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adipokine and hypothalamus

Atilla Engin
The biological clocks of the circadian timing system coordinate cellular and physiological processes and synchronizes these with daily cycles, feeding patterns also regulates circadian clocks. The clock genes and adipocytokines show circadian rhythmicity. Dysfunction of these genes are involved in the alteration of these adipokines during the development of obesity. Food availability promotes the stimuli associated with food intake which is a circadian oscillator outside of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Kyungjoon Lim, Kristy L Jackson, Yusuke Sata, Geoffrey A Head
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The major health issue of being overweight or obese relates to the development of hypertension, insulin resistance and diabetic complications. One of the major underlying factors influencing the elevated blood pressure in obesity is increased activity of the sympathetic nerves to particular organs such as the kidney. RECENT FINDINGS: There is now convincing evidence from animal studies that major signals such as leptin and insulin have a sympathoexcitatory action in the hypothalamus to cause hypertension...
July 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
Zhe Huang, Aimin Xu, Bernard M Y Cheung
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 belongs to the FGF superfamily that is involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, neural development, angiogenesis, and metabolism. FGF21 requires β-Klotho as a co-receptor. Tissues involved in metabolism such as the liver, adipose tissues, skeletal muscle, and pancreas express FGF21. Starvation increases hepatic expression of FGF21, which then acts centrally to increase hepatic gluconeogenesis. FGF21 also increases fatty acid oxidation. This may be relevant in cold exposure, when expression of FGF21 is induced...
April 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
Mark W Hamrick
The cytokine-like hormone leptin is a classic adipokine that is secreted by adipocytes, increases with weight gain, and decreases with weight loss. Additional studies have, however, shown that leptin is also produced by skeletal muscle, and leptin receptors are abundant in both skeletal muscle and bone-derived mesenchymal (stromal) stem cells. These findings suggest that leptin may play an important role in muscle-bone crosstalk. Leptin treatment in vitro increases the expression of myogenic genes in primary myoblasts, and leptin treatment in vivo increases the expression of microRNAs involved in myogenesis...
February 2017: Journal of Bone Metabolism
K S Rigano, J L Gehring, B D Evans Hutzenbiler, A V Chen, O L Nelson, C A Vella, C T Robbins, H T Jansen
Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) have evolved remarkable metabolic adaptations including enormous fat accumulation during the active season followed by fasting during hibernation. However, these fluctuations in body mass do not cause the same harmful effects associated with obesity in humans. To better understand these seasonal transitions, we performed insulin and glucose tolerance tests in captive grizzly bears, characterized the annual profiles of circulating adipokines, and tested the anorectic effects of centrally administered leptin at different times of the year...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
AbuZar Ansari, Shambhunath Bose, Mukesh Kumar Yadav, Jing-Hua Wang, Yun-Kyung Song, Seong-Gyu Ko, Hojun Kim
The brain, gut, and adipose tissue interact to control metabolic pathways, and impairment in the brain-gut-adipose axis can lead to metabolic disorders, including obesity. Chowiseungcheng-tang (CST), a herbal formulation, is frequently used to treat metabolic disorders. Here, we investigated the anti-obesity effect of CST and its link with brain-gut-adipose axis using C57BL/6J mice as a model. The animals were provided with a normal research diet (NRD) or high-fat diet (HFD) in absence or presence of CST or orlistat (ORL) for 12 weeks...
November 11, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
C A Coles
Adipose tissue not only functions as a reserve to store energy but has become of major interest as an endocrine organ, releasing signalling molecules termed adipokines which impact on other tissues, such as skeletal muscle. Adipocytes, within skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, secrete adipokines to finely maintain the balance between feed intake and energy expenditure. This book chapter focuses on the three adipokines, adiponectin, leptin and IL-6, which have potent effects on skeletal muscle during rest and exercise...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Huang-Ming Cao, Xiao-Ping Ye, Jun-Hua Ma, He Jiang, Sheng-Xian Li, Rong-Ying Li, Xue-Song Li, Cui-Cui Guo, Zhi-Quan Wang, Ming Zhan, Chun-Lin Zuo, Chun-Ming Pan, Shuang-Xia Zhao, Cui-Xia Zheng, Huai-Dong Song
Adipokines such as leptin play important roles in the regulation of energy metabolism, particularly in the control of appetite. Here, we describe a hormone, mimecan, which is abundantly expressed in adipose tissue. Mimecan was observed to inhibit food intake and reduce body weight in mice. Intraperitoneal injection of a mimecan-maltose binding protein (-MBP) complex inhibited food intake in C57BL/6J mice, which was attenuated by pretreatment with polyclonal antibody against mimecan. Notably, mimecan-MBP also induced anorexia in A(y)/a and db/db mice...
November 2015: EBioMedicine
Alisa Boucsein, Jonas Benzler, Cindy Hempp, Sigrid Stöhr, Gisela Helfer, Alexander Tups
The WNT pathway was shown to play an important role in the adult central nervous system. We previously identified the WNT pathway as a novel integration site of the adipokine leptin in mediating its neuroendocrine control of metabolism in obese mice. Here we investigated the implication of WNT signaling in seasonal body weight regulation exhibited by the Djungarian hamster (Phodopus sungorus), a seasonal mammal that exhibits profound annual changes in leptin sensitivity. We furthermore investigated whether crucial components of the WNT pathway are regulated in a diurnal manner...
February 2016: Endocrinology
Joëlle Dupont, Xavier Pollet-Villard, Maxime Reverchon, Namya Mellouk, Rachel Levy
Adipose tissue communicates with other central and peripheral organs by the synthesis and release of substances called adipokines. The most studied adipokine is leptin but others have been recently identified including resistin, adiponectin, chemerin, omentin and visfatin. These adipokines have a critical role in the development of obesity-related complications and inflammatory conditions. However, they are also involved in other functions in the organism including reproductive functions. Indeed, many groups have demonstrated that adipokine receptors, such as adiponectin and chemerin, but also adipokines themselves (adiponectin, chemerin, resistin, visfatin and omentin) are expressed in human peripheral reproductive tissues and that these adipokines are likely to exert direct effects on these tissues...
October 2015: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Daniela Gavello, David Vandael, Sara Gosso, Emilio Carbone, Valentina Carabelli
KEY POINTS: Leptin is an adipokine produced by the adipose tissue regulating body weight through its appetite-suppressing effect and, as such, exerts a relevant action on the adipo-adrenal axis. Leptin has a dual action on adrenal mouse chromaffin cells both at rest and during stimulation. At rest, the adipokine inhibits the spontaneous firing of most cells by enhancing the probability of BK channel opening through the phosphoinositide 3-kinase signalling cascade. This inhibitory effect is absent in db(-) /db(-) mice deprived of Ob receptors...
November 15, 2015: Journal of Physiology
Tsutomu Sasaki
The hypothalamus is the principal regulator of body weight and energy balance. It modulates both energy intake and energy expenditure by sensing the energy status of the body through neural inputs from the periphery as well as direct humoral inputs. Leptin, an adipokine, is one of the humoral factors responsible for alerting the hypothalamus that enough energy is stored in the periphery. Plasma leptin levels are positively linked to adiposity; leptin suppress energy intake and stimulates energy expenditure...
2015: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Anne Drougard, Audren Fournel, Philippe Valet, Claude Knauf
Hypothalamus is a key area involved in the control of metabolism and food intake via the integrations of numerous signals (hormones, neurotransmitters, metabolites) from various origins. These factors modify hypothalamic neurons activity and generate adequate molecular and behavioral responses to control energy balance. In this complex integrative system, a new concept has been developed in recent years, that includes reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a critical player in energy balance. ROS are known to act in many signaling pathways in different peripheral organs, but also in hypothalamus where they regulate food intake and metabolism by acting on different types of neurons, including proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and agouti-related protein (AgRP)/neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurons...
2015: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Gantulga Darambazar, Masanori Nakata, Takashi Okada, Lei Wang, EnXu Li, Atsumi Shinozaki, Megumi Motoshima, Masatomo Mori, Toshihiko Yada
An adipokine leptin plays a central role in the regulation of feeding and energy homeostasis via acting on the hypothalamus. However, its downstream neuronal mechanism is not thoroughly understood. The neurons expressing nucleobindin-2 (NUCB2)-derived nesfatin-1 in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) have been implicated in feeding and energy homeostasis. The present study aimed to explore the role of PVN NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in the leptin action, by using adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors encoding shRNA targeting NUCB2 (AAV-NUCB2-shRNA)...
January 24, 2015: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Yan Su, Rianne van der Spek, Ewout Foppen, Joan Kwakkel, Eric Fliers, Andries Kalsbeek
It is assumed that in mammals the circadian rhythms of peripheral clocks are synchronized to the environment via neural, humoral and/or behavioral outputs of the central pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus (SCN). With regard to the humoral outputs, the daily rhythm of the adrenal hormone corticosterone is considered as an important candidate. To examine whether adrenal hormones are necessary for the maintenance of daily rhythms in gene expression in white adipose tissue (WAT), we used RT-PCR to check rhythmic as well as 24 h mean gene expression in WAT from adrenalectomized (ADX) and sham-operated rats...
March 2015: Chronobiology International
Hiromi Tsushima, Kazuyo Yamada, Daisuke Miyazawa, Mayumi Mori, Yoko Hashimoto, Takeshi Ohkubo, Hidehiko Hibino, Harumi Okuyama
We investigated whether body temperature (BT) regulatory mechanisms are influenced by dietary fatty acids (FA). Male Wistar rats were fed a high-fat diet containing fish oil (HFD), soybean oil (HSD) or lard (HLD). At the 20-week intervention, the BT of the HSD and HLD groups were lower than that of the normal diet (ND) group in the light and dark periods. The intracerebroventricular injections of interleukin-1β and bombesin in the HSD group induced greater hyperthermia and weaker hypothermia, respectively, than in the ND group...
2014: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Yuwei Wu, Qisheng Tu, Paloma Valverde, Jin Zhang, Dana Murray, Lily Q Dong, Jessica Cheng, Hua Jiang, Maribel Rios, Elise Morgan, Zhihui Tang, Jake Chen
Adiponectin (APN), the most abundant adipocyte-secreted adipokine, regulates energy homeostasis and exerts well-characterized insulin-sensitizing properties. The peripheral or central effects of APN regulating bone metabolism are beginning to be explored but are still not clearly understood. In the present study, we found that APN-knockout (APN-KO) mice fed a normal diet exhibited decreased trabecular structure and mineralization and increased bone marrow adiposity compared with wild-type (WT) mice. APN intracerebroventricular infusions decreased uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression in brown adipose tissue, epinephrine and norepinephrine serum levels, and osteoclast numbers, whereas osteoblast osteogenic marker expression and trabecular bone mass increased in APN-KO and WT mice...
June 15, 2014: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Scott B Baver, Kevin Hope, Shannon Guyot, Christian Bjørbaek, Catherine Kaczorowski, Kristen M S O'Connell
The hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARH) is a brain region critical for regulation of food intake and a primary area for the action of leptin in the CNS. In lean mice, the adipokine leptin inhibits neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neuronal activity, resulting in decreased food intake. Here we show that diet-induced obesity in mice is associated with persistent activation of NPY neurons and a failure of leptin to reduce the firing rate or hyperpolarize the resting membrane potential. However, the molecular mechanism whereby diet uncouples leptin's effect on neuronal excitability remains to be fully elucidated...
April 16, 2014: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Kerstin Wernecke, Ingolf Lamprecht, Olaf Jöhren, Hendrik Lehnert, Carla Schulz
OBJECTIVE: Energy homeostasis results from a balance of food intake and energy expenditure, accomplished by the interaction of peripheral and central nervous signals. The recently discovered adipokine nesfatin-1 is involved in the central control of food intake, but whether it also participates in the regulation of thermogenesis is unknown. METHODS: Nesfatin-1 was administered intracerebroventricularly to freely moving, male Wistar rats and direct calorimetry was performed to assess its effects on thermogenesis...
July 2014: Obesity
Aaron J Mercer, Ronald C Stuart, Courtney A Attard, Veronica Otero-Corchon, Eduardo A Nillni, Malcolm J Low
Hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons constitute a critical anorexigenic node in the central nervous system (CNS) for maintaining energy balance. These neurons directly affect energy expenditure and feeding behavior by releasing bioactive neuropeptides but are also subject to signals directly related to nutritional state such as the adipokine leptin. To further investigate the interaction of diet and leptin on hypothalamic POMC peptide levels, we exposed 8- to 10-wk-old male POMC-Discosoma red fluorescent protein (DsRed) transgenic reporter mice to either 24-48 h (acute) or 2 wk (chronic) food restriction, high-fat diet (HFD), or leptin treatment...
April 15, 2014: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
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