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Oogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916703/oogenesis_pred-a-sequence-based-method-for-predicting-oogenesis-proteins-by-six-different-modes-of-chou-s-pseudo-amino-acid-composition
#1
Maryam Rahimi, Mohammad Reza Bakhtiarizadeh, Abdollah Mohammadi-Sangcheshmeh
Regarding to critical roles of oogenesis in formation of ova or unfertilized eggs from the oogonia by mitotic division and subsequent differentiation, the identification of oogenesis-related proteins is of great interest. However, the experimental determination of proteins involved in oogenesis is expensive, time consuming and labor-intensive. Therefore, a new powerful discriminating model is indispensable for classifying oogenesis/non-oogenesis-related proteins with high accuracy and precision. Hereby, for the first time we developed a support vector machine based oogenesis protein prediction method which differentiates oogenesis from non-oogenesis proteins...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913641/translation-repression-by-maternal-rna-binding-protein-zar1-is-essential-for-early-oogenesis-in-zebrafish
#2
Liyun Miao, Yue Yuan, Feng Cheng, Junshun Fang, Fang Zhou, Weirui Ma, Yan Jiang, Xiahe Huang, Yingchun Wang, Lingjuan Shan, Dahua Chen, Jian Zhang
Large numbers of maternal RNAs are deposited in oocytes and are reserved for later development. Control of maternal RNA translation during oocyte maturation has been extensively investigated and its regulatory mechanisms are well documented. However, translational regulation of maternal RNAs in early oogenesis is largely unexplored. In this study, we generated zebrafish zar1 mutants which result in early oocyte apoptosis and fully penetrant male development. Loss of p53 suppresses the apoptosis in zar1 mutants and restores oocyte development...
December 2, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886120/the-role-and-application-of-sirtuins-and-mtor-signaling-in-the-control-of-ovarian-functions
#3
REVIEW
Alexander V Sirotkin
The present short review demonstrates the involvement of sirtuins (SIRTs) in the control of ovarian functions at various regulatory levels. External and endocrine factors can affect female reproduction via SIRTs-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) system, which, via hormones and growth factors, can in turn regulate basic ovarian functions (proliferation, apoptosis, secretory activity of ovarian cells, their response to upstream hormonal regulators, ovarian folliculo- and oogenesis, and fecundity). SIRTs and SIRTs-related signaling molecules and drugs regulating mTOR can be used for characterization, prediction, and regulation of ovarian functions, as well as for diagnostics and treatment of ovarian disorders...
November 24, 2016: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871976/developmental-and-reproductive-responses-of-the-spruce-budworm-lepidoptera-tortricidae-parasitoid-tranosema-rostrale-hymenoptera-ichneumonidae-to-temperature
#4
M Lukas Seehausen, Jacques Régnière, Véronique Martel, Sandy M Smith
The temperature-dependent development and survival of immatures, as well as adult longevity and potential fecundity of the endoparasitoid Tranosema rostrale (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) parasitizing spruce budworm Choristoneura fumiferana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) larvae was investigated under laboratory conditions at several constant temperatures ranging from 5 to 30°C. Maximum likelihood modeling approaches were used to estimate thermal responses in development, survival, and longevity. A model describing the effect of temperature on potential fecundity of the parasitoid was also developed taking oogenesis and oosorption into account...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867763/sexual-reproduction-in-the-caribbean-coral-genus-isophyllia-scleractinia-mussidae
#5
Derek Soto, Ernesto Weil
The sexual pattern, reproductive mode, and timing of reproduction of Isophyllia sinuosa and Isophyllia rigida, two Caribbean Mussids, were assessed by histological analysis of specimens collected monthly during 2000-2001. Both species are simultaneous hermaphroditic brooders characterized by a single annual gametogenetic cycle. Spermatocytes and oocytes of different stages were found to develop within the same mesentery indicating sequential maturation for extended planulation. Oogenesis took place during May through April in I...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859822/expression-of-steroidogenic-enzymes-and-steroid-receptors-in-foetal-gonads-of-domestic-cat-sex-similarities-and-differences
#6
B C Braun, K Jewgenow
Foetal gonads already produce steroid hormones and by this influence the further development of external and internal genitalia as well as of the brain. Beside this, foetal gonads themselves can be influenced by foetal or maternal hormones. The time course of foetal gonadal development can differ between species. As knowledge on processes in domestic cats is very limited, the steroidogenic enzyme expressions as well as these of steroid receptors were analysed in foetal gonads of domestic cats. We investigated a period from beginning of the second half of pregnancy to the beginning of the third trimester; a phase, where also gonadal development proceeds...
November 15, 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852222/differential-gene-expression-in-varroa-jacobsoni-mites-following-a-host-shift-to-european-honey-bees-apis-mellifera
#7
Gladys K Andino, Michael Gribskov, Denis L Anderson, Jay D Evans, Greg J Hunt
BACKGROUND: Varroa mites are widely considered the biggest honey bee health problem worldwide. Until recently, Varroa jacobsoni has been found to live and reproduce only in Asian honey bee (Apis cerana) colonies, while V. destructor successfully reproduces in both A. cerana and A. mellifera colonies. However, we have identified an island population of V. jacobsoni that is highly destructive to A. mellifera, the primary species used for pollination and honey production. The ability of these populations of mites to cross the host species boundary potentially represents an enormous threat to apiculture, and is presumably due to genetic variation that exists among populations of V...
November 16, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851943/antagonistic-behaviors-of-nmy-1-and-nmy-2-maintain-ring-channels-in-the-c-%C3%A2-elegans-gonad
#8
Valerie C Coffman, Torah M Kachur, David B Pilgrim, Adriana T Dawes
Contractile rings play critical roles in a number of biological processes, including oogenesis, wound healing, and cytokinesis. In many cases, the activity of motor proteins such as nonmuscle myosins is required for appropriate constriction of these contractile rings. In the gonad of the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans, ring channels are a specialized form of contractile ring that are maintained at a constant diameter before oogenesis. We propose a model of ring channel maintenance that explicitly incorporates force generation by motor proteins that can act normally or tangentially to the ring channel opening...
November 15, 2016: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845028/ultrastructural-study-of-vitellogenesis-and-oogenesis-of-crepidostomum-metoecus-digenea-allocreadiidae-intestinal-parasite-of-salmo-trutta-pisces-teleostei
#9
Samuel Greani, Yann Quilichini, Bernard Marchand
We describe the vitellogenesis and oogenesis of Crepidostomum metoecus from Salmo trutta collected in Corsica. This is the first study conducted in the Allocreadiidae family. The maturation of C. metoecus vitellocytes comprises four different stages depending on organelle content. The follicular vitellarium is surrounded by a basal lamina. Vitellocytes are randomly distributed into the vitellarium, although fully mature vitellocytes are found in the center of the follicle. During maturation, the nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio decreases, whereas synthetic activity increases...
2016: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837269/internal-and-external-morphology-of-adults-of-the-appendicularian-oikopleura-dioica-an-sem-study
#10
Takeshi A Onuma, Miho Isobe, Hiroki Nishida
The appendicularian, Oikopleura dioica, is a planktonic tunicate that retains a swimming tadpole shape throughout its life. It has relatively few cells and exhibits fast development, yet it has a basic chordate body plan. In this study, the morphology of adults was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fine 3D images of most organs were taken. The trunk epidermis is organized into bilateral territories secreting the house that includes the food-trapping filter. The pharynx extends ventrally and posteriorly to the gill openings and esophagus, respectively...
November 11, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825659/ferritin-1-silencing-effect-in-rhipicephalus-sanguineus-sensu-lato-acari-ixodidae-during-experimental-infection-with-ehrlichia-canis
#11
Joana Ferrolho, Sandra Antunes, Gustavo S Sanches, Joana Couto, Patrícia M Évora, Catarina Rosa, Marcos R André, Rosângela Z Machado, Gervásio H Bechara, Ana Domingos
Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s.l.) is a very common ectoparasite of domestic dogs able to transmit several pathogens of human and veterinary importance. Tick infestations and tick-borne diseases (TBDs) remain a serious and persistent problem, due to the lack of efficient control measures. It is therefore vital that novel approaches to control are pursued. Whilst vaccination is recognised as a potential control method to reduce tick infestation, no anti-R. sanguineus vaccine is available. Ticks depend on their blood meals to obtain nutrients and to achieve sexual maturity, which exposes them to vast amounts of iron...
January 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821528/what-determines-direction-of-asymmetry-genes-environment-or-chance
#12
REVIEW
A Richard Palmer
Conspicuous asymmetries seen in many animals and plants offer diverse opportunities to test how the development of a similar morphological feature has evolved in wildly different types of organisms. One key question is: do common rules govern how direction of asymmetry is determined (symmetry is broken) during ontogeny to yield an asymmetrical individual? Examples from numerous organisms illustrate how diverse this process is. These examples also provide some surprising answers to related questions. Is direction of asymmetry in an individual determined by genes, environment or chance? Is direction of asymmetry determined locally (structure by structure) or globally (at the level of the whole body)? Does direction of asymmetry persist when an asymmetrical structure regenerates following autotomy? The answers vary greatly for asymmetries as diverse as gastropod coiling direction, flatfish eye side, crossbill finch bill crossing, asymmetrical claws in shrimp, lobsters and crabs, katydid sound-producing structures, earwig penises and various plant asymmetries...
December 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805603/in-situ-labeling-of-mitochondrial-dna-replication-in-drosophila-adult-ovaries-by-edu-staining
#13
Zhe Chen, Hong Xu
The mitochondrial genome is inherited exclusively through the maternal line. Understanding of how the mitochondrion and its genome are proliferated and transmitted from one generation to the next through the female oocyte is of fundamental importance. Because of the genetic tractability, and the elegant, ordered simplicity by which oocyte development proceeds, Drosophila oogenesis has become an invaluable system for mitochondrial study. An EdU (5-ethynyl-2´-deoxyuridine) labeling method was utilized to detect mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication in Drosophila ovaries...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805546/autophagy-is-required-for-sea-urchin-oogenesis-and-early-development
#14
Maria Agnello, Roberto Chiarelli, Chiara Martino, Liana Bosco, Maria Carmela Roccheri
Autophagy is a major intracellular pathway for the degradation and recycling of cytosolic components. Emerging evidence has demonstrated its crucial role during the embryo development of invertebrates and vertebrates. We recently demonstrated a massive activation of autophagy in Paracentrotus lividus embryos under cadmium stress conditions, and the existence of a temporal relationship between induced autophagy and apoptosis. Although there have been numerous studies on the role of autophagy in the development of different organisms, information on the autophagic process during oogenesis or at the start of development in marine invertebrates is very limited...
December 2016: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796004/ultrastructural-studies-on-oocyte-development-and-vitellogenesis-associated-with-follicle-cells-in-female-scapharca-subcrenata-pelecypoda-arcidae-in-western-korea
#15
Sung Han Kim
Ultrastructural studies on oocyte development and vitellogenesis in oocytes, and the functions of follicle cells during oogenesis and oocyte degeneration were investigated to clarifyb the reproductive mechanism on vitellogenesis of Scapharca subcrenata using electron microscope observations. In this study, vitellogenesis during oogenesis in the oocytes occured by way of autosynthesis and heterosynthesis. Of two processes of vitellogenesis during oogenesis, the process of endogenous autosynthesis involved the combined activity of the Golgi complex, mitochondria and rough endoplasmic reticulum...
September 2016: Balsaeng'gwa Saengsig
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791980/bicoid-mrna-localises-to-the-drosophila-oocyte-anterior-by-random-dynein-mediated-transport-and-anchoring
#16
Vítor Trovisco, Katsiaryna Belaya, Dmitry Nashchekin, Uwe Irion, George Sirinakis, Richard Butler, Jack J Lee, Elizabeth R Gavis, Daniel St Johnston
bicoid mRNA localises to the Drosophila oocyte anterior from stage 9 of oogenesis onwards to provide a local source for Bicoid protein for embryonic patterning. Live imaging at stage 9 reveals that bicoid mRNA particles undergo rapid Dynein-dependent movements near the oocyte anterior, but with no directional bias. Furthermore, bicoid mRNA localises normally in shot(2A2), which abolishes the polarised microtubule organisation. FRAP and photo-conversion experiments demonstrate that the RNA is stably anchored at the anterior, independently of microtubules...
October 28, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784263/multiplicity-of-buc-copies-in-atlantic-salmon-contrasts-with-loss-of-the-germ-cell-determinant-in-primates-rodents-and-axolotl
#17
Adrijana Škugor, Helge Tveiten, Hanne Johnsen, Øivind Andersen
BACKGROUND: The primordial germ cells (PGCs) giving rise to gametes are determined by two different mechanisms in vertebrates. While the germ cell fate in mammals and salamanders is induced by zygotic signals, maternally delivered germ cell determinants specify the PGCs in birds, frogs and teleost fish. Assembly of the germ plasm in the oocyte is organized by the single Buc in zebrafish, named Velo1 in Xenopus, and by Oskar in Drosophila. Secondary loss of oskar in several insect lineages coincides with changes in germline determination strategies, while the presence of buc in mammals suggests functions not associated with germline formation...
October 26, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770035/replication-errors-made-during-oogenesis-lead-to-detectable-de-novo-mtdna-mutations-in-zebrafish-oocytes-with-a-low-mtdna-copy-number
#18
Auke B C Otten, Alphons P M Stassen, Michiel Adriaens, Mike Gerards, Richard G J Dohmen, Adriana J Timmer, Sabina J V Vanherle, Rick Kamps, Iris B W Boesten, Jo M Vanoevelen, Marc Muller, Bert Smeets
Of all pathogenic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations in humans, ~25% is de novo, although the occurrence in oocytes has never been directly assessed. We used next generation sequencing to detect point mutations directly in the mtDNA of 3-15 individual mature oocytes and three somatic tissues from eight zebrafish females. Various statistical and biological filters allowed reliable detection of de novo variants with heteroplasmy ≥1.5%. In total, we detected 38 de novo base substitutions, but no insertions or deletions...
October 21, 2016: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765047/used-protocols-for-isolation-and-propagation-of-ovarian-stem-cells-different-cells-with-different-traits
#19
Hossein Yazdekhasti, Zahra Rajabi, Soraya Parvari, Mehdi Abbasi
Although existence of ovarian stem cells (OSCs) in mammalian postnatal ovary is still under controversy, however, it has been almost accepted that OSCs are contributing actively to folliculogenesis and neo-oogenesis. Recently, various methods with different efficacies have been employed for OSCs isolation from ovarian tissue, which these methods could be chosen depends on aim of isolation and accessible equipments and materials in lab. Although isolated OSCs from different methods have various traits and characterizations, which might become from their different nature and origin, however these stem cells are promising source for woman infertility treatment or source of energy for women with a history of repeat IVF failure in near future...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Ovarian Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763817/transcription-of-highly-repetitive-tandemly-organized-dna-in-amphibians-and-birds-a-historical-overview-and-modern-concepts
#20
Irina Trofimova, Alla Krasikova
Tandemly organized highly repetitive DNA sequences are crucial structural and functional elements of eukaryotic genomes. Despite extensive evidence, satellite DNA remains an enigmatic part of the eukaryotic genome, with biological role and significance of tandem repeat transcripts remaining rather obscure. Data on tandem repeats transcription in amphibian and avian model organisms is fragmentary despite their genomes being thoroughly characterized. Review systematically covers historical and modern data on transcription of amphibian and avian satellite DNA in somatic cells and during meiosis when chromosomes acquire special lampbrush form...
October 20, 2016: RNA Biology
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