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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334774/high-tolerance-to-self-targeting-of-the-genome-by-the-endogenous-crispr-cas-system-in-an-archaeon
#1
Aris-Edda Stachler, Israela Turgeman-Grott, Ella Shtifman-Segal, Thorsten Allers, Anita Marchfelder, Uri Gophna
CRISPR-Cas systems allow bacteria and archaea to acquire sequence-specific immunity against selfish genetic elements such as viruses and plasmids, by specific degradation of invader DNA or RNA. However, this involves the risk of autoimmunity if immune memory against host DNA is mistakenly acquired. Such autoimmunity has been shown to be highly toxic in several bacteria and is believed to be one of the major costs of maintaining these defense systems. Here we generated an experimental system in which a non-essential gene, required for pigment production and the reddish colony color, is targeted by the CRISPR-Cas I-B system of the halophilic archaeon Haloferax volcanii...
March 2, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334141/distribution-of-antimicrobial-resistance-determinants-virulence-associated-factors-and-crispr-loci-in-isolates-of-enterococcus-faecalis-from-various-settings-and-genetic-lineages
#2
Iwona Gawryszewska, Katarzyna Malinowska, Alicja Kuch, Dorota Chrobak-Chmiel, Lucja Laniewska-Trokenheim, Waleria Hryniewicz, Ewa Sadowy
Enterococcus faecalis represents an important factor of hospital-associated infections (HAIs). The knowledge on its evolution from a commensal to an opportunistic pathogen is still limited, thus we performed a study to characterize distribution of factors that may contribute to this adaptation. Using a collection obtained from various settings (hospitalized patients, community carriers, animals, fresh food, sewage, water) we investigated differences in antimicrobial susceptibility, distribution of antimicrobial resistance genes, virulence-associated determinants and phenotypes, and CRISPR loci in the context of the clonal relatedness of isolates...
March 1, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332031/how-do-energy-stores-and-changes-in-these-affect-departure-decisions-by-migratory-birds-a-critical-view-on-stopover-ecology-studies-and-some-future-perspectives
#3
REVIEW
Heiko Schmaljohann, Cas Eikenaar
In birds, accumulating energy is far slower than spending energy during flight. During migration, birds spend, therefore, most of the time at stopover refueling energy used during the previous flight. This elucidates why current energy stores and actual rate of accumulating energy are likely crucial factors influencing bird's decision when to resume migration in addition to other intrinsic (sex, age) and extrinsic (predation, weather) factors modulating the decision within the innate migration program. After first summarizing how energy stores and stopover durations are generally determined, we critically review that high-energy stores and low rates of accumulating energy were significantly related to high departure probabilities in several bird groups...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331970/disease-modeling-in-genetic-kidney-diseases-zebrafish
#4
REVIEW
Heiko Schenk, Janina Müller-Deile, Mark Kinast, Mario Schiffer
Growing numbers of translational genomics studies are based on the highly efficient and versatile zebrafish (Danio rerio) vertebrate model. The increasing types of zebrafish models have improved our understanding of inherited kidney diseases, since they not only display pathophysiological changes but also give us the opportunity to develop and test novel treatment options in a high-throughput manner. New paradigms in inherited kidney diseases have been developed on the basis of the distinct genome conservation of approximately 70 % between zebrafish and humans in terms of existing gene orthologs...
March 22, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331187/cross-beta-nanostructures-based-on-dinaphthylalanine-gd-conjugates-loaded-with-doxorubicin
#5
Carlo Diaferia, Eliana Gianolio, Teresa Sibillano, Flavia Anna Mercurio, Marilisa Leone, Cinzia Giannini, Nicole Balasco, Luigi Vitagliano, Giancarlo Morelli, Antonella Accardo
Very recently we proposed novel di- and tetra-phenylalanine peptides derivatized with gadolinium complexes as potentials supramolecular diagnostic agents for applications in MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging). It was observed that in very short FF dipeptide building blocks, the propensity to aggregate decreases significantly after modification with bulky moiety such as Gd-complexes, thus limiting their potential as CAs. We hypothesized that the replacement of the Phe side chain with more extended aromatic groups could improve the self-assembling...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329204/new-neuroscience-tools-that-are-identifying-the-sleep-wake-circuit
#6
Priyattam J Shiromani, John H Peever
The complexity of the brain is yielding to technology. In the area of sleep neurobiology, conventional neuroscience tools such as lesions, cell recordings, c-Fos, and axon-tracing methodologies have been instrumental in identifying the complex and intermingled populations of sleep- and arousal-promoting neurons that orchestrate and generate wakefulness, NREM, and REM sleep. In the last decade, new technologies such as optogenetics, chemogenetics and the CRISPR-Cas system have begun to transform how biologists understand the finer details associated with sleep-wake regulation...
March 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329125/outcomes-in-patients-with-cardiovascular-implantable-electronic-device-infection-managed-with-chronic-antibiotic-suppression
#7
Eugene M Tan, Daniel C DeSimone, M Rizwan Sohail, Larry M Baddour, Walter R Wilson, James M Steckelberg, Abinash Virk
Background: Most cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) recipients are elderly, have multiple comorbid conditions, and are at increased risk of CIED infection (CIEDI). Current guidelines recommend complete device removal in patients with CIEDI to prevent relapse and mortality. However, comorbidities or other factors may preclude device removal, thus prompting a non-surgical approach that includes chronic antibiotic suppression (CAS). There are limited data on outcomes of patients receiving CAS for CIEDI...
February 24, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327544/fmnl-formins-boost-lamellipodial-force-generation
#8
Frieda Kage, Moritz Winterhoff, Vanessa Dimchev, Jan Mueller, Tobias Thalheim, Anika Freise, Stefan Brühmann, Jana Kollasser, Jennifer Block, Georgi Dimchev, Matthias Geyer, Hans-Joachim Schnittler, Cord Brakebusch, Theresia E B Stradal, Marie-France Carlier, Michael Sixt, Josef Käs, Jan Faix, Klemens Rottner
Migration frequently involves Rac-mediated protrusion of lamellipodia, formed by Arp2/3 complex-dependent branching thought to be crucial for force generation and stability of these networks. The formins FMNL2 and FMNL3 are Cdc42 effectors targeting to the lamellipodium tip and shown here to nucleate and elongate actin filaments with complementary activities in vitro. In migrating B16-F1 melanoma cells, both formins contribute to the velocity of lamellipodium protrusion. Loss of FMNL2/3 function in melanoma cells and fibroblasts reduces lamellipodial width, actin filament density and -bundling, without changing patterns of Arp2/3 complex incorporation...
March 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327073/the-influence-of-axial-grooves-on-dislodgment-resistance-of-prosthetic-metal-crowns-in-canine-teeth-of-dogs
#9
Stephanie Goldschmidt, Caitlyn J Collins, Scott Hetzel, Heidi-Lynn Ploeg, Jason W Soukup
The reported failure rate for full veneer crowns of canine teeth of dogs is suboptimal, particularly in teeth with naturally poor retentive features, such as those with low height/diameter (H/D) ratios or high convergence angles (CAs). The objective of the present study was to evaluate the application of axial grooves in an effort to develop a crown preparation design that enhances the retention of full veneer crowns in dogs. Crown dislodgment testing was performed on cast alloy dies of canine teeth with unfavorable retention features (low H/D and high CA) prepared with (n = 14) and without axial grooves (n = 15) to evaluate the force required to dislodge a cemented full veneer crown...
September 2016: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324713/monolithic-cobalt-doped-carbon-aerogel-for-efficient-catalytic-activation-of-peroxymonosulfate-in-water
#10
Peidong Hu, Mingce Long, Xue Bai, Cheng Wang, Caiyun Cai, Jiajun Fu, Baoxue Zhou, Yongfeng Zhou
As an emerging carbonaceous material, carbon aerogels (CAs) display a great potential in environmental cleanup. In this study, a macroscopic three-dimensional monolithic cobalt-doped carbon aerogel was developed by co-condensation of graphene oxide sheets and resorcinol-formaldehyde resin in the presence of cobalt ions, followed by lyophilization, carbonization and thermal treatment in air. Cobalt ions were introduced as a polymerization catalyst to bridge the organogel framework, and finally cobalt species were retained as both metallic cobalt and Co3O4, wrapped by graphitized carbon layers...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323405/oxygen-vacancy-enables-markedly-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging-guided-photothermal-therapy-of-a-gd-3-doped-contrast-agent
#11
Dalong Ni, Jiawen Zhang, Jing Wang, Ping Hu, Yingying Jin, Zhongmin Tang, Zhenwei Yao, Wenbo Bu, Jianlin Shi
Gd(3+)-based contrast agents (CAs) are the most prevailing and widely used for enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Numbers of approaches have been developed to regulate the key parameters in order to obtain high-relaxivity CAs, according to the classic Solomon-Bloembergen-Morgen theory. Herein, a method of controlling oxygen vacancies in inorganic nanosized CAs has been developed for largely accelerated proton relaxation to obtain a high r1 value. Such a strategy is verified on oxygen-deficient PEG-NaxGdWO3 nanorods, which exhibit a remarkable r1 value up to 80 mM(-1) s(-1) (at 0...
March 23, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323191/the-feasibility-and-safety-of-separate-carotid-artery-stenting-using-the-restrict-protective-method-for-bilateral-carotid-stenosis
#12
Tomotaka Ohshima, Ishu Bishnori, Kojiro Ishikawa, Shunsaku Goto, Taiki Yamamoto, Yoko Kato
BACKGROUND: and Purpose: The treatment strategy for bilateral carotid stenosis (BCS) is not clear. We report our experience of treating 12 patients with BCS using separate carotid artery stenting (CAS) using the restrict protective method. The order of treatment site and the protective method are also discussed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between April 2012 and November 2016, 24 lesions in 12 patients (range, 44-83 years; mean, 71 years; 1 woman) underwent CAS at Kariya Toyota General Hospital...
March 16, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323181/perioperative-changes-in-cerebral-perfusion-territories-assessed-by-arterial-spin-labeling-magnetic-resonance-imaging-are-associated-with-postoperative-increases-in-cerebral-blood-flow-in-patients-with-carotid-stenosis
#13
Daisuke Yamamoto, Kohkichi Hosoda, Yoshito Uchihashi, Atsushi Fujita, Takashi Sasayama, Masahiko Fujii, Kazuro Sugimura, Masaaki Kohta, Eiji Kohmura
OBJECTIVE: MRI technique known as Territorial ASL (TASL) allows for noninvasive visualization of their perfusion territories. The objective of this study was to use TASL to assess the relationship between perioperative changes in the perfusion territories of ICA and CBF after carotid revascularization. METHODS: In 32 patients, ICA perfusion volume (PV) and CBF were measured before and after CEA/CAS using TASL and SPECT, respectively. ICA flow was measured during CEA before and after reconstruction, using an electromagnetic flowmeter...
March 16, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322729/standardisation-and-use-of-the-alcohol-biomarker-carbohydrate-deficient-transferrin-cdt
#14
Anders Helander, Jos Wielders, Raymond Anton, Torsten Arndt, Vincenza Bianchi, Jean Deenmamode, Jan-Olof Jeppsson, John B Whitfield, Cas Weykamp, François Schellenberg
Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) is a glycoform profile of serum transferrin that increases in response to sustained high alcohol intake and over the last decades has become an important alcohol biomarker with clinical and forensic applications. However, the wide range of CDT measurement procedures has resulted in lack of uniform results and reference limits, and hampered comparison of results. In 2005, the IFCC therefore founded a special working group (WG) aiming for standardisation of CDT measurement...
March 18, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322549/vitamin-c-modulates-the-immunotoxic-effect-of-17-alpha-methyltestosterone-in-nile-tilapia
#15
Haitham G Abo-Al-Ela, Abeer F El-Nahas, Shawky Mahmoud, Essam M Ibrahim
The synthetic androgen, 17 alpha-methyltestosterone (MT), is profusely used and practically needed in the production of all-male Nile tilapia fry; however, such androgenic hormones badly disrupt the immune system. This study aimed to alleviate or counteract the immunotoxic effect of MT using vitamin C (ascorbic acid, vit C). Our results show that the highest phagocytic activity (PA), phagocytic index (PI) and lysozyme activity were detected in the vit C group and the MT plus vit C group. Furthermore, PA and PI were significantly suppressed, but lysozyme activity was stronger in the MT group than the control...
March 21, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322142/enhanced-release-of-immunostimulating-%C3%AE-1-3-glucan-by-autodigestion-of-the-lingzhi-medicinal-mushroom-ganoderma-lingzhi-agaricomycetes
#16
Yuina Ishimoto, Ken-Ichi Ishibashi, Daisuke Yamanaka, Yoshiyuki Adachi, Hisatomi Ito, Kentaro Igami, Toshitsugu Miyazaki, Naohito Ohno
Ganoderma lingzhi is a widely used medicinal mushroom that has antioxidative effects, ameliorates insulin resistance, and improves quality of life in patients with metabolic syndrome. Potentiation of immunity is also a major function of G. lingzhi, and this has been applied in patients with cancer. Supplementing G. lingzhi into foods reduced the metastasis of cancer cells. β-l,3-glucan is an important bioactive component of G. lingzhi. In this study we enhanced the solubilization ofimmunostimulating β-l,3-glucan by autodigestion of G...
2017: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321713/low-titre-gad-antibody-associated-late-onset-cerebellar-ataxia-with-a-significant-clinical-response-to-intravenous-immunoglobulin-treatment
#17
Timotej Petrijan, Marija Menih
Antiglutamic acid decarboxylase antibody-associated cerebellar ataxia (GAD-Abs CA) is a rare, but increasingly detected, autoimmune neurological disorder characterized by the clinical presence of a cerebellar syndrome concomitant with positive GAD-Abs levels in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). It represents 3% of all immune-mediated sporadic CAs. Low-titre GAD-Abs CA is an even rarer subtype of GAD-Abs CA. We report on a 68-year-old woman with a 3-year history of progressive gait ataxia. In addition to the modified Rankin Scale (mRS), we used two other objective scales to evaluate CA severity, i...
March 20, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318894/synthesis-and-human-bacterial-carbonic-anhydrase-inhibition-with-a-series-of-sulfonamides-incorporating-phthalimido-moieties
#18
Menshawy A Mohamed, Alaa A-M Abdel-Aziz, Helmy M Sakr, Adel S El-Azab, Silvia Bua, Claudiu T Supuran
A series of sulfonamides was obtained by reacting substituted-2-(1,3-dioxo-1,3-dihydroisobenzofuran-5-carboxamido)benzoic acids with aromatic sulfonamides incorporating primary amino moieties. The new compounds were investigated as inhibitor of four carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) isoforms, the human (h) hCA I and II, and the α- and β-class CAs from the pathogenic bacterium Vibrio cholerae, VchCAα and VhcCAβ. hCA I was effectively inhibited by the new sulfonamides, with inhibition constants in the range of 4...
March 9, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317289/stroke-recurrence-in-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation-concomitant-carotid-artery-stenosis-doubles-the-risk
#19
H Lehtola, K E J Airaksinen, P Hartikainen, J E K Hartikainen, A Palomäki, I Nuotio, A Ylitalo, T Kiviniemi, P Mustonen
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Atrial fibrillation (AF) and significant carotid artery stenosis (CAS) often coexist in patients with acute stroke but whether CAS affects the stroke recurrence rate in anticoagulated AF patients is largely unknown. The effect of concomitant CAS on both short- and long-term prognosis after stroke in patients with AF was evaluated. METHODS: The multicentre, retrospective FibStroke registry included AF patients with an ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA) during 2003-2012...
March 20, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315728/can-ambulance-telephone-triage-using-nhs-pathways-accurately-identify-paediatric-cardiac-arrest
#20
Charles D Deakin, Simon England, Debbie Diffey, Ian Maconochie
BACKGROUND: Most out-of-hospital paediatric cardiac arrests (CA) are not identified until a call is made to the emergency medical services. Accurate identification increases overall survival by enabling immediate ambulance dispatch and delivery of bystander CPR. European ambulance services use a variety of didactic telephone scripts to interrogate the caller and rapidly identify paediatric CA. The performance of these scripts has not been reported. This study aims to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the NHS Pathways as a telephone triage tool to identify patients less than 16 years age in cardiac arrest...
March 15, 2017: Resuscitation
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