquaporins-in-teleost-germ-cells
#13
Joan Cerdà, François Chauvigné, Roderick Nigel Finn
The unicellular germ cells and gametes of oviparous teleosts lack the osmoregulatory organs present in juveniles and adults, yet during development and particularly at spawning, they face tremendous osmotic challenges when released into the external aquatic environment. Increasing evidence suggests that transmembrane water channels (aquaporins) evolved to play vital adaptive roles that mitigate the osmotic and oxidative stress problems of the developing oocytes , embryos and spermatozoa. In this chapter, we provide a short overview of the diversity of the aquaporin superfamily in teleosts, and summarize the findings that uncovered a highly specific molecular regulation of aquaporins during oogenesis and spermatogenesis...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247050/role-of-cdc6-during-oogenesis-and-early-embryo-development-in-mouse-and-xenopus-laevis
#14
Ewa Borsuk, Joanna Jachowicz, Malgorzata Kloc, Jean-Pierre Tassan, Jacek Z Kubiak
Cdc6 is an important player in cell cycle regulation. It is involved in the regulation of both S-phase and M-phase. Its role during oogenesis is crucial for repression of the S-phase between the first and the second meiotic M-phases, and it also regulates, via CDK1 inhibition, the M-phase entry and exit. This is of special importance for the reactivation of the major M-phase-regulating kinase CDK1 (Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 1) in oocytes entering metaphase II of meiosis and in embryo cleavage divisions, in which precise timing allows coordination between cell cycle events and developmental program of the embryo...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247047/signaling-mediated-regulation-of-meiotic-prophase-i-and-transition-during-oogenesis
#15
Swathi Arur
Generation of healthy oocytes requires coordinated regulation of multiple cellular events and signaling pathways. Oocytes undergo a unique developmental growth and differentiation pattern interspersed with long periods of arrest. Oocytes from almost all species arrest in prophase I of oogenesis that allows for long period of growth and differentiation essential for normal oocyte development. Depending on species, oocytes that transit from prophase I to meiosis I also arrest at meiosis I for fairly long periods of time and then undergo a second arrest at meiosis II that is completed upon fertilization...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247044/role-of-chromatin-modifications-in-drosophila-germline-stem-cell-differentiation
#16
Pooja Flora, Alicia McCarthy, Maitreyi Upadhyay, Prashanth Rangan
During Drosophila oogenesis, germline stem cells (GSCs) self-renew and differentiate to give rise to a mature egg. Self-renewal and differentiation of GSCs are regulated by both intrinsic mechanisms such as regulation of gene expression in the germ line and extrinsic signaling pathways from the surrounding somatic niche. Epigenetic mechanisms, including histone-modifying proteins, nucleosome remodeling complexes, and histone variants, play a critical role in regulating intrinsic gene expression and extrinsic signaling cues from the somatic niche...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243826/differentiation-of-mouse-primordial-germ-cells-into-functional-oocytes-in-vitro
#17
Kanako Morohaku, Yuji Hirao, Yayoi Obata
Various complex molecular events in oogenesis cannot be observed in vivo. As a bioengineering technique for female reproductive tissues, in vitro culture systems for female germ cells have been used to analyze oogenesis and preserve germ cells for over 20 years. Recently, we have established a new methodological approach for the culture of primordial germ cells (PGCs) and successfully obtained offspring. Our PGC culture system will be useful to clarify unresolved mechanisms of fertility and sterility from the beginning of mammalian oogenesis, before meiosis...
February 27, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235998/the-epigenetic-modifications-and-the-anterior-to-posterior-characterization-of-meiotic-entry-during-mouse-oogenesis
#18
Xia-Fei Fu, Fan Yang, Shun-Feng Cheng, Yan-Ni Feng, Lan Li, Paul W Dyce, Wei Shen, Xiao-Feng Sun
The meiotic initiation of mammalian oogonia is a critical step during the development of primordial germ cells (PGCs) to mature oocytes. In this study, a systematic investigation of epigenetic modifications and DAZL gene expression during oogonia meiotic entry were performed. We found that the expression of DAZL was epigenetically regulated by DNA methylation of CpG islands within its promoter region. During meiotic entry, a continuously increasing level of 5hmC, a stable epigenetic marker usually associated with the activation of gene expression, was observed from 11...
February 24, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230788/the-adverse-effects-of-triptolide-on-the-reproductive-system-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-oogenesis-impairment-and-decreased-oocyte-quality
#19
Qinli Ruan, Yun Xu, Rui Xu, Jiaying Wang, Yongqing Hua, Meng Wang, Jinao Duan
Previous studies have revealed that Triptolide damages female reproductive capacity, but the mechanism is unclear. In this study, we used Caenorhabditis elegans to investigate the effects of Triptolide on the germline and explore its possible mechanisms. Our data show that exposure for 4 h to 50 and 100 mg/L Triptolide reduced C. elegans fertility, led to depletion and inactivation of spermatids with the changes in the expression levels of related genes, and increased the number of unfertilized oocytes through damaging chromosomes and DNA damage repair mechanisms...
February 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230328/higher-order-oligomerization-of-the-licensing-orc4-protein-is-required-for-polar-body-extrusion-in-murine-meiosis
#20
Hieu Nguyen, Nicholas G James, Lynn Nguyen, Thien P Nguyen, Cindy Vuong, Michael Ortega, W Steven Ward
We have previously shown that the DNA replication licensing factor ORC4 forms a cage around the chromosomes that are extruded in both polar bodies during murine oogenesis, but not around the chromosomes that are retained in the oocyte or around the sperm chromatin. We termed this structure the ORC4 cage. Here, we tested whether the formation of the ORC4 cage is necessary for polar body extrusion (PBE). We first experimentally forced oocytes to extrude sperm chromatin as a pseudo-polar body and found that under these conditions the sperm chromatin did become enclosed in an ORC4 cage...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
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