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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875540/the-physiological-motor-patterns-produced-by-neurons-in-the-nucleus-retroambiguus-in-the-rat-and-their-modulation-by-vagal-peripheral-chemosensory-and-nociceptive-stimulation
#1
Hari H Subramanian, Zheng-Gui Huang, Peter A Silburn, Ron J Balnave, Gert Holstege
The nucleus retroambiguus (NRA) is a neuronal cell group in the medullary ventrolateral tegmentum, rostrocaudally between the obex and the first cervical spinal segment. NRA neurons are premotor interneurons with direct projections to the motoneurons of soft palate, pharynx, and larynx in the nucleus ambiguus in the lateral medulla as well as to the motoneurons in the spinal cord innervating diaphragm, abdominal, and pelvic floor muscles and the lumbosacral motoneurons generating sexual posture. These NRA premotor interneurons receive very strong projections from the periaqueductal gray (PAG) in the context of basic survival mechanisms as fight, flight, freezing, sound production, and sexual behavior...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637976/coordinated-control-of-the-tongue-during-suckling-like-activity-and-respiration
#2
Tomio Inoue, Kiyomi Nakayama, Yoshiaki Ihara, Satoshi Tachikawa, Shiro Nakamura, Ayako Mochizuki, Koji Takahashi, Takehiko Iijima
The tongue can move freely and is important in oral motor functions. Tongue movement must be coordinated with movement of the hyoid, mandible, and pharyngeal wall, to which it is attached. Our previous study using isolated brainstem-spinal cord preparations showed that application of N-methyl-D-aspartate induces rhythmic activity in the hypoglossal nerve that is coincident with rhythmic activity in the ipsilateral trigeminal motor nerve. Partial or complete midline transection of the preparation only abolishes activity in the trigeminal motor nerve; therefore, the neuronal network contributing to coordinated activity of the jaw/tongue muscles is located on both sides of the preparation and sends motor commands to contralateral trigeminal motoneurons...
2017: Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576940/descending-systems-direct-development-of-key-spinal-motor-circuits
#3
Calvin C Smith, Julian F R Paton, Samit Chakrabarty, Ronaldo M Ichiyama
The formation of mature spinal motor circuits is dependent on both activity-dependent and independent mechanisms during postnatal development. During this time, reorganization and refinement of spinal sensorimotor circuits occurs as supraspinal projections are integrated. However, specific features of postnatal spinal circuit development remain poorly understood. This study provides the first detailed characterization of rat spinal sensorimotor circuit development in the presence and absence of descending systems...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528380/the-rat-corticospinal-system-is-functionally-and-anatomically-segregated
#4
Rafael Olivares-Moreno, Yunuen Moreno-Lopez, Luis Concha, Guadalupe Martínez-Lorenzana, Miguel Condés-Lara, Matilde Cordero-Erausquin, Gerardo Rojas-Piloni
The descending corticospinal (CS) projection has been considered a key element for motor control, which results from direct and indirect modulation of spinal cord pre-motor interneurons in the intermediate gray matter of the spinal cord, which, in turn, influences motoneurons in the ventral horn. The CS tract (CST) is also involved in a selective and complex modulation of sensory information in the dorsal horn. However, little is known about the spinal network engaged by the CST and the organization of CS projections that may encode different cortical outputs to the spinal cord...
May 20, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495518/prenatal-exposure-to-low-dose-diclofenac-sodium-does-not-affect-total-neuron-numbers-in-spinal-segment-t13-in-rats
#5
Murat Çetin Ragbetli, Mikail Kara, Neşe Çölçimen, Necat Koyun, Gamze Çakmak, Veysel Akyol, Omur Gulsum Deniz, Kıymet Kübra Yurt
The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of diclofenac sodium (DS) on the total number of neurons in segment T13 of the spinal cord of offspring of pregnant rats using stereological methods. Eighteen adult female Wistar albino rats weighing 150-200g were used. Pregnant female rats were divided into three groups; a control group, a sham group and a DS (1mg/kg, intramuscular) exposed group. The DS and sham groups received injection from the 5(th) day of gestation to the 19(th). 28 days after birth, the offspring rats were perfused with 4% buffered formalin...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459438/pericytes-impair-capillary-blood-flow-and-motor-function-after-chronic-spinal-cord-injury
#6
Yaqing Li, Ana M Lucas-Osma, Sophie Black, Mischa V Bandet, Marilee J Stephens, Romana Vavrek, Leo Sanelli, Keith K Fenrich, Antonio F Di Narzo, Stella Dracheva, Ian R Winship, Karim Fouad, David J Bennett
Blood vessels in the central nervous system (CNS) are controlled by neuronal activity. For example, widespread vessel constriction (vessel tone) is induced by brainstem neurons that release the monoamines serotonin and noradrenaline, and local vessel dilation is induced by glutamatergic neuron activity. Here we examined how vessel tone adapts to the loss of neuron-derived monoamines after spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats. We find that, months after the imposition of SCI, the spinal cord below the site of injury is in a chronic state of hypoxia owing to paradoxical excess activity of monoamine receptors (5-HT1) on pericytes, despite the absence of monoamines...
June 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128448/chronic-infusion-of-sod1-g93a-astrocyte-secreted-factors-induces-spinal-motoneuron-degeneration-and-neuromuscular-dysfunction-in-healthy-rats
#7
Uri N Ramírez-Jarquín, Fabiola Rojas, Brigitte van Zundert, Ricardo Tapia
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a fatal neurodegenerative disease and studies in vitro show that motoneuron degeneration is triggered by non-cell-autonomous mechanisms. However, whether soluble toxic factor(s) released by mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) expressing astrocytes induces death of motoneurons and leads to motor dysfunction in vivo is not known. To directly test this, healthy adult rats were treated with conditioned media derived from primary mouse astrocytes (ACM) that express human (h) SOD1(G93A) (ACM-hG93A) via chronic osmotic pump infusion in the lumbar spinal cord...
October 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036084/preferential-enhancement-of-sensory-and-motor-axon-regeneration-by-combining-extracellular-matrix-components-with-neurotrophic-factors
#8
Daniel Santos, Francisco González-Pérez, Guido Giudetti, Silvestro Micera, Esther Udina, Jaume Del Valle, Xavier Navarro
After peripheral nerve injury, motor and sensory axons are able to regenerate but inaccuracy of target reinnervation leads to poor functional recovery. Extracellular matrix (ECM) components and neurotrophic factors (NTFs) exert their effect on different neuronal populations creating a suitable environment to promote axonal growth. Here, we assessed in vitro and in vivo the selective effects of combining different ECM components with NTFs on motor and sensory axons regeneration and target reinnervation. Organotypic cultures with collagen, laminin and nerve growth factor (NGF)/neurotrophin-3 (NT3) or collagen, fibronectin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) selectively enhanced sensory neurite outgrowth of DRG neurons and motor neurite outgrowth from spinal cord slices respectively...
December 29, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025254/shaping-the-output-of-lumbar-flexor-motoneurons-by-sacral-neuronal-networks
#9
Meir Cherniak, Lili Anglister, Aharon Lev-Tov
The ability to improve motor function in spinal cord injury patients by reactivating spinal central pattern generators (CPGs) requires the elucidation of neurons and pathways involved in activation and modulation of spinal networks in accessible experimental models. Previously we reported on adrenoceptor-dependent sacral control of lumbar flexor motoneuron firing in newborn rats. The current work focuses on clarification of the circuitry and connectivity involved in this unique modulation and its potential use...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698684/molecular-examination-of-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-and-chondroitinase-abc-assisted-acellular-nerve-allograft-for-peripheral-nerve-regeneration
#10
Ying Wang, Hua Jia, Wen-Yuan Li, Li-Xin Guan, Lingxiao Deng, Yan-Cui Liu, Gui-Bo Liu
The present study aimed to evaluate the molecular mechanisms underlying combinatorial bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) transplantation and chondroitinase ABC (Ch-ABC) therapy in a model of acellular nerve allograft (ANA) repair of the sciatic nerve gap in rats. Sprague Dawley rats (n=24) were used as nerve donors and Wistar rats (n=48) were randomly divided into the following groups: Group I, Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) control group (ANA treated with DMEM only); Group II, Ch-ABC group (ANA treated with Ch-ABC only); Group III, BMSC group (ANA seeded with BMSCs only); Group IV, Ch-ABC + BMSCs group (Ch-ABC treated ANA then seeded with BMSCs)...
October 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642524/direct-spinal-ventral-root-repair-following-avulsion-effectiveness-of-a-new-heterologous-fibrin-sealant-on-motoneuron-survival-and-regeneration
#11
Mateus Vidigal de Castro, Roberta Barbizan, Rui Seabra Ferreira, Benedito Barraviera, Alexandre Leite Rodrigues de Oliveira
Axonal injuries at the interface between central and peripheral nervous system, such as ventral root avulsion (VRA), induce important degenerative processes, mostly resulting in neuronal and motor function loss. In the present work, we have compared two different fibrin sealants, one derived from human blood and another derived from animal blood and Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, as a promising treatment for this type of injury. Lewis rats were submitted to VRA (L4-L6) and had the avulsed roots reimplanted to the surface of the spinal cord, with the aid of fibrin sealant...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27446617/long-standing-motor-and-sensory-recovery-following-acute-fibrin-sealant-based-neonatal-sciatic-nerve-repair
#12
Natalia Perussi Biscola, Luciana Politti Cartarozzi, Rui Seabra Ferreira Junior, Benedito Barraviera, Alexandre Leite Rodrigues de Oliveira
Brachial plexus lesion results in loss of motor and sensory function, being more harmful in the neonate. Therefore, this study evaluated neuroprotection and regeneration after neonatal peripheral nerve coaptation with fibrin sealant. Thus, P2 neonatal Lewis rats were divided into three groups: AX: sciatic nerve axotomy (SNA) without treatment; AX+FS: SNA followed by end-to-end coaptation with fibrin sealant derived from snake venom; AX+CFS: SNA followed by end-to-end coaptation with commercial fibrin sealant...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27390969/moderate-hypothermia-increased-the-incidence-of-delayed-paralysis-through-activation-of-the-spinal-microglia-in-an-aortic-cross-clamping-rat-model
#13
Liang He, Jun-Mei Xu, Hui Li, Feng Zhong, Zhi Liu, Chang-Qi Li, Ru-Ping Dai
BACKGROUND: Hypothermia reduces immediate paralysis during surgical repair of aortic aneurysms. However, it is unknown what the impact of hypothermia is on delayed paralysis, a serious complication of this type of surgery. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to occlusion of the descending aorta at different duration under normothermia (38.0±0.5) or hypothermia (33.0±0.5°). Neurologic function was assessed. Motor neuron number, glial activation, and cytokine expression in the spinal cord were examined...
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26791221/bimodal-respiratory-locomotor-neurons-in-the-neonatal-rat-spinal-cord
#14
Jean-Patrick Le Gal, Laurent Juvin, Laura Cardoit, Didier Morin
Neural networks that can generate rhythmic motor output in the absence of sensory feedback, commonly called central pattern generators (CPGs), are involved in many vital functions such as locomotion or respiration. In certain circumstances, these neural networks must interact to produce coordinated motor behavior adapted to environmental constraints and to satisfy the basic needs of an organism. In this context, we recently reported the existence of an ascending excitatory influence from lumbar locomotor CPG circuitry to the medullary respiratory networks that is able to depolarize neurons of the parafacial respiratory group during fictive locomotion and to subsequently induce an increased respiratory rhythmicity (Le Gal et al...
January 20, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26348665/delivery-of-alginate-scaffold-releasing-two-trophic-factors-for-spinal-cord-injury-repair
#15
I Grulova, L Slovinska, J Blaško, S Devaux, M Wisztorski, M Salzet, I Fournier, O Kryukov, S Cohen, D Cizkova
Spinal cord injury (SCI) has been implicated in neural cell loss and consequently functional motor and sensory impairment. In this study, we propose an alginate-based neurobridge enriched with/without trophic growth factors (GFs) that can be utilized as a therapeutic approach for spinal cord repair. The bioavailability of key GFs, such as Epidermal Growth factor (EGF) and basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF) released from injected alginate biomaterial to the central lesion site significantly enhanced the sparing of spinal cord tissue and increased the number of surviving neurons (choline acetyltransferase positive motoneurons) and sensory fibres...
2015: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26332537/substratum-preferences-of-motor-and-sensory-neurons-in-postnatal-and-adult-rats
#16
Francisco Gonzalez-Perez, Albert Alé, Daniel Santos, Christina Barwig, Thomas Freier, Xavier Navarro, Esther Udina
After peripheral nerve injuries, damaged axons can regenerate but functional recovery is limited by the specific reinnervation of targets. In this study we evaluated if motor and sensory neurites have a substrate preference for laminin and fibronectin in postnatal and adult stages. In postnatal dorsal root ganglia (DRG) explants, sensory neurons extended longer neurites on collagen matrices enriched with laminin (~50%) or fibronectin (~35%), whereas motoneurons extended longer neurites (~100%) in organotypic spinal cord slices embedded in fibronectin-enriched matrix...
February 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26106294/reactive-oxygen-species-trigger-motoneuron-death-in-non-cell-autonomous-models-of-als-through-activation-of-c-abl-signaling
#17
Fabiola Rojas, David Gonzalez, Nicole Cortes, Estibaliz Ampuero, Diego E Hernández, Elsa Fritz, Sebastián Abarzua, Alexis Martinez, Alvaro A Elorza, Alejandra Alvarez, Felipe Court, Brigitte van Zundert
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease in which pathogenesis and death of motor neurons are triggered by non-cell-autonomous mechanisms. We showed earlier that exposing primary rat spinal cord cultures to conditioned media derived from primary mouse astrocyte conditioned media (ACM) that express human SOD1(G93A) (ACM-hSOD1(G93A)) quickly enhances Nav channel-mediated excitability and calcium influx, generates intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and leads to death of motoneurons within days...
2015: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26056711/dynamic-changes-in-phrenic-motor-output-following-high-cervical-hemisection-in-the-decerebrate-rat
#18
Michael George Zaki Ghali, Vitaliy Marchenko
Hemisection of the spinal cord at C2 eliminates ipsilateral descending drive to the phrenic nucleus and causes hemidiaphragmatic paralysis in rats. Phrenic nerve (PhN) or diaphragmatic activity ipsilateral to hemisection can occasionally be induced acutely following hemisection by respiratory stressors (i.e., hypercapnia, asphyxia, contralateral phrenicotomy) and becomes spontaneously active days-to-weeks later. These investigations, however, are potentially confounded by the use of anesthesia, which may suppress spontaneously-active crossed phrenic pathways...
September 2015: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25889458/grafted-murine-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-prevent-death-of-injured-rat-motoneurons-otherwise-destined-to-die
#19
Krisztián Pajer, Csilla Nemes, Sára Berzsenyi, Krisztián A Kovács, Melinda K Pirity, Gholam Pajenda, Antal Nógrádi, András Dinnyés
Human plexus injuries often include the avulsion of one or more ventral roots, resulting in debilitating conditions. In this study the effects of undifferentiated murine iPSCs on damaged motoneurons were investigated following avulsion of the lumbar 4 (L4) ventral root, an injury known to induce the death of the majority of the affected motoneurons. Avulsion and reimplantation of the L4 ventral root (AR procedure) were accompanied by the transplantation of murine iPSCs into the injured spinal cord segment in rats...
July 2015: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25625912/spinal-interneurons-and-forelimb-plasticity-after-incomplete-cervical-spinal-cord-injury-in-adult-rats
#20
Elisa Janine Gonzalez-Rothi, Angela M Rombola, Celeste A Rousseau, Lynne M Mercier, Garrett M Fitzpatrick, Paul J Reier, David D Fuller, Michael A Lane
Cervical spinal cord injury (cSCI) disrupts bulbospinal projections to motoneurons controlling the upper limbs, resulting in significant functional impairments. Ongoing clinical and experimental research has revealed several lines of evidence for functional neuroplasticity and recovery of upper extremity function after SCI. The underlying neural substrates, however, have not been thoroughly characterized. The goals of the present study were to map the intraspinal motor circuitry associated with a defined upper extremity muscle, and evaluate chronic changes in the distribution of this circuit following incomplete cSCI...
June 15, 2015: Journal of Neurotrauma
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