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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548451/molecular-and-functional-characterization-of-the-american-cockroach-periplaneta-americana-rab5-the-first-exopterygotan-low-molecular-weight-ovarian-gtpase-during-oogenesis
#1
Mohamed Elmogy, Amr A Mohamed, Muhammad Tufail, Tomohide Uno, Makio Takeda
The small Rab GTPases are key regulators of membrane vesicle trafficking. Ovaries of Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus) (Blattodea: Blattidae) have small molecular weight GTP/ATP-binding proteins during early and late vitellogenic periods of oogenesis. However, the identification and characterization of the detected proteins have not been yet reported. Herein, we cloned a cDNA encoding Rab5 from the American cockroach, P. americana, ovaries (PamRab5). It comprises 796 bp, encoding a protein of 213 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular weight of 23...
May 26, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533904/-this-is-where-it-all-started-the-pivotal-role-of-plc%C3%AE-within-the-sophisticated-process-of-mammalian-reproduction-a-systemic-review
#2
Itai Gat, Raoul Orvieto
Mammalian reproduction is one of the most complex and fascinating biological phenomenon, which aims to transfer maternal and paternal genetic material to the next generation. At the end of oogenesis and spermatogenesis, both haploid gametes contain a single set of chromosomes ready to form the zygote, the first cell of the newly developing individual. The mature oocyte and spermatozoa remain in a quiescent state, during which the oocyte is characterized by nuclear and cytoplasmic arrest, while the spermatozoa necessitates further maturation within the epididymis and female reproductive track prior to egg fertilization...
2017: Basic and Clinical Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533810/tc003132-is-essential-for-the-follicle-stem-cell-lineage-in-telotrophic-tribolium-oogenesis
#3
Matthias Teuscher, Nadi Ströhlein, Markus Birkenbach, Dorothea Schultheis, Michael Schoppmeier
BACKGROUND: Stem cells are undifferentiated cells with a potential for self-renewal, which are essential to support normal development and homeostasis. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying adult stem cell biology and organ evolution, we use the telotrophic ovary of the beetle Tribolium. To this end, we participated in a large-scale RNAi screen in the red flour beetle Tribolium, which identified functions in embryonic and postembryonic development for more than half of the Tribolium genes...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522430/the-drosophila-lin54-homolog-mip120-controls-two-aspects-of-oogenesis
#4
Mei-Hsin Cheng, Laura Andrejka, Paul J Vorster, Albert Hinman, Joseph S Lipsick
The conserved multi-protein MuvB core associates with the Myb oncoproteins and with the RB-E2F-DP tumor suppressor proteins in complexes that regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Drosophila Mip120, a homolog of LIN54, is a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein within the MuvB core. A mutant of Drosophila mip120 was previously shown to cause female and male sterility. We now show that Mip120 regulates two different aspects of oogenesis. First, in the absence of the Mip120 protein, egg chambers arrest during the transition from stage 7 to 8 with a failure of the normal program of chromosomal dynamics in the ovarian nurse cells...
May 18, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518112/functional-manipulation-of-maternal-gene-products-using-in-vitro-oocyte-maturation-in-zebrafish
#5
Elaine L Welch, Celeste C Eno, Sreelaja Nair, Robin E Lindeman, Francisco Pelegri
Cellular events that take place during the earliest stages of animal embryonic development are driven by maternally derived gene products deposited into the developing oocyte. Because these events rely on maternal products which typically act very soon after fertilization-that preexist inside the egg, standard approaches for expression and functional reduction involving the injection of reagents into the fertilized egg are typically ineffective. Instead, such manipulations must be performed during oogenesis, prior to or during the accumulation of maternal products...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507606/transcription-and-chromatin-determinants-of-de-novo-dna-methylation-timing-in-oocytes
#6
Lenka Gahurova, Shin-Ichi Tomizawa, Sébastien A Smallwood, Kathleen R Stewart-Morgan, Heba Saadeh, Jeesun Kim, Simon R Andrews, Taiping Chen, Gavin Kelsey
BACKGROUND: Gametogenesis in mammals entails profound re-patterning of the epigenome. In the female germline, DNA methylation is acquired late in oogenesis from an essentially unmethylated baseline and is established largely as a consequence of transcription events. Molecular and functional studies have shown that imprinted genes become methylated at different times during oocyte growth; however, little is known about the kinetics of methylation gain genome wide and the reasons for asynchrony in methylation at imprinted loci...
2017: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506985/histone-acetyltransferase-kat8-is-essential-for-mouse-oocyte-development-by-regulating-ros-levels
#7
Shi Yin, Xiaohua Jiang, Hanwei Jiang, Qian Gao, Fang Wang, Suixing Fan, Teka Khan, Nazish Jabeen, Manan Khan, Asim Ali, Peng Xu, Tej K Pandita, Heng-Yu Fan, Yuanwei Zhang, Qinghua Shi
Proper oocyte development is critical for female fertility and requires timely and accurate control of gene expression. K (Lysine) Acetyltransferase 8 (KAT8), an important component of the X chromosome dosage compensation system in Drosophila, regulates gene activity by acetylating histone H4 preferentially at lysine 16. To explore the function of Kat8 during mouse oocyte development, we crossed Kat8(flox/flox) mice with Gdf9-Cre mice to specifically delete Kat8 in oocytes. Oocyte Kat8 deletion resulted in female infertility with follicle development failure in the secondary and preantral follicle stages...
May 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504655/transcription-factors-sohlh1-and-sohlh2-coordinate-oocyte-differentiation-without-affecting-meiosis-i
#8
Yong-Hyun Shin, Yu Ren, Hitomi Suzuki, Kayla J Golnoski, Hyo Won Ahn, Vasil Mico, Aleksandar Rajkovic
Following migration of primordial germ cells to the genital ridge, oogonia undergo several rounds of mitotic division and enter meiosis at approximately E13.5. Most oocytes arrest in the dictyate (diplotene) stage of meiosis circa E18.5. The genes necessary to drive oocyte differentiation in parallel with meiosis are unknown. Here, we have investigated whether expression of spermatogenesis and oogenesis bHLH transcription factor 1 (Sohlh1) and Sohlh2 coordinates oocyte differentiation within the embryonic ovary...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504648/the-so-h-l-h-o-drivers-of-oocyte-growth-and-survival-but-not-meiosis-i
#9
T Rajendra Kumar
The spermatogenesis/oogenesis helix-loop-helix (SOHLH) proteins SOHLH1 and SOHLH2 play important roles in male and female reproduction. Although previous studies indicate that these transcriptional regulators are expressed in and have in vivo roles in postnatal ovaries, their expression and function in the embryonic ovary remain largely unknown. Because oocyte differentiation is tightly coupled with the onset of meiosis, it is of significant interest to determine how early oocyte transcription factors regulate these two processes...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493873/modeling-of-a-negative-feedback-mechanism-explains-antagonistic-pleiotropy-in-reproduction-in-domesticated-caenorhabditis-elegans-strains
#10
Edward E Large, Raghavendra Padmanabhan, Kathie L Watkins, Richard F Campbell, Wen Xu, Patrick T McGrath
Most biological traits and common diseases have a strong but complex genetic basis, controlled by large numbers of genetic variants with small contributions to a trait or disease risk. The effect-size of most genetic variants is not absolute and is instead dependent upon multiple factors such as the age and genetic background of an organism. In order to understand the mechanistic basis of these changes, we characterized heritable trait differences between two domesticated strains of C. elegans. We previously identified a major effect locus, caused in part by a mutation in a component of the NURF chromatin remodeling complex, that regulates reproductive output in an age-dependent manner...
May 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469243/reconstitution-of-ovarian-function-following-transplantation-of-primordial-germ-cells
#11
Ming Zeng, Xiaoyan Sheng, David L Keefe, Lin Liu
Ovarian aging occurs earlier than somatic aging. We tested the hypothesis that ovarian functions could be artificially reconstructed by transplantation of primordial germ cells (PGCs). We compared various methods for transplantation of PGCs aggregated with gonadal somatic cells and showed that reconstituted ovaries exhibited folliculogenesis after transplantation of PGCs-aggregates into either kidney capsule or ovarian bursa. Neo-oogenesis occurred early after transplantation, as evidenced by the presence of prophase I meiocytes displaying homologous pairing...
May 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464323/ssm1b-expression-and-function-in-germ-cells-of-adult-mice-and-in-early-embryos
#12
Sarayu Ratnam, Grazyna Bozek, Christopher Payne, Shannon Gallagher, Terence Martin, Ursula Storb
Strain-specific modifier of DNA methylation 1b (Ssm1b) is a Krüppel-associated box (KRAB) zinc finger gene that promotes CpG methylation in the mouse transgene HRD (Heavy chain enhancer, Rearrangement by Deletion). Ssm1b expression and concomitant HRD methylation are also present in the male and female germ cells of adult mice. Ssm1b is expressed in both diploid (2N) and haploid (1N) oocytes, as well as in 1N spermatids and spermatozoa, but not in 2N spermatogonia. Interestingly, Ssm1b mRNA is not detected in any other adult mouse organ examined, although Ssm1-family mRNAs are highly expressed in the heart...
May 2, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459457/conserved-roles-of-mouse-dux-and-human-dux4-in-activating-cleavage-stage-genes-and-mervl-hervl-retrotransposons
#13
Peter G Hendrickson, Jessie A Doráis, Edward J Grow, Jennifer L Whiddon, Jong-Won Lim, Candice L Wike, Bradley D Weaver, Christian Pflueger, Benjamin R Emery, Aaron L Wilcox, David A Nix, C Matthew Peterson, Stephen J Tapscott, Douglas T Carrell, Bradley R Cairns
To better understand transcriptional regulation during human oogenesis and preimplantation development, we defined stage-specific transcription, which highlighted the cleavage stage as being highly distinctive. Here, we present multiple lines of evidence that a eutherian-specific multicopy retrogene, DUX4, encodes a transcription factor that activates hundreds of endogenous genes (for example, ZSCAN4, KDM4E and PRAMEF-family genes) and retroviral elements (MERVL/HERVL family) that define the cleavage-specific transcriptional programs in humans and mice...
June 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457750/single-cell-rna-seq-analysis-maps-development-of-human-germline-cells-and-gonadal-niche-interactions
#14
Li Li, Ji Dong, Liying Yan, Jun Yong, Xixi Liu, Yuqiong Hu, Xiaoying Fan, Xinglong Wu, Hongshan Guo, Xiaoye Wang, Xiaohui Zhu, Rong Li, Jie Yan, Yuan Wei, Yangyu Zhao, Wei Wang, Yixin Ren, Peng Yuan, Zhiqiang Yan, Boqiang Hu, Fan Guo, Lu Wen, Fuchou Tang, Jie Qiao
Human fetal germ cells (FGCs) are precursors to sperm and eggs and are crucial for maintenance of the species. However, the developmental trajectories and heterogeneity of human FGCs remain largely unknown. Here we performed single-cell RNA-seq analysis of over 2,000 FGCs and their gonadal niche cells in female and male human embryos spanning several developmental stages. We found that female FGCs undergo four distinct sequential phases characterized by mitosis, retinoic acid signaling, meiotic prophase, and oogenesis...
April 13, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456956/role-of-micrornas-in-zygotic-genome-activation-modulation-of-mrna-during-embryogenesis
#15
Alessandro Rosa, Ali H Brivanlou
A fundamental process occurring during early development is the zygotic genome activation, i.e., the initiation of transcription from the embryonic genome. Before that step, cellular processes in the developing embryo are dictated by transcripts produced by the maternal genome and accumulated in the egg during oogenesis. The maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT) involves both the clearance of maternal RNAs and the initiation of transcription of the embryonic genome and is a tightly regulated process. In some species, decay of maternal transcripts may be facilitated by the activity of microRNAs...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450162/structure-and-ultrastructure-of-the-ovary-in-the-south-american-veturius-sinuatus-eschscholtz-coleoptera-passalidae
#16
Karen Salazar, Stéphane Boucher, José Eduardo Serrão
The morphoanatomy of the ovary in Veturius sinuatus (Eschscholtz) was studied by light and transmission electron microscopy. Data from the female gonad of this species provides more extended and precise knowledge regarding the organization of the ovary in Passalidae. Ovaries are composed of a pair of long telotrophic meroistic ovarioles, with some differences compared to the bauplan of this ovary type in Polyphaga (Coleoptera). The terminal filament has an enlarged proximal region with irregularly shaped cells in apparent degeneration process embedded in a membranous system...
April 24, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443296/data-of-sperm-entry-inability-in-drosophila-melanogaster-ovarian-follicles-that-are-depleted-of-s36-chorionic-protein
#17
Athanassios D Velentzas, Panagiotis D Velentzas, Stamatia Katarachia, Vassiliki E Mpakou, Issidora S Papassideri, Dimitrios J Stravopodis
This paper presents data associated with the research article entitled "Targeted downregulation of s36 protein unearths its cardinal role in chorion biogenesis and architecture during Drosophila melanogaster oogenesis" [1]. Drosophila chorion is produced by epithelial follicle cells and one of its functional serving role is egg fertilization through the micropyle, a specialized narrow channel at the anterior tip of the egg [2]. Sperm entry during fertilization is necessary for the egg to complete meiosis [3]...
June 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434825/rna-binding-proteins-in-human-oogenesis-balancing-differentiation-and-self-renewal-in-the-female-fetal-germline
#18
Roseanne Rosario, Andrew J Childs, Richard A Anderson
Primordial germ cells undergo three significant processes on their path to becoming primary oocytes: the initiation of meiosis, the formation and breakdown of germ cell nests, and the assembly of single oocytes into primordial follicles. However at the onset of meiosis, the germ cell becomes transcriptionally silenced. Consequently translational control of pre-stored mRNAs plays a central role in coordinating gene expression throughout the remainder of oogenesis; RNA binding proteins are key to this regulation...
April 18, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434803/genetic-dissection-of-the-planarian-reproductive-system-through-characterization-of-schmidtea-mediterranea-cpeb-homologs
#19
Labib Rouhana, Junichi Tasaki, Amir Saberi, Phillip A Newmark
Cytoplasmic polyadenylation is a mechanism of mRNA regulation prevalent in metazoan germ cells; it is largely dependent on Cytoplasmic Polyadenylation Element Binding proteins (CPEBs). Two CPEB homologs were identified in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. Smed-CPEB1 is expressed in ovaries and yolk glands of sexually mature planarians, and required for oocyte and yolk gland development. In contrast, Smed-CPEB2 is expressed in the testes and the central nervous system; its function is required for spermatogenesis as well as non-autonomously for development of ovaries and accessory reproductive organs...
April 21, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434412/molecular-characterization-and-transcriptional-analysis-of-the-female-enriched-chondroitin-proteoglycan-2-of-toxocara-canis
#20
G X Ma, R Q Zhou, L Hu, Y L Luo, Y F Luo, H H Zhu
Toxocara canis is an important but neglected zoonotic parasite, and is the causative agent of human toxocariasis. Chondroitin proteoglycans are biological macromolecules, widely distributed in extracellular matrices, with a great diversity of functions in mammals. However, there is limited information regarding chondroitin proteoglycans in nematode parasites. In the present study, a female-enriched chondroitin proteoglycan 2 gene of T. canis (Tc-cpg-2) was cloned and characterized. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was employed to measure the transcription levels of Tc-cpg-2 among tissues of male and female adult worms...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
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