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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326167/the-protein-kinase-ck2-substrate-jabba-modulates-lipid-metabolism-during-drosophila-oogenesis
#1
Emily A McMillan, Sheila M Longo, Michael D Smith, Sarah Broskin, Baicheng Lin, Nisha K Singh, Todd I Strochlic
Lipid metabolism plays a critical role in female reproduction. During oogenesis, maturing oocytes accumulate high levels of neutral lipids that are essential for both energy production and for the synthesis of other lipid molecules. Metabolic pathways within the ovary are partially regulated by protein kinases that link metabolic status to oocyte development. While the functions of several kinases in this process are well established, the roles that many other kinases play in coordinating metabolic state with female germ cell development are unknown...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323282/mll2-conveys-transcription-independent-h3k4-trimethylation-in-oocytes
#2
Courtney W Hanna, Aaron Taudt, Jiahao Huang, Lenka Gahurova, Andrea Kranz, Simon Andrews, Wendy Dean, A Francis Stewart, Maria Colomé-Tatché, Gavin Kelsey
Histone 3 K4 trimethylation (depositing H3K4me3 marks) is typically associated with active promoters yet paradoxically occurs at untranscribed domains. Research to delineate the mechanisms of targeting H3K4 methyltransferases is ongoing. The oocyte provides an attractive system to investigate these mechanisms, because extensive H3K4me3 acquisition occurs in nondividing cells. We developed low-input chromatin immunoprecipitation to interrogate H3K4me3, H3K27ac and H3K27me3 marks throughout oogenesis. In nongrowing oocytes, H3K4me3 was restricted to active promoters, but as oogenesis progressed, H3K4me3 accumulated in a transcription-independent manner and was targeted to intergenic regions, putative enhancers and silent H3K27me3-marked promoters...
January 2018: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317315/carry-over-effects-modulated-by-salinity-during-the-early-ontogeny-of-the-euryhaline-crab-hemigrapsus-crenulatus-from-the-southeastern-pacific-coast-development-time-and-carbon-and-energy-content-of-offspring
#3
Ángel Urzúa, Miguel Bascur, Fabián Guzmán, Mauricio Urbina
Hemigrapsus crenulatus is a key species of coastal and estuarine ecosystems in the Southeastern Pacific and New Zealand. Since the gravid females-and their embryos-develop under conditions of variable salinity, we propose that low external salinity will be met with an increase in energy expenditures in order to maintain osmoregulation; subsequently, the use of energy reserves for reproduction will be affected. In this study, we investigate in H. crenulatus whether 1) the biomass and energy content of embryos is influenced by salinity experienced during oogenesis and embryogenesis and 2) how variation in the biomass and energy content of embryos affects larval energetic condition at hatching...
January 6, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312650/nanoparticles-and-female-reproductive-system-how-do-nanoparticles-affect-oogenesis-and-embryonic-development
#4
REVIEW
Cong-Cong Hou, Jun-Quan Zhu
Along with the increasing application of nanoparticles (NPs) in many walks of life, environmental exposure to NPs has raised considerable health concerns. When NPs enter a pregnant woman's body through inhalation, venous injection, ingestion or skin permeation, maternal toxic stress reactions such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), inflammation, apoptosis and endocrine dyscrasia are induced in different organs, particularly in the reproductive organs. Recent studies have shown that NPs disturb the developing oocyte by invading the protective barrier of theca cells, granulosa cell layers and zona pellucida...
December 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306090/pregestational-stress-attenuated-fertility-rate-in-dams-and-increased-seizure-susceptibility-in-offspring
#5
Maryam Mahmoodkhani, Ehsan Saboory, Shiva Roshan-Milani, Negar Azizi, Mojtaba Karimipour, Yosef Rasmi, Zafar Gholinejad
Many studies have found that stress during pregnancy is linked to an increased incidence of epileptic behaviors and reproductive disorders. However, few works have investigated the effect of pregestational stress on seizure susceptibility in the offspring. We investigated the effect of pregestational stress on epileptic behaviors in the offspring as well as fertility rate in dams. The male and female rats were randomly divided into four groups to form a combination of control and stressed groups for each sex...
January 3, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305975/identification-and-expression-analysis-of-micrornas-in-medaka-gonads
#6
Weiwei Qiu, Yefei Zhu, Yun Wu, Cancan Yuan, Kerang Chen, Mingyou Li
Gonad development is a highly regulated, coordinated biological process and increasing evidences have indicated that microRNA (miRNA) may be involved in this dynamic program. Medaka (Oryzias latipes) is a good model for reproductive research as it has distinct sex determining genes, however, research in gonadal miRNAs is lacked. In this study, two small RNA libraries from the ovaries and testes were constructed and sequenced. A total of 285 conserved and 388 novel miRNAs were obtained, among which, 142 mature miRNAs were significantly (> two-fold change) up or down regulated in the testis compared to the ovary...
January 3, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305906/the-extraordinary-biology-and-development-of-marsupial-frogs-hemiphractidae-in-comparison-with-fish-mammals-birds-amphibians-and-other-animals
#7
REVIEW
Eugenia M Del Pino
The study of oogenesis and early development of frogs belonging to the family Hemiphractidae provide important comparison to the aquatic development of other frogs, such as Xenopus laevis, because reproduction on land characterizes the Hemiphractidae. In this review, the multinucleated oogenesis of the marsupial frog Flectonotus pygmaeus (Hemiphractidae) is analyzed and interpreted. In addition, the adaptations associated with the incubation of embryos in the pouch of the female marsupial frog Gastrotheca riobambae (Hemiphractidae) and the embryonic development of this frog are summarized...
January 3, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304868/further-characterization-of-adult-sheep-ovarian-stem-cells-and-their-involvement-in-neo-oogenesis-and-follicle-assembly
#8
Hiren Patel, Deepa Bhartiya, Seema Parte
BACKGROUND: Stem cells in the ovary comprise of two distinct populations including very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) and slightly bigger progenitors termed ovarian stem cells (OSCs). They are lodged in ovary surface epithelium (OSE) and are expected to undergo neo-oogenesis and primordial follicle (PF) assembly in adult ovaries. The ovarian stem cells express follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) receptors and are directly activated by FSH resulting in formation of germ cell nests (GCN) in vitro...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Ovarian Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304224/in-vitro-differentiation-of-human-oocyte-like-cells-from-oogonial-stem-cells-single-cell-isolation-and-molecular-characterization
#9
Erica Silvestris, Paola Cafforio, Stella D'Oronzo, Claudia Felici, Franco Silvestris, Giuseppe Loverro
STUDY QUESTION: Are the large cells derived from cultured DEAD box polypeptide 4 (DDX4)-positive oogonial stem cells (OSCs), isolated from the ovarian cortex of non-menopausal and menopausal women, oocyte-like cells? SUMMARY ANSWER: Under appropriate culture conditions, DDX4-positive OSCs from non-menopausal and menopausal women differentiate into large haploid oocyte-like cells expressing the major oocyte markers growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF-9) and synaptonemal complex protein 3 (SYCP3) and then enter meiosis...
January 3, 2018: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295819/the-abc-transporter-eato-promotes-cell-clearance-in-the-drosophila-melanogaster-ovary
#10
Clarissa S Santoso, Tracy L Meehan, Jeanne S Peterson, Tiara M Cedano, Christopher V Turlo, Kimberly McCall
The clearance of dead cells is a fundamental process in maintaining tissue homeostasis. Genetic studies in Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, and mammals have identified two evolutionarily conserved signaling pathways that act redundantly to regulate this engulfment process: the ced-1/-6/-7 and ced-2/-5/-12 pathways. Of these engulfment genes, only the ced-7/ABCA1 ortholog remains to be identified in D. melanogaster Homology searches revealed a family of putative ced-7/ABCA1 homologs encoding ABC transporters in D...
January 2, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281089/seasonal-reproductive-biology-of-drosophila-suzukii-diptera-drosophilidae-in-temperate-climates
#11
Alberto Grassi, Angela Gottardello, Daniel T Dalton, Gabriella Tait, Dalila Rendon, Claudio Ioriatti, David Gibeaut, M Valerio Rossi Stacconi, Vaughn M Walton
Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura; Diptera: Drosophilidae) is a key pest of sweet cherry and small fruits worldwide. The present studies were designed to describe the reproductive physiology in both sexes, through dissections of their reproductive organs. We extensively dissected female D. suzukii throughout the season from 2013 to 2016 and classified the reproductive status flies based on five recognizable ovarian maturation stages: 1) no ovaries; 2) unripe ovaries 3) ripening eggs in ovarioles; 4) mature eggs in ovarioles; and 5) mature eggs in the abdomen...
December 21, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276124/sex-and-gamete-specific-patterns-of-x-chromosome-segregation-in-a-trioecious-nematode
#12
Sophie Tandonnet, Maureen C Farrell, Georgios D Koutsovoulos, Mark L Blaxter, Manish Parihar, Penny L Sadler, Diane C Shakes, Andre Pires-daSilva
Three key steps in meiosis allow diploid organisms to produce haploid gametes: (1) homologous chromosomes (homologs) pair and undergo crossovers; (2) homologs segregate to opposite poles; and (3) sister chromatids segregate to opposite poles. The XX/XO sex determination system found in many nematodes [1] facilitates the study of meiosis because variation is easily recognized [2-4]. Here we show that meiotic segregation of X chromosomes in the trioecious nematode Auanema rhodensis [5] varies according to sex (hermaphrodite, female, or male) and type of gametogenesis (oogenesis or spermatogenesis)...
December 13, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242286/hop-1-presenilin-deficiency-causes-a-late-onset-notch-signaling-phenotype-that-affects-adult-germline-function-in-c-elegans
#13
Ipsita Agarwal, Cassandra Farnow, Joshua Jiang, Kyung-Sik Kim, Donna E Leet, Ruth Z Solomon, Valerie A Hale, Caroline Goutte
Functionally redundant genes present a puzzle as to their evolutionary preservation, and offer an interesting opportunity for molecular specialization. In Caenorhabditis elegans, either one of two presenilin genes (sel-12 or hop-1) facilitate Notch activation, providing the catalytic subunit for the gamma secretase proteolytic enzyme complex.  For all known Notch signaling events, sel-12 can mediate Notch activation, so the conservation of hop-1 remains a mystery. Here, we uncover a novel "late-onset" germline Notch phenotype in which HOP-1-deficient worms fail to maintain proliferating germline stem cells during adulthood...
December 14, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240260/sohlh1-suppresses-glioblastoma-cell-proliferation-migration-and-invasion-by-inhibition-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#14
Xinyu Liu, Qing Gao, Na Zhao, Xiaoli Zhang, Weiwei Cui, Jinhao Sun, Jiang Fu, Jing Hao
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive and highly invasive type of astrocytic tumors. Despite advances in diagnosis and therapy, the prognosis and survival time remain poor. Identifying key mediators of tumor cell proliferation, migration and invasion is crucial to the development of new and more effective therapies. In this paper, we report the novel role of Spermatogenesis- and oogenesis- specific basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor1 (Sohlh1) in the inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling and aggressive behaviors in GBM cells...
December 14, 2017: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238344/scrambled-eggs-apoptotic-cell-clearance-by-non-professional-phagocytes-in-the-drosophila-ovary
#15
REVIEW
Sandy B Serizier, Kimberly McCall
For half of a century, it has been known that non-professional phagocytes, such as fibroblasts, endothelial, and epithelial cells, are capable of efferocytosis (engulfment of apoptotic cells). Non-professional phagocytes differ from professional phagocytes in the range and efficiency of engulfment. Much of the recognition and underlying signaling machinery between non-professional and professional phagocytes is the same, but it is not known how the engulfment capacity of non-professional phagocytes is controlled...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232835/expression-profile-of-genes-regulating-steroid-biosynthesis-and-metabolism-in-human-ovarian-granulosa-cells-a-primary-culture-approach
#16
Wiesława Kranc, Maciej Brązert, Katarzyna Ożegowska, Mariusz J Nawrocki, Joanna Budna, Piotr Celichowski, Marta Dyszkiewicz-Konwińska, Maurycy Jankowski, Michal Jeseta, Leszek Pawelczyk, Małgorzata Bruska, Michał Nowicki, Maciej Zabel, Bartosz Kempisty
Because of the deep involvement of granulosa cells in the processes surrounding the cycles of menstruation and reproduction, there is a great need for a deeper understanding of the ways in which they function during the various stages of those cycles. One of the main ways in which the granulosa cells influence the numerous sex associated processes is hormonal interaction. Expression of steroid sex hormones influences a range of both primary and secondary sexual characteristics, as well as regulate the processes of oogenesis, folliculogenesis, ovulation, and pregnancy...
December 9, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232016/characterization-of-h3-3-and-hira-expression-and-function-in-bovine-early-embryos
#17
Kun Zhang, Han Wang, Sandeep K Rajput, Joseph K Folger, George W Smith
Histone variant H3.3 is encoded by two distinct genes, H3F3A and H3F3B, that are closely associated with actively transcribed genes. H3.3 replacement is continuous and essential for maintaining correct chromatin structure during mouse oogenesis. Upon fertilization, H3.3 is incorporated to parental chromatin, and is required for blastocyst formation in mice. The H3.3 exchange process is facilitated by the chaperone HIRA, particularly during zygote development. We previously demonstrated that H3.3 is required for bovine early embryonic development; here, we explored the mechanisms of its functional requirement...
December 12, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226802/-in-vitro-oogenesis-how-far-have-we-come
#18
B Arkoun, G Livera
Oogenesis is a complex cellular and molecular process whose fundamental mechanisms are still poorly described or not yet elucidated, especially in human species. The development of an in vitro model of oogenesis, particularly during fetal development in humans, is a critical step that would allow: (i) a better understand of the biological mechanisms of oogenesis; (ii) a refinement of medical diagnosis for women suffering from infertility; and (iii) providing new therapeutics for reproductive pathologies. The genesis of this model could be considered from ES/iPS cells...
December 6, 2017: Gynecologie, Obstetrique, Fertilite & Senologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208639/reconstitution-of-female-germ-cell-fate-determination-and-meiotic-initiation-in-mammals
#19
So I Nagaoka, Mitinori Saitou
Meiosis is a fundamental process that underpins sexual reproduction. In mammals, the execution of meiosis is tightly integrated within the complex processes of oogenesis and spermatogenesis, and elucidation of the molecular mechanisms regulating meiotic initiation remains challenging. We have recently developed in vitro culture strategies to induce mouse pluripotent stem cells into germ cells, which successfully contribute to both oogenesis and spermatogenesis and to fertile offspring. The culture strategies faithfully recapitulate transcriptional and epigenetic dynamics as well as signaling principles for germ cell specification, proliferation, and female sex determination/meiotic induction, providing a valuable platform for studies to illuminate the molecular mechanisms underlying such critical processes...
December 5, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207191/novel-evidence-that-pituitary-sex-hormones-regulate-migration-adhesion-and-proliferation-of-embryonic-stem-cells-and-teratocarcinoma-cells
#20
Zachariah Payne Sellers, Kamila Bujko, Gabriela Schneider, Magdalena Kucia, Mariusz Z Ratajczak
The pituitary sex hormones (SexHs): follicle‑stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and prolactin (PRL) regulate several functions crucial for reproduction, including oogenesis, spermatogenesis, and lactation. An important source of prolactin-like hormones, known as lactogens, is the placenta, and lactogens bind to the PRL receptor (PRLR) with high affinity and thereby mimic the actions of PRL. Recently, it has been demonstrated that pituitary SexHs were involved in metastatic lung cancer, certain sarcomas, and leukemia...
November 24, 2017: Oncology Reports
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