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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817782/cost-effectiveness-of-a-patient-navigation-program-to-improve-cervical-cancer-screening
#1
Yan Li, Erin Carlson, Roberto Villarreal, Leah Meraz, José A Pagán
OBJECTIVES: To assess the cost-effectiveness of a community-based patient navigation program to improve cervical cancer screening among Hispanic women 18 or older in San Antonio, Texas. STUDY DESIGN: We used a microsimulation model of cervical cancer to project the long-term cost-effectiveness of a community-based patient navigation program compared with current practice. METHODS: We used program data from 2012 to 2015 and published data from the existing literature as model input...
July 2017: American Journal of Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817431/challenges-in-health-care-simulation-are-we-learning-anything-new
#2
Kerm Henriksen, David Rodrick, Erin N Grace, P Jeffrey Brady
The growth of health care simulation in schools of medicine and nursing is noteworthy, as is the increasingly sophisticated simulation technology, support from funding agencies and foundations for research, well-attended annual conferences, and continued interest of accreditation and certification groups. Yet there are concerns preventing the full value of health care simulation to be realized when examined from a patient safety perspective. Basic questions are asked by funders of patient safety research when assessing past simulation projects undertaken to advance patient safety: Are the safety and quality of care to patients actually improved, and is something new being learned regarding the optimal use of simulation? Concerns focus on pursuing the right research questions to learn something new about the most effective use of simulation; doing more with simulation than simply providing an interesting, stand-alone educational experience; attending more seriously to how skill acquisition, maintenance, and progression get managed; and encouraging investigators, funders, and reviewers to expand their vision regarding what constitutes important inquiry and evidence in health care simulation...
August 16, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816665/body-structure-aware-deep-crowd-counting
#3
Siyu Huang, Xi Li, Zhongfei Zhang, Fei Wu, Shenghua Gao, Rongrong Ji, Junwei Han
Crowd counting is a challenging task, mainly due to the severe occlusions among dense crowds. This work aims to take a broader view to address crowd counting from the perspective of semantic modelling. In essence, crowd counting is a task of pedestrian semantic analysis involving three key factors: pedestrians, heads, and their context structure. The information of different body parts is an important cue to help us judge whether there exists a person at a certain position. Existing methods usually perform crowd counting from the perspective of directly modelling the visual properties of either the whole body or the heads only, without explicitly capturing the composite body-part semantic structure information that is crucial for crowd counting...
August 14, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816517/targeted-areas-for-improving-health-literacy-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#4
Megan Moore, Taniga Kiatchai, Rajiv C Ayyagari, Monica S Vavilala
OBJECTIVE: To develop a framework to identify targeted areas for improving health literacy for caregivers after traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHOD: Qualitative study using inductive and deductive qualitative content analysis was conducted in a large, urban, level I trauma centre. Interviews were conducted with 23 caregivers of persons with TBI. Participants' perspectives on communication and preparation for discharge were explored and understanding of commonly used words and discharge instructions were assessed...
August 17, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816324/the-generalized-maximum-hardness-principle-revisited-and-applied-to-atoms-and-molecules
#5
Wojciech Grochala
In this perspective contribution, we revisit the Maximum Hardness Principle (MHP), formulated by Pearson in 1987, and an equivalent Minimum Polarizability Principle (MPP) from Chattaraj and Parr, with particular emphasis on the cases where nuclear potential acting on electrons does not remain constant, and where substantial modifications of the nuclear geometry take place (Generalized MHP, GMHP). We first bring basic concepts related to electronic hardness, and then we present an overview of important manifestations of the GMHP for molecular systems such as (i) the tendency of two free radicals to couple, (ii) reduced reactivity of noble gases, (iii) symmetry-breaking distortions related to the Jahn-Teller effect, and/or these connected with (anti)aromatic character of certain organic molecules, (iv) enhanced reactivity of excited states, (v) high-low spin transitions, etc...
August 17, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813285/cognitive-behavioral-couple-therapy
#6
REVIEW
Norman B Epstein, Le Zheng
This article describes how cognitive-behavioral couple therapy (CBCT) provides a good fit for intervening with a range of stressors that couples experience from within and outside their relationship. It takes an ecological perspective in which a couple is influenced by multiple systemic levels. We provide an overview of assessment and intervention strategies used to modify negative behavioral interaction patterns, inappropriate or distorted cognitions, and problems with the experience and regulation of emotions...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812123/-promoting-a%C3%A2-balanced-diet-and-physical-activity-among-children-conditions-for-the-successful-implementation-and-maintenance-of-multi-level-interventions-and-policies-results-of-two-qualitative-case-studies
#7
Berit Steenbock, Saskia Muellmann, Hajo Zeeb, Claudia R Pischke
BACKGROUND: To date, conditions for successfully implementing and maintaining multi-level interventions and policies for the promotion of a balanced diet and physical activity are not well understood from the perspective of stakeholders. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to examine which factors are regarded as facilitating or impeding introduction, implementation and maintenance of multi-level interventions and policies from the standpoint of stakeholders. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Semi-structured face-to-face interviews with stakeholders of one multi-level intervention (Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS [IDEFICS] for the prevention of childhood obesity, n = 4) and one policy (Federal state offices coordinating networks for the provision of healthy food options in schools, n = 3) were analysed using qualitative content analysis...
August 15, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809102/hyper-open-shell-states-the-lowest-excited-spin-states-of-o-atom-fe2-ion-and-fef2
#8
Zoltán Varga, Pragya Verma, Donald G Truhlar
Excited spin states are important for reactivity, catalysis, and magnetic applications. This work examines the relative energies of the spin states of O atom, Fe2+ ion, and FeF2 and characterizes their excited spin states. Both single-reference and multi-reference methods are used to establish the character of the lowest singlet excited state of all three systems and the lowest triplet excited state of Fe2+ and FeF2. We find that the conventional representation of the orbital occupancies is incorrect in that the states have more unpaired electrons than the minimum number required by their total electron spin quantum number...
August 15, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808356/the-gist-of-delay-of-gratification-understanding-and-predicting-problem-behaviors
#9
Valerie F Reyna, Evan A Wilhelms
Delay of gratification captures elements of temptation and self-denial that characterize real-life problems with money and other problem behaviors such as unhealthy risk taking. According to fuzzy-trace theory, decision makers mentally represent social values such as delay of gratification in a coarse but meaningful form of memory called "gist." Applying this theory, we developed a gist measure of delay of gratification that does not involve quantitative trade-offs (as delay discounting does) and hypothesize that this construct explains unique variance beyond sensation seeking and inhibition in accounting for problem behaviors...
April 2017: Journal of Behavioral Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802103/where-you-are-affects-what-you-can-easily-imagines-environmental-geometry-elicits-sensorimotor-interference-in-remote-perspective-taking
#10
Bernhard E Riecke, Timothy P McNamara
Imagined perspective switches are notoriously difficult, a fact often ascribed to sensorimotor interference between one's to-be-imagined versus actual orientation. Here, we demonstrate similar interference effects, even if participants know they are in a remote environment with unknown spatial relation to the learning environment. Participants learned 15 target objects irregularly arranged in an office from one orientation (0°, 120°, or 240°). Participants were blindfolded and disoriented before being wheeled to a test room of similar geometry (exp...
August 9, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800604/the-scaling-of-crime-concentration-in-cities
#11
Marcos Oliveira, Carmelo Bastos-Filho, Ronaldo Menezes
Crime is a major threat to society's well-being but lacks a statistical characterization that could lead to uncovering some of its underlying mechanisms. Evidence of nonlinear scaling of urban indicators in cities, such as wages and serious crime, has motivated the understanding of cities as complex systems-a perspective that offers insights into resources limits and sustainability, but that usually neglects details of the indicators themselves. Notably, since the nineteenth century, criminal activities have been known to occur unevenly within a city; crime concentrates in such way that most of the offenses take place in few regions of the city...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800528/comparison-of-three-officinal-species-of-callicarpa-based-on-a-biochemome-profiling-strategy-with-uhplc-it-ms-and-chemometrics-analysis
#12
Meng-Lu Chen, Wen-Qi Chang, Jian-Liang Zhou, Ying-Hao Yin, Wen-Rui Xia, Jian-Qun Liu, Li-Fang Liu, Gui-Zhong Xin
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) materials with closely related species are frequently fungible in clinical use. Therefore, holistic comparison of the composition in bioactive compounds is essential to evaluate whether they are equivalent in efficacy. Taking three officinal species of Callicarpa as a case, we proposed and validated a standardized strategy for the discrimination of closely related TCM materials, which focused on the extraction, profiling and multivariate statistical analysis of their biochemome...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800502/spotlight-on-equality-of-employment-opportunities-a-qualitative-study-of-job-seeking-experiences-of-graduating-nurses-and-physiotherapists-from-black-and-minority-ethnic-backgrounds
#13
John Hammond, Sylvie Marshall-Lucette, Nigel Davies, Fiona Ross, Ruth Harris
BACKGROUND: There is growing attention in the UK and internationally to the representation of black and minority ethnic groups in healthcare education and the workplace. Although the NHS workforce is very diverse, ethnic minorities are unevenly spread across occupations, and considerably underrepresented in senior positions. Previous research has highlighted that this inequality also exists at junior levels with newly qualified nurses from non-White/British ethnic groups being less likely to get a job at graduation than their White/British colleagues...
August 1, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799670/compliance-with-recommended-protective-actions-during-an-h7n9-emergency-a-risk-perception-perspective
#14
Fei Wang, Jiuchang Wei, Xing Shi
This study investigates the factors determining an individual's response to official recommended protective measures, based on the Health Belief Model and the Protective Action Decision Model, to understand the adoption of protective behaviour during an H7N9 (Avian Influenza A) emergency. A public survey involving 1,375 respondents was conducted in Anhui Province, China, during the 2013 H7N9 outbreak to test the research model and hypotheses. The results indicate that protective, stakeholder, and risk perceptions influence positively an individual's willingness to take recommended actions...
August 11, 2017: Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799514/potentially-clinically-relevant-pharmacodynamic-interactions-between-antiepileptic-drugs-and-psychotropic-drugs-an-update
#15
Edoardo Spina, Jose de Leon
BACKGROUND: Prior articles paid little attention to pharmacodynamic drug interactions (DIs) between antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and the most important psychotropic medications (antidepressants, antipsychotics, benzodiazepines and lithium) which have potential to be clinically relevant. OBJECTIVE: This article aims to provide an updated review of the potentially clinically relevant pharmacodynamic DIs between AEDs and psychotropic medications. Pharmacodynamic DIs take place directly at the site of action of a drug or indirectly by interfering with another physiological mechanism...
August 9, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799492/potentials-and-limits-of-physiotherapy-in-osteoarthritis
#16
Katrin Richter, Ulf Müller-Ladner, Gabnel Dischereit, Uwe Lange
In view of the already existing and the expected growing costs due to the pathological osteoarthritic joint alterations and the related consequences, preventive and conservative strategies which can avoid or delay osteoarthritic joint alterations are welcomed from a socio-economical perspective. Here, it should be mentioned that corresponding primary prevention measures should take place early by already educating children about a healthy diet and motivating them to regular physical exercise. In overt or symptomatic osteoarthritis a good joint function and reduction of disease-related pain as well as a delay in the progression of osteoarthritis should be the primary goals of non-surgical therapeutic approaches...
August 10, 2017: Current Rheumatology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795837/spatial-perspective-taking-mediated-by-whole-body-motor-simulation
#17
Hiroyuki Muto, Soyogu Matsushita, Kazunori Morikawa
Humans can envision the world from other people's viewpoints. To explore the embodied process of such spatial perspective taking, we examined whether action related to a whole-body movement modulates performance on spatial perspective-taking tasks. Results showed that when participants responded by putting their left/right foot or left/right hand forward, actions congruent with a movement's direction (clockwise/counterclockwise) reduced RTs relative to incongruent actions. In contrast, actions irrelevant to a movement (a left/right hand index-finger response) did not affect performance...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793918/key-stakeholder-perspectives-on-the-barriers-and-solutions-to-pharmacy-practice-towards-complementary-medicines-an-australian-experience
#18
Carolina Oi Lam Ung, Joanna Harnett, Hao Hu
BACKGROUND: Although pharmacists are entrusted to play a role in ensuring the safe and appropriate use of all medicines, in general, the inclusion of complementary medicines (CMs) into their professional practice has not been observed. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions and opinions of pharmacists and 8 key stakeholder leaders regarding the barriers that hinder pharmacists from providing care related to the use of CMs by patients/consumers and to identify solutions that would support pharmacists' in extending their role in this area...
August 9, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793832/-i-was-thinking-we-would-be-spoon-fed-community-co-researchers-perceptions-of-individual-empowerment-in-participatory-health-research-in-swaziland
#19
Michelle Brear
Empowerment is an influential concept in global public health. Current theoretical models, which were developed in resource-rich countries, conceptualise individual-level empowerment as a process (or outcome) of developing positive self-perceptions, critical thinking expertise and new behaviours. They neglect the social and structural aspects that were central to early conceptualisations of empowerment, and may be culturally biased. My aim was to elucidate lay-people in Swaziland's perspectives about individual-level empowerment...
August 10, 2017: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791199/studying-primate-cognition-in-a-social-setting-to-improve-validity-and-welfare-a-literature-review-highlighting-successful-approaches
#20
Katherine A Cronin, Sarah L Jacobson, Kristin E Bonnie, Lydia M Hopper
BACKGROUND: Studying animal cognition in a social setting is associated with practical and statistical challenges. However, conducting cognitive research without disturbing species-typical social groups can increase ecological validity, minimize distress, and improve animal welfare. Here, we review the existing literature on cognitive research run with primates in a social setting in order to determine how widespread such testing is and highlight approaches that may guide future research planning...
2017: PeerJ
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