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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352706/environmental-conditions-in-health-care-facilities-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-coverage-and-inequalities
#1
Ryan Cronk, Jamie Bartram
Safe environmental conditions and the availability of standard precaution items are important to prevent and treat infection in health care facilities (HCFs) and to achieve Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) targets for health and water, sanitation, and hygiene. Baseline coverage estimates for HCFs have yet to be formed for the SDGs; and there is little evidence describing inequalities in coverage. To address this, we produced the first coverage estimates of environmental conditions and standard precaution items in HCFs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs); and explored factors associated with low coverage...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352598/who-consultation-on-etec-and-shigella-burden-of-disease-geneva-6-7th-april-2017-meeting-report
#2
Divya Hosangadi, Peter G Smith, David C Kaslow, Birgitte K Giersing
According to the 2015 Global Burden of Disease Study, diarrhea ranked ninth among causes of death for all ages, and fourth among children under 5 years old, accounting for an estimated 499,000 deaths in this young age group. It was also the second most common cause of years lived with disability (2.39 billion YLDs). The goal of the WHO/UNICEF Integrated Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Pneumonia and Diarrhea (GAPPD) is to reduce deaths from diarrhea in children under 5 years of age to less than 1 per 1000 live births, by 2025...
January 15, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352530/psychotherapies-for-depression-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-meta-analysis
#3
Pim Cuijpers, Eirini Karyotaki, Mirjam Reijnders, Marianna Purgato, Corrado Barbui
Most psychotherapies for depression have been developed in high-income Western countries of North America, Europe and Australia. A growing number of randomized trials have examined the effects of these treatments in non-Western countries. We conducted a meta-analysis of these studies to examine whether these psychotherapies are effective and to compare their effects between studies from Western and non-Western countries. We conducted systematic searches in bibliographical databases and included 253 randomized controlled trials, of which 32 were conducted in non-Western countries...
February 2018: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352219/new-alkylresorcinol-metabolites-in-spot-urine-as-biomarkers-of-whole-grain-wheat-and-rye-intake-in-a-swedish-middle-aged-population
#4
Rikard Landberg, Roksana Wierzbicka, Lin Shi, Sanna Nybacka, Afaf Kamal-Eldin, Bo Hedblad, Anna Karin Lindroos, Anna Winkvist, Heléne Bertéus Forslund
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Studies on the health effects of whole grains typically use self-reported intakes which are prone to large measurement errors. Dietary biomarkers that can provide an objective measure of intake are needed. New alkylresorcinol (AR) metabolites (3,5-dihydroxycinnamic acid (DHCA), 2-(3,5-dihydroxybenzamido)acetic acid (DHBA-glycine) and 5-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl) pentanoic acid (DHPPTA)) in 24 h urine samples have been suggested as biomarkers for whole grain (WG) wheat and rye intake but remain to be evaluated in spot urine samples...
January 19, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352180/relationship-between-serum-cortisol-level-and-degree-of-false-lumen-thrombosis-in-patients-with-uncomplicated-type-b-aortic-dissection
#5
Yani Wu, Yudong Sun, Xiaolong Wei, Lei Zhang, Tonglei Han, Zhiqing Zhao, Jian Zhou, Zaiping Jing
Partial thrombosis of the false lumen in uncomplicated type B aortic dissection (uTBAD) is associated with an increased late mortality risk. Whether the serum cortisol level can affect false lumen thrombosis in patients with uTBAD has not been well characterized. This study was performed on 87 patients with uTBAD. A curve-fitting method was used to analyze the relationship between serum cortisol and partial thrombosis of false lumen. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify false lumen partial thrombosis-associated serum cortisol...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352068/maternal-fetal-disposition-and-metabolism-of-retrorsine-in-pregnant-rats
#6
Xia Li, Xiaojing Yang, E Xiang, Jinyuan Luo, Shuaikai Qiu, Yan Fang, Li Zhang, Yu Guo, Jiang Zheng, Hui Wang
Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are extensively synthesized by plants and are commonly present in herbs and foodstuffs, which exhibit hepatotoxicity requiring metabolic activation by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A to form the electrophilic metabolites-pyrrolic ester. PAs also cause embryo toxicity, but the metabolic profiles of PAs in fetus and placenta have been far from clear. In this study, we determined the basal metabolic activation of retrorsine (RTS) in rat maternal liver, placenta and fetal liver in vitro, and examined the fetal toxicity and bioactivation of RTS in vivo...
January 19, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352061/what-to-do-about-fibrin-rich-tough-clots-comparing-the-solitaire-stent-retriever-with-a-novel-geometric-clot-extractor-in-an-in-vitro-stroke-model
#7
Vernard S Fennell, Swetadri Vasan Setlur Nagesh, Karen M Meess, Liza Gutierrez, Rhys H James, Michael E Springer, Adnan H Siddiqui
BACKGROUND: Despite advances in revascularization tools for large vessel occlusion presenting as acute ischemic stroke, a significant subset of clots remain recalcitrant to current strategies. We assessed the effectiveness of a novel thrombectomy device that was specifically designed to retrieve resistant fibrin rich clots, the geometric clot extractor (GCE; Neuravi, Galway, Ireland), in an in vitro cerebrovascular occlusion stroke model. METHODS: After introducing fibrin rich clot analogues into the middle cerebral artery of the model, we compared the rates of recanalization between GCE and Solitaire flow restoration stent retriever (SR; Medtronic, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA; control group) cases...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352057/feasibility-complications-morbidity-and-mortality-results-at-6-months-for-aneurysm-treatment-with-the-flow-re-direction-endoluminal-device-report-of-safe-study
#8
Laurent Pierot, Laurent Spelle, Jérôme Berge, Anne-Christine Januel, Denis Herbreteau, Mohamed Aggour, Michel Piotin, Alessandra Biondi, Xavier Barreau, Charbel Mounayer, Chrisanthi Papagiannaki, Jean-Paul Lejeune, Jean-Yves Gauvrit, Vincent Costalat
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Flow diverters are increasingly used for the treatment of intracranial aneurysms. Evaluation of the first devices available for clinical use showed high efficacy of this treatment although safety results were worse compared with coiling or balloon-assisted coiling. The Safety and Efficacy Analysis of FRED Embolic Device in Aneurysm Treatment (SAFE) trial is a single-arm, multicenter, prospective study conducted to precisely analyze the safety and efficacy of the FRED and FRED Jr devices...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351931/stent-assisted-coil-embolization-on-down-the-barrel-view-with-spring-shaped-microcatheter-in-patient-with-m1-ultrawide-necked-circumferential-aneurysm
#9
Hyo Sung Kwak, Jung Soo Park, Eun Jeong Koh
Herein, we describe a technique for stent-assisted coil embolization with a spring-shaped microcatheter in a patient with an M1 ultrawide-necked circumferential aneurysm in the middle cerebral artery (MCA). A 49-year-old man was referred for treatment of an incidentally detected M1 large-circumference aneurysm on magnetic resonance angiography. Subsequent digital subtraction angiography revealed an 18.2×16.5 mm ultrawide-necked circumferential aneurysm on the distal M1 portion of the left MCA, and we planned stent-assisted coil embolization using a spring-shaped microcatheter...
January 18, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351881/phonotactic-processing-deficit-following-left-hemisphere-stroke
#10
Maryam Ghaleh, Laura M Skipper-Kallal, Shihui Xing, Elizabeth Lacey, Iain DeWitt, Andrew DeMarco, Peter Turkeltaub
The neural basis of speech processing is still a matter of great debate. Phonotactic knowledge-knowledge of the allowable sound combinations in a language-remains particularly understudied. The purpose of this study was to investigate the brain regions crucial to phonotactic knowledge in left-hemisphere stroke survivors. Results were compared to areas in which gray matter anatomy related to phonotactic knowledge in healthy controls. 44 patients with chronic left-hemisphere stroke, and 32 controls performed an English-likeness rating task on 60 auditory non-words of varying phonotactic regularities...
December 20, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351806/isolated-septic-arthritis-of-hip-joint-a-rare-presentation-of-melioidosis-a-case-report
#11
N P Weerasinghe, H M M Herath, T M U Liyanage
BACKGROUND: Despite, Sri Lanka lies in the melioidosis endemic belt between 5°N and 10°N surrounded by countries known to have endemic melioidosis for many years, comparatively fewer cases of melioidosis infection have been reported in Sri Lanka. Melioidosis has a wide spectrum of clinical presentation, ranging from severe pneumonia to abscess formation in various organs. Isolated septic arthritis, which is a rare but well-recognized manifestation of melioidosis, could be the sole presenting problem in some patients with melioidosis...
January 19, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351751/social-determinants-of-male-health-a-case-study-of-leeds-uk
#12
Alan White, Amanda Seims, Ian Cameron, Tim Taylor
BACKGROUND: The social determinants of health have a disproportionate impact on mortality in men. A study into the state of health of the male population in Leeds was undertaken to guide public health commissioning decisions. This paper reports on the data relating to the social lives of men. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken, comprising descriptive analysis of data relating to educational attainment, housing, employment (including benefit claimants), marital status and relationships...
January 19, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351682/radial-artery-fascial-flow-through-free-flap-for-combined-revascularization-in-moyamoya-disease
#13
Jonathan Russin, Joseph Carey
BACKGROUND: Free flaps are commonly used by other surgical subspecialties for soft tissue reconstruction and revascularization. Cranial applications of these flaps have been limited to only a single case report. OBJECTIVE: To present a new technique for combined revascularization in moyamoya disease using a flow-through free flap. METHODS: Data were obtained from an Institutional Review Board-approved, prospectively maintained database with informed consent from the patient...
February 1, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351604/evaluation-of-results-based-financing-in-the-republic-of-the-congo-a-comparison-group-pre-post-study
#14
Wu Zeng, Donald S Shepard, Jean de Dieu Rusatira, Aaron P Blaakman, Bernice M Nsitou
Results-based financing (RBF) has been advocated and increasingly scaled up in low- and middle-income countries to increase utilization and quality of key primary care services, thereby reducing maternal and child mortality rates. This pilot RBF study in the Republic of the Congo from 2012 to 2014 used a quasi-experimental research design. The authors conducted pre- and post-household surveys and gathered health facility services data from both intervention and comparison groups. Using a difference-in-differences approach, the study evaluated the impact of RBF on maternal and child health services...
January 16, 2018: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351598/smooth-muscle-cells-of-intracranial-vessels-from-development-to-disease
#15
Juhana Frösen, Anne Joutel
Cerebrovascular diseases that cause ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke with subsequent loss of life or functional capacity due to damage of the brain tissue are among the leading causes of human suffering and economic burden inflicted by diseases in the developed world. Diseases affecting intracranial vessels are significant contributors to ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes. Brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVM), which are a collection of abnormal blood vessels connecting arteries to veins, are the most common cause of intracranial hemorrhage in children and young adults...
January 16, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351551/periodontal-health-status-and-lung-function-in-two-norwegian-cohorts
#16
Antonio Manuel Pérez Barrionuevo, Francisco Gómez Real, Jannicke Igland, Ane Johannessen, Ernst Omenaas, Karl A Franklin, Laura Pérez Barrionuevo, Anne Nordrehaug Åstrøm, Cecilie Svanes, Randi Jacobsen Bertelsen
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The oral cavity is united with the airways, and thus poor oral health may affect respiratory health. However, data on the interaction of periodontal and respiratory health is limited. We aimed to evaluate whether periodontal health status, assessed by the Community Periodontal Index (CPI), was related to lung function among young and middle-aged adults in two Norwegian cohorts. METHODS: Periodontal health status and lung function were measured among 656 participants in the Norwegian part of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECHRS III) and the RHINESSA offspring study...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351454/detrimental-effects-of-2-arachidonoylglycerol-on-whole-blood-platelet-aggregation-and-on-cerebral-blood-flow-after-a-focal-ischemic-insult-in-rats
#17
Jennifer A Shearer, Susan J Coker, Hilary Victoria Carswell Carswell
2-Arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) is a major modulator of blood flow and platelet aggregation and a potential neuroprotectant. The present study investigated the effects of 2-AG on cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the first critical hours during middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and on platelet aggregation for the first time in rats. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats (n=30) underwent permanent MCAO under isoflurane anaesthesia and were randomly assigned to receive either 2-AG (6 mgkg-1, i.v.), monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitor JZL184 (10 mgkg-1, i...
January 5, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351430/dynamic-changes-in-nitric-oxide-synthase-expression-are-involved-in-seawater-acclimation-of-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#18
Lucie Gerber, Frank B Jensen, Steffen S Madsen
Recent research has shown that nitric oxide (NO) produced by nitric oxide synthases (Nos) is an inhibitor of ion transporter activity and a modulator of epithelial ion transport in fish but little is known on changes in the Nos/NO system during osmotic stress. We hypothesized that the Nos/NO system responds to salinity changes as an integrated part of the acclimation process. Expression and localization of nos1/Nos1 and nos2/Nos2 were investigated in gill, kidney and intestine of FW- and SW-transferred trout using qPCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry, along with expressional changes of major ion transporters in the gill...
December 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351349/survey-research-with-a-random-digit-dial-national-mobile-phone-sample-in-ghana-methods-and-sample-quality
#19
Kelly L'Engle, Eunice Sefa, Edward Akolgo Adimazoya, Emmanuel Yartey, Rachel Lenzi, Cindy Tarpo, Nii Lante Heward-Mills, Katherine Lew, Yvonne Ampeh
INTRODUCTION: Generating a nationally representative sample in low and middle income countries typically requires resource-intensive household level sampling with door-to-door data collection. High mobile phone penetration rates in developing countries provide new opportunities for alternative sampling and data collection methods, but there is limited information about response rates and sample biases in coverage and nonresponse using these methods. We utilized data from an interactive voice response, random-digit dial, national mobile phone survey in Ghana to calculate standardized response rates and assess representativeness of the obtained sample...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351319/speech-stone-tool-making-and-the-evolution-of-language
#20
Dana Michelle Cataldo, Andrea Bamberg Migliano, Lucio Vinicius
The 'technological hypothesis' proposes that gestural language evolved in early hominins to enable the cultural transmission of stone tool-making skills, with speech appearing later in response to the complex lithic industries of more recent hominins. However, no flintknapping study has assessed the efficiency of speech alone (unassisted by gesture) as a tool-making transmission aid. Here we show that subjects instructed by speech alone underperform in stone tool-making experiments in comparison to subjects instructed through either gesture alone or 'full language' (gesture plus speech), and also report lower satisfaction with their received instruction...
2018: PloS One
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