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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243852/functional-divergence-and-comparative-in-silico-study-of-cas4-proteins-of-duf83-class
#1
Vineeta Kaushik, Ved Vrat Verma, Manisha Goel
Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats-CRISPR associated (CRISPR-Cas) systems present in genomes of bacteria and archaea have been the focus of many research studies recently. The Cas4 proteins of these systems are thought to be responsible for the adaptation step in the CRISPR mechanism. Cas4 proteins exhibit low sequence similarity among themselves and are currently classified into 2 main classes: DUF83 and DUF911. The characteristic features of Cas4 proteins belonging to DUF83 class have been elucidated by determining the structures of Cas4 protein from Sulfolobus solfataricus and Pyrobaculum calidifontis...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Molecular Recognition: JMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243160/guidelines-to-the-practice-of-anesthesia-revised-edition-2018
#2
Gregory Dobson, Matthew Chong, Lorraine Chow, Alana Flexman, Matthew Kurrek, Claude Laflamme, Annie Lagacé, Shean Stacey, Barton Thiessen
The Guidelines to the Practice of Anesthesia Revised Edition 2018 (the Guidelines) were prepared by the Canadian Anesthesiologists' Society (CAS), which reserves the right to determine their publication and distribution. The Guidelines are subject to revision and updated versions are published annually. The Guidelines to the Practice of Anesthesia Revised Edition 2018 supersedes all previously published versions of this document. Although the CAS encourages Canadian anesthesiologists to adhere to its practice guidelines to ensure high-quality patient care, the CAS cannot guarantee any specific patient outcome...
December 14, 2017: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239099/double-layered-stents-for-carotid-angioplasty-a-meta-analysis-of-available-clinical-data
#3
Anna Sannino, Giuseppe Giugliano, Evelina Toscano, Gabriele G Schiattarella, Anna Franzone, Tullio Tesorio, Bruno Trimarco, Giovanni Esposito, Eugenio Stabile
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this meta-analysis is to evaluate clinical efficacy of double layered mesh covered carotid stent systems in the clinical practice. BACKGROUND: The need for an increase plaque coverage to decrease the risk of debris dislodgement through the stent struts, following carotid artery stenting (CAS), has brought to the design of a new generation of double layered carotid stents. Several small sized clinical studies evaluating two different devices have been recently published, unfortunately these are not sufficiently powered to test for device related and clinical endpoints and no comparison, between the two available devices, has been reported yet...
December 14, 2017: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238825/association-of-cumulative-childhood-adversity-and-adolescent-violent-offending-with-suicide-in-early-adulthood
#4
Emma Björkenstam, Anders Hjern, Charlotte Björkenstam, Kyriaki Kosidou
Importance: Childhood adversity (CA) is associated with an increased risk of suicide in young adulthood that might be explained by maladaptive trajectories during adolescence. Although adolescent violent offending is linked with suicide, little is known about its role in the association between CA and suicide. Objective: To examine whether adolescent violent offending mediates the association between CA and suicide in early adulthood. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based, longitudinal cohort study with a follow-up time spanning 5 to 9 years included 476 103 individuals born in Sweden between 1984 and 1988...
December 13, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238393/influence-of-severe-carotid-stenosis-on-cognition-depressive-symptoms-and-quality-of-life
#5
Elina Pucite, Ildze Krievina, Evija Miglane, Renars Erts, Dainis Krievins
Background: Carotid artery disease is not just a causal risk factor of ischemic stroke, but may predispose patients to depressive symptoms and low health related quality of life (HRQoL). Objectives: The objectives of the present study were to assess the association between severe carotid artery stenosis (CAS) and cognitive impairment, frequency of depressive symptoms and status of HRQoL. Methods: Cross - sectional study involved 55 patients with severe CAS and 54 patients with lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD)...
2017: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health: CP & EMH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238112/crevice-sign-as-an-indicator-of-plaque-laceration-associated-with-postoperative-severe-thromboembolism-after-carotid-artery-stenting-a-case-report
#6
Tomotaka Ohshima, Taiki Yamamoto, Shunsaku Goto, Kojiro Ishikawa, Toshihisa Nishizawa, Shinji Shimato
Carotid artery stenting (CAS) is increasingly utilized in patients with carotid artery stenosis. Various intraprocedural and postprocedural complications have been reported in the literature. We present a case of symptomatic major thromboembolism after CAS. The intraprocedural angiogram showed extraordinary slow filling of the contrast medium into the plaque, which we named as "crevice sign." An 83-year-old man presented repeat right amaurosis fugax for 6 months. The radiological examinations revealed 85% stenosis of the origin of the right internal carotid artery...
November 2017: Nagoya Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237010/crispr-cas9-mediated-modulation-of-splicing-efficiency-reveals-short-splicing-isoform-of-xist-rna-is-sufficient-to-induce-x-chromosome-inactivation
#7
Minghui Yue, Yuya Ogawa
Alternative splicing of mRNA precursors results in multiple protein variants from a single gene and is critical for diverse cellular processes and development. Xist encodes a long noncoding RNA which is a central player to induce X-chromosome inactivation in female mammals and has two major splicing variants: long and short isoforms of Xist RNA. Although a differentiation-specific and a female-specific expression of Xist isoforms have been reported, the functional role of each Xist RNA isoform is largely unexplored...
December 9, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236755/genomic-features-of-candidatus-venteria-ishoeyi-a-new-sulfur-oxidizing-macrobacterium-from-the-humboldt-sulfuretum-off-chile
#8
Alexis Fonseca, Thomas Ishoey, Carola Espinoza, Danilo Pérez-Pantoja, Antonio Manghisi, Marina Morabito, Alexis Salas-Burgos, Víctor A Gallardo
The Humboldt Sulfuretum (HS), in the productive Humboldt Eastern Boundary Current Upwelling Ecosystem, extends under the hypoxic waters of the Peru-Chile Undercurrent (ca. 6°S and ca. 36°S). Studies show that primeval sulfuretums held diverse prokaryotic life, and, while rare today, still sustain species-rich giant sulfur-oxidizing bacterial communities. We here present the genomic features of a new bacteria of the HS, "Candidatus Venteria ishoeyi" ("Ca. V. ishoeyi") in the family Thiotrichaceae.Three identical filaments were micro-manipulated from reduced sediments collected off central Chile; their DNA was extracted, amplified, and sequenced by a Roche 454 GS FLX platform...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235170/scaling-up-integrated-early-childhood-development-programs-lessons-from-four-countries
#9
R Pérez-Escamilla, V Cavallera, M Tomlinson, T Dua
BACKGROUND: There is still limited knowledge regarding the translation of early child development (ECD) knowledge into effective policies and large-scale programmes. A variety of frameworks that outline the key steps in scaling up exist, but we argue that taking a complex adaptive systems (CAS) approach assists in understanding the complex, dynamic processes that result in programmes being taken to scale. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to examine the process of scaling up four major country-level ECD programmes through the application of a CAS framework...
January 2018: Child: Care, Health and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234047/inhibition-of-nhej-repair-by-type-ii-a-crispr-cas-systems-in-bacteria
#10
Aude Bernheim, Alicia Calvo-Villamañán, Clovis Basier, Lun Cui, Eduardo P C Rocha, Marie Touchon, David Bikard
Type II CRISPR-Cas systems introduce double-strand breaks into DNA of invading genetic material and use DNA fragments to acquire novel spacers during adaptation. These breaks can be the substrate of several DNA repair pathways, paving the way for interactions. We report that non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) and type II-A CRISPR-Cas systems only co-occur once among 5563 fully sequenced prokaryotic genomes. We investigated experimentally the possible molecular interactions using the NHEJ pathway from Bacillus subtilis and the type II-A CRISPR-Cas systems from Streptococcus thermophilus and Streptococcus pyogenes...
December 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233895/disabling-a-type-i-e-crispr-cas-nuclease-with-a-bacteriophage-encoded-anti-crispr-protein
#11
April Pawluk, Megha Shah, Marios Mejdani, Charles Calmettes, Trevor F Moraes, Alan R Davidson, Karen L Maxwell
CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat)-Cas adaptive immune systems are prevalent defense mechanisms in bacteria and archaea. They provide sequence-specific detection and neutralization of foreign nucleic acids such as bacteriophages and plasmids. One mechanism by which phages and other mobile genetic elements are able to overcome the CRISPR-Cas system is through the expression of anti-CRISPR proteins. Over 20 different families of anti-CRISPR proteins have been described, each of which inhibits a particular type of CRISPR-Cas system...
December 12, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233106/genetic-diversity-and-distribution-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-genotypes-in-limpopo-south-africa
#12
N T C Maguga-Phasha, N S Munyai, F Mashinya, M E Makgatho, E F Mbajiorgu
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis remains a major health problem and knowledge of the diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in specific geographical regions can contribute to the control of the disease. This study describes the genetic profile of M. tuberculosis in five districts of Limpopo Province. METHODS: A total 487 isolates were collected from the National Health Laboratory Services from all regions/districts of Limpopo Province. Only 215 isolates were confirmed to be M...
December 12, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232847/five-and-six-membered-nitrogen-containing-compounds-as-selective-carbonic-anhydrase-activators
#13
Adriano Mollica, Giorgia Macedonio, Azzurra Stefanucci, Simone Carradori, Atilla Akdemir, Andrea Angeli, Claudiu T Supuran
It has been proven that specific isoforms of human carbonic anhydrase (hCA) are able to fine-tune physiological pathways connected to signal processing, and that decreased CAs expression negatively influences cognition, leading to mental retardation, Alzheimer's disease, and aging-related cognitive dysfunctions. For this reason, a small library of natural and synthetic nitrogen containing cyclic derivatives was assayed as activators of four human isoforms of carbonic anhydrase (hCA I, II, IV and VII). Most of the compounds activated hCA I, IV and VII in the micromolar range, with KAs ranging between 3...
December 9, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232506/thiolactone-chemistry-based-combinatorial-methodology-to-construct-multifunctional-polymers-for-efficacious-gene-delivery
#14
Zengshi Zha, Yongyi Hu, Jean Mukerabigwi, Weijian Chen, Yuheng Wang, Chuanxin He, Zhishen Ge
Hydrophobic segments and amino moieties in polymeric nonviral gene vectors play important roles in overcoming a cas-cade of barriers for efficient gene delivery. However, it remains a great challenge to facilely construct well-defined multi-functional polymers through optimization of the amino and hydrophobic groups. Herein, we choose thiolactone chemistry to perform the ring opening reaction of varying hydrophobic groups-modified thiolactones by various amines to generate mercapto groups for further Michael addition reaction with poly[2-(acryloyloxy)ethyl methacrylate] (PAOEMA)...
December 12, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231751/activation-studies-of-the-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-carbonic-anhydrases-from-the-pathogenic-bacterium-vibrio-cholerae-with-amines-and-amino-acids
#15
Andrea Angeli, Sonia Del Prete, Sameh M Osman, Fatmah A S Alasmary, Zeid AlOthman, William A Donald, Clemente Capasso, Claudiu T Supuran
The α- and β-class carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) from the pathogenic bacterium Vibrio cholerae, VchCAα, and VchCAβ, were investigated for their activation with natural and non-natural amino acids and amines. The most effective VchCAα activators were L-tyrosine, histamine, serotonin, and 4-aminoethyl-morpholine, which had KAs in the range of 8.21-12.0 µM. The most effective VchCAβ activators were D-tyrosine, dopamine, serotonin, 2-pyridyl-methylamine, 2-aminoethylpyridine, and 2-aminoethylpiperazine, which had KAs in the submicromolar - low micromolar range (0...
December 2018: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231142/crispr-cas-in-medicinal-chemistry-applications-and-regulatory-concerns
#16
Aliuska Duardo-Sanchez
A rapid search in scientific publication's databases shows how the use of CRISPR-Cas genome editions' technique has considerably expanded, and its growing importance, in modern molecular biology. Just in pub-med platform, the search of the term gives more than 3000 results. Specifically, in Drug Discovery, Medicinal Chemistry and Chemical Biology in general CRISPR method may have multiple applications. Some of these applications are: resistance-selection studies of antimalarial lead organic compounds; investigation of druggability; development of animal models for chemical compounds testing, etc...
December 11, 2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231056/the-application-of-control-charts-in-regulated-bioanalysis-for-monitoring-long-term-reproducibility
#17
Michel van Bruijnsvoort, John Meijer, Cas van den Beld
In regulated bioanalysis, the acceptance of results is batch-wise. When during clinical development derived pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic results from different studies will be combined or compared, it is recommendable to monitor the long-term reproducibility of bioanalytical assays. Long-term reproducibility can be evaluated by control charts generated from control samples included in each batch. We present a methodology for the implementation, construction and evaluation of control charts next to the regular batch acceptance of bioanalytical results...
December 2017: Bioanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230365/identification-and-characterization-of-a-novel-zebrafish-danio-rerio-pentraxin-carbonic-anhydrase
#18
Maarit S Patrikainen, Martti E E Tolvanen, Ashok Aspatwar, Harlan R Barker, Csaba Ortutay, Janne Jänis, Mikko Laitaoja, Vesa P Hytönen, Latifeh Azizi, Prajwol Manandhar, Edit Jáger, Daniela Vullo, Sampo Kukkurainen, Mika Hilvo, Claudiu T Supuran, Seppo Parkkila
Background: Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are ubiquitous, essential enzymes which catalyze the conversion of carbon dioxide and water to bicarbonate and H+ ions. Vertebrate genomes generally contain gene loci for 15-21 different CA isoforms, three of which are enzymatically inactive. CA VI is the only secretory protein of the enzymatically active isoforms. We discovered that non-mammalian CA VI contains a C-terminal pentraxin (PTX) domain, a novel combination for both CAs and PTXs. Methods: We isolated and sequenced zebrafish (Danio rerio) CA VI cDNA, complete with the sequence coding for the PTX domain, and produced the recombinant CA VI-PTX protein...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229728/cas9-enhances-bacterial-virulence-by-repressing-the-regr-transcriptional-regulator-in-streptococcus-agalactiae
#19
Ke Ma, Qing Cao, Su Luo, Zhaofei Wang, Guangjin Liu, Chengping Lu, Yongjie Liu
Clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and its associated cas genes have been demonstrated to regulate self-genes and virulence in many pathogens. In this study, we found that inactivation of cas9 caused reduced adhesion and intracellular survival of the piscine Streptococcus agalactiae strain GD201008-001 and significantly decreased the virulence of this strain in zebrafish and mice. Further investigation indicated that the regR transcriptional regulator was upregulated in the Δcas9 mutant...
December 11, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228332/prespacer-processing-and-specific-integration-in-a-type-i-a-crispr-system
#20
Clare Rollie, Shirley Graham, Christophe Rouillon, Malcolm F White
The CRISPR-Cas system for prokaryotic adaptive immunity provides RNA-mediated protection from viruses and mobile genetic elements. Adaptation is dependent on the Cas1 and Cas2 proteins along with varying accessory proteins. Here we analyse the process in Sulfolobus solfataricus, showing that while Cas1 and Cas2 catalyze spacer integration in vitro, host factors are required for specificity. Specific integration also requires at least 400 bp of the leader sequence, and is dependent on the presence of hydrolysable ATP, suggestive of an active process that may involve DNA remodelling...
December 8, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
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