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hypothalamus and adipokine and neuron

Rafael Calais Gaspar, Vitor Rosetto Muñoz, Guilherme Pedron Formigari, Gabriel Keine Kuga, Susana Castelo Branco Ramos Nakandakari, José Diego Botezelli, Adelino S R da Silva, Dennys Esper Cintra, Leandro Pereira de Moura, Eduardo Rochete Ropelle, José Rodrigo Pauli
Adiponectin is considered an adipokine that has essential anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitivity actions. The adaptor protein containing the pleckstrin homology domain, the phosphotyrosine-binding domain, and leucine zipper motif 1 (APPL1) is a protein involved in adiponectin signaling that plays a role in many physiological and pathophysiological processes. In the central nervous system, adiponectin can potentiate the effects of leptin in the arcuate proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons. However, the role of APPL1 in the hypothalamus is not well understood...
April 26, 2018: Cytokine
Hannah Mathew, V Daniel Castracane, Christos Mantzoros
The understanding of adipose tissue role has evolved from that of a depot energy storage organ to a dynamic endocrine organ. While genetics, sexual phenotype and sex steroids can impact the mass and distribution of adipose tissue, there is a counter-influence of white adipocytes on reproduction. This primarily occurs via the secretion of adipokines, the most studied of which- leptin and adiponectin- are highlighted in this article. Leptin, the "satiety hormone" primarily acts on the hypothalamus via pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons to translate acute changes in nutrition and energy expenditure, as well as chronic adipose accumulation into changes in appetite and potentially mediate insulin resistance via shared pathway and notably impacting reproductive health via influence on GnRH secreting neurons...
November 16, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Atilla Engin
The biological clocks of the circadian timing system coordinate cellular and physiological processes and synchronizes these with daily cycles, feeding patterns also regulates circadian clocks. The clock genes and adipocytokines show circadian rhythmicity. Dysfunction of these genes are involved in the alteration of these adipokines during the development of obesity. Food availability promotes the stimuli associated with food intake which is a circadian oscillator outside of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Tsutomu Sasaki
The hypothalamus is the principal regulator of body weight and energy balance. It modulates both energy intake and energy expenditure by sensing the energy status of the body through neural inputs from the periphery as well as direct humoral inputs. Leptin, an adipokine, is one of the humoral factors responsible for alerting the hypothalamus that enough energy is stored in the periphery. Plasma leptin levels are positively linked to adiposity; leptin suppress energy intake and stimulates energy expenditure...
2015: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Anne Drougard, Audren Fournel, Philippe Valet, Claude Knauf
Hypothalamus is a key area involved in the control of metabolism and food intake via the integrations of numerous signals (hormones, neurotransmitters, metabolites) from various origins. These factors modify hypothalamic neurons activity and generate adequate molecular and behavioral responses to control energy balance. In this complex integrative system, a new concept has been developed in recent years, that includes reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a critical player in energy balance. ROS are known to act in many signaling pathways in different peripheral organs, but also in hypothalamus where they regulate food intake and metabolism by acting on different types of neurons, including proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and agouti-related protein (AgRP)/neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurons...
2015: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Gantulga Darambazar, Masanori Nakata, Takashi Okada, Lei Wang, EnXu Li, Atsumi Shinozaki, Megumi Motoshima, Masatomo Mori, Toshihiko Yada
An adipokine leptin plays a central role in the regulation of feeding and energy homeostasis via acting on the hypothalamus. However, its downstream neuronal mechanism is not thoroughly understood. The neurons expressing nucleobindin-2 (NUCB2)-derived nesfatin-1 in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) have been implicated in feeding and energy homeostasis. The present study aimed to explore the role of PVN NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in the leptin action, by using adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors encoding shRNA targeting NUCB2 (AAV-NUCB2-shRNA)...
January 24, 2015: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Yuwei Wu, Qisheng Tu, Paloma Valverde, Jin Zhang, Dana Murray, Lily Q Dong, Jessica Cheng, Hua Jiang, Maribel Rios, Elise Morgan, Zhihui Tang, Jake Chen
Adiponectin (APN), the most abundant adipocyte-secreted adipokine, regulates energy homeostasis and exerts well-characterized insulin-sensitizing properties. The peripheral or central effects of APN regulating bone metabolism are beginning to be explored but are still not clearly understood. In the present study, we found that APN-knockout (APN-KO) mice fed a normal diet exhibited decreased trabecular structure and mineralization and increased bone marrow adiposity compared with wild-type (WT) mice. APN intracerebroventricular infusions decreased uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression in brown adipose tissue, epinephrine and norepinephrine serum levels, and osteoclast numbers, whereas osteoblast osteogenic marker expression and trabecular bone mass increased in APN-KO and WT mice...
June 15, 2014: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Scott B Baver, Kevin Hope, Shannon Guyot, Christian Bjørbaek, Catherine Kaczorowski, Kristen M S O'Connell
The hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARH) is a brain region critical for regulation of food intake and a primary area for the action of leptin in the CNS. In lean mice, the adipokine leptin inhibits neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neuronal activity, resulting in decreased food intake. Here we show that diet-induced obesity in mice is associated with persistent activation of NPY neurons and a failure of leptin to reduce the firing rate or hyperpolarize the resting membrane potential. However, the molecular mechanism whereby diet uncouples leptin's effect on neuronal excitability remains to be fully elucidated...
April 16, 2014: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Kerstin Wernecke, Ingolf Lamprecht, Olaf Jöhren, Hendrik Lehnert, Carla Schulz
OBJECTIVE: Energy homeostasis results from a balance of food intake and energy expenditure, accomplished by the interaction of peripheral and central nervous signals. The recently discovered adipokine nesfatin-1 is involved in the central control of food intake, but whether it also participates in the regulation of thermogenesis is unknown. METHODS: Nesfatin-1 was administered intracerebroventricularly to freely moving, male Wistar rats and direct calorimetry was performed to assess its effects on thermogenesis...
July 2014: Obesity
Aaron J Mercer, Ronald C Stuart, Courtney A Attard, Veronica Otero-Corchon, Eduardo A Nillni, Malcolm J Low
Hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons constitute a critical anorexigenic node in the central nervous system (CNS) for maintaining energy balance. These neurons directly affect energy expenditure and feeding behavior by releasing bioactive neuropeptides but are also subject to signals directly related to nutritional state such as the adipokine leptin. To further investigate the interaction of diet and leptin on hypothalamic POMC peptide levels, we exposed 8- to 10-wk-old male POMC-Discosoma red fluorescent protein (DsRed) transgenic reporter mice to either 24-48 h (acute) or 2 wk (chronic) food restriction, high-fat diet (HFD), or leptin treatment...
April 15, 2014: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Shin J Lee, Saurabh Verma, Stephanie E Simonds, Melissa A Kirigiti, Paul Kievit, Sarah R Lindsley, Alberto Loche, M Susan Smith, Michael A Cowley, Kevin L Grove
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurons in both the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARH) and the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) have been implicated in food intake and obesity. However, while ARH NPY is highly expressed in the lean animal, DMH NPY mRNA expression is observed only after diet-induced obesity (DIO). Furthermore, while ARH NPY neurons are inhibited by leptin, the effect of this adipokine on DMH NPY neurons is unknown. In this study we show that in contrast to the consistent expression in the ARH, DMH NPY mRNA expression was undetectable until after 10 weeks in mice fed a high-fat diet, and peaked at 20 weeks...
September 18, 2013: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Pauline M Smith, Alastair V Ferguson
In order to maintain an ideal body weight, an organism must balance energy intake with energy expenditure. It is well known that metabolic signals derived in the periphery act in well-defined hypothalamic and brainstem neuronal circuits to control energy homeostasis. As such, peripheral signals that convey information regarding nutritional and metabolic status of the individual must be able to access and control these neuronal circuits in order to direct both food intake and energy expenditure. Within the hypothalamus, the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus has become recognized as a critical center in this integrated circuitry...
2014: Current Pharmaceutical Design
C Knauf, A Drougard, A Fournel, T Duparc, P Valet
Hypothalamus is key area implicated in control of glucose homeostasis. This structure integrates nervous and peripheral informations to adapt a response modifying peripheral glucose utilization and maintaining energetic balance. Among peripheral signals, adipokines such as adiponectin and leptin are of special importance since deregulations of their actions are closely associated to metabolic disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. During the past ten years, we have identified a new adipokine named apelin which has emerging role in the control of metabolism...
December 2013: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
Andries Kalsbeek, Eric Fliers
The highly coordinated output of the hypothalamic biological clock does not only govern the daily rhythm in sleep/wake (or feeding/fasting) behaviour but also has direct control over many aspects of hormone release. In fact, a significant proportion of our current understanding of the circadian clock has its roots in the study of the intimate connections between the hypothalamic clock and multiple endocrine axes. This chapter will focus on the anatomical connections used by the mammalian biological clock to enforce its endogenous rhythmicity on the rest of the body, using a number of different hormone systems as a representative example...
2013: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
J Kuliczkowska-Plaksej, A Milewicz, J Jakubowska
Metabolism is controlled through homeostatic system consisting of central centers, gut hormones, hormones from adipose tissue and the other hormonal axes. This cooperation is based on cross-talk between central and peripheral signals. Among them the hypothalamus plays a crucial role, with interconnected nuclei forming neuronal circuits. Other regions in the brain, such as the brain stem, the endocannabinoid system, the vagal afferents, are also involved in energy balance. The second component is peripheral source of signals--the gastrointestinal tract hormones...
March 2012: Gynecological Endocrinology
D Amantea, C Tassorelli, R Russo, F Petrelli, L A Morrone, G Bagetta, M T Corasaniti
In addition to its effects in the hypothalamus to control body weight, leptin is involved in the regulation of neuronal function, development and survival. Recent findings have highlighted the neuroprotective effects of leptin against ischemic brain injury; however, to date, little is known about the role performed by the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3, a major mediator of leptin receptor transduction pathway in the brain, in the beneficial effects of the hormone. Our data demonstrate that systemic acute administration of leptin produces neuroprotection in rats subjected to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo), as revealed by a significant reduction of the brain infarct volume and neurological deficit up to 7 days after the induction of ischemia...
2011: Cell Death & Disease
Katarína Sebeková, Kristína Simon Klenovics, Peter Boor, Peter Celec, Michal Behuliak, Peter Schieberle, August Heidland, Miklós Palkovits, Veronika Somoza
Maillard reaction products (MRPs) are generated upon thermal processing of foods, modifying their colour and flavour. We asked whether aroma compounds generated via Maillard-type reactions modulate the in vivo effects of MRP-rich diets (MRPD). Male Wistar rats were fed for 3weeks either with a standard rat chow, an aroma compounds containing MRPD comprising 25% bread crust, or an aroma-extracted MRPD. In contrast to standard rat chow, consumption of MRPDs affected glucose control, induced hyper-leptinemia and hyper-adiponectinemia...
February 1, 2012: Physiology & Behavior
S Kosari, J A Rathner, F Chen, S Kosari, E Badoer
Resistin, an adipokine, is believed to act in the brain to influence energy homeostasis. Plasma resistin levels are elevated in obesity and are associated with metabolic and cardiovascular disease. Increased muscle sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) is a characteristic of obesity, a risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that resistin affects SNA, which contributes to metabolic and cardiovascular dysfunction. Here we investigated the effects of centrally administered resistin on SNA to muscle (lumbar) and brown adipose tissue (BAT), outputs that influence cardiovascular and energy homeostasis...
July 2011: Endocrinology
Joseph S Marino, Yong Xu, Jennifer W Hill
Largely as a result of rising obesity rates, the incidence of type 2 diabetes is escalating rapidly. Type 2 diabetes results from multi-organ dysfunctional glucose metabolism. Recent publications have highlighted hypothalamic insulin- and adipokine-sensing as a major determinant of peripheral glucose and insulin responsiveness. The preponderance of evidence indicates that the brain is the master regulator of glucose homeostasis, and that hypothalamic insulin and leptin signaling in particular play a crucial role in the development of insulin resistance...
July 2011: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Francis I Achike, Nim-Hin Peter To, Huidi Wang, Chiu-Yin Kwan
1. Obesity is a metabolic disease of pandemic proportions largely arising from positive energy balance, a consequence of sedentary lifestyle, conditioned by environmental and genetic factors. Several central and peripheral neurohumoral factors (the major ones being the anorectic adipokines leptin and adiponecin and the orexigenic gut hormone ghrelin) acting on the anorectic (pro-opiomelanocortin and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) and orexigenic (neuropeptide Y and agouti gene-related protein) neurons regulate energy balance...
January 2011: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
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