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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792905/together-means-more-happiness-relationship-status-moderates-the-association-between-brain-structure-and-life-satisfaction
#1
Xingxing Zhu, Kangcheng Wang, Li Chen, Aihua Cao, Qunlin Chen, Junchao Li, Jiang Qiu
Life satisfaction reflects an individual's general evaluation of their overall quality of life. It has been hypothesized that relationship status (i.e. state of intimate relationship such as marriage, unmarried cohabiting, dating with others, single or divorce) may influence individual life satisfaction. However, there is little accessible empirical evidence that allows us to explore this proposition. Using a large sample of young adults (n = 1031) from the Human Connectome Project (HCP), we showed that compared to other relationship statuses (e...
May 21, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792718/fixation-of-biomaterial-to-metallic-stent-and-fixation-of-stents-after-circular-endoscopic-dissection-in-the-esophagus-on-an-animal-model
#2
R Dolezel, B Walterová, S Juhas, O Ryska, J Juhásová, Z Vacková, J Krajciova, J Král, J Martínek
INTRODUCTION: Complete circular endoscopic (submucosal) resection (CER) performed using the endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) technique is burdened with a high incidence of post-operative strictures in the esophagus. The most effective method of preventing them is not known so far; one of the possible methods is to prevent these strictures directly at the site of their formation by covering the defect with a stent. The aim of the study was to find a way to fix a selected biomaterial to a stent, and subsequently, to fix the stent at the CER site to prevent esophageal strictures in an animal model...
2018: Rozhledy V Chirurgii: Měsíčník Československé Chirurgické Společnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792538/single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-il23r-il12rb2-rs1495965-are-highly-prevalent-in-patients-with-behcet-s-uveitis-and-vary-between-populations
#3
Michal Kramer, Murat Hasanreisoglu, Shirel Weiss, Deniz Kumova, Michal Schaap-Fogler, Sezen Guntekin-Ergun, Sengul Ozdek, Gokhan Gurelik, Mehmet Ali Ergün, Nitza Goldenberg-Cohen, Yoram Cohen
PURPOSE: To test the frequency of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the IL-10, IL23R-IL12RB2 genes in patients with Behcet's uveitis. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 89 Israeli and Turkish patients, and from healthy control subjects of different origins. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes and genotyped. RESULTS: The risk allele, A, in rs1800871, of IL-10 gene was highly prevalent in Behcet's uveitis and healthy control samples alike; highest among the Turkish groups...
May 24, 2018: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792340/multidisciplinary-care-model-for-hiv-improves-treatment-outcome-a-single-centre-experience-from-the-middle-east
#4
Ali Elgalib, Halima Al-Sawafi, Bina Kamble, Saud Al-Harthy, Qamra Al-Sariri
Multidisciplinary team (MDT) care models have been shown to improve clinical outcomes among HIV patients. We aim to assess the impact of adopting MDT approach in a tertiary HIV clinic in Muscat, Sultanate of Oman. We introduced MDT approach in our HIV centre in January 2016 where existing team members (counsellors, nurses, social workers, pharmacists and doctors) worked together, through care pathways, to support patients as they go through the HIV care continuum from diagnosis to viral suppression. Notes were reviewed for demographics and clinical data...
May 24, 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792212/the-role-of-human-metapneumovirus-genetic-diversity-and-nasopharyngeal-viral-load-on-symptom-severity-in-adults
#5
Xiang Yong Oong, Jack Bee Chook, Kim Tien Ng, Wei Zhen Chow, Kok Gan Chan, Nik Sherina Hanafi, Yong Kek Pang, Yoke Fun Chan, Adeeba Kamarulzaman, Kok Keng Tee
BACKGROUND: Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is established as one of the causative agents of respiratory tract infections. To date, there are limited reports that describe the effect of HMPV genotypes and/or viral load on disease pathogenesis in adults. This study aims to determine the role of HMPV genetic diversity and nasopharyngeal viral load on symptom severity in outpatient adults with acute respiratory tract infections. METHODS: Severity of common cold symptoms of patients from a teaching hospital was assessed by a four-category scale and summed to obtain the total symptom severity score (TSSS)...
May 23, 2018: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792191/cost-of-provision-of-opioid-substitution-therapy-provision-in-tijuana-mexico
#6
Jose Luis Burgos, Javier A Cepeda, James G Kahn, Maria Luisa Mittal, Emilio Meza, Raúl Rafael Palacios Lazos, Psyché Calderón Vargas, Peter Vickerman, Steffanie A Strathdee, Natasha K Martin
BACKGROUND: Mexico recently enacted drug policy reform to decriminalize possession of small amounts of illicit drugs and mandated that police refer identified substance users to drug treatment. However, the economic implications of drug treatment expansion are uncertain. We estimated the costs of opioid substitution therapy (OST) provision in Tijuana, Mexico, where opioid use and HIV are major public health concerns. METHODS: We adopted an economic health care provider perspective and applied an ingredients-based micro-costing approach to quantify the average monthly cost of OST (methadone maintenance) provision at two providers (one private and one public) in Tijuana, Mexico...
May 23, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792158/landraces-of-snake-melon-an-ancient-middle-eastern-crop-reveal-extensive-morphological-and-dna-diversity-for-potential-genetic-improvement
#7
Samer Omari, Yuri Kamenir, Jennifer I C Benichou, Sarah Pariente, Hanan Sela, Rafael Perl-Treves
BACKGROUND: Snake melon (Cucumis melo var. flexuosus, "Faqqous") is a traditional and ancient vegetable in the Mediterranean area. A collection of landraces from 42 grower fields in Israel and Palestinian territories was grown and characterized in a "Common Garden" rain-fed experiment, at the morphological-horticultural and molecular level using seq-DArT markers. RESULTS: The different landraces ("populations") showed extensive variation in morphology and quantitative traits such as yield and femaleness, and clustered into four horticultural varieties...
May 23, 2018: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791981/inguinoscrotal-hernia-containing-the-urinary-bladder-successfully-repaired-using-laparoscopic-transabdominal-preperitoneal-repair-technique-a-case-report
#8
Tatsuya Tazaki, Masaru Sasaki, Mohei Kohyama, Yoichi Sugiyama, Shinnosuke Uegami, Ryuta Shintakuya, Yuji Imamura, Atsushi Nakamitsu
We report herein a patient with an inguinoscrotal hernia containing the urinary bladder. The hernia was safely repaired using the laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal repair technique. A 76-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea. His scrotum was swollen to fist size. Abdominal CT showed herniation of the sigmoid colon and the bladder into the right inguinal region, and his abdominal pain was attributed to incarceration of the sigmoid colon; this was manually reduced...
May 23, 2018: Asian Journal of Endoscopic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791947/global-burden-of-stroke
#9
Mira Katan, Andreas Luft
Stroke is the second leading cause of death and a major cause of disability worldwide. Its incidence is increasing because the population ages. In addition, more young people are affected by stroke in low- and middle-income countries. Ischemic stroke is more frequent but hemorrhagic stroke is responsible for more deaths and disability-adjusted life-years lost. Incidence and mortality of stroke differ between countries, geographical regions, and ethnic groups. In high-income countries mainly, improvements in prevention, acute treatment, and neurorehabilitation have led to a substantial decrease in the burden of stroke over the past 30 years...
April 2018: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791942/emerging-viral-infections-and-their-impact-on-the-global-burden-of-neurological-disease
#10
Laura S Muñoz, Maria A Garcia, Eliza Gordon-Lipkin, Beatriz Parra, Carlos A Pardo
Emerging viral infections of the nervous system represent a major global public health concern in the 21st century. They are caused primarily by RNA viruses and are mostly associated with acute or subacute encephalitis. The spectrum of associated central or peripheral nervous system disorders is broad, and results either from a direct viral effect or due to the host immune responses against the infection. Emerging viral infections impose substantial neurological morbidity and mortality, particularly in low- and middle-income regions...
April 2018: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791745/nursing-as-a-pathway-to-women-s-empowerment-and-inter-generational-mobility
#11
Sharon Brownie, Abdul Haq Wahedna, Nigel Crisp
AIM AND OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of nursing education on the intergenerational mobility of graduates of nursing upskilling programs. BACKGROUND: Challenges for low and middle-income countries include poverty and limited access to health, education, and social services compounded by workforce shortages, inequality, and female disempowerment. Little is known about the impact of nursing education on women's empowerment and intergenerational mobility in such settings...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791741/diffusing-and-scaling-evidence-based-interventions-eight-lessons-for-early-child-development-from-the-implementation-of-perinatal-home-visiting-in-south-africa
#12
Mark Tomlinson, Xanthe Hunt, Mary Jane Rotheram-Borus
Most low- and middle-income countries lack resources with which to implement public health programs. As such, there is a necessity to facilitate programing that judiciously makes use of what resources there are. However, despite evidence for the efficacy of many interventions, translating these into real-world effectiveness, and then into scalability, is complex and has often been neglected. We draw on a case study of Philani+ (a maternal and child health intervention implemented in South Africa) to distil eight features of health programing that aid intervention effectiveness...
May 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791734/implementing-aeiotu-quality-improvement-alongside-an-efficacy-study-learning-while-growing
#13
Milagros Nores, Alexandra Figueras-Daniel, Maria Adelaida Lopez, Raquel Bernal
Effectiveness trials of increasing childhood development interventions across low- and middle-income countries have shown significant variability. The strength and consistency of benefits for children are dependent on program quality, and this requires paying attention to program implementation. In this paper, we summarize findings on program quality and teacher practices and perceptions for the aeioTU program, a center-based Reggio-inspired program in Colombia, now serving more than 13,000 children. The research found engaged, committed staff who valued the emergent approach and understood the children as requiring opportunities to express themselves, being the source for the curriculum, and having relationships with the materials around them...
May 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791729/implementation-of-reach-up-early-childhood-parenting-program-acceptability-appropriateness-and-feasibility-in-brazil-and-zimbabwe
#14
Joanne A Smith, Helen Baker-Henningham, Alexandra Brentani, Rose Mugweni, Susan P Walker
Young children need nurturing care, which includes responsive caregiver-child interactions and opportunities to learn. However, there are few extant large-scale programs that build parents' abilities to provide this. We have developed an early childhood parenting training package, called Reach Up, with the aim of providing an evidence-based, adaptable program that is feasible for low-resource settings. Implementation of Reach Up was evaluated in Brazil and Zimbabwe to inform modifications needed and identify challenges that implementers and delivery agents encountered...
May 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791726/building-capacity-in-health-and-education-systems-to-deliver-interventions-that-strengthen-early-child-development
#15
Milagros Nores, Camila Fernandez
Building capacity within health and education systems of low- and middle-income countries in order to deliver high-quality early childhood services requires coordinated efforts across sectors, effective governance, sufficient funding, an adequate workforce, reliable data systems, and continuous monitoring, evaluation, and improvement cycles; it also requires partnerships with the private sector, communities, and parents. In addition, building capacity requires leadership, innovation of strategies to fit into existing structures, evidence-based intervention models, and effective partnerships that help make interventions more culturally relevant, help finance them, and help create institutional long-term support and sustainability for them...
May 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791585/protective-effect-and-mechanism-of-lactobacillus-on-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rats
#16
Shi Wanchao, Ma Chen, Su Zhiguo, Xie Futang, Shi Mengmeng
The present study was designed to investigate the protective effects and mechanism of inactivated lactobacillus (ILA) on cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury (CIRI) in rats. In this experiment, 30 male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into control group, IRI groups, and ILA group. A middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion model was prepared. The rats were killed after 24 hours of recovery of blood flow of cerebral ischemia resulting from 60-min occlusion. The cerebral infarction volume and neurological scores were assayed by staining and behavioral observation...
2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791465/predictors-of-subclinical-carotid-atherosclerosis-in-middle-aged-women
#17
Isly L de Barros, Laura Costa, Bento Bezerra, Rafael Gomes, Natanael Morais, Célia M C Strunz, Moacir Novaes, Otávio C E Gebara, Rodrigo Pinto Pedrosa, José C Nicolau
BACKGROUND: Traditional strategies for primary cardiovascular prevention have been insufficient in reducing the high rates of coronary ischemic events in women, probably because these women are often stratified into low-risk groups. However, cardiovascular diseases continue to be the main cause of morbidity and mortality in women worldwide. We hypothesized that carotid atherosclerosis (CA) is common in middle-aged women. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated asymptomatic peri- and post-menopausal women with no cardiovascular diseases or the use of hormone therapy from two gynecologic clinics...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791441/the-impact-of-young-maternal-age-at-birth-on-neonatal-mortality-evidence-from-45-low-and-middle-income-countries
#18
Sarah Neal, Andrew Amos Channon, Jesman Chintsanya
OBJECTIVES: This study explores the impact of early motherhood on neonatal mortality, and how this differs between countries and regions. It assesses whether the risk of neonatal mortality is greater for younger adolescent mothers compared with mothers in later adolescence, and explores if differences reflect confounding socio-economic and health care utilisation factors. It also examines how the risks differ for first or subsequent pregnancies. METHODS: The analysis uses 64 Demographic and Health Surveys collected between 2005 and 2015 from 45 countries to explore the relationship between adolescent motherhood (disaggregated as <16 years, 16/17 years and 18/19 years) and neonatal mortality...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791077/alterations-of-brain-network-hubs-in-reflex-syncope-evidence-from-a-graph-theoretical-analysis-based-on-dti
#19
Bong Soo Park, Yoo Jin Lee, Jin-Han Park, Il Hwan Kim, Si Hyung Park, Ho-Joon Lee, Kang Min Park
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated global topology and organization of regional hubs in the brain networks and microstructural abnormalities in the white matter of patients with reflex syncope. METHODS: Twenty patients with reflex syncope and thirty healthy subjects were recruited, and they underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) scans. Graph theory was applied to obtain network measures based on extracted DTI data, using DSI Studio. We then investigated differences in the network measures between the patients with reflex syncope and the healthy subjects...
May 23, 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790980/contrasting-patterns-of-genomic-diversity-reveal-accelerated-genetic-drift-but-reduced-directional-selection-on-x-chromosome-in-wild-and-domestic-sheep-species
#20
Ze-Hui Chen, Min Zhang, Feng-Hua Lv, Xue Ren, Wen-Rong Li, Ming-Jun Liu, Kiwoong Nam, Michael W Bruford, Meng-Hua Li
Analyses of genomic diversity along the X chromosome and of its correlation with autosomal diversity can facilitate understanding of evolutionary forces in shaping sex-linked genomic architecture. Strong selective sweeps and accelerated genetic drift on the X-chromosome have been inferred in primates and other model species, but no such insight has yet been gained in domestic animals compared with their wild relatives. Here, we analyzed X-chromosome variability in a large ovine data set, including a BeadChip array for 943 ewes from the world's sheep populations and 110 whole genomes of wild and domestic sheep...
April 1, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
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