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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668111/efficient-in-planta-gene-targeting-in-tomato-using-geminiviral-replicons-and-the-crispr-cas9-system
#1
Tal Dahan-Meir, Shdema Filler-Hayut, Cathy Melamed-Bessudo, Samuel Bocobza, Henryk Czosnek, Asaph Aharoni, Avraham A Levy
Current breeding relies mostly on random mutagenesis and recombination to generate novel genetic variation. However, targeted genome editing is becoming an increasingly important tool for precise plant breeding. Using the CRISPR-Cas system combined with the bean yellow dwarf virus rolling circle replicon we optimized a method for targeted mutagenesis and gene replacement in tomato. The carotenoid isomerase (CRTISO) and phytoene synthase 1 (PSY1) genes from the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway were chosen as targets due to their easily detectable change of phenotype...
April 18, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666786/modeling-neuropsychiatric-and-neurodegenerative-diseases-with-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#2
REVIEW
Elizabeth A LaMarca, Samuel K Powell, Schahram Akbarian, Kristen J Brennand
Human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have revolutionized our ability to model neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases, and recent progress in the field is paving the way for improved therapeutics. In this review, we discuss major advances in generating hiPSC-derived neural cells and cutting-edge techniques that are transforming hiPSC technology, such as three-dimensional "mini-brains" and clustered, regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas systems. We examine specific examples of how hiPSC-derived neural cells are being used to uncover the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease, and consider the future of this groundbreaking research...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666291/determining-the-specificity-of-cascade-binding-interference-and-primed-adaptation-in-vivo-in-the-escherichia-coli-type-i-e-crispr-cas-system
#3
Lauren A Cooper, Anne M Stringer, Joseph T Wade
In clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas (CRISPR-associated) immunity systems, short CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) are bound by Cas proteins, and these complexes target invading nucleic acid molecules for degradation in a process known as interference. In type I CRISPR-Cas systems, the Cas protein complex that binds DNA is known as Cascade. Association of Cascade with target DNA can also lead to acquisition of new immunity elements in a process known as primed adaptation. Here, we assess the specificity determinants for Cascade-DNA interaction, interference, and primed adaptation in vivo , for the type I-E system of Escherichia coli Remarkably, as few as 5 bp of crRNA-DNA are sufficient for association of Cascade with a DNA target...
April 17, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663920/advances-in-the-engineering-of-the-gene-editing-enzymes-and-the-genomes-understanding-and-handling-the-off-target-effects-of-crispr-cas9
#4
Yufang Yin, Qian Wang, Li Xiao, Fengjiao Wang, Zhuo Song, Cuilan Zhou, Xuan Liu, Chungen Xing, Nongyue He, Kai Li, Yan Feng, Jia Zhang
In the past decades, significant progresses have been achieved in genetic engineering of nucleases. Among the genetically engineered nucleases, zinc finger nucleases, transcription activator-like (TAL) effector nucleases, and CRIPSPR/Cas9 system form a new field of gene editing. The gene editing efficiency or targeting effect and the off-target effect are the two major determinant factors in evaluating the usefulness of a new enzyme. Engineering strategies in improving these gene editing enzymes, particularly in minimizing their off-target effects, are the focus of this paper...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663663/modular-ligation-extension-of-guide-rna-operons-lego-for-multiplexed-dcas9-regulation-of-metabolic-pathways-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#5
Matthew Deaner, Allison Holzman, Hal S Alper
Metabolic engineering typically utilizes a suboptimal step-wise gene target optimization approach to parse a highly connected and regulated cellular metabolism. While the endonuclease-null CRISPR/Cas system has enabled gene expression perturbations without genetic modification, it has been mostly limited to small sets of gene targets in eukaryotes due to inefficient methods to assemble and express large sgRNA operons. In this work, we develop a TEF1p-tRNA expression system and demonstrate that the use of tRNAs as splicing elements flanking sgRNAs provides higher efficiency than both Pol III and ribozyme-based expression across a variety of single sgRNA and multiplexed contexts...
April 16, 2018: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663331/three-cases-of-advanced-cutaneous-angiosarcoma-treated-with-eribulin-investigation-of-serum-soluble-cd163-and-cxcl10-as-possible-biomarkers-predicting-the-biological-behaviour-of-angiosarcoma
#6
T Fujimura, Y Sato, Y Kambayashi, K Tanita, A Tsukada, H Terui, A Hashimoto, S Aiba
Cutaneous angiosarcoma (CAS) is a highly aggressive vascular tumour that recurs locally and metastasizes early. Although chemoradiotherapy with taxanes shows a high response rate with prolonged survival, second-line therapy for advanced CAS remains contentious. This report describes three cases of advanced CAS treated with eribulin. In addition, we investigated serum sCD163, CXCL10 and CCL22 levels at several time points of tumour progression in these patients, revealing serum levels of sCD163 and CXCL10 as potential biomarkers for progression of CAS...
April 17, 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662228/cas-adaptor-proteins-coordinate-sensory-axon-fasciculation
#7
Tyler A Vahedi-Hunter, Jason A Estep, Kylee A Rosette, Michael L Rutlin, Kevin M Wright, Martin M Riccomagno
Development of complex neural circuits like the peripheral somatosensory system requires intricate mechanisms to ensure axons make proper connections. While much is known about ligand-receptor pairs required for dorsal root ganglion (DRG) axon guidance, very little is known about the cytoplasmic effectors that mediate cellular responses triggered by these guidance cues. Here we show that members of the Cas family of cytoplasmic signaling adaptors are highly phosphorylated in central projections of the DRG as they enter the spinal cord...
April 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661863/-vibrio-cholerae-outer-membrane-vesicles-inhibit-bacteriophage-infection
#8
Tamara Reyes-Robles, Rebecca S Dillard, Lynne S Cairns, Cecilia A Silva-Valenzuela, Max Housman, Afsar Ali, Elizabeth R Wright, Andrew Camilli
Novel preventatives could help in efforts to limit Vibrio cholerae infection and the spread of cholera. Bacteriophage (or phage) treatment has been proposed to be an alternative intervention, given the rapid replication of virulent phages, prey specificity, and relative ease of finding new virulent phages. Phage tropism is dictated in part by the presence of phage receptors on the bacterial surface. While many phages that can kill V. cholerae have been isolated, whether this pathogen is able to defend itself by neutralizing phage binding is unknown...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659018/vmat-optimization-with-dynamic-collimator-rotation
#9
Qihui Lyu, Daniel O'Connor, Dan Ruan, Victoria Yu, Dan Nguyen, Ke Sheng
PURPOSE: Although collimator rotation is an optimization variable that can be exploited for dosimetric advantages, existing Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) optimization uses a fixed collimator angle in each arc and only rotates the collimator between arcs. In this study, we develop a novel integrated optimization method for VMAT, accounting for dynamic collimator angles during the arc motion. METHODS: Direct Aperture Optimization (DAO) for Dynamic Collimator in VMAT (DC-VMAT) was achieved by adding to the existing dose fidelity objective an anisotropic total variation term for regulating the fluence smoothness, a binary variable for forming simple apertures, and a group sparsity term for controlling collimator rotation...
April 16, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658880/crystal-structure-of-intraflagellar-transport-protein-80-reveals-a-homo-dimer-required-for-ciliogenesis
#10
Michael Taschner, Anna Lorentzen, André Mourão, Toby Collins, Grace M Freke, Dale Moulding, Jerome Basquin, Dagan Jenkins, Esben Lorentzen
Oligomeric assemblies of intraflagellar transport (IFT) particles build cilia through sequential recruitment and transport of ciliary cargo proteins within cilia. Here we present the 1.8Å resolution crystal structure of the Chlamydomonas IFT-B protein IFT80, which reveals the architecture of two N-terminal b-propellers followed by an a-helical extension. The N-terminal b-propeller tethers IFT80 to the IFT-B complex via IFT38 whereas the second b-propeller and the C-terminal a-helical extension result in IFT80 homo-dimerization...
April 16, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653191/microbiota-transplantation-and-or-crispr-cas-in-the-battle-against-antimicrobial-resistance
#11
EDITORIAL
Jordi Vila
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 10, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652537/subphenotyping-and-classification-of-cleft-lip-and-alveolus-in-adult-unoperated-patients-a-new-embryological-approach
#12
Christl Vermeij-Keers, Anna M Rozendaal, Antonius J M Luijsterburg, Benny S Latief, Costas Lekkas, Lea Kragt, Edwin M Ongkosuwito
OBJECTIVE: Previously, a new embryological classification was introduced subdividing oral clefts into fusion and/or differentiation defects. This subdivision was used to classify all subphenotypes of cleft lip with or without alveolus (CL±A). Subsequently, it was investigated whether further morphological grading of incomplete CLs is clinically relevant, and which alveolar part is deficient in fusion/differentiation defects. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING: Three hundred fifty adult unoperated Indonesian cleft patients presented themselves for operation...
January 1, 2018: Cleft Palate-craniofacial Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650211/relationship-between-the-levels-of-family-burden-in-caring-for-older-people-with-the-incidence-of-mistreatment
#13
Etty Rekawati, AchirYani S Hamid, Junaiti Sahar, Widyatuti
BACKGROUND: Caring for older people can be a burden for the family that led to mistreatment. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between the levels of family burden in caring for older people with the occurrence of mistreatment incidence. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: A cross sectional study design was conducted with 135 older people who live with their family as respondents. SETTING: 135 families with older people at Kelurahan/Village of Harjamukti area, Kecamatan/ District of Cimanggis, Depok city...
February 2018: Enfermería Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649988/the-function-and-morphology-of-meibomian-glands-in-patients-with-thyroid-eye-disease-a-preliminary-study
#14
Chia-Yu Wang, Ren-Wen Ho, Po-Chiung Fang, Hun-Ju Yu, Chun-Chih Chien, Chang-Chun Hsiao, Ming-Tse Kuo
BACKGROUND: To investigate function and morphology of the meibomian gland (MG) in patients with thyroid eye disease (TED). METHODS: In this prospective case series study, patients with unilateral or bilateral TED were consecutively enrolled. The diagnosis of TED was based on the typical orbital findings and/or radiographic evidence. The disease activity of TED was classified according to the clinical activity score (CAS). Degrees of lagophthalmos and exophthalmos, blinking rates, and results of the Schirmer test 1 were also recorded...
April 12, 2018: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649958/the-nuts-and-bolts-of-the-haloferax-crispr-cas-system-i-b
#15
Lisa-Katharina Maier, Aris-Edda Stachler, Jutta Brendel, Britta Stoll, Susan Fischer, Karina Haas, Thandi Schwarz, Omer S Alkhnbashi, Kundan Sharma, Henning Urlaub, Rolf Backofen, Uri Gophna, Anita Marchfelder
Invading genetic elements pose a constant threat to prokaryotic survival, requiring an effective defence. Eleven years ago, the arsenal of known defence mechanisms was expanded by the discovery of the CRISPR-Cas system. Although CRISPR-Cas is present in the majority of archaea, research often focuses on bacterial models. Here, we provide a perspective based on insights gained studying CRISPR-Cas system I-B of the archaeon Haloferax volcanii. The system relies on more than 50 different crRNAs, whose stability and maintenance critically depend on the proteins Cas5 and Cas7, which bind the crRNA and form the Cascade complex...
April 13, 2018: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648539/horizontal-gene-transfer-in-thermus-spp
#16
Alba Blesa, Beate Averhoff, José Berenguer
The small amount of genetic content in thermophiles generally limits their adaptability to environmental changes. In Thermus spp., very active horizontal gene transfer (HGT) mechanisms allow the rapid spread of strain-specific adaptive gene modules among the entire population. Constitutive expression of a rather particular and highly efficient DNA transport apparatus (DTA) is at the center of this HGT-mediated enhanced adaptability. The function of the DTA is dependent on the integrity and longevity of the extracellular DNA (eDNA) being transformed, which can be improved by the production of extracellular vesicles (EV) through lysis of a fraction of the population...
April 12, 2018: Current Issues in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644494/review-of-crispr-cas9-sgrna-design-tools
#17
REVIEW
Yingbo Cui, Jiaming Xu, Minxia Cheng, Xiangke Liao, Shaoliang Peng
The adaptive immunity system in bacteria and archaea, Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats, CRISPR-associate (CRISPR/Cas), has been adapted as a powerful gene editing tool and got a broad application in genome research field due to its ease of use and cost-effectiveness. The performance of CRISPR/Cas relies on well-designed single-guide RNA (sgRNA), so a lot of bioinformatic tools have been developed to assist the design of highly active and specific sgRNA. These tools vary in design specifications, parameters, genomes and so on...
April 11, 2018: Interdisciplinary Sciences, Computational Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643966/cosmetic-effects-of-skin-crease-camouflage-incision-versus-longitudinal-incision-following-carotid-endarterectomy
#18
Arkadiusz Kazimierczak, Anita Rybicka, Pawel Rynio, Piotr Gutowski, Ireneusz Wiernicki
Introduction: Despite the increasing use of carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS), carotid endarterectomy (CEA) nonetheless remains a more medically beneficial method of treatment for carotid artery stenosis. Therefore, one possibility for progress within this procedure may be to use minimally invasive carotid surgery, especially when the scar is in plain sight: the use of the natural wrinkles (skin crease) as a camouflage of the skin incision provides significant cosmetic improvements...
March 2018: Wideochirurgia i Inne Techniki Mało Inwazyjne, Videosurgery and Other Miniinvasive Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643925/isolated-double-orifice-mitral-valve-in-a-young-girl
#19
Niloufar Samiei, Hooman Dehghan, Maryam Pourmojib, Ahmad Mohebbi, Saeid Hosseini, Yousef Rezaei
BACKGROUND: Double-orifice mitral valve (DOMV) is an extremely rare cardiac malformation. It has been found to be accompanied by congenital anomalies (CAs), however, it can be detected as an isolated anomaly. The clinical findings of a DOMV are variable and depend predominantly on the associated cardiac abnormalities, particularly atrioventricular septal defects or mitral valve (MV) regurgitation and/or stenosis. CASE REPORT: In this regard, we describe an isolated DOMV in an 18-year-old young girl who complained of a short-term nonspecific chest pain...
November 2017: ARYA Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642627/a-review-of-the-interactions-between-wheat-and-wheat-pathogens-zymoseptoria-tritici-fusarium-spp-and-parastagonospora-nodorum
#20
REVIEW
Adrian Duba, Klaudia Goriewa-Duba, Urszula Wachowska
Zymoseptoria tritici is a hemibiotrophic pathogen which causes Septoria leaf blotch in wheat. The pathogenesis of the disease consists of a biotrophic phase and a necrotrophic phase. The pathogen infects the host plant by suppressing its immune response in the first stage of infection. Hemibiotrophic pathogens of the genus Fusarium cause Fusarium head blight, and the necrotrophic Parastagonospora nodorum is responsible for Septoria nodorum blotch in wheat. Cell wall-degrading enzymes in plants promote infections by necrotrophic and hemibiotrophic pathogens, and trichothecenes, secondary fungal metabolites, facilitate infections caused by fungi of the genus Fusarium ...
April 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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