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adipokine and hypothalamus and immune

Gregory E Bigford, Valerie C Bracchi-Ricard, Robert W Keane, Mark S Nash, John R Bethea
CVD (cardiovascular disease) represents a leading cause of mortality in chronic SCI (spinal cord injury). Several component risk factors are observed in SCI; however, the underlying mechanisms that contribute to these risks have not been defined. Central and peripheral chronic inflammation is associated with metabolic dysfunction and CVD, including adipokine regulation of neuroendocrine and cardiac function and inflammatory processes initiated by the innate immune response. We use female C57 Bl/6 mice to examine neuroendocrine, cardiac, adipose and pancreatic signaling related to inflammation and metabolic dysfunction in response to experimentally induced chronic SCI...
2013: ASN Neuro
Krista Casazza, Lynae J Hanks, Jessica A Alvarez
Historical data suggest that body composition is intricately involved in pubertal development. Progression through puberty is dependent on the interaction between the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-1 (GH-IGF-1) axis, reproductive and metabolic hormones as well as pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines which induce alterations in feedback mechanisms and therefore mediate body composition and growth. Simultaneous increases in GH and IGF-1, and the concomitant changes in the hormonal milieu (i.e. reproductive hormones, testosterone and estrogen, and insulin)are the major contributors to anabolic effects seen throughout the pubertal transition, and are affected by various factors including (but not limited to) energy status and body composition...
2010: Medicine and Sport Science
Rexford S Ahima, Mitchell A Lazar
Adipokines are secreted by adipose tissue and control various physiological systems. Low leptin levels during fasting stimulate feeding, reduce energy expenditure, and modulate neuroendocrine and immune function to conserve energy stores. On the other hand, rising leptin levels in the overfed state prevent weight gain by inhibiting food intake and increasing energy expenditure. These actions are mediated by neuronal circuits in the hypothalamus and brainstem. Leptin also controls glucose and lipid metabolism by targeting enzymes such as AMP-activated protein kinase and stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase-1 in liver and muscle...
May 2008: Molecular Endocrinology
Isabel Matias, Vincenzo Di Marzo
Two receptors have been cloned to date for the psychotropic compound Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, and termed cannabinoid CB(1) and CB(2) receptors. Their endogenous ligands, the endocannabinoids, have also been identified. CB(1) receptors and endocannabinoids are present in brain structures controlling energy intake and in peripheral cells (hepatocytes, adipocytes, pancreatic islet cells) regulating energy homeostasis. CB(2) receptors are more abundant in lymphocytes and macrophages, and participate in immune and inflammatory reactions...
January 2007: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Rexford S Ahima, Yong Qi, Neel S Singhal
Adipose tissue plays a crucial role in energy homeostasis not only in storing triglyceride, but also responding to nutrient, neural, and hormonal signals, and producing factors which control feeding, thermogenesis, immune and neuroendocrine function, and glucose and lipid metabolism. Adipose tissue secretes leptin, steroid hormones, adiponectin, inflammatory cytokines, resistin, complement factors, and vasoactive peptides. The endocrine function of adipose tissue is typified by leptin. An increase in leptin signals satiety to neuronal targets in the hypothalamus...
2006: Progress in Brain Research
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