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adipokine and neuron

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844957/adiponectin-attenuates-nadph-oxidase-mediated-oxidative-stress-and-neuronal-damage-induced-by-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#1
Xia Li, Hao Guo, Lei Zhao, Bodong Wang, Haixiao Liu, Liang Yue, Hao Bai, Haiyang Jiang, Li Gao, Dayun Feng, Yan Qu
Adiponectin (APN), which is a major adipokine that regulated glucose and lipid metabolism, plays an important role in the protection of the cerebral nervous system. It also has been suggested to have anti-inflammatory effects and ameliorate oxidative stress. Stroke is a universal cause of death and permanent disability. Ischemic stroke accounts for most cases of stroke, and is characterized by cerebral ischemia and neurological deficits. We aimed to investigate the effects of APN-peptide (APN-P) in neurons following ischemia reperfusion (I/R) in C57BL/6J mice, and to study the potential mechanisms underlying its effects...
August 24, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812049/importance-of-adiponectin-activity-in-the-pathogenesis-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
REVIEW
Masaaki Waragai, Gilbert Ho, Yoshiki Takamatsu, Kazunari Sekiyama, Shuei Sugama, Takato Takenouchi, Eliezer Masliah, Makoto Hashimoto
A recent study suggested that insulin resistance may play a central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this regard, it is of note that upregulation of plasma adiponectin (APN), a benign adipokine that sensitizes the insulin receptor signaling pathway and suppresses inflammation, has recently been associated with the severities of amyloid deposits and cognitive deficits in the elderly, suggesting that APN may enhance the risk of AD. These results are unanticipated because AD has been linked to type II diabetes and other metabolic disorders in which hypoadiponectinemia has been firmly established, and because APN ameliorated neuropathological features in a mouse model of neurodegeneration...
August 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585194/circadian-rhythms-in-diet-induced-obesity
#3
REVIEW
Atilla Engin
The biological clocks of the circadian timing system coordinate cellular and physiological processes and synchronizes these with daily cycles, feeding patterns also regulates circadian clocks. The clock genes and adipocytokines show circadian rhythmicity. Dysfunction of these genes are involved in the alteration of these adipokines during the development of obesity. Food availability promotes the stimuli associated with food intake which is a circadian oscillator outside of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536316/-adipose-stem-cell-system
#4
Yumiko Oishi, Ichiro Manabe
Adipose tissues are the major organ that controls systemic energy metabolism and maintain homeostasis by storing lipids, dissipating them as heat, and producing various adipokines. There are two major classes of adipocytes: white and brown adipocytes. White adipocytes store and release lipids, while brown adipocytes burn substrates to produce heat. In addition to classical brown adipose tissues consisting of brown adipocytes, cold exposure and β3 stimulation induce development of brown cell-like "beige" adipocytes in white adipose tissues...
2017: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371926/sensory-innervation-of-perivascular-adipose-tissue-a-crucial-role-in-artery-vasodilatation-and-leptin-release
#5
Hamidah Abu Bakar, William Robert Dunn, Craig Daly, Vera Ralevic
Aims: Electrical field stimulation (EFS) elicits robust sensory neurogenic relaxation responses in the rat isolated mesenteric arterial bed but these responses are absent or difficult to demonstrate in isolated arteries. We believe that this mismatch is due to the absence of perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) as it is conventionally removed in studies on isolated vessels. We aimed to determine whether sensory nerves are expressed in PVAT, their physiological roles and their possible interactions with PVAT-derived adipokines...
July 1, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884163/chronic-adiponectin-deficiency-leads-to-alzheimer-s-disease-like-cognitive-impairments-and-pathologies-through-ampk-inactivation-and-cerebral-insulin-resistance-in-aged-mice
#6
Roy Chun-Laam Ng, On-Yin Cheng, Min Jian, Jason Shing-Cheong Kwan, Philip Wing-Lok Ho, Kenneth King-Yip Cheng, Patrick Ka Kit Yeung, Lena Lei Zhou, Ruby Lai-Chong Hoo, Sookja Kim Chung, Aimin Xu, Karen Siu-Ling Lam, Koon Ho Chan
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance is the major pathogenesis underlying type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and these patients have doubled risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Increasing evidence suggests that insulin resistance plays an important role in AD pathogenesis, possibly due to abnormal GSK3β activation, causing intra- and extracellular amyloid-beta (Aβ) accumulation. Adiponectin (APN) is an adipokine with insulin-sensitizing and anti-inflammatory effects. Reduced circulatory APN level is associated with insulin resistance and T2DM...
November 25, 2016: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881065/lipids-at-the-cross-road-of-autoimmunity-in-multiple-sclerosis
#7
REVIEW
Marcella Reale, Silvia Sanchez-Ramon
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by demyelination and neurodegeneration, driven by a Th17/Th1-immune response, which afflicts mainly young women. Although MS causes are not completely known, it is notorious that the disease is characterized by an extended focal degradation of the myelin sheath, with ulterior axonal and neuronal damage. Lipid molecules play a main dual role in MS, both as target molecules of myelin destruction and as mediators of inflammation...
2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27700136/adiponectin-deficiency-leads-to-female-subfertility-and-ovarian-dysfunctions-in-mice
#8
Lixian Cheng, Hui Shi, Yan Jin, Xiaoxi Li, Jinshun Pan, Yimei Lai, Yan Lin, Ya Jin, Gaurab Roy, Allan Zhao, Fanghong Li
Adipose tissue plays an important role in regulating female fertility, owing to not only its energy stores but also the endocrine actions of secreted adipokines. As one of the adipokines, adiponectin is almost exclusively secreted from the fat, and its circulating concentration is paradoxically reduced in obesity. Although recent studies implied a purported positive role of adiponectin in ovarian functions, definitive in vivo evidence has been sorely lacking. We have consistently observed subfertility in female adiponectin null mice and therefore postulated a protective role of adiponectin in ovarian functions...
December 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692156/hypothesis-irisin-is-a-metabolic-trigger-for-the-activation-of-the-neurohormonal-axis-governing-puberty-onset
#9
Fazal Wahab, Muhammad Shahab, Rüdiger Behr
A large body of data suggests that body weight influences puberty onset and adult reproduction. However, the underlying mechanism of how body weight influences puberty onset and fertility is not completely understood. The hypothalamic neuronal circuit regulating reproduction is restrained by inhibitory signals during childhood. At the time of puberty, these inhibitory signals are weakened and supplanted by stimulatory signals that, in turn, stimulate the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) - a hypothalamic neuropeptide governing reproduction...
October 2016: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676233/leptin-modifies-the-prosecretory-and-prokinetic-effects-of-the-inflammatory-cytokine-interleukin-6-on-colonic-function-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#10
Maria M Buckley, Rebecca O'Brien, Michelle Devlin, Aisling A Creed, Mark G Rae, Niall P Hyland, Eamonn M M Quigley, Declan P McKernan, Dervla O'Malley
What is the central question of this study? Does crosstalk exist between leptin and interleukin-6 in colonic enteric neurons, and is this a contributory factor in gastrointestinal dysfunction associated with irritable bowel syndrome? What is the main finding and its importance? Leptin ameliorates the prosecretory and prokinetic effects of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 on rat colon. Leptin also suppresses the neurostimulatory effects of irritable bowel syndrome plasma, which has elevated concentrations of interleukin-6, on enteric neurons...
December 1, 2016: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27502601/dpp-4-inhibitors-in-diabetic-complications-role-of-dpp-4-beyond-glucose-control
#11
REVIEW
Eun Ju Bae
Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors (gliptins) are an emerging class of antidiabetic drugs that constitutes approximately fifty percent of the market share of the oral hypoglycemic drugs. Its mechanism of action for lowering blood glucose is essentially via inhibition of the rapid degradation of incretin hormones, such as glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), thus the plasma concentration of GLP-1 increases, which promotes insulin secretion from the pancreatic β cells and suppresses glucagon secretion from the α cells...
August 2016: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27018006/targeting-nicotinamide-phosphoribosyltransferase-as-a-potential-therapeutic-strategy-to-restore-adult-neurogenesis
#12
REVIEW
Shu-Na Wang, Tian-Ying Xu, Wen-Lin Li, Chao-Yu Miao
Adult neurogenesis is the process of generating new neurons throughout life in the olfactory bulb and hippocampus of most mammalian species, which is closely related to aging and disease. Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), also an adipokine known as visfatin, is the rate-limiting enzyme for mammalian nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) salvage synthesis by generating nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) from nicotinamide. Recent findings from our laboratory and other laboratories have provided much evidence that NAMPT might serve as a therapeutic target to restore adult neurogenesis...
June 2016: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26881138/the-effects-of-leptin-replacement-on-neural-plasticity
#13
REVIEW
Gilberto J Paz-Filho
Leptin, an adipokine synthesized and secreted mainly by the adipose tissue, has multiple effects on the regulation of food intake, energy expenditure, and metabolism. Its recently-approved analogue, metreleptin, has been evaluated in clinical trials for the treatment of patients with leptin deficiency due to mutations in the leptin gene, lipodystrophy syndromes, and hypothalamic amenorrhea. In such patients, leptin replacement therapy has led to changes in brain structure and function in intra- and extrahypothalamic areas, including the hippocampus...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26648466/approaches-for-the-development-of-drugs-for-treatment-of-obesity-and-metabolic-syndrome
#14
REVIEW
Maksim L Maksimov, Andrey A Svistunov, Vadim V Tarasov, Vladimir N Chubarev, Marco Ávila-Rodriguez, George E Barreto, Olga V Dralova, Gjumrakch Aliev
Obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS) are risk factors for diabetes, cancer, some cardiovascular and musculoskeletal diseases. Pharmacotherapy should be used when the body mass index (BMI) exceeds 30 kg/m² or 27 kg/m² with comorbidity. Efficacy and safety of pharmacotherapy depend on the mechanism of action of drugs. In this context, drugs affecting the central and peripheral mediator systems such as cannabinoid receptor antagonists (Rimonabant), neuronal reuptake inhibitor of NE and 5 HT (Sibutramine), neuronal reuptake inhibitor of NE 5-HT DA (Tesofensine), agonist of 5 HT 2C receptors (Lorcaserin) have a high risk of side effects on the central nervous and cardiovascular systems when used for a long period...
2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26236282/age-associated-weight-gain-leptin-and-sirt1-a-possible-role-for-hypothalamic-sirt1-in-the-prevention-of-weight-gain-and-aging-through-modulation-of-leptin-sensitivity
#15
REVIEW
Tsutomu Sasaki
The hypothalamus is the principal regulator of body weight and energy balance. It modulates both energy intake and energy expenditure by sensing the energy status of the body through neural inputs from the periphery as well as direct humoral inputs. Leptin, an adipokine, is one of the humoral factors responsible for alerting the hypothalamus that enough energy is stored in the periphery. Plasma leptin levels are positively linked to adiposity; leptin suppress energy intake and stimulates energy expenditure...
2015: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26227400/physiological-roles-for-the-subfornical-organ-a-dynamic-transcriptome-shaped-by-autonomic-state
#16
REVIEW
Charles Colin Thomas Hindmarch, Alastair V Ferguson
The subfornical organ (SFO) is a circumventricular organ recognized for its ability to sense and integrate hydromineral and hormonal circulating fluid balance signals, information which is transmitted to central autonomic nuclei to which SFO neurons project. While the role of SFO was once synonymous with physiological responses to osmotic, volumetric and cardiovascular challenge, recent data suggest that SFO neurons also sense and integrate information from circulating signals of metabolic status. Using microarrays, we have confirmed the expression of receptors already described in the SFO, and identified many novel transcripts expressed in this circumventricular organ including receptors for many of the critical circulating energy balance signals such as adiponectin, apelin, endocannabinoids, leptin, insulin and peptide YY...
March 15, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26198021/altered-expression-of-metabolic-proteins-and-adipokines-in-patients-with-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#17
S T Ngo, F J Steyn, L Huang, S Mantovani, C M M Pfluger, T M Woodruff, J D O'Sullivan, R D Henderson, P A McCombe
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of upper cortical and lower motor neurons. ALS causes death within 2-5years of diagnosis. Diet and body mass index influence the clinical course of disease, however there is limited information about the expression of metabolic proteins and fat-derived cytokines (adipokines) in ALS. In healthy controls and subjects with ALS, we have measured levels of proteins and adipokines that influence metabolism. We find altered levels of active ghrelin, gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), pancreatic polypeptide (PP), lipocalin-2, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and 8 (IL-8), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) in the plasma of ALS patients relative to controls...
October 15, 2015: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26159189/insulin-resistance-as-common-molecular-denominator-linking-obesity-to-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Domenico Nuzzo, Pasquale Picone, Sara Baldassano, Luca Caruana, Elisa Messina, Antonella Marino Gammazza, Francesco Cappello, Flavia Mulè, Marta Di Carlo
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an aging-related multi-factorial disorder to which metabolic factors contribute at what has canonically been considered a centrally mediated process. Although the exact underlying mechanisms are still unknown, obesity is recognized as a risk factor for AD and the condition of insulin resistance seems to be the link between the two pathologies. Using mice with high fat diet (HFD) obesity we dissected the molecular mechanisms shared by the two disorders. Brains of HFD fed mice showed elevated levels of APP and Aβ40/Aβ42 together with BACE, GSK3β and Tau proteins involved in APP processing and Aβ accumulation...
2015: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26059356/the-role-of-nicotinamide-phosphoribosyltransferase-in-cerebral-ischemia
#19
REVIEW
Xinzhi Chen, Shangfeng Zhao, Yang Song, Yejie Shi, Rehana K Leak, Guodong Cao
As recombinant tissue plasminogen activator is the only drug approved for the clinical treatment of acute ischemic stroke, there is an urgent unmet need for novel stroke treatments. Endogenous defense mechanisms against stroke may hold the key to new therapies for stroke. A large number of studies suggest that nicotinamide phosphoribosyl-transferase (NAMPT is an attractive candidate to improve post-stroke recovery. NAMPT is a multifunctional protein and plays important roles in immunity, metabolism, aging, inflammation, and stress responses...
2015: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25979075/the-metabolic-syndrome-and-microvascular-complications-in-a-murine-model-of-type-2-diabetes
#20
Junguk Hur, Jacqueline R Dauch, Lucy M Hinder, John M Hayes, Carey Backus, Subramaniam Pennathur, Matthias Kretzler, Frank C Brosius, Eva L Feldman
To define the components of the metabolic syndrome that contribute to diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), we treated the BKS db/db mouse, an established murine model of T2DM and the metabolic syndrome, with the thiazolidinedione class drug pioglitazone. Pioglitazone treatment of BKS db/db mice produced a significant weight gain, restored glycemic control, and normalized measures of serum oxidative stress and triglycerides but had no effect on LDLs or total cholesterol. Moreover, although pioglitazone treatment normalized renal function, it had no effect on measures of large myelinated nerve fibers, specifically sural or sciatic nerve conduction velocities, but significantly improved measures of small unmyelinated nerve fiber architecture and function...
September 2015: Diabetes
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