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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732403/ecosystem-service-trade-offs-and-their-influencing-factors-a-case-study-in-the-loess-plateau-of-china
#1
Qiang Feng, Wenwu Zhao, Bojie Fu, Jingyi Ding, Shuai Wang
Soil erosion control (SEC), carbon sequestration (CAS), and soil moisture (SMO) strongly interact in the semi-arid Loess Plateau. Since SMO has supportive effects on SEC and CAS, it can be considered as ecosystem service (ES), and there is an immediate need to coordinate the relationships among these ecosystem services (ESs) to promote the sustainability of vegetation recovery. In this study, we quantified the ESs, ES trade-offs, and the environmental factors in 151 sample plots in the Ansai watershed, and we used a redundancy analysis (RDA) to clarify the effects of environmental factors on these ESs and their trade-offs...
July 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732268/validation-comparison-and-combination-of-algorithms-for-automatic-detection-of-pulmonary-nodules-in-computed-tomography-images-the-luna16-challenge
#2
Arnaud Arindra Adiyoso Setio, Alberto Traverso, Thomas de Bel, Moira S N Berens, Cas van den Bogaard, Piergiorgio Cerello, Hao Chen, Qi Dou, Maria Evelina Fantacci, Bram Geurts, Robbert van der Gugten, Pheng Ann Heng, Bart Jansen, Michael M J de Kaste, Valentin Kotov, Jack Yu-Hung Lin, Jeroen T M C Manders, Alexander Sóñora-Mengana, Juan Carlos García-Naranjo, Evgenia Papavasileiou, Mathias Prokop, Marco Saletta, Cornelia M Schaefer-Prokop, Ernst T Scholten, Luuk Scholten, Miranda M Snoeren, Ernesto Lopez Torres, Jef Vandemeulebroucke, Nicole Walasek, Guido C A Zuidhof, Bram van Ginneken, Colin Jacobs
Automatic detection of pulmonary nodules in thoracic computed tomography (CT) scans has been an active area of research for the last two decades. However, there have only been few studies that provide a comparative performance evaluation of different systems on a common database. We have therefore set up the LUNA16 challenge, an objective evaluation framework for automatic nodule detection algorithms using the largest publicly available reference database of chest CT scans, the LIDC-IDRI data set. In LUNA16, participants develop their algorithm and upload their predictions on 888 CT scans in one of the two tracks: 1) the complete nodule detection track where a complete CAD system should be developed, or 2) the false positive reduction track where a provided set of nodule candidates should be classified...
July 13, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731201/a-technological-and-regulatory-outlook-on-crispr-crop-editing
#3
Rea Globus, Udi Qimron
Generating plants with increased yields while maintaining low production and maintenance costs is highly important since plants are the major food source for humans and animals, as well as important producers of chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and fuels. Gene editing approaches, particularly the CRISPR-Cas system, are the preferred methods for improving crops, enabling quick, robust, and accurate gene manipulation. Nevertheless, new breeds of genetically-modified crops have initiated substantial debates concerning their biosafety, commercial use, and regulation...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730450/crispr-cas-rna-scaffolds-for-transcriptional-programming-in-yeast
#4
Jesse G Zalatan
CRISPR scaffold RNAs (scRNAs) provide a modular system for locus-specific transcriptional programming. scRNAs are generated by extending CRISPR guide RNA sequences with domains that recruit RNA-binding proteins, thus physically linking DNA binding and protein recruitment activities. A single scRNA molecule encodes information about the target locus and instructions about what regulatory function to execute at that locus. Sets of scRNA constructs can be used to generate synthetic multigene transcriptional programs in which some genes are activated and others are repressed...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730367/prevalence-of-chromosomal-aberrations-in-argentinean-agricultural-workers
#5
Graciela Eugenia Bianco, Eva Suarez, Lauro Cazon, Teresita Beatriz de la Puente, Marcelo Rafael Benitez Ahrendts, Julio César De Luca
Little is known about biosecurity measures and toxic effects during pesticide application in the province of Jujuy, Argentina, particularly concerning the protective measures and mixture of pesticides used by rural workers. We carried out an observational study of agricultural workers from Jujuy (76 exposed subjects and 53 controls) to investigate the prevalence of chromosomal aberrations (CAs) in human lymphocytes as well as the activity level of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in red blood cell erythrocytes. Whole blood samples (5 mL) were collected in heparinized Vacutainer tubes for cytogenetic analysis and erythrocyte cholinesterase activity determination according to Ellman's method...
July 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729350/structures-of-the-crispr-genome-integration-complex
#6
Addison V Wright, Jun-Jie Liu, Gavin J Knott, Kevin W Doxzen, Eva Nogales, Jennifer A Doudna
CRISPR-Cas systems depend on the Cas1-Cas2 integrase to capture and integrate short foreign DNA fragments into the CRISPR locus, enabling adaptation to new viruses. We present crystal structures of Cas1-Cas2 bound to both donor and target DNA in intermediate and product integration complexes, as well as a cryo-electron microscopy structure of the full CRISPR locus integration complex including the accessory protein Integration Host Factor (IHF). The structures show unexpectedly that indirect sequence recognition dictates integration site selection by favoring deformation of the repeat and the flanking sequences...
July 20, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729103/n-o-225-lignes-directrices-quant-%C3%A3-la-prise-en-charge-des-patientes-en-obst%C3%A3-trique-chez-lesquelles-la-pr%C3%A3-sence-du-syndrome-respiratoire-aigu-s%C3%A3-v%C3%A3-re-sras-est-soup%C3%A3-onn%C3%A3-e-ou-probable-et-des-nouveau-n%C3%A3-s-issus-de-ces-patientes
#7
Cynthia Maxwell, Alison McGeer, Kin Fan Young Tai, Mathew Sermer
OBJECTIF: Le présent document résume notre expérience limitée quant à la présence du SRAS pendant la grossesse et suggère des lignes directrices quant à sa prise en charge. ISSUES: Les exposés de cas issus d'Asie laissent entendre que les issues maternelles et fœtales sont aggravées par la présence du SRAS pendant la grossesse. RéSULTATS: Des recherches ont été menées dans Medline afin d'en tirer les articles pertinents publiés en anglais entre 2000 et 2007...
August 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728106/multipotent-ache-and-bace-1-inhibitors-for-the-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease-design-synthesis-and-bio-analysis-of-7-amino-1-4-dihydro-2h-isoquilin-3-one-derivates
#8
Xiong-Jie Zhao, Da-Min Gong, Yu-Ren Jiang, Dong Guo, Yao Zhu, You-Chao Deng
In this paper, the preparation of a new class of multi-target-directed ligands (MTDLs) based on a 7-amino-1,4-dihydro-2H-isoquilin-3-one, whose lead (compound I) showed promising properties in acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity [1], is described. The results of in vitro activities and molecular docking demonstrated that the target molecule (compounds 10a-n) with three parts of aromatic moieties and appropriate structural length can interact with aromatic residues in catalytic active site (CAS), peripheral anionic site (PAS) and the channel of AChE...
July 5, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727010/effect-of-experimentally-increased-protein-supply-to-postpartum-dairy-cows-on-plasma-protein-synthesis-rumen-tissue-proliferation-and-immune-homeostasis
#9
M Larsen, C M Røntved, P K Theil, M Khatun, C Lauridsen, N B Kristensen
The effect of experimentally increasing the postpartum protein supply on plasma protein synthesis, rumen tissue proliferation, and immune homeostasis was studied using 8 periparturient Holstein cows in a complete randomized design. At calving, cows were assigned to abomasal infusion of water (CTRL) or casein (CAS) in addition to a lactation diet. Casein infusion was gradually decreased from 696 ± 1 g/d at +2 d relative to calving (DRTC) to 212 ± 10 g/d at +29 DRTC to avoid excessive supply. Synthesis rate of plasma proteins was measured at -14, +4, +15, and +29 DRTC by measuring [C]Phe isotopic enrichment in arterial plasma free Phe, total plasma proteins, and albumin after 3, 5, and 7 h of jugular ring[C]Phe infusion...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725230/genetics-and-genomics-of-cotton-leaf-curl-disease-its-viral-causal-agents-and-whitefly-vector-a-way-forward-to-sustain-cotton-fiber-security
#10
REVIEW
Mehboob-Ur- Rahman, Ali Q Khan, Zainab Rahmat, Muhammad A Iqbal, Yusuf Zafar
Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) after its first epidemic in 1912 in Nigeria, has spread to different cotton growing countries including United States, Pakistan, India, and China. The disease is of viral origin-transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, which is difficult to control because of the prevalence of multiple virulent viral strains or related species. The problem is further complicated as the CLCuD causing virus complex has a higher recombination rate. The availability of alternate host crops like tomato, okra, etc...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724535/priming-in-a-permissive-type-i-c-crispr-cas-system-reveals-distinct-dynamics-of-spacer-acquisition-and-loss
#11
Chitong Rao, Denny Chin, Alexander Wilson Ensminger
CRISPR-Cas is a bacterial and archaeal adaptive immune system that uses short, invader-derived sequences termed spacers to target invasive nucleic acids. Upon recognition of previously encountered invaders, the system can stimulate secondary spacer acquisitions, a process known as primed adaptation. Previous studies of primed adaptation have been complicated by intrinsically high interference efficiency of most systems against bona fide targets. As such, most primed adaptation to date has been studied within the context of imperfect sequence complementarity between spacers and targets...
July 19, 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722012/type-iii-crispr-cas-systems-produce-cyclic-oligoadenylate-second-messengers
#12
Ole Niewoehner, Carmela Garcia-Doval, Jakob T Rostøl, Christian Berk, Frank Schwede, Laurent Bigler, Jonathan Hall, Luciano A Marraffini, Martin Jinek
In many prokaryotes, type III CRISPR-Cas systems detect and degrade invasive genetic elements by an RNA-guided, RNA-targeting multisubunit interference complex. The CRISPR-associated protein Csm6 additionally contributes to interference by functioning as a standalone ribonuclease that degrades invader RNA transcripts, but the mechanism linking invader sensing to Csm6 activity is not understood. Here we show that Csm6 proteins are activated through a second messenger generated by the type III interference complex...
July 19, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721459/measurement-of-lower-limb-alignment-there-are-within-person-differences-between-weight-bearing-and-non-weight-bearing-measurement-modalities
#13
Daphne A L Schoenmakers, Peter Z Feczko, Bert Boonen, Martijn G M Schotanus, Nanne P Kort, Pieter J Emans
PURPOSE: Previous studies have compared weight-bearing mechanical leg axis (MLA) measurements to non-weight-bearing measurement modalities. Most of these studies compared mean or median values and did not analyse within-person differences between measurements. This study evaluates the within-person agreement of MLA measurements between weight-bearing full-length radiographs (FLR) and non-weight-bearing measurement modalities (computer-assisted surgery (CAS) navigation or MRI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two independent observers measured the MLA on pre- and postoperative weight-bearing FLR in 168 patients...
July 18, 2017: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721147/the-importance-of-two-metabolic-syndrome-diagnostic-criteria-and-body-fat-distribution-in-predicting-clinical-severity-and-prognosis-of-acute-myocardial-infarction
#14
Marko Mornar Jelavic, Zdravko Babic, Hrvoje Pintaric
INTRODUCTION: The interrelation between metabolic syndrome (MetS) (the revised National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) and International Diabetes Federation (IDF)) and obesity indices in predicting clinical severity and prognosis of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is insufficiently known. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This prospective study included 250 acute STEMI patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention...
June 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720167/recovery-from-dsm-iv-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-in-the-who-world-mental-health-surveys
#15
A J Rosellini, H Liu, M V Petukhova, N A Sampson, S Aguilar-Gaxiola, J Alonso, G Borges, R Bruffaerts, E J Bromet, G de Girolamo, P de Jonge, J Fayyad, S Florescu, O Gureje, J M Haro, H Hinkov, E G Karam, N Kawakami, K C Koenen, S Lee, J P Lépine, D Levinson, F Navarro-Mateu, B D Oladeji, S O'Neill, B-E Pennell, M Piazza, J Posada-Villa, K M Scott, D J Stein, Y Torres, M C Viana, A M Zaslavsky, R C Kessler
BACKGROUND: Research on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) course finds a substantial proportion of cases remit within 6 months, a majority within 2 years, and a substantial minority persists for many years. Results are inconsistent about pre-trauma predictors. METHODS: The WHO World Mental Health surveys assessed lifetime DSM-IV PTSD presence-course after one randomly-selected trauma, allowing retrospective estimates of PTSD duration. Prior traumas, childhood adversities (CAs), and other lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders were examined as predictors using discrete-time person-month survival analysis among the 1575 respondents with lifetime PTSD...
July 19, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717929/reduction-in-targeted-potentially-inappropriate-medication-use-in-elderly-inpatients-a-pragmatic-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Benoit Cossette, Jean-François Éthier, Thomas Joly-Mischlich, Josée Bergeron, Geneviève Ricard, Serge Brazeau, Mathieu Caron, Olivier Germain, Hélène Payette, Janusz Kaczorowski, Mitchell Levine
PURPOSE: The use of potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) in hospitalized older adults is a complex problem, but the use of computerized alert systems (CAS) has shown some potential. The study's objective is to assess the change in PIM use with a CAS-based pharmacist-physician intervention model compared to usual clinical care. METHODS: Pragmatic single-site randomized controlled trial was conducted at a university teaching hospital. Hospitalizations identified with selected Beers or STOPP criteria were randomized to usual clinical care or to the CAS-based pharmacist-physician intervention...
July 17, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717013/mechanisms-of-carbon-dioxide-acquisition-and-co2-sensing-in-marine-diatoms-a-gateway-to-carbon-metabolism
#17
REVIEW
Yusuke Matsuda, Brian M Hopkinson, Kensuke Nakajima, Christopher L Dupont, Yoshinori Tsuji
Diatoms are one of the most successful marine eukaryotic algal groups, responsible for up to 20% of the annual global CO2 fixation. The evolution of a CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM) allowed diatoms to overcome a number of serious constraints on photosynthesis in the marine environment, particularly low [CO2]aq in seawater relative to concentrations required by the CO2 fixing enzyme, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO), which is partly due to the slow diffusion rate of CO2 in water and a limited CO2 formation rate from [Formula: see text] in seawater...
September 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716303/early-results-of-endovascular-treatment-of-patients-with-bilateral-stenoses-of-the-internal-carotid-arteries-using-proximal-protection-systems-at-30-day-follow-up
#18
Paweł Latacz, Marian Simka, Tadeusz Popiela, Marek Kazibudzki, Tomasz Mrowiecki
BACKGROUND: Although surgical endarterectomy remains the treatment of choice for carotid artery stenosis, carotid artery stenting (CAS) with use of proximal protection systems (PPS) plays an very important role as alternative treatment modality, especially in patients with critical, symptomatic lesions. This study was single-centre study to evaluate the technical and clinical success of proximal protection devices as the first choice for embolic protection in symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid stenosis in patients with bilateral, advanced lesions of carotid arteries (bilateral stenoses or stenosis and occlusion)...
July 8, 2017: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714894/carbonic-anhydrase-from-porphyromonas-gingivalis-as-a-drug-target
#19
REVIEW
Claudiu T Supuran, Clemente Capasso
Periodontitis originates from a microbial synergy causing the development of a mouth microbial imbalance (dysbiosis), consisting of a microbial community composed of anaerobic bacteria. Most studies concerning the treatment of periodontitis have primarily take into account the Gram-negative bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis, because it is a prominent component of the oral microbiome and a successful colonizer of the oral epithelium. Here, we focus our attention on the study of the carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4...
July 15, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714319/protective-effect-of-teucrium-polium-on-carbon-tetrachloride-induced-genotoxicity-and-oxidative-stress-in-rats
#20
Fatma Rahmouni, Mongi Saoudi, Nahed Amri, Abdelfattah El-Feki, Tarek Rebai, Riadh Badraoui
This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of Teucrium polium (TP) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced spleen, erythrocyte's oxidative stress, and genotoxicity in rats. TP was found to contain large amounts of polyphenols (150 mg GAE/G of dry plant) and flavonoids (60 mg QE/g of quercetin dry plant). The CCl4 (0.5 ml/kg) treated rats exhibited significant reductions in serum vitamin A (VA), vitamin E (VE) and total antioxidant status (TAS). Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and conjugated dienes (CD) were significantly high in the CCl4 group compared to controls...
July 16, 2017: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
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