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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820416/-ovarian-reserve-and-effectiveness-of-ivf-in-women-of-various-age-groups
#1
A Sayadyan, E Totoyan
The purpose of this study is a comparative assessment of ovarian reserve parameters and the effect of these indices on the features of follicle and oogenesis in women of different age groups. A retrospective analysis of IVF results was conducted in 101 patients aged 21 to 49 years. All patients were divided into 4 groups according to age: I group up to 30 y.o. - 45 women, II group - 31-35 y.o - 14 women, III group - 36-40 y.o. - 26 women, IV Group - 41 or more - 16 women. A low ovarian reserve was found in the majority (84,6%) of women in group III and in all women in group IV...
July 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807780/mgl-1-on-aiy-neurons-translates-starvation-to-reproductive-plasticity-via-neuropeptide-signaling-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#2
Haelim Jeong, Young-Ki Paik
Reproductive plasticity is the ability of an animal to modulate its reproductive functions in response to environmental changes. For example, Caenorhabditis elegans, a free-living nematode, can adjust the onsets of oogenesis and embryogenesis under harsh environmental conditions, including starvation. However, the molecular mechanisms used to perceive and translate environmental signals into reproductive functional adjustments remain largely uncharacterized. We discovered that in C. elegans, the glutamate receptor homolog MGL-1 initiated reproductive plasticity in response to starvation...
August 11, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806732/loss-of-the-chromatin-modifier-kdm2aa-causes-brafv600e-independent-spontaneous-melanoma-in-zebrafish
#3
Catherine M Scahill, Zsofia Digby, Ian M Sealy, Sonia Wojciechowska, Richard J White, John E Collins, Derek L Stemple, Till Bartke, Marie E Mathers, E Elizabeth Patton, Elisabeth M Busch-Nentwich
KDM2A is a histone demethylase associated with transcriptional silencing, however very little is known about its in vivo role in development and disease. Here we demonstrate that loss of the orthologue kdm2aa in zebrafish causes widespread transcriptional disruption and leads to spontaneous melanomas at a high frequency. Fish homozygous for two independent premature stop codon alleles show reduced growth and survival, a strong male sex bias, and homozygous females exhibit a progressive oogenesis defect. kdm2aa mutant fish also develop melanomas from early adulthood onwards which are independent from mutations in braf and other common oncogenes and tumour suppressors as revealed by deep whole exome sequencing...
August 14, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796817/histological-study-on-maturation-fertilization-and-the-state-of-gonadal-region-following-spawning-in-the-model-sea-anemone-nematostella-vectensis
#4
Elizabeth Moiseeva, Claudette Rabinowitz, Guy Paz, Baruch Rinkevich
The starlet sea-anemone Nematostella vectensis has emerged as a model organism in developmental biology. Still, our understanding of various biological features, including reproductive biology of this model species are in its infancy. Consequently, through histological sections, we study here key stages of the oogenesis (oocyte maturation/fertilization), as the state of the gonad region immediately after natural spawning. Germ cells develop in a secluded mesenterial gastrodermal zone, where the developing oocytes are surrounded by mucoid glandular cells and trophocytes (accessory cells)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796799/differential-outcomes-of-zika-virus-infection-in-aedes-aegypti-orally-challenged-with-infectious-blood-meals-and-infectious-protein-meals
#5
Yan-Jang S Huang, Amy C Lyons, Wei-Wen Hsu, So Lee Park, Stephen Higgs, Dana L Vanlandingham
BACKGROUND: Infection of mosquitoes is an essential step for the transmission of mosquito-borne arboviruses in nature. Engorgement of infectious blood meals from viremic infected vertebrate hosts allows the entry of viruses and initiates infection of midgut epithelial cells. Historically, the infection process of arboviruses in mosquitoes has been studied through the engorgement of mosquitoes from viremic laboratory animals or from artificial feeders containing blood mixed with viruses harvested from cell cultures...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796235/development-of-fertile-mouse-oocytes-from-mitotic-germ-cells-in-vitro
#6
Kanako Morohaku, Yuji Hirao, Yayoi Obata
Mammalian fetal ovaries contain numerous primordial germ cells (PGCs), although few mature oocytes are obtained from females, owing to apoptosis and follicle atresia. The regulatory mechanisms underlying oogenesis/folliculogenesis remain unknown. Development of methods for obtaining mature oocytes from PGCs in fetal ovaries in vitro could contribute to clarifying these mechanisms. The failure of follicle assembly has been found to be the most challenging aspect in conventional culture conditions. Recently, we established novel culture conditions that enable successful follicle assembly, sustaining interactions between the oocyte and somatic cells, and, in turn, promoting oocyte growth and maturation...
September 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796232/reconstitution-of-mouse-oogenesis-in-a-dish-from-pluripotent-stem-cells
#7
Katsuhiko Hayashi, Orie Hikabe, Yayoi Obata, Yuji Hirao
This protocol is an extension to: Nat. Protoc. 8, 1513-1524 (2013); doi: 10.1038/nprot.2013.090; published online 11 July 2013Generation of functional oocytes in culture from pluripotent stem cells should provide a useful model system for improving our understanding of the basic mechanisms underlying oogenesis. In addition, it has potential applications as an alternative source of oocytes for reproduction. Using the most advanced mouse model in regard to reproductive engineering and stem cell biology, we previously developed a culture method that produces functional primorial germ cells starting from pluripotent cells in culture and described it in a previous protocol...
September 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792939/mrna-3-uridylation-and-poly-a-tail-length-sculpt-the-mammalian-maternal-transcriptome
#8
Marcos Morgan, Christian Much, Monica DiGiacomo, Chiara Azzi, Ivayla Ivanova, Dimitrios M Vitsios, Jelena Pistolic, Paul Collier, Pedro N Moreira, Vladimir Benes, Anton J Enright, Dónal O'Carroll
A fundamental principle in biology is that the program for early development is established during oogenesis in the form of the maternal transcriptome. How the maternal transcriptome acquires the appropriate content and dosage of transcripts is not fully understood. Here we show that 3' terminal uridylation of mRNA mediated by TUT4 and TUT7 sculpts the mouse maternal transcriptome by eliminating transcripts during oocyte growth. Uridylation mediated by TUT4 and TUT7 is essential for both oocyte maturation and fertility...
August 9, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783116/teratogenic-effects-of-topiramate-in-a-zebrafish-model
#9
Yu-Heng Lai, Yu-Ju Ding, David Moses, Yau-Hung Chen
Topiramate is commonly used for treating epilepsy in both children and adults. Recent clinical data suggests that administration of topiramate to women during pregnancy increases the risk of oral clefts in their offspring. To better understand the potential effects of topiramate, we dosed adult female zebrafish with topiramate, and investigated the altered morphologies in adult females and their offspring. It showed that topiramate-treated female fish had reduced oocyte maturation, and the survival rates of their offspring were seriously decreased during embryogenesis...
August 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780921/neo-oogenesis-in-mammals
#10
Tania Janeth Porras-Gómez, Norma Moreno-Mendoza
Recently, the existence of a mechanism for neo-oogenesis in the ovaries of adult mammals has generated much controversy within reproductive biology. This mechanism, which proposes that the ovary has cells capable of renewing the follicular reserve, has been described for various species of mammals. The first evidence was found in prosimians and humans. However, these findings were not considered relevant because the predominant dogma for reproductive biology at the time was that of Zuckerman. This dogma states that female mammals are born with finite numbers of oocytes that decline throughout postnatal life...
August 7, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766472/stereological-analysis-of-gonads-from-diploid-and-triploid-fish-yellowtail-tetra-astyanax-altiparanae-garutti-britski-in-laboratory-conditions
#11
Nivaldo Ferreira do Nascimento, Diógenes Henrique de Siqueira-Silva, Matheus Pereira-Santos, Takafumi Fujimoto, José Augusto Senhorini, Laura Satiko Okada Nakaghi, George Shigueki Yasui
This study aimed to examine the gonadal morphology of diploid and triploid fish through stereological analysis. Triploid individuals were obtained after temperature shock (40°C for 2 min) at 2 min post-fertilization and reared until 175 days post-fertilization (dpf). Intact eggs were used to obtain the diploids. Gonads were collected for histological analysis at 83, 114, 144 and 175 dpf. Diploid females and males presented normal oogenesis and spermatogenesis through all the experimental period. Conversely, stereological analysis revealed that triploid females were sterile and oogonia were the prevalent cell type in the ovaries...
August 2, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765643/mir-202-5p-is-a-novel-germ-plasm-specific-microrna-in-zebrafish
#12
Jing Zhang, Wei Liu, Yilin Jin, Peng Jia, Kuntong Jia, Meisheng Yi
Gametogenesis is a complicated biological process by which sperm and egg are produced for genetic transmission between generations. In many animals, the germline is segregated from the somatic lineage in early embryonic development through the specification of primordial germ cells (PGCs), the precursors of gametes for reproduction and fertility. In some species, such as fruit fly and zebrafish, PGCs are determined by the maternally provided germ plasm which contains various RNAs and proteins. Here, we identified a germ plasm/PGC-specific microRNA miR-202-5p for the first time in zebrafish...
August 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759574/differential-regulation-of-germ-line-apoptosis-and-germ-cell-differentiation-by-cpeb-family-members-in-c-elegans
#13
Kapil Dev Singh, Xue Zheng, Stuart Milstein, Martin Keller, Bernd Roschitzki, Jonas Grossmann, Michael O Hengartner
Cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding (CPEB) proteins are evolutionary conserved RNA-binding proteins that control mRNA polyadenylation and translation. Orthologs in humans and other vertebrates are mainly involved in oogenesis. This is also the case for the C. elegans CPEB family member CPB-3, whereas two further CPEB proteins (CPB-1 and FOG-1) are involved in spermatogenesis. Here we describe the characterisation of a new missense allele of cpb-3 and show that loss of cpb-3 function leads to an increase in physiological germ cell death...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750222/assessing-the-relevance-of-a-multiplexed-methodology-for-proteomic-biomarker-measurement-in-the-invertebrate-species-gammarus-fossarum-a-physiological-and-ecotoxicological-study
#14
D Gouveia, A Chaumot, A Charnot, H Queau, J Armengaud, C Almunia, A Salvador, O Geffard
Recently, a protein sequence database was built specifically for the sentinel non-model species Gammarus fossarum using a proteogenomics approach. A quantitative multiplexed targeted proteomics assay (using Selected Reaction Monitoring mass spectrometry) was then developed for a fast and simultaneous quantification of dozens of biomarker peptides specific of this freshwater sentinel crustacean species. In order to assess the relevance of this breakthrough methodology in ecotoxicology, the response patterns of a panel of 26 peptides reporting for 20 proteins from the Gammarus fossarum proteome with putative key functional roles (homeostasis, osmoregulation, nutrition, reproduction, molting,…) were recorded through male and female reproductive cycles and after exposure to environmental concentrations of cadmium and lead in laboratory-controlled conditions...
September 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736861/azadirachtin-effects-on-mating-success-gametic-abnormalities-and-progeny-survival-in-drosophila-melanogaster-diptera
#15
Chemseddine M Oulhaci, Béatrice Denis, Samira Kilani-Morakchi, Jean-Christophe Sandoz, Laure Kaiser, Dominique Joly, Nadia Aribi
BACKGROUND: Azadirachtin is a prominent natural pesticide and represents an alternative to conventional insecticides. It has been successfully used against insect pests. However, its effects on reproduction require further analysis. Here we investigated lethal and sublethal effects of azadirachtin, on treated adults in a model insect, Drosophila melanogaster (Meigen). Dose-mortality relationships as well as several parameters of reproduction (mating, spermatogenesis, oogenesis and fertility) were examined...
July 24, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733229/estrogen-signaling-through-both-membrane-and-nuclear-receptors-in-the-liver-of-fathead-minnow
#16
Natàlia Garcia-Reyero, B Sumith Jayasinghe, Kevin J Kroll, Tara Sabo-Attwood, Nancy D Denslow
Estradiol is a potent sex steroid hormone that controls reproduction and other cellular pathways in fish. It is known to regulate important proteins such as vitellogenin, the egg yolk precursor protein, and zona radiata proteins that form the eggshell for fish eggs. These proteins are made in the liver and transported out into the blood from where they are taken up into the ovary during oogenesis. Estradiol can exert its influence directly through soluble nuclear receptors (there are three in fish) or indirectly through membrane receptors and a phosphorylation cascade...
July 18, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723674/nanoparticles-and-female-reproductive-system-how-do-nanoparticles-affect-oogenesis-and-embryonic-development
#17
REVIEW
Cong-Cong Hou, Jun-Quan Zhu
Along with the increasing application of nanoparticles (NPs) in many walks of life, environmental exposure to NPs has raised considerable health concerns. When NPs enter a pregnant woman's body through inhalation, venous injection, ingestion or skin permeation, maternal toxic stress reactions such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), inflammation, apoptosis and endocrine dyscrasia are induced in different organs, particularly in the reproductive organs. Recent studies have shown that NPs disturb the developing oocyte by invading the protective barrier of theca cells, granulosa cell layers and zona pellucida...
July 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711427/temporal-remodeling-of-the-cell-cycle-accompanies-differentiation-in-the-drosophila-germline
#18
Taylor D Hinnant, Arturo A Alvarez, Elizabeth T Ables
Development of multicellular organisms relies upon the coordinated regulation of cellular differentiation and proliferation. Growing evidence suggests that some molecular regulatory pathways associated with the cell cycle machinery also dictate cell fate; however, it remains largely unclear how the cell cycle is remodeled in concert with cell differentiation. During Drosophila oogenesis, mature oocytes are created through a series of precisely controlled division and differentiation steps, originating from a single tissue-specific stem cell...
September 1, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696245/the-histone-codes-for-meiosis
#19
REVIEW
Lina Wang, Zhiliang Xu, Muhammad Babar Khawar, Chao Liu, Wei Li
Meiosis is a specialized process that produces haploid gametes from diploid cells by a single round of DNA replication followed by two successive cell divisions. It contains many special events, such as programmed DNA double-strand break (DSB) formation, homologous recombination, crossover formation and resolution. These events are associated with dynamically regulated chromosomal structures, the dynamic transcriptional regulation and chromatin remodeling are mainly modulated by histone modifications, termed 'histone codes'...
September 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693619/successful-pregnancy-after-mucinous-cystic-neoplasm-with-invasive-carcinoma-of-the-pancreas-in-a-patient-with-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome-a-case-report
#20
Conisha Holloman, S J Carlan, Lohini Sundharkrishnan, Angela Guzman, Mario Madruga
BACKGROUND: The incidence of invasive cancer within a mucinous cystic neoplasm of the pancreas varies between 6 and 36%. Polycystic ovarian syndrome is a disorder characterized by hyperandrogenism and anovulatory infertility. One surgical treatment that can restore endocrine balance and ovulation in polycystic ovarian syndrome is partial ovarian destruction. Successful pregnancies following preconception pancreaticoduodenectomies (Whipple procedures) and chemoradiation to treat pancreatic neoplasms have been reported rarely but none were diagnosed with pre-cancer polycystic ovarian syndrome-associated infertility...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
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