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Piotr Celichowski, Mariusz J Nawrocki, Marta Dyszkiewicz-Konwińska, Maurycy Jankowski, Joanna Budna, Artur Bryja, Wiesława Kranc, Sylwia Borys, Sandra Knap, Sylwia Ciesiółka, Michal Jeseta, Karolina Piasecka-Stryczyńska, Ronza Khozmi, Dorota Bukowska, Paweł Antosik, Klaus P Brüssow, Małgorzata Bruska, Michał Nowicki, Maciej Zabel, Bartosz Kempisty
The cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) growth and development during folliculogenesis and oogenesis are accompanied by changes involving synthesis and accumulation of large amount of RNA and proteins. In this study, the transcriptomic profile of genes involved in "oocytes RNA synthesis" in relation to in vitro maturation in pigs was investigated for the first time. The RNA was isolated from oocytes before and after in vitro maturation (IVM). Interactions between differentially expressed genes/proteins belonging to "positive regulation of RNA metabolic process" ontology group were investigated by STRING10 software...
2018: BioMed Research International
Daigo Inoue, Joachim Wittbrodt, Oliver J Gruss
Centrosomes are the main microtubule organizing centers in animal cells. In particular during embryogenesis, they ensure faithful spindle formation and proper cell divisions. As metazoan centrosomes are eliminated during oogenesis, they have to be reassembled upon fertilization. Most metazoans use the sperm centrioles as templates for new centrosome biogenesis while the egg's cytoplasm re-prepares all components for on-going centrosome duplication in rapidly dividing embryonic cells. We discuss our knowledge and the experimental challenges to analyze zygotic centrosome reformation, which requires genetic experiments to enable scrutinizing respective male and female contributions...
March 9, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
Erkan Gumus, Ismail Sari, Meral Yilmaz, Ali Cetin
Improving the success of in vitro fertilization (IVF) and infertility treatment depend on understanding basic cellular and molecular mechanisms of human preimplantation development. Pre-implantation mouse embryo model is an ideal empiric system to understand these mechanisms. This study was aimed to investigate the gene and protein expressions of LAMTOR1 in mouse oocytes and pre-implantation embryos at different developmental stages. The findings demonstrate that LAMTOR1 was detected in the oocytes and in subsequent all stages of embryo development...
March 3, 2018: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
Diana Bauermeister, Tomas Pieler
Whole-mount in situ hybridization (WMISH) is a common approach that is used to visualize spatial and temporal gene expression in embryos. In this process, digoxygenin-labeled antisense RNA is hybridized to the complementary transcript of interest and RNA hybrids are immunohistochemically detected using an alkaline phosphatase-conjugated antibody against digoxigenin. During Xenopus laevis oogenesis, certain RNAs localize to the animal or vegetal pole laying the foundation for germ cell development and germ layer formation of the future embryo...
March 1, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
Brenna A M Velker, Michelle M Denomme, Robert T Krafty, Mellissa R W Mann
Assisted reproductive technologies are fertility treatments used by subfertile couples to conceive their biological child. Although generally considered safe, these pregnancies have been linked to genomic imprinting disorders, including Beckwith-Wiedemann and Silver-Russell Syndromes. Silver-Russell Syndrome is a growth disorder characterized by pre- and post-natal growth retardation. The Mest imprinted domain is one candidate region on chromosome 7 implicated in Silver-Russell Syndrome. We have previously shown that maintenance of imprinted methylation was disrupted by superovulation or embryo culture during pre-implantation mouse development...
July 2017: Environmental Epigenetics
Nuria Ferrandiz, Consuelo Barroso, Oana Telecan, Nan Shao, Hyun-Min Kim, Sarah Testori, Peter Faull, Pedro Cutillas, Ambrosious P Snijders, Monica P Colaiácovo, Enrique Martinez-Perez
The formation of haploid gametes from diploid germ cells requires the regulated two-step release of sister chromatid cohesion (SCC) during the meiotic divisions. Here, we show that phosphorylation of cohesin subunit REC-8 by Aurora B promotes SCC release at anaphase I onset in C. elegans oocytes. Aurora B loading to chromatin displaying Haspin-mediated H3 T3 phosphorylation induces spatially restricted REC-8 phosphorylation, preventing full SCC release during anaphase I. H3 T3 phosphorylation is locally antagonized by protein phosphatase 1, which is recruited to chromosomes by HTP-1/2 and LAB-1...
February 26, 2018: Nature Communications
Huan Ye, Huamei Yue, Xiaoge Yang, Chuangju Li, Qiwei Wei
In many organisms, germ cells are specified during embryogenesis by the inheritance of maternally deposited RNAs and proteins termed germ plasm. In vertebrates, the bucky ball (buc) gene plays an essential role in the germ plasm aggregation. In this study, the full-length cDNA of buc homologue in Dabry's sturgeon, Adbuc, was isolated and characterized. Multiple sequence alignments showed that the BUVE domain of Buc was highly conserved in vertebrates, despite exhibiting low identities with each other across the whole protein...
February 23, 2018: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
Kai Lu, Xia Chen, Yue Li, Wenru Li, Qiang Zhou
Insect lipophorin receptor (LpR) belongs to the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) superfamily and plays an essential role in fecundity by mediating the incorporation of lipophorin into developing oocytes. Here we report the identification and characterization of a full-length cDNA encoding a putative LpR from the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens. The deduced amino acid sequence of NlLpR possesses the conserved structural motifs of LDLR family members, and displays a high degree of similarity with sequences from other insect LpRs...
February 21, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Zhiqian Li, Lang You, Dong Yan, Anthony A James, Yongping Huang, Anjiang Tan
Sex determination is a hierarchically-regulated process with high diversity in different organisms including insects. The W chromosome-derived Fem piRNA has been identified as the primary sex determination factor in the lepidopteran insect, Bombyx mori, revealing a distinctive piRNA-mediated sex determination pathway. However, the comprehensive mechanism of silkworm sex determination is still poorly understood. We show here that the silkworm PIWI protein BmSiwi, but not BmAgo3, is essential for silkworm sex determination...
February 23, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Michela Candelma, Luisa Dalla Valle, Sabrina Colella, Alberto Santojanni, Oliana Carnevali
Teleosts have many spawning strategies and the hormonal control of gametogenesis is not well defined among the species or even, between sexes. To increase the knowledge of gonadotropin hormones, we studied the trend by gene expression of gonadotropin receptors in the follicles and testis at different maturity stages in the European hake (Merluccius merluccius), a multiple-spawning species. With this aim, fshr and lhr were sequenced, characterized, and their gene expression was quantified in oocytes and in testes at different maturity stages...
February 23, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Manuela Oliveira Ramalho, Alexsandro Santana Vieira, Mayara Cristina Pereira, Corrie Saux Moreau, Odair Correa Bueno
Camponotus is a hyper-diverse ant genus that is associated with the obligate endosymbiont Blochmannia, and often also with Wolbachia, but morphological studies on the location of these bacteria in the queen's ovaries during oogenesis remain limited. In the present study, we used the Neotropical weaver ant Camponotus textor to characterize the ovary using histology (HE) techniques, and to document the location of Blochmannia and Wolbachia during oogenesis through fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). This is the first morphological report of these two bacteria in the same host with polytrophic meroistic ovaries and reveals that Blochmannia is found inside late-stage oocytes and Wolbachia is associated with the nuclei of the nurse cells...
February 21, 2018: Current Microbiology
Ajit D Kamath, Mark A Deehan, Horacio M Frydman
Bacteria are critical partners in the development and evolution of vertebrates and invertebrates. A large fraction of insects harbor Wolbachia , a bacterial endosymbiont that manipulate host reproduction to favor their spreading. Since they are maternally inherited, Wolbachia are under selective pressure to reach the female germline and infect the offspring. However, Wolbachia infection is not limited to the germline. Somatic cell types, including stem cell niches, have higher Wolbachia loads compared to the surrounding tissue...
February 21, 2018: Development
R Ruivo, A Capitão, L F C Castro, M M Santos
The expression pattern of genes coding for enzymes of the retinoic acid (RA) synthetic and degradation pathways was characterized in adult female zebrafish Danio rerio. Females were conditioned until maturation and post-spawn expression dynamics were determined. A striking upregulation of cyp26b1, but not cyp26a1, was observed following egg deposition, decreasing to initial levels during recovery. A similar, yet lower, fluctuation was observed for aldh1a2 and rdh10a, the enzymes participating in the two-step RA biosynthesis cascade...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Nicholas W VanKuren, Manyuan Long
Males and females have different fitness optima but share the vast majority of their genomes, causing an inherent genetic conflict between the two sexes that must be resolved to achieve maximal population fitness. We show that two tandem duplicate genes found specifically in Drosophila melanogaster are sexually antagonistic, but rapidly evolved sex-specific functions and expression patterns that mitigate their antagonistic effects. We use copy-specific knockouts and rescue experiments to show that Apollo (Apl) is essential for male fertility but detrimental to female fertility, in addition to its important role in development, while Artemis (Arts) is essential for female fertility but detrimental to male fertility...
February 19, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Ana B Walter-Nuno, Mabel L Taracena, Rafael D Mesquita, Pedro L Oliveira, Gabriela O Paiva-Silva
Iron is an essential element for most organisms However, free iron and heme, its complex with protoporphyrin IX, can be extremely cytotoxic, due to the production of reactive oxygen species, eventually leading to oxidative stress. Thus, eukaryotic cells control iron availability by regulating its transport, storage and excretion as well as the biosynthesis and degradation of heme. In the genome of Rhodnius prolixus , the vector of Chagas disease, we identified 36 genes related to iron and heme metabolism We performed a comprehensive analysis of these genes, including identification of homologous genes described in other insect genomes...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Di Kang, Dou Wang, Jianbing Xu, Chao Quan, Xuan Guo, Heng Wang, Jun Luo, Zhongzhou Yang, Shuai Chen, Jiong Chen
Cell growth and cell differentiation are two distinct yet coupled developmental processes, but how they are coordinated is not well understood. During Drosophila oogenesis, we found that the growth-promoting InR/Akt/TOR pathway was involved in suppressing the fate determination of the migratory border cells. The InR/Akt/TOR pathway signals through TOR and Raptor, components of TORC1, to downregulate the JAK/STAT pathway, which is necessary and sufficient for border cell fate determination. TORC1 promotes the protein stability of SOCS36E, the conserved negative regulator of JAK/STAT signaling, through physical interaction, suggesting that TORC1 acts as a key regulator coordinating both cell growth and cell differentiation...
February 26, 2018: Developmental Cell
Selma Hurem, Tânia Gomes, Dag A Brede, Ian Mayer, Viola H Lobert, Stephen Mutoloki, Kristine B Gutzkow, Hans-Christian Teien, Deborah Oughton, Peter Aleström, Jan L Lyche
The biological effects of gamma radiation may exert damage beyond that of the individual through its deleterious effects on reproductive function. Impaired reproductive performance can result in reduced population size over consecutive generations. In a continued effort to investigate reproductive and heritable effects of ionizing radiation, we recently demonstrated adverse effects and genomic instability in progeny of parents exposed to gamma radiation. In the present study, genotoxicity and effects on the reproduction following subchronic exposure during a gametogenesis cycle to 60 Co gamma radiation (27 days, 8...
February 13, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Marco Conti, Federica Franciosi
Infertility affects ~7% of couples of reproductive age with little change in incidence in the last two decades. ART, as well as other interventions, have made major strides in correcting this condition. However, and in spite of advancements in the field, the age of the female partner remains a main factor for a successful outcome. A better understanding of the final stages of gamete maturation yielding an egg that can sustain embryo development and a pregnancy to term remains a major area for improvement in the field...
February 8, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
Vasiliki Koutsouveli, Sergi Taboada, Juan Moles, Javier Cristobo, Pilar Ríos, Andrea Bertran, Joan Solà, Conxita Avila, Ana Riesgo
Sponges are a dominant element of the Antarctic benthic communities, posing both high species richness and large population densities. Despite their importance in Antarctic ecosystems, very little is known about their reproductive patterns and strategies. In our study, we surveyed the tissue of six different species for reproductive elements, namely, Dendrilla antarctica Topsent, 1905 (order Dendroceratida), Phorbas areolatus (Thiele, 1905), Kirkpatrickia variolosa (Kirkpatrick, 1907), and Isodictya kerguelenensis (Ridley & Dendy, 1886) (order Poecilosclerida), and Hemigellius pilosus (Kirkpatrick, 1907) and Haliclona penicillata (Topsent, 1908) (Haplosclerida)...
2018: PloS One
Marie-Chantal Grégoire, Frédéric Leduc, Martin H Morin, Tiphanie Cavé, Mélina Arguin, Martin Richter, Pierre-Étienne Jacques, Guylain Boissonneault
De novo germline mutations arise preferentially in male owing to fundamental differences between spermatogenesis and oogenesis. Post-meiotic chromatin remodeling in spermatids results in the elimination of most of the nucleosomal supercoiling and is characterized by transient DNA fragmentation. Using three alternative methods, DNA from sorted populations of mouse spermatids was used to confirm that double-strand breaks (DSB) are created in elongating spermatids and repaired at later steps. Specific capture of DSB was used for whole-genome mapping of DSB hotspots (breakome) for each population of differentiating spermatids...
February 7, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
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