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adipokine and neuron and immune

Yumiko Oishi, Ichiro Manabe
Adipose tissues are the major organ that controls systemic energy metabolism and maintain homeostasis by storing lipids, dissipating them as heat, and producing various adipokines. There are two major classes of adipocytes: white and brown adipocytes. White adipocytes store and release lipids, while brown adipocytes burn substrates to produce heat. In addition to classical brown adipose tissues consisting of brown adipocytes, cold exposure and β3 stimulation induce development of brown cell-like "beige" adipocytes in white adipose tissues...
2017: Clinical Calcium
Marcella Reale, Silvia Sanchez-Ramon
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by demyelination and neurodegeneration, driven by a Th17/Th1-immune response, which afflicts mainly young women. Although MS causes are not completely known, it is notorious that the disease is characterized by an extended focal degradation of the myelin sheath, with ulterior axonal and neuronal damage. Lipid molecules play a main dual role in MS, both as target molecules of myelin destruction and as mediators of inflammation...
2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Maria M Buckley, Rebecca O'Brien, Michelle Devlin, Aisling A Creed, Mark G Rae, Niall P Hyland, Eamonn M M Quigley, Declan P McKernan, Dervla O'Malley
What is the central question of this study? Does crosstalk exist between leptin and interleukin-6 in colonic enteric neurons, and is this a contributory factor in gastrointestinal dysfunction associated with irritable bowel syndrome? What is the main finding and its importance? Leptin ameliorates the prosecretory and prokinetic effects of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 on rat colon. Leptin also suppresses the neurostimulatory effects of irritable bowel syndrome plasma, which has elevated concentrations of interleukin-6, on enteric neurons...
December 1, 2016: Experimental Physiology
Xinzhi Chen, Shangfeng Zhao, Yang Song, Yejie Shi, Rehana K Leak, Guodong Cao
As recombinant tissue plasminogen activator is the only drug approved for the clinical treatment of acute ischemic stroke, there is an urgent unmet need for novel stroke treatments. Endogenous defense mechanisms against stroke may hold the key to new therapies for stroke. A large number of studies suggest that nicotinamide phosphoribosyl-transferase (NAMPT is an attractive candidate to improve post-stroke recovery. NAMPT is a multifunctional protein and plays important roles in immunity, metabolism, aging, inflammation, and stress responses...
2015: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Takehiko Maeda, Masanobu Ozaki
Transient receptor potential protein (TRP) channels are distributed in pain pathways including primary afferent neurons and function as transduction of various noxious stimuli to innocuous stimuli. TRP channels are considered as molecular basis of chronic pain. Targeting TRPs may lead to novel class of analgesics, and so drug-discovery efforts are focused on TRP agonists and its antagonists. Few products have, however, been placed on the market, because most of candidates have adverse effects. A lesion or disease of the somatosensory nervous system causes neuropathic pain, a type of chronic pain...
2014: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Chi Kyung Kim, Wi-Sun Ryu, In-Young Choi, Young-Ju Kim, Doeun Rim, Beom Joon Kim, Hyunduk Jang, Byung-Woo Yoon, Seung-Hoon Lee
Leptin, one of the most important adipokines, is not only an energy regulator but also a regulator of innate immunity. Inflammation plays a key role in the tissue damage after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and we sought to investigate whether leptin has a detrimental effect on ICH. After the injection of a high replacement dose (0.04 mg/kg) and two pharmacologic doses (4 and 8 mg/kg) of leptin, brain water contents increased significantly compared with that of control mice (P<0.05), which was confirmed when comparing the results with leptin-deficient ob/ob and wild-type (WT) mice (78...
June 2013: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Wan-Jie Chia, Gavin S Dawe, Wei-Yi Ong
Lipocalin 2 (LCN2) is produced by mammalian hosts to bind bacterial siderophore and sequester free iron as part of an innate immune response, and could also play a role in tissue iron homeostasis, but thus far, little is known about its expression in the CNS. The present study was carried out to study the expression of the lipocalin in the normal rat brain and after neuronal injury induced by kainate (KA). Low levels of LCN2 mRNA and protein expression were detected in most regions of the normal brain except the olfactory bulb, brainstem and cerebellum...
October 2011: Neurochemistry International
Takehiko Maeda, Norikazu Kiguchi, Yuka Kobayashi, Toshihiko Ikuta, Masanobu Ozaki, Shiroh Kishioka
Nerve injury may result in neuropathic pain, characterized by allodynia and hyperalgesia. Accumulating evidence suggests the existence of a molecular substrate for neuropathic pain produced by neurons, glia, and immune cells. Here, we show that leptin, an adipokine exclusively produced by adipocytes, is critical for the development of tactile allodynia through macrophage activation in mice with partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSL). PSL increased leptin expression in adipocytes distributed at the epineurium of the injured sciatic nerve (SCN)...
August 4, 2009: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Norbert Dahmen, Nina Manderscheid, Jana Helfrich, Petra B Musholt, Thomas Forst, Andreas Pfützner, Alice Engel
OBJECTIVE: Narcolepsy is a severe sleep disorder that is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexies and a tendency towards obesity. Recent discoveries indicate that the major pathophysiology is a loss of hypocretin (orexin) producing neurons due to immunologically mediated degeneration. Visfatin is a recently described proinflammatory adipokine. It is identical to the immune modulating pre-B-cell colony enhancing factor (PBEF). Our study examines the hypothesis that visfatin levels are altered in narcoleptic patients...
2008: PloS One
Dafna Bonneh-Barkay, Stephanie J Bissel, Gouji Wang, Kenneth N Fish, Georgina C B Nicholl, Samuel W Darko, Rafael Medina-Flores, Michael Murphey-Corb, Premeela A Rajakumar, Julia Nyaundi, John W Mellors, Robert Bowser, Clayton A Wiley
Human immunodeficiency virus encephalitis causes dementia in acquired immune deficiency syndrome patients. Using proteomic analysis of postmortem cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain tissue from the simian immunodeficiency virus primate model, we demonstrate here a specific increase in YKL-40 that was tightly associated with lentiviral encephalitis. Longitudinal analysis of CSF from simian immunodeficiency virus-infected pigtailed macaques showed an increase in YKL-40 concentration 2 to 8 weeks before death from encephalitis...
July 2008: American Journal of Pathology
Rexford S Ahima, Mitchell A Lazar
Adipokines are secreted by adipose tissue and control various physiological systems. Low leptin levels during fasting stimulate feeding, reduce energy expenditure, and modulate neuroendocrine and immune function to conserve energy stores. On the other hand, rising leptin levels in the overfed state prevent weight gain by inhibiting food intake and increasing energy expenditure. These actions are mediated by neuronal circuits in the hypothalamus and brainstem. Leptin also controls glucose and lipid metabolism by targeting enzymes such as AMP-activated protein kinase and stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase-1 in liver and muscle...
May 2008: Molecular Endocrinology
Rexford S Ahima
Adipose tissue plays a critical role in energy homeostasis, not only in storing triglycerides, but also responding to nutrient, neural, and hormonal signals and secreting adipokines that control feeding, thermogenesis, immunity, and neuroendocrine function. A rise in leptin signals satiety to the brain through receptors in hypothalamic and brainstem neurons. Leptin activates tyrosine kinase, Janus kinase 2, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, leading to increased levels of anorexigenic peptides, e...
August 2006: Obesity
Rexford S Ahima, Yong Qi, Neel S Singhal
Adipose tissue plays a crucial role in energy homeostasis not only in storing triglyceride, but also responding to nutrient, neural, and hormonal signals, and producing factors which control feeding, thermogenesis, immune and neuroendocrine function, and glucose and lipid metabolism. Adipose tissue secretes leptin, steroid hormones, adiponectin, inflammatory cytokines, resistin, complement factors, and vasoactive peptides. The endocrine function of adipose tissue is typified by leptin. An increase in leptin signals satiety to neuronal targets in the hypothalamus...
2006: Progress in Brain Research
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