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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160558/simpson-s-paradox-in-the-integrated-discrimination-improvement
#1
J Chipman, D Braun
The integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) is commonly used to compare two risk prediction models; it summarizes the extent a new model increases risk in events and decreases risk in non-events. The IDI averages risks across events and non-events and is therefore susceptible to Simpson's paradox. In some settings, adding a predictive covariate to a well calibrated model results in an overall negative (positive) IDI. However, if stratified by that same covariate, the strata-specific IDIs are positive (negative)...
December 10, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159692/germacrone-and-sesquiterpene-enriched-extracts-from%C3%A2-curcuma-aeruginosa-roxb-increase-skin-penetration-of-minoxidil-a-hair-growth-promoter
#2
Jukkarin Srivilai, Neti Waranuch, Anothai Tangsumranjit, Nantaka Khorana, Kornkanok Ingkaninan
Minoxidil is approved for topical treatment of androgenic alopecia but hampered by poor cutaneous absorption. Recently, the randomized control trial showed that hair loss treatment of minoxidil was improved by co-application of the anti-androgen, Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. extract. Here, we aimed to show that the apparent synergism arises from improved cutaneous penetration of minoxidil by bioactive compound, germacrone or C. aeruginosa (as an n-hexane extract, or essential oil). The partition coefficient of germacrone was determined by HPLC...
November 20, 2017: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159513/molybdenum-coated-su-8-microneedle-electrodes-for-transcutaneous-electrical-nerve-stimulation
#3
Ramin Soltanzadeh, Elnaz Afsharipour, Cyrus Shafai, Neda Anssari, Behzad Mansouri, Zahra Moussavi
Electrophysiological devices are connected to the body through electrodes. In some applications, such as nerve stimulation, it is needed to minimally pierce the skin and reach the underneath layers to bypass the impedance of the first layer called stratum corneum. In this study, we have designed and fabricated surface microneedle electrodes for applications such as electrical peripheral nerve stimulation. We used molybdenum for microneedle fabrication, which is a biocompatible metal; it was used for the conductive layer of the needle array...
November 21, 2017: Biomedical Microdevices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155305/hey1-and-hey2-are-differently-expressed-during-mouse-tooth-development
#4
Kotono Kibe, Mitsushiro Nakatomi, Shinji Kataoka, Takashi Toyono, Yuji Seta
The Hey family (also known as Chf, Herp, Hesr, and Hrt) is a set of Hairy/Enhancer of Split-related basic helix-loop-helix type transcription factors. Hey1, Hey2, and HeyL have been identified in mammals. Although Hey proteins are known to regulate cardiovascular development, muscle homeostasis, osteogenesis, neurogenesis, and oncogenesis, their roles in tooth development have been largely obscure. Therefore, this study aimed to clarify detailed spatiotemporal expression patterns of Hey1 and Hey2 in developing molars and incisors of mice by section in situ hybridization...
November 16, 2017: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155282/seizure-liability-assessments-using-the-hippocampal-tissue-slice-comparison-of-non-clinical-species
#5
Michael V Accardi, Hai Huang, Simon Authier
INTRODUCTION: Traditionally, rat hippocampal tissue slice models are used as an in vitro electrophysiology assay to assess seizurogenic potential in early drug development despite non-clinical species-specific differences noted during in vivo seizure studies. METHODS: Hippocampal tissue slices were acutely isolated from rats, minipigs, dogs and nonhuman primates (NHP). Population spikes (PS) were evoked through stimulation of the CA3 Schaffer collateral pathway and recorded using in vitro electrophysiological techniques via an extracellular electrode placed within the CA1 stratum pyramidale cell body layer...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155056/age-influences-the-skin-reaction-pattern-to-mechanical-stress-and-its-repair-level-through-skin-care-products
#6
Christos C Zouboulis, Rana Elewa, Monika Ottaviani, Joachim Fluhr, Mauro Picardo, Armand Bernois, Catherine Heusèler, Emanuela Camera
Skin aging is associated with alterations of surface texture, sebum composition and immune response. Mechanical stress induces repair mechanisms, which may be dependent on the age and quality of the skin. The response to mechanical stress in young and aged individuals, their subjective opinion and objective effectiveness of skin care products were evaluated by biophysical skin quality parameters (stratum corneum hydration, transepidermal water loss, skin pH, pigmentation and erythema) at baseline, 1, 6, 24hours and 7days at the forearms of 2 groups of healthy volunteers, younger than 35 years (n=11) and older than 60 years (n=13)...
November 15, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154084/penetration-of-gold-nanoparticles-across-the-stratum-corneum-layer-of-thick-skin
#7
Gayathri Raju, Neeraj Katiyar, Sajini Vadukumpully, Sahadev A Shankarappa
BACKGROUND: Transdermal particulate penetration across thick-skin, such as that of palms and sole, is particularly important for drug delivery for disorders such as small fiber neuropathies. Nanoparticle-based drug delivery across skin is believed to have much translational applications, but their penetration especially through thick-skin, is not clear. OBJECTIVE: This study specifically investigates the effectiveness of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) for thick-skin penetration, especially across the stratum corneum (SC) as a function of particle size...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152821/skin-care-products-can-aggravate-epidermal-function-studies-in-a-murine-model-suggest-a-pathogenic-role-in-sensitive-skin
#8
Zhengxiao Li, Lizhi Hu, Peter M Elias, Mao-Qiang Man
BACKGROUND: Sensitive skin is defined as a spectrum of unpleasant sensations in response to a variety of stimuli. However, only some skin care products provoke cutaneous symptoms in individuals with sensitive skin. Hence, it would be useful to identify products that could provoke cutaneous symptoms in individuals with sensitive skin. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether vehicles, as well as certain branded skin care products, can alter epidermal function following topical applications to normal mouse skin...
November 20, 2017: Contact Dermatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151267/impaired-permeability-and-antimicrobial-barriers-in-type-2-diabetes-skin-are-linked-to-increased-serum-levels-of-advanced-glycation-end-product
#9
Jae-Hong Kim, Na Young Yoon, Dong Hye Kim, Minyoung Jung, Myungsoo Jun, Hwa-Young Park, Choon Hee Chung, Kyohoon Lee, Sunki Kim, Chang Seo Park, Kwang-Hyeon Liu, Eung Ho Choi
BACKGROUND: The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) has been increasing rapidly, and the disease has become a serious sociomedical problem. Many skin problems, such as xerosis, pruritus, skin infections, and delayed wound healing, that might be related to chronic impairment of skin barrier function decrease the quality of life in DM patients. However, the status of the permeability and antimicrobial barrier of the skin in DM remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to elucidate skin barrier impairment in type 2 DM patients and its patho-mechanisms using classic animal models of type 2 DM...
November 19, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151112/phase-difference-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-mr-imaging-padre-technique-for-the-detection-of-age-related-microstructural-changes-in-optic-radiation-comparison-with-diffusion-tensor-imaging-dti
#10
Yasuko Tatewaki, Tatsushi Mutoh, Benjamin Thyreau, Kazuko Omodaka, Takaki Murata, Atsushi Sekiguchi, Toru Nakazawa, Yasuyuki Taki
BACKGROUND The optic radiation (OR) is a white-matter bundle connecting the lateral geniculate body and the visual cortex. Phase difference-enhanced imaging (PADRE) is a new MRI technique that is able to achieve precise delineation of the OR. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of age on the volume and signal intensity of the OR using PADRE, and to establish a volumetric reference of the OR from a healthy population, compared with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). MATERIAL AND METHODS Thirty-nine healthy volunteers underwent MR imaging with PADRE and DTI sequences on a 3...
November 19, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148696/the-epidermal-penetration-of-gold-nanoparticles-and-its-underlying-mechanism-based-on-human-reconstructed-3d-episkin-tm-model
#11
Fang Hao, Xiaoting Jin, Qian S Liu, Qunfang Zhou, Guibin Jiang
Nanomaterials are widely used in diverse aspects and their translocation behavior through the skin would be helpful in understanding the corresponding exposure risks. To reveal how surface functionalization of nanoparticles influence the skin penetration, three kinds of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) with negatively, neutrally and positively charged surfaces, i.e. cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide-coated GNPs (CTAB@GNP), polyvinyl pyrrolidone-coated GNPs (PVP@GNP), and citrate-coated GNPs (Citrate@GNP), were studied using human reconstructed 3D EpiskinTM model...
November 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147026/leveraging-genome-characteristics-to-improve-gene-discovery-for-putamen-subcortical-brain-structure
#12
Chi-Hua Chen, Yunpeng Wang, Min-Tzu Lo, Andrew Schork, Chun-Chieh Fan, Dominic Holland, Karolina Kauppi, Olav B Smeland, Srdjan Djurovic, Nilotpal Sanyal, Derrek P Hibar, Paul M Thompson, Wesley K Thompson, Ole A Andreassen, Anders M Dale
Discovering genetic variants associated with human brain structures is an on-going effort. The ENIGMA consortium conducted genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with standard multi-study analytical methodology and identified several significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Here we employ a novel analytical approach that incorporates functional genome annotations (e.g., exon or 5'UTR), total linkage disequilibrium (LD) scores and heterozygosity to construct enrichment scores for improved identification of relevant SNPs...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146971/skin-hydration-interplay-between-molecular-dynamics-structure-and-water-uptake-in-the-stratum-corneum
#13
Enamul Haque Mojumdar, Quoc Dat Pham, Daniel Topgaard, Emma Sparr
Hydration is a key aspect of the skin that influences its physical and mechanical properties. Here, we investigate the interplay between molecular and macroscopic properties of the outer skin layer - the stratum corneum (SC) and how this varies with hydration. It is shown that hydration leads to changes in the molecular arrangement of the peptides in the keratin filaments as well as dynamics of C-H bond reorientation of amino acids in the protruding terminals of keratin protein within the SC. The changes in molecular structure and dynamics occur at a threshold hydration corresponding to ca...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146683/pcsk9-variants-ldl-cholesterol-and-neurocognitive-impairment-the-reasons-for-geographic-and-racial-differences-in-stroke-regards-study
#14
Matthew T Mefford, Robert S Rosenson, Mary Cushman, Michael E Farkouh, Leslie A McClure, Virginia G Wadley, Marguerite R Irvin, Vera A Bittner, Monika M Safford, Ransi Somaratne, Keri L Monda, Paul Muntner, Emily B Levitan
Background -Despite concerns about adverse neurocognitive events raised by prior trials, pharmacologic PCSK9 inhibition was not associated with neurocognitive effects in a recent phase 3 randomized trial. PCSK9 loss-of-function (LOF) variants that result in life-long exposure to low LDL-C can provide information on the potential long-term effects of low LDL-C on neurocognitive impairment and decline. Methods -We investigated the association between PCSK9 LOF variants and neurocognitive impairment and decline among African-American REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study participants with (n=241) and without (n=10,454) C697X or Y142X LOF variants...
November 16, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146529/inhibitory-effect-of-the-extract-of-rhizome-of-curcuma-longa-l-in-gelatinase-activity-and-its-effect-on-human-skin
#15
Keiko Muta, Shinji Inomata, Tadao Fukuhara, Junko Nomura, Toshio Nishiyama, Yoh-Ichi Tagawa, Satoshi Amano
Exposure to UV radiation to human skin up-regulates the synthesis of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family. Gelatinases are member of MMPs which have been suggested to play an important role in photoaging such as wrinkle formation. To inhibit gelatinase activity is regarded to be very important to keep healthy skin and to protect wrinkle formation. On the other hand, anti-photoaging agents are expected to be derived from natural resources, especially plants. Plant extracts having gelatinase-inhibitory effect that might be used as safe anti-photoaging ingredient were widely screened...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144394/estimating-crop-area-at-county-level-on-the-north-china-plain-with-an-indirect-sampling-of-segments-and-an-adapted-regression-estimator
#16
Qinghan Dong, Jia Liu, Limin Wang, Zhongxin Chen, Javier Gallego
Image classifications, including sub-pixel analysis, are often used to estimate crop acreage directly. However, this type of assessment often leads to a biased estimation, because commission and omission errors generally do not compensate for each other. Regression estimators combine remote sensing information with more accurate ground data on a field sample, and can result in more accurate and cost-effective assessments of crop acreage. In this pilot study, which aims to produce crop statistics in Guoyang County, the area frame sampling approach is adapted to a strip-like cropping pattern on the North China Plain...
November 16, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143471/ethnic-differences-in-stratum-corneum-functions-between-chinese-and-thai-infants-residing-in-bangkok-thailand
#17
Tsutomu Fujimura, Yuki Miyauchi, Kyoko Shima, Mitsuyuki Hotta, Hisashi Tsujimura, Takashi Kitahara, Yoshinori Takema, Pakhawadee Palungwachira, Diane Laohathai, Jetchawa Chanthothai, Thamthiwat Nararatwanchai
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Ethnic and racial differences in infant skin have not been well characterized. The purpose of this study was to establish whether there are ethnic differences and similarities in the stratum corneum (SC) functions of Thai and Chinese infants. METHODS: Healthy infants 6 to 24 months of age (N = 60; 30 Thai, 30 Chinese) who resided in Bangkok, Thailand, were enrolled. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and SC hydration (capacitance) on the thigh, buttock, and upper arm were measured...
November 15, 2017: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142430/topical-delivery-of-withania-somnifera-crude-extracts-in-niosomes-and-solid-lipid-nanoparticles
#18
Tawona N Chinembiri, Minja Gerber, Lissinda H du Plessis, Jan L du Preez, Josias H Hamman, Jeanetta du Plessis
Background: Withania somnifera is a medicinal plant native to India and is known to have anticancer properties. It has been investigated for its anti-melanoma properties, and since melanoma presents on the skin, it is prudent to probe the use of W. somnifera in topical formulations. To enhance topical drug delivery and to allow for controlled release, the use of niosomes and solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) as delivery vesicles were explored. Objective: The objective of this study is to determine the stability and topical delivery of W...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139362/efficacy-and-tolerability-of-a-twice-daily-three-step-men-s-skincare-regimen-in-improving-overall-skin-quality-and-reducing-shave-related-irritation
#19
Katie Rodan, Kathy Fields, Timothy J Falla
More men are beginning to take advantage of opportunities to improve the health and appearance of their skin; however, the effectiveness of men's skincare regimens has not been well studied. The authors investigated the efficacy and tolerance of a twice-daily, three-step men's skincare regimen in improving skin appearance and reducing shave-related issues. Twenty-nine men who used a wet-shaving method completed a specific, three-step, twice-daily facial regimen-a Shave Cleanser, a Post-Shave Treatment, and Day Protection-in place of their usual routine for 4 weeks...
2017: Skinmed
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138631/sarc006-phase-ii-trial-of-chemotherapy-in-sporadic-and-neurofibromatosis-type-1-associated-chemotherapy-naive-malignant-peripheral-nerve-sheath-tumors
#20
Christine S Higham, Seth M Steinberg, Eva Dombi, Arie Perry, Lee J Helman, Scott M Schuetze, Joseph A Ludwig, Arthur Staddon, Mohammed M Milhem, Daniel Rushing, Robin L Jones, Michael Livingston, Stewart Goldman, Christopher Moertel, Lars Wagner, David Janhofer, Christina M Annunziata, Denise Reinke, Lauren Long, David Viskochil, Larry Baker, Brigitte C Widemann
Background: Worse chemotherapy response for neurofibromatosis type 1- (NF1-) associated compared to sporadic malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) has been reported. Methods: We evaluated the objective response (OR) rate of patients with AJCC Stage III/IV chemotherapy-naive NF1 MPNST versus sporadic MPNST after 4 cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, 2 cycles of ifosfamide/doxorubicin, and 2 cycles of ifosfamide/etoposide. A Simon optimal two-stage design was used (target response rate 40%)...
2017: Sarcoma
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