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spinal cord, rat, motoneuron, motor neuron

Ying Wang, Hua Jia, Wen-Yuan Li, Li-Xin Guan, Lingxiao Deng, Yan-Cui Liu, Gui-Bo Liu
The present study aimed to evaluate the molecular mechanisms underlying combinatorial bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) transplantation and chondroitinase ABC (Ch-ABC) therapy in a model of acellular nerve allograft (ANA) repair of the sciatic nerve gap in rats. Sprague Dawley rats (n=24) were used as nerve donors and Wistar rats (n=48) were randomly divided into the following groups: Group I, Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) control group (ANA treated with DMEM only); Group II, Ch-ABC group (ANA treated with Ch-ABC only); Group III, BMSC group (ANA seeded with BMSCs only); Group IV, Ch-ABC + BMSCs group (Ch-ABC treated ANA then seeded with BMSCs)...
October 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Mateus Vidigal de Castro, Roberta Barbizan, Rui Seabra Ferreira, Benedito Barraviera, Alexandre Leite Rodrigues de Oliveira
Axonal injuries at the interface between central and peripheral nervous system, such as ventral root avulsion (VRA), induce important degenerative processes, mostly resulting in neuronal and motor function loss. In the present work, we have compared two different fibrin sealants, one derived from human blood and another derived from animal blood and Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, as a promising treatment for this type of injury. Lewis rats were submitted to VRA (L4-L6) and had the avulsed roots reimplanted to the surface of the spinal cord, with the aid of fibrin sealant...
2016: Neural Plasticity
Natalia Perussi Biscola, Luciana Politti Cartarozzi, Rui Seabra Ferreira Junior, Benedito Barraviera, Alexandre Leite Rodrigues de Oliveira
Brachial plexus lesion results in loss of motor and sensory function, being more harmful in the neonate. Therefore, this study evaluated neuroprotection and regeneration after neonatal peripheral nerve coaptation with fibrin sealant. Thus, P2 neonatal Lewis rats were divided into three groups: AX: sciatic nerve axotomy (SNA) without treatment; AX+FS: SNA followed by end-to-end coaptation with fibrin sealant derived from snake venom; AX+CFS: SNA followed by end-to-end coaptation with commercial fibrin sealant...
2016: Neural Plasticity
Liang He, Jun-Mei Xu, Hui Li, Feng Zhong, Zhi Liu, Chang-Qi Li, Ru-Ping Dai
BACKGROUND: Hypothermia reduces immediate paralysis during surgical repair of aortic aneurysms. However, it is unknown what the impact of hypothermia is on delayed paralysis, a serious complication of this type of surgery. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to occlusion of the descending aorta at different duration under normothermia (38.0±0.5) or hypothermia (33.0±0.5°). Neurologic function was assessed. Motor neuron number, glial activation, and cytokine expression in the spinal cord were examined...
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Jean-Patrick Le Gal, Laurent Juvin, Laura Cardoit, Didier Morin
Neural networks that can generate rhythmic motor output in the absence of sensory feedback, commonly called central pattern generators (CPGs), are involved in many vital functions such as locomotion or respiration. In certain circumstances, these neural networks must interact to produce coordinated motor behavior adapted to environmental constraints and to satisfy the basic needs of an organism. In this context, we recently reported the existence of an ascending excitatory influence from lumbar locomotor CPG circuitry to the medullary respiratory networks that is able to depolarize neurons of the parafacial respiratory group during fictive locomotion and to subsequently induce an increased respiratory rhythmicity (Le Gal et al...
January 20, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
I Grulova, L Slovinska, J Blaško, S Devaux, M Wisztorski, M Salzet, I Fournier, O Kryukov, S Cohen, D Cizkova
Spinal cord injury (SCI) has been implicated in neural cell loss and consequently functional motor and sensory impairment. In this study, we propose an alginate-based neurobridge enriched with/without trophic growth factors (GFs) that can be utilized as a therapeutic approach for spinal cord repair. The bioavailability of key GFs, such as Epidermal Growth factor (EGF) and basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF) released from injected alginate biomaterial to the central lesion site significantly enhanced the sparing of spinal cord tissue and increased the number of surviving neurons (choline acetyltransferase positive motoneurons) and sensory fibres...
2015: Scientific Reports
Francisco Gonzalez-Perez, Albert Alé, Daniel Santos, Christina Barwig, Thomas Freier, Xavier Navarro, Esther Udina
After peripheral nerve injuries, damaged axons can regenerate but functional recovery is limited by the specific reinnervation of targets. In this study we evaluated if motor and sensory neurites have a substrate preference for laminin and fibronectin in postnatal and adult stages. In postnatal dorsal root ganglia (DRG) explants, sensory neurons extended longer neurites on collagen matrices enriched with laminin (~50%) or fibronectin (~35%), whereas motoneurons extended longer neurites (~100%) in organotypic spinal cord slices embedded in fibronectin-enriched matrix...
February 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Fabiola Rojas, David Gonzalez, Nicole Cortes, Estibaliz Ampuero, Diego E Hernández, Elsa Fritz, Sebastián Abarzua, Alexis Martinez, Alvaro A Elorza, Alejandra Alvarez, Felipe Court, Brigitte van Zundert
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease in which pathogenesis and death of motor neurons are triggered by non-cell-autonomous mechanisms. We showed earlier that exposing primary rat spinal cord cultures to conditioned media derived from primary mouse astrocyte conditioned media (ACM) that express human SOD1(G93A) (ACM-hSOD1(G93A)) quickly enhances Nav channel-mediated excitability and calcium influx, generates intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and leads to death of motoneurons within days...
2015: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Michael George Zaki Ghali, Vitaliy Marchenko
Hemisection of the spinal cord at C2 eliminates ipsilateral descending drive to the phrenic nucleus and causes hemidiaphragmatic paralysis in rats. Phrenic nerve (PhN) or diaphragmatic activity ipsilateral to hemisection can occasionally be induced acutely following hemisection by respiratory stressors (i.e., hypercapnia, asphyxia, contralateral phrenicotomy) and becomes spontaneously active days-to-weeks later. These investigations, however, are potentially confounded by the use of anesthesia, which may suppress spontaneously-active crossed phrenic pathways...
September 2015: Experimental Neurology
Krisztián Pajer, Csilla Nemes, Sára Berzsenyi, Krisztián A Kovács, Melinda K Pirity, Gholam Pajenda, Antal Nógrádi, András Dinnyés
Human plexus injuries often include the avulsion of one or more ventral roots, resulting in debilitating conditions. In this study the effects of undifferentiated murine iPSCs on damaged motoneurons were investigated following avulsion of the lumbar 4 (L4) ventral root, an injury known to induce the death of the majority of the affected motoneurons. Avulsion and reimplantation of the L4 ventral root (AR procedure) were accompanied by the transplantation of murine iPSCs into the injured spinal cord segment in rats...
July 2015: Experimental Neurology
Elisa Janine Gonzalez-Rothi, Angela M Rombola, Celeste A Rousseau, Lynne M Mercier, Garrett M Fitzpatrick, Paul J Reier, David D Fuller, Michael A Lane
Cervical spinal cord injury (cSCI) disrupts bulbospinal projections to motoneurons controlling the upper limbs, resulting in significant functional impairments. Ongoing clinical and experimental research has revealed several lines of evidence for functional neuroplasticity and recovery of upper extremity function after SCI. The underlying neural substrates, however, have not been thoroughly characterized. The goals of the present study were to map the intraspinal motor circuitry associated with a defined upper extremity muscle, and evaluate chronic changes in the distribution of this circuit following incomplete cSCI...
June 15, 2015: Journal of Neurotrauma
Janelle L Buttry, Harry G Goshgarian
BACKGROUND: Intrapleural injection of CTB-Alexa 488, a retrograde tracer, provides an alternative labeling technique to the surgically invasive laparotomy required for intradiaphragmatic injection. However, CTB-Alexa 488 is incapable of crossing synapses restricting the tracer to the phrenic nuclei and the intercostal motor nuclei in the spinal cord. NEW METHOD: Intrapleural injection of WGA-Alexa 488, a transsynaptic tracer, provides a method to label the respiratory motor pathway in both the spinal cord and medulla...
February 15, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
M S Sandhu, D M Baekey, N G Maling, J C Sanchez, P J Reier, D D Fuller
Anatomical evidence indicates that midcervical interneurons can be synaptically coupled with phrenic motoneurons. Accordingly, we hypothesized that interneurons in the C3-C4 spinal cord can display discharge patterns temporally linked with inspiratory phrenic motor output. Anesthetized adult rats were studied before, during, and after a 4-min bout of moderate hypoxia. Neuronal discharge in C3-C4 lamina I-IX was monitored using a multielectrode array while phrenic nerve activity was extracellularly recorded...
April 1, 2015: Journal of Neurophysiology
Calvin C Smith, Rui Mauricio, Luis Nobre, Barnaby Marsh, Rob C I Wüst, Harry B Rossiter, Ronaldo M Ichiyama
Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are lattice like structures which encapsulate the cell body and proximal dendrites of many neurons and are thought to be involved in regulating synaptic plasticity. It is believed that exercise can enhance the plasticity of the Central Nervous System (CNS) in healthy and dysfunctional states by shifting the balance between plasticity promoting and plasticity inhibiting factors in favor of the former. Recent work has focused on exercise effects on trophic factors but its effect on other plasticity regulators is poorly understood...
February 2015: Brain Research Bulletin
Meir Cherniak, Alex Etlin, Ido Strauss, Lili Anglister, Aharon Lev-Tov
Identification of neural networks and pathways involved in activation and modulation of spinal central pattern generators (CPGs) in the absence of the descending control from the brain is important for further understanding of neural control of movement and for developing innovative therapeutic approaches to improve the mobility of spinal cord injury patients. Activation of the hindlimb innervating segments by sacrocaudal (SC) afferent input and by specific application of neurochemicals to the sacral networks is feasible in the isolated spinal cord preparation of the newborn rat...
2014: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
A Shabbir, E Bianchetti, A Nistri
Neuroprotection of the spinal cord during the early phase of injury is an important goal to determine a favorable outcome by prevention of delayed pathological events, including excitotoxicity, which otherwise extend the primary damage and amplify the often irreversible loss of motor function. While intensive care and neurosurgical intervention are important treatments, effective neuroprotection requires further experimental studies focused to target vulnerable neurons, particularly motoneurons. The present investigation examined whether the volatile general anesthetic methoxyflurane might protect spinal locomotor networks from kainate-evoked excitotoxicity using an in vitro rat spinal cord preparation as a model...
January 29, 2015: Neuroscience
Elizabeth A Gozal, Brannan E O'Neill, Michael A Sawchuk, Hong Zhu, Mallika Halder, Ching-Chieh Chou, Shawn Hochman
The trace amines (TAs), tryptamine, tyramine, and β-phenylethylamine, are synthesized from precursor amino acids via aromatic-L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC). We explored their role in the neuromodulation of neonatal rat spinal cord motor circuits. We first showed that the spinal cord contains the substrates for TA biosynthesis (AADC) and for receptor-mediated actions via trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs) 1 and 4. We next examined the actions of the TAs on motor activity using the in vitro isolated neonatal rat spinal cord...
2014: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
E M Swartz, G M Holmes
BACKGROUND: Clinical reports indicate that spinal cord injury (SCI) initiates profound gastric dysfunction. Gastric reflexes involve stimulation of sensory vagal fibers, which engage brainstem circuits that modulate efferent output back to the stomach, thereby completing the vago-vagal reflex. Our recent studies in a rodent model of experimental high thoracic (T3-) SCI suggest that reduced vagal afferent sensitivity to gastrointestinal (GI) stimuli may be responsible for diminished gastric function...
December 2014: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Nataliya Romanyuk, Takashi Amemori, Karolina Turnovcova, Pavel Prochazka, Brigitte Onteniente, Eva Sykova, Pavla Jendelova
Despite advances in our understanding and research of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), their use in clinical practice is still limited due to lack of preclinical experiments. Neural precursors (NPs) derived from a clone of human iPSCs (IMR90) were used to treat a rat spinal cord lesion 1 week after induction. Functional recovery was evaluated using the BBB, beam walking, rotarod, and plantar tests. Lesion morphology, endogenous axonal sprouting, graft survival, and iPSC-NP differentiation were analyzed immunohistochemically...
2015: Cell Transplantation
Jacob Wienecke, Li-Qun Ren, Hans Hultborn, Meng Chen, Morten Møller, Yifan Zhang, Mengliang Zhang
Serotonin (5-HT), an important modulator of both sensory and motor functions in the mammalian spinal cord, originates mainly in the raphe nuclei of the brainstem. However, following complete transection of the spinal cord, small amounts of 5-HT remain detectable below the lesion. It has been suggested, but not proven, that this residual 5-HT is produced by intraspinal 5-HT neurons. Here, we show by immunohistochemical techniques that cells containing the enzyme aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) occur not only near the central canal, as reported by others, but also in the intermediate zone and dorsal horn of the spinal gray matter...
September 3, 2014: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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