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Tomoyasu Marui, Youta Torii, Shuji Iritani, Hirotaka Sekiguchi, Chikako Habuchi, Hiroshige Fujishiro, Kenichi Oshima, Kazuhiro Niizato, Shotaro Hayashida, Katsuhisa Masaki, Junichi Kira, Norio Ozaki
OBJECTIVE: Recent studies based on the neuroimaging analysis, genomic analysis and transcriptome analysis of the postmortem brain suggest that the pathogenesis of schizophrenia is related to myelin-oligodendrocyte abnormalities. However, no serious neuropathological investigation of this protein in the schizophrenic brain has yet been performed. In this study, to confirm the change in neuropathological findings due to the pathogenesis of this disease, we observed the expression of myelin-oligodendrocyte directly in the brain tissue of schizophrenia patients...
March 22, 2018: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
Michael Willis, Irmgard Leitner, Klaus Seppi, Maria Trieb, Georg Wietzorrek, Josef Marksteiner, Hans-Günther Knaus
In this study, we investigated the tissue expression levels, alpha subunit composition and distribution of Shaker-related voltage-dependent potassium Kv1 channels in human hippocampus by combining western blotting experiments, toxin autoradiography, in vivo radioligand binding studies, immunoprecipitation and immunohistochemistry. Tissue expression of Kv1.1 and Kv1.2 α-subunits in human post-mortem brain tissue was confirmed in immunoblot analysis using a panel of specific monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies...
March 21, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Yoshihiko Sugihara, Shigehito Ikushima, Mika Miyake, Takayoshi Kirisako, Yukihiro Yada, Daisuke Fujiwara
Purpose: The present study examined the effect of ingestion of Koji extract containing 14-dehydroergosterol (14-DHE), prepared from Aspergillus kawachii NBRC4308, on improvement of skin conditions among healthy volunteers. Subjects and methods: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study, 70 healthy adult women who felt that their skin was dry ingested either a placebo dietary supplement or Koji extract (200 mg/day) supplement containing 0...
2018: Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology
Luca Giacomelli, Stefano Togni, Martino Meneghin, Roberto Eggenhöffner, Giada Maramaldi
Purpose: The purpose of this in vivo study is to evaluate the acute clinical application of a multicomponent powder (Vitachelox® ), including three naturally occurring standardized extracts rich in polyphenols (grape seed extract, green tea extract, oak wood/bark extract), on healthy volunteers by measuring prevention of any metal deposition within the stratum corneum (SC) following a 6-h exposure period in a polluted environment. Patients and methods: In this in vivo study, we evaluated the skin protective activity of the multicomponent powder formulated in a base emulsion compared to a relevant placebo cream...
2018: Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology
Shimpei Morimoto, Koji Yahara
Protein expression is regulated by the production and degradation of mRNAs and proteins but the specifics of their relationship are controversial. Although technological advances have enabled genome-wide and time-series surveys of mRNA and protein abundance, recent studies have shown paradoxical results, with most statistical analyses being limited to linear correlation, or analysis of variance applied separately to mRNA and protein datasets. Here, using recently analyzed genome-wide time-series data, we have developed a statistical analysis framework for identifying which types of genes or biological gene groups have significant correlation between mRNA and protein abundance after accounting for potential time delays...
March 2018: Heliyon
Leíse Gomes Fernandes, Edviges Maristela Pituco, Adriana Hellmeister de Campos Nogueira Romaldini, Eliana De Stefano, Inácio José Clementino, Amanda Rafaela Alves Maia, Carolina de Sousa Américo Batista Santos, Clebert José Alves, Sérgio Santos de Azevedo
BACKGROUND: Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) and Bovine Herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) cause reproductive problems in cattle and restrictions on international trade in animals worldwide. Both infections were detected in cattle herds in the Paraíba state, Northeastern Brazil, however, the spatial distribution and geographic identification of positive herds for these viruses has never been examined. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe the spatial pattern of apparent prevalence estimate and to identify spatial clustering of positive herds of BVDV and BoHV-1 infections in cattle herds from the state of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil...
March 20, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Christopher G Vecsey, Ted Huang, Ted Abel
Metaplasticity refers to the ability of experience to alter synaptic plasticity, or modulate the strength of neuronal connections. Sleep deprivation has been shown to have a negative impact on synaptic plasticity, but it is unknown whether sleep deprivation also influences processes of metaplasticity. Therefore, we tested whether 5 h of total sleep deprivation (SD) in mice would impair hippocampal synaptic tagging and capture (STC), a form of heterosynaptic metaplasticity in which combining strong stimulation in one synaptic input with weak stimulation at another input allows the weak input to induce long-lasting synaptic strengthening...
March 15, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
P Bouschon, A-C Bursztejn, J Waton, F Brault, J-L Schmutz
BACKGROUND: Hair bleaching is increasingly being carried out in hairdressing salons. The products used are a mixture of hydrogen peroxide and persulfates, both active chemical agents. Scalp burns secondary to hair bleaching are a traumatic adverse effect rarely discussed in publications that continue to be little known among healthcare professionals. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We report the case of a 15-year-old girl with a plaque of scarring alopecia on the vertex. This lesion resulted from a deep burn following a hair-bleaching procedure...
March 14, 2018: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
Hidenobu Murafuji, Hiroki Sakai, Megumi Goto, Yoshiaki Oyama, Seiichi Imajo, Hajime Sugawara, Toshiyuki Tomoo, Tsuyoshi Muto
A novel series of 1,3,6-trisubstituted 1,4-diazepan-7-ones were investigated as human kallikrein 7 (KLK7, stratum corneum chymotryptic enzyme) inhibitors. Based on the X-ray co-crystal structure of compound 1 bound to human KLK7, the derivatives of this scaffold were designed, synthesized, and evaluated. Through structure-activity relationship studies focused on the side chain located in the prime site region of the enzyme, representative compounds 15, 33a, and 35a were identified as highly potent and selective inhibitors of human KLK7...
March 3, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Yuji Watanabe, Chie Sakuma, Hiroyuki Yaginuma
During embryonic brain development, groups of particular neuronal cells migrate tangentially to participate in the formation of a laminated structure. Two distinct types of tangential migration in the middle and superficial layers have been reported in the development of the avian optic tectum. Here we show the dynamics of tangential cell movement in superficial layers of developing chick optic tectum. Confocal time-lapse microscopy in organotypic slice cultures and flat-mount cultures revealed that vigorous cell migration continued during E6...
March 13, 2018: Developmental Biology
Matthew M Fleming, Fangfang Liu, Yawei Zhang, Kevin Y Pei
BACKGROUND: The Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score and ascites correlate with surgical morbidity and mortality. However, the MELD score does not account for ascites. We sought to evaluate whether the MELD score accurately risk stratifies patients with ascites. METHODS: We analyzed the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (2005-2014) to examine the risk-adjusted morbidity and mortality of cirrhotic patients with and without ascites undergoing colectomy for diverticulitis...
March 14, 2018: World Journal of Surgery
Christian L Wennberg, Ali Narangifard, Magnus Lundborg, Lars Norlén, Erik Lindahl
The stratum corneum is the outermost layer of human skin and the primary barrier toward the environment. The barrier function is maintained by stacked layers of saturated long-chain ceramides, free fatty acids, and cholesterol. This structure is formed through a reorganization of glycosylceramide-based bilayers with cubic-like symmetry into ceramide-based bilayers with stacked lamellar symmetry. The process is accompanied by deglycosylation of glycosylceramides and dehydration of the skin barrier lipid structure...
March 13, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Hyo Young Jung, Dae Young Yoo, Joon Ha Park, Jong Whi Kim, Jin Young Chung, Dae Won Kim, Moo-Ho Won, Yeo Sung Yoon, In Koo Hwang
Glutamate is a major excitatory neurotransmitter that is stored in vesicles located in the presynaptic terminal. Glutamate is transported into vesicles via the vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT). In the present study, the age‑associated changes of the major VGLUTs, VGLUT1 and VGLUT2, in the hippocampus were investigated, based on immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis at postnatal month 1 (PM1; adolescent), PM6, PM12 (adult group), PM18 and PM24 (the aged groups). VGLUT1 immunoreactivity was primarily detected in the mossy fibers, Schaffer collaterals and stratum lacunosum‑moleculare...
March 8, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Nannan Guo, Marta E Soden, Charlotte Herber, Michael TaeWoo Kim, Antoine Besnard, Paoyan Lin, Xiang Ma, Constance L Cepko, Larry S Zweifel, Amar Sahay
Memories become less precise and generalized over time as memory traces reorganize in hippocampal-cortical networks. Increased time-dependent loss of memory precision is characterized by an overgeneralization of fear in individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or age-related cognitive impairments. In the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG), memories are thought to be encoded by so-called 'engram-bearing' dentate granule cells (eDGCs). Here we show, using rodents, that contextual fear conditioning increases connectivity between eDGCs and inhibitory interneurons (INs) in the downstream hippocampal CA3 region...
March 12, 2018: Nature Medicine
Wei Liu, Qi Zhao, Luyang Lv, Suo Yan, Qin Song, Tian Chen, Qian Yao
Pomegranate seed oil (PSO) is primarily composed of unsaturated fatty acids, implying its potential application as a transdermal enhancer. In this study, the function of PSO in prompting the percutaneous absorption of resveratrol was examined and compared with isopropyl palmitate (IP). IP of 10% enhanced the cumulative permeation amount of resveratrol by 50% but did not influence the permeation velocity. Though 2.5% and 5.0% IP accelerated the penetration process of resveratrol, they had no discernable impact on total permeation amount...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Oleo Science
Fang Yu, Gerald B Kasting
A three-dimensional diffusion model with either hexagonal or cylindrical symmetry has been constructed to simulate desorption profiles of hydrophilic chemicals from the topmost layer of human skin (the stratum corneum) as measured in ex vivo studies. The tissue is pierced by skin appendages - sweat glands and hair follicles - which in this particular scenario are considered to be perfect sinks. Desorption profiles of nine test permeants covering a wide range of lipophilicity were analyzed. By optimizing transverse and lateral diffusion coefficients to match these profiles, it was found that the lateral diffusivity values exceeded the transverse values by average factors ranging from 45 (hexagon model) to 71 (cylinder model)...
March 8, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences
Jongmi Lim, Chae Jin Lim, Sungwoo Kim, Gaewon Nam, Minyoul Chang, Keedon Park, Kyungho Park, Hyun Jung Kim, Jeong Keun Ahn, Sekyoo Jeong
BACKGROUND: Recently, potential roles of autophagy in skin homeostasis received many interests. But, little has been reported for the potential antiaging effects of autophagy activator. OBJECTIVE: With the newly synthesized autophagy activator, heptasodium hexacarboxymethyl dipeptide-12 (Aquatide™) in vitro and clinical efficacy of the topical autophagy activator as an antiaging cosmeceutical ingredient was evaluated. METHODS: Antioxidant effect of Aquatide™ was evaluated by radical scavenging assay...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
H J C de Vries, M Soltanipoor, S Kezic, C E Vergunst
Camellia sinensis extract/Sinecatechins/10% ointment is a registered topical therapy for the treatment of external and perianal genital warts, to be applied thrice daily. Pharmacokinetic studies elucidating the most optimal frequency of application have not been undertaken, and a less frequent (more convenient) application schedule might also be effective. Here, we measured epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) concentrations, the main Camellia sinensis extract component, in the stratum corneum (SC) over time after one application...
March 10, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Jung U Shin, Jung Dong Kim, Hong Kee Kim, Hong Kyu Kang, Chulmin Joo, Ju Hee Lee, Do Hyeon Jeong, Seungri Song, Howard Chu, Jung Soo Lee, Hemin Lee, Kwang Hoon Lee
BACKGROUND: The stratum corneum is an almost impermeable barrier. Recently, microneedles have been used to increase drug delivery passing the stratum corneum by incorporating the drug within the microneedle or by coating the surface of the microneedle with the drug. OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to investigate whether applying a biodegradable microneedle patch after topical steroid application increases penetration of the steroid in vitro, as well as treatment efficacy in patients with prurigo nodularis...
February 1, 2018: European Journal of Dermatology: EJD
S A Tahas, U Hetzel, B Altenbrunner-Martinek, O Martin Jurado, S Hammer, A Arif, J-M Hatt, M Clauss
Subacute ruminal acidosis is a common disease in captive non-domesticated ruminants and is mainly diagnosed by rumen fluid pH and rumen histology. Furthermore, differences in ruminant gastrointestinal histology have been hypothesized to correlate with the browser-grazer continuum. Twelve surplus addax antelope (Addax nasomaculatus) were divided into two groups, fed either their usual diet, consisting of a concentrate feed with a limited amount of hay, or a diet of unlimited hay only, for 3 months. After culling, descriptive and morphometric histology and pH measurements were compared between groups...
March 8, 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
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