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Jeanne Dollinger, Veronika J Schacht, Caroline Gaus, Sharon Grant
Surfactants have the potential to modify the environmental behavior of hydrophobic pesticides leading to an enhanced or reduced mobility risk. This risk is often overlooked in registration procedures due to a lack of suitable methodologies to quantify the transport potential of pesticides with surfactants. In this study we present a novel methodology designed to study the surfactant facilitated transport of pesticides under controlled equilibrium and dynamic hydrologic conditions. Using this methodology, we investigated the risk of chlorpyrifos enhanced mobility for two common surfactant application practices in agrosystems: pesticide spraying and irrigation with waste water...
June 14, 2018: Chemosphere
Abhijit Shukla, Danwei Huangfu
Large portions of the human genome harbor functional noncoding elements, which can regulate a variety of biological processes and have important implications for disease risk and therapeutic outcomes. However, assigning specific functions to noncoding sequences remains a major challenge. Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) systems have emerged as a powerful approach for targeted genome and epigenome perturbation. CRISPR systems are now harnessed for high-throughput screening of the noncoding genome to uncover functional regulatory elements and to define their precise functions with superior speed...
June 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
Shiraz A Shah, Omer S Alkhnbashi, Juliane Behler, Wenyuan Han, Qunxin She, Wolfgang R Hess, Roger A Garrett, Rolf Backofen
A study was undertaken to identify conserved proteins that are encoded adjacent to cas gene cassettes of Type III CRISPR-Cas (Clusters of Regularly IntersSpaced Palindromic Repeats - CRISPR associated) interference modules. Type III modules have been shown to target and degrade dsDNA, ssDNA and ssRNA and are frequently intertwined with cofunctional accessory genes, including genes encoding CRISPR-associated Rossman Fold (CARF) domains. Using a comparative genomics approach, and defining a Type III association score accounting for coevolution and specificity of flanking genes, we identified and classified 39 new Type III associated gene families...
June 18, 2018: RNA Biology
Gang Li, Mengyu Shen, Yuhui Yang, Shuai Le, Ming Li, Jing Wang, Yan Zhao, Yinling Tan, Fuquan Hu, Shuguang Lu
Adaptation of bacteria to phage predation poses a major obstacle for phage therapy. Bacteria adopt multiple mechanisms, such as inhibition of phage adsorption and CRISPR/Cas systems, to resist phage infection. Here, a phage-resistant mutant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA1 under the infection of lytic phage PaP1 was selected for further study. The PaP1-resistant variant, termed PA1RG, showed decreased adsorption to PaP1 and was devoid of long chain O -antigen on its cell envelope. Whole genome sequencing and comparative analysis revealed a single nucleotide mutation in the gene PA1S_08510, which encodes the O -antigen polymerase Wzy that is involved in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthesis...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Shigeki Kimura, Tomoyo Sugiyama, Keiichi Hishikari, Shun Nakagama, Shun Nakamura, Toru Misawa, Masafumi Mizusawa, Kazuto Hayasaka, Yosuke Yamakami, Yuichiro Sagawa, Keisuke Kojima, Hirofumi Ohtani, Hiroyuki Hikita, Atsushi Takahashi
BACKGROUND: The in vivo lesion morphologies and plaque components of coronary chronic total occlusion (CTO) lesions remain unclear.Methods and Results:We investigated 57 consecutive CTO lesions in 57 patients with stable angina pectoris undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention with intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and coronary angioscopy (CAS) examination. All CTO lesions were classified according to the proximal angiographic lumen pattern; tapered-type (T-CTO) and abrupt-type (A-CTO)...
June 15, 2018: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
S Balakrishnan, S Kapoor, P Vijayanath, H Singh, A Nandhakumar, K Venkatesulu, V Shanmugam
Coeliac artery stenosis (CAS) is rarely of consequence owing to rich collateral supply from the superior mesenteric artery via the pancreatic head. Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) in CAS disrupts these collaterals, and places the liver, stomach and spleen at risk of ischaemia. A 56-year-old man presented with a 3-week history of obstructive jaundice. Computed tomography revealed an operable periampullary tumour with CAS due to compression by the median arcuate ligament with multiple collaterals in the pancreatic head and a prominent gastroduodenal artery (GDA)...
June 18, 2018: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
Suji Hong, Donghyun Ka, Seo Jeong Yoon, Nayoung Suh, Migyeong Jeong, Jeong-Yong Suh, Euiyoung Bae
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 15, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Carlos G Landaeta-Quinones, Nicole Hernandez, Najy K Zarroug
Computer-assisted surgery (CAS) has evolved over time from its earliest introduction with utility in the Neurosurgical field. Within the past twenty years, optical navigation systems have emerged and developed into a great tool for the fields of dentistry and craniomaxillofacial surgery (CMF). Currently, CAS is useful for orthognathic and temporomandibular joint surgery, facial trauma, maxillomandibular reconstruction, implantology, and restorative dentistry. This article describes the indications of CAS in dentistry, with large emphasis on CMF...
July 2018: Dental Clinics of North America
Hye-Yoon Lee, Oh-Jin Kwon, Jung-Eun Kim, Mikyeong Kim, Ae-Ran Kim, Hyo-Ju Park, Jung-Hyo Cho, Joo-Hee Kim, Sun-Mi Choi
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of functional constipation (FC) is 3-27%, and FC has been reported to cause discomfort in daily life and various complications. The treatment for FC depends on laxatives, and thus, effective and non-toxic alternative treatments are needed. METHODS: We conducted a randomised, sham-controlled parallel-design, pilot trial. Participants with FC were randomly assigned to either the real acupuncture (RA) or sham acupuncture (SA) group. The RA consisted of eight fixed acupuncture points (bilateral ST25, ST27, BL52 and BL25) and four additional points targeted to the individual based on Traditional Korean medicine (TKM)...
June 15, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Charles Chiu
Three recent Science articles (Chen et al., 2018; Gootenberg et al., 2018; Myhrvold et al., 2018) describe the use of CRISPR-Cas technology to develop point-of-care diagnostics that directly detect viruses from clinical samples. These tests could radically transform approaches to diagnosing infectious diseases at the bedside and in the field.
June 13, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
Elizabeth Pursey, David Sünderhauf, William H Gaze, Edze R Westra, Stineke van Houte
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Femke van der Stelt, Gregor J Krings, Mirella C Molenschot, Johannes M Breur
AIMS: Complex single ventricle topography, changes in vessel geometry after surgical steps and subsequent stenoses are difficult to visualise with biplane conventional angiography (CA). This study investigated the additional value of three-dimensional rotational angiography (3DRA) compared to CA for diagnostic and interventional purposes in children with univentricular hearts. METHODS AND RESULTS: Demographic data, clinical data and catheterisation details of both imaging techniques were collected retrospectively...
June 12, 2018: EuroIntervention
Ahmad Farooq Alsayed Hasanain, Khalid M El-Maghraby, Ali A H Zayed, Amany M A Nafee, Sherif M Abdel-Aal, Sally M Bakkar
Background: The activation of the cell-mediated immune responses by Mycobacterium tuberculosis can promote atherogenesis. Aims: The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) among patients with coronary artery stenosis (CAS) and to explore the association between LTBI and development of CAS. We conducted a case-control study which included 183 patients' who underwent percutaneous coronary angiography (121 patients with CAS and 62 patients without as a control group)...
April 2018: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Garance Castino, Martin Guillemet, Amélie Joly, Anaïs Vignon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Médecine Sciences: M/S
Adèle Friot, Justine Guguin, Louisa Haniche, Sylvia Vuillier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Médecine Sciences: M/S
Daisuke Kitano, Tadateru Takayama, Mitsumasa Sudo, Takaaki Kogo, Keisuke Kojima, Naotaka Akutsu, Toshihiko Nishida, Hironori Haruta, Daisuke Fukamachi, Taro Kawano, Takashi Kanai, Takafumi Hiro, Satoshi Saito, Atsushi Hirayma
BACKGROUND: Coronary artery vasospasm (CS) can be identified as either a diffuse type or focal type; however, the difference in endothelial characteristics between these spasm types remains unclear. The features of coronary intima associated with diffuse spasm and focal spasm using coronary angioscopy (CAS) were evaluated and the optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings were compared. METHODS: CAS and/or OCT observational analysis was performed in 55 patients (mean age: 61...
June 10, 2018: Journal of Cardiology
Bruno M Coêlho, Geilson L Santana, Maria C Viana, Laura H Andrade, Yuan-Pang Wang
OBJECTIVE: Childhood adversities (CAs) comprise a group of negative experiences individuals may suffer in their lifetimes. The goal of the present study was to investigate the cluster discrimination of CAs through psychometric determination of the common attributes of such experiences for men and women. METHODS: Parental mental illness, substance misuse, criminality, death, divorce, other parental loss, family violence, physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, physical illness, and economic adversity were assessed in a general-population sample (n=5,037)...
June 11, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
Cheng-Zhou Mao, Li Zheng, Yi-Min Zhou, Hai-Yan Wu, Jing-Bo Xia, Chi-Qian Liang, Xiao-Fang Guo, Wen-Tao Peng, Hui Zhao, Wei-Bin Cai, Soo-Ki Kim, Kyu-Sang Park, Dong-Qing Cai, Xu-Feng Qi
The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) 9 system has emerged as a powerful tool for knock-in of DNA fragments via donor plasmid and homology-independent DNA repair mechanism; however, conventional integration includes unnecessary plasmid backbone and may result in the unfaithful expression of the modified endogenous genes. Here, we report an efficient and precise CRISPR/Cas9-mediated integration strategy using a donor plasmid that harbors 2 of the same cleavage sites that flank the cassette at both sides...
June 13, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Andrea Angeli, Sonia Del Prete, Fatmah A S Alasmary, Linah S Alqahtani, Zeid AlOthman, William A Donald, Clemente Capasso, Claudiu T Supuran
The first activation study of a η-class carbonic anhydrase (CAs, EC is reported. A panel of 24 natural and non-natural amino acids and amines was used to explore the activation profile of Plasmodium falciparum CA (PfACA). The most effective activators belonged to the amino acid chemotype, with d-Glu, l-Asp, l-/d-Phe and l-/d-DOPA possessing activation constant in the range of 82 nM-0.75 µM, whereas l-/d-His, l-Tyr, 4-amino-l-Phe and l-Gln were slightly less effective (KA in the range of 1.00-2...
June 4, 2018: Bioorganic Chemistry
Kiril Krezhov, Aleksander Mladenov, Dobromir Dimitrov
Results from radon measurements by active sampling of indoor air in the buildings within the Nuclear Scientific Experimental and Educational Centre (NSEEC) protected site at the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE) are presented. The inspected buildings included in this report are the IRT research reactor structure and several auxiliary formations wherein the laundry facilities and the gamma irradiator GOU-1 (60Co source) are installed as well as the Central Alarm Station (CAS) premises...
June 11, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
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