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adipokine and immune

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649760/immunometabolism-of-human-autoimmune-diseases-from-metabolites-to-extracellular-vesicles
#1
REVIEW
Paola de Candia, Veronica De Rosa, Vincenzo Gigantino, Gerardo Botti, Antonio Ceriello, Giuseppe Matarese
Immunometabolism focuses on the mechanisms regulating the impact of metabolism on lymphocyte activity and autoimmunity outbreak. The adipose tissue is long known to release adipokines, either pro- or anti-inflammatory factors bridging nutrition and immune function. More recently, adipocytes were discovered to also release extracellular vesicles (EVs) containing a plethora of biological molecules, including metabolites and microRNAs, which can regulate cell function/metabolism in distant tissues, suggesting that immune regulatory function by the adipose tissue may be far more complex than originally thought...
June 26, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640444/impact-of-growth-hormone-on-regulation-of-adipose-tissue
#2
Katie M Troike, Brooke E Henry, Elizabeth A Jensen, Jonathan A Young, Edward O List, John J Kopchick, Darlene E Berryman
Increasing prevalence of obesity and obesity-related conditions worldwide has necessitated a more thorough understanding of adipose tissue (AT) and expanded the scope of research in this field. AT is now understood to be far more complex and dynamic than previously thought, which has also fueled research to reevaluate how hormones, such as growth hormone (GH), alter the tissue. In this review, we will introduce properties of AT important for understanding how GH alters the tissue, such as anatomical location of depots and adipokine output...
June 18, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619369/mechanisms-of-atherosclerosis-and-cardiovascular-disease-in-antiphospholipid-syndrome-and-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-new-therapeutic-approaches
#3
REVIEW
Chary Lopez-Pedrera, M Ángeles Aguirre-Zamorano, Carlos Pérez-Sánchez
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) are 2 highly related autoimmune-rheumatic diseases associated with an increased risk of developing cardiovascular (CV) diseases. Despite the great progresses made in understanding the pathological mechanisms leading to CV diseases in those pathologies, there is still the unmet need to improve long term prognosis. CV diseases in SLE and APS is thought to happen as the result of a complex interaction between traditional CV risk factors, immune deregulation and disease activity, including the synergic effect of cytokines, chemokines, adipokines, proteases, autoantibodies, adhesion receptors, oxidative stress and a plethora of intracellular signalling molecules...
June 12, 2017: Medicina Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616851/effect-of-aerobic-interval-training-on-serum-il-10-tnf%C3%AE-and-adipokines-levels-in-women-with-multiple-sclerosis-possible-relations-with-fatigue-and-quality-of-life
#4
Motahare Mokhtarzade, Rouholah Ranjbar, Nastaran Majdinasab, Darpan Patel, Mehdieh Molanouri Shamsi
PURPOSE: Multiple sclerosis is associated with immune system dysfunction and chronic inflammation; however, possible relations between immunologic and metabolic factors and some psychological indexes such as fatigue and quality of life, especially in relation to exercise training, have not yet been investigated. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of aerobic interval training on interleukin-10/tumor necrosis factor ratio and adipokine (leptin and adiponectin) concentrations in women with multiple sclerosis...
June 14, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614774/new-insight-into-the-direct-anti-inflammatory-activity-of-a-myokine-irisin-against-proinflammatory-activation-of-adipocytes-implication-for-exercise-in-obesity
#5
A I Mazur-Bialy, J Bilski, E Pochec, T Brzozowski
A biological activity of myokine irisin, has been intensively investigated in the context of a browning process occurring in white adipose tissue, but its role as a modulator of immune response has been little studied. The aim of our study was to determine the impact of irisin (0 - 100 nM) on pro-inflammatory activation of adipocyte 3T3 L1 cell line. Irisin reduced in a concentration-dependent manner the expression and activity of major proinflammatory cytokines, e.g. tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) expression and their secretion into cell medium...
April 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592510/methodological-utility-of-chemerin-as-a-novel-biomarker-of-immunity-and-metabolism
#6
Fabian Eichelmann, Cornelia Weikert, Romina di Giuseppe, Ronald Biemann, Berend Isermann, M B Schulze, Heiner Boeing, Krasimira Aleksandrova
Chemerin is a recently discovered adipokine with inflammatory and metabolic actions relevant for chronic disease development. However, evidence from human research on the role of chemerin in chronic disease risk is still lacking. We assessed reliability of plasma chemerin concentrations measured on two occasions over a 4-month period in 207 apparently healthy participants. In addition, we explored cross-sectional associations between chemerin and inflammatory biomarkers using Spearman partial correlation and multivariable linear regression analyses...
June 7, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587339/orf3-as-a-sensitive-and-specific-diagnostic-index-for-hepatitis-e
#7
Lijuan Li, Min Liu, Chengrui Geng, Yunmei Zou, Tong Jiao
We explored the significance of the expression of hepatitis E virus (HEV) open reading frame 3 (ORF3) in hepatitis E rat models. We also investigated its diagnostic value. Forty Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were infected with HEV and 10 uninfected rats were selected for the control group. Rats were sacrificed at 14, 21, 35 and 70 days after infection. They were divided into 4 groups: Model group 1, model group 2, model group 3 and model group 4. ORF3 protein expression level in liver tissue, level of adipokines [fatty acid synthase (FAS), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor 2 (ACE-2)], Th1/Th2 cells balance [interferon (IFN), interleukin-4 (IL-4) and Th1/Th2] and the level of immune outcome (levels of CD4(+), CD8(+) T lymphocytes and CD4(+)/CD8(+)) were measured and compared among groups...
June 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28565874/resistin-increases-the-expression-of-nod2-in-mouse-monocytes
#8
Yi Ren, Taomei Wan, Zhicai Zuo, Hengmin Cui, Xi Peng, Jing Fang, Junliang Deng, Yanchun Hu, Shuming Yu, Liuhong Shen, Xiaoping Ma, Ya Wang, Zhihua Ren
Previous studies have indicated that resistin, a type of adipokine, contributes to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and mediates inflammatory reactions. However, a specific receptor for resistin has not yet been identified. In this study, the relationship between resistin and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors, as well as resistin signal transduction, was examined through transfection, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blot analysis and ELISA...
May 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536758/serum-levels-of-adipokines-in-patients-with-idiopathic-inflammatory-myopathies-a-pilot-study
#9
Javier Loaiza-Félix, Mariana Moreno-Ramírez, F Luis Pérez-García, Valentín Jiménez-Rojas, Fausto Sánchez-Muñoz, M Luis Amezcua-Guerra
Adipokines are cytokines not only regulating metabolic and endocrine activities, but also modulating inflammatory and immune responses in several clinical settings, including autoimmunity. This study was aimed to evaluate whether serum adipokine levels may be useful as markers of disease activity in patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM). Adiponectin, leptin, chemokine C-C motif ligand-2 (CCL2), interleukin (IL)-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) were measured in the serum of all participants...
May 23, 2017: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536316/-adipose-stem-cell-system
#10
Yumiko Oishi, Ichiro Manabe
Adipose tissues are the major organ that controls systemic energy metabolism and maintain homeostasis by storing lipids, dissipating them as heat, and producing various adipokines. There are two major classes of adipocytes: white and brown adipocytes. White adipocytes store and release lipids, while brown adipocytes burn substrates to produce heat. In addition to classical brown adipose tissues consisting of brown adipocytes, cold exposure and β3 stimulation induce development of brown cell-like "beige" adipocytes in white adipose tissues...
2017: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513775/adiponectin-inhibits-oxidization-induced-differentiation-of-t-helper-cells-through-inhibiting-costimulatory-cd40-and-cd80
#11
Y Xiao, T Deng, Z Shang, D Wang
Adiponectin is a multifunctional adipokine that has several oligomeric forms in the blood stream, which broadly regulates innate and acquired immunity. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to observe the differentiation of T helper (Th) cells and expression of costimulatory signaling molecules affected by adiponectin. The mRNA and protein expression levels of adiponectin and its receptors in oxidized low density lipoprotein cholesterol-treated endothelial cells were assayed by real time PCR and immunofluorescence...
May 15, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490813/leptin-receptor-antagonism-of-inkt-cell-function-a-novel-strategy-to-combat-multiple-myeloma
#12
M Favreau, E Menu, D Gaublomme, K Vanderkerken, S Faict, K Maes, E De Bruyne, S Govindarajan, M Drennan, S Van Calenbergh, X Leleu, L Zabeau, J Tavernier, K Venken, D Elewaut
A hallmark of bone marrow changes with aging is the increase in adipocyte composition, but how this impacts development of multiple myeloma (MM) is unknown. Here, we report the role of the adipokine leptin as master regulator of anti-myeloma tumor immunity by modulating the invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cell function. A marked increase in serum leptin levels and leptin receptor (LR) expression on iNKT cells in MM patients and the 5T33 murine MM model was observed. MM cells and leptin synergistically counteracted anti-tumor functionality of both murine and human iNKT cells...
May 11, 2017: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458349/impact-of-pioglitazone-on-macrophage-dynamics-in-adipose-tissues-of-cecal-ligation-and-puncture-treated-mice
#13
Takeshi Matsutani, Kazuhiro Tamura, Masahiko Kutsukake, Akihisa Matsuda, Eiichi Tachikawa, Eiji Uchida
Pioglitazone improves sepsis-induced organ injury accompanied with anti-inflammatory effects on visceral adipose tissue. However, its action in adipose immune cells remains to be ascertained. We investigated the effects of pioglitazone on visceral adipose macrophage population and polarisation in cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis mice. Eight-week-old male mice were assigned to 3 groups: 1) sham-operated group, 2) CLP group, or 3) pioglitazone-treated CLP group. Pioglitazone (10 mg/kg) was injected intraperitonally for 7 d and CLP surgery was performed...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412873/%C3%AE-3-adrenergic-receptors-adipokines-and-neuroendocrine-activation-during-stress-induced-by-repeated-immune-challenge-in-male-and-female-rats
#14
Agnesa Csanova, Natasa Hlavacova, Malgorzata Hasiec, Michal Pokusa, Barbora Prokopova, Daniela Jezova
The main hypothesis of the study is that stress associated with repeated immune challenge has an impact on β3-adrenergic receptor gene expression in the brain. Sprague-Dawley rats were intraperitoneally injected with increasing doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for five consecutive days. LPS treatment was associated with body weight loss and increased anxiety-like behavior. In LPS-treated animals of both sexes, β3-receptor gene expression was increased in the prefrontal cortex but not the hippocampus. LPS treatment decreased β3-receptor gene expression in white adipose tissue with higher values in males compared to females...
May 2, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390430/impact-of-the-body-mass-index-on-perioperative-immunological-disturbances-in-patients-with-hip-and-knee-arthroplasty
#15
Simon Jasinski-Bergner, Anna-Luise Radetzki, Janine Jahn, David Wohlrab, Heike Kielstein
BACKGROUND: Obesity increases the risk for knee and hip joint implantation and negatively contributes to wound healing. In this study, in 52 patients undergoing hip and knee arthroplasty the amount of peripheral immune effector cells pre- and post-operative, as well as the expression of certain soluble factors affecting the functions of immune effector cells were investigated. METHODS: The peripheral immune cells and the expression of the soluble factors were determined by flow cytometry and correlated to each other in dependency of the BMI, the sex, and the kind of arthroplasty...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359913/obesity-altered-t-cell-metabolism-and-the-response-to-infection
#16
REVIEW
William D Green, Melinda A Beck
An epidemic of obesity over the past three decades increases the risk of chronic and infectious diseases for adults and children alike. Within the past few years, obesity has been shown to impair the adaptive immune response to infection through alterations in T cell functioning. Growing evidence suggests that perturbations in T cell metabolism drives this stunted immune response, stemming from nutrient, hormone and adipokine dysregulation in the obese. In this review, recent findings in the fields of obesity and T cell mediated immunity demonstrate a unique relationship between altered mechanisms of T cell metabolic homeostasis and plasticity of adaptive immune responses in the obese setting...
March 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353634/vitamin-d-insufficiency-exacerbates-adipose-tissue-macrophage-infiltration-and-decreases-ampk-sirt1-activity-in-obese-rats
#17
Eugene Chang, Yangha Kim
Obesity is recognized as a state of chronic low-grade systemic inflammation due to adipose tissue macrophage infiltration and production of proinflammatory adipokines. Decreased vitamin D status is associated with obesity. The specific aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of vitamin D on obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized and fed a normal diet (NOR, 1000 IU vitamin D/kg diet), a 45% high-fat diet (HF, 1000 IU vitamin D/kg diet), or a 45% high-fat diet containing 25 IU vitamin D/kg diet (HF+LVD) for 12 weeks...
March 29, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348560/specific-strains-of-lactic-acid-bacteria-differentially-modulate-the-profile-of-adipokines-in-vitro
#18
Emanuel Fabersani, María Claudia Abeijon-Mukdsi, Romina Ross, Roxana Medina, Silvia González, Paola Gauffin-Cano
Obesity induces local/systemic inflammation accompanied by increases in macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue and production of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and hormones. Previous studies have shown that probiotics could improve the intestinal dysbiosis induced by metabolic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Microorganisms could (directly or indirectly) affect adipokine levels due to their capacity to induce translocation of several intestinal microbial antigens into systemic circulation, which could lead to metabolic endotoxemia or produce immunomodulation in different organs...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348559/mir-31-links-lipid-metabolism-and-cell-apoptosis-in-bacteria-challenged-apostichopus-japonicus-via-targeting-ctrp9
#19
Yina Shao, Chenghua Li, Wei Xu, Pengjuan Zhang, Weiwei Zhang, Xuelin Zhao
The biological functions of microRNAs (miRNAs) have been studied in a number of eukaryotic species. Recent studies on vertebrate animals have demonstrated critical roles of miRNA in immune and metabolic activities. However, studies on the functions of miRNA in invertebrates are very limited. Here, we demonstrated that miR-31 from Apostichopus japonicus disrupts the balance of lipid metabolism, thus resulting in cell apoptosis by targeting complement C1q tumor necrosis factor-related protein 9 (AjCTRP9), a novel adipokine with pleiotropic functions in immunity and metabolism...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334911/mertk-rs4374383-variant-predicts-incident-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-diabetes-role-of-mononuclear-cell-activation-and-adipokine-response-to-dietary-fat
#20
Giovanni Musso, Maurizio Cassader, Franco De Michieli, Elena Paschetta, Silvia Pinach, Francesca Saba, Daria Bongiovanni, Luciana Framarin, Mara Berrutti, Nicola Leone, Stefania Corvisieri, Renato Parente, Federica Molinaro, Antonio Sircana, Simona Bo, Roberto Gambino
The loss-of-function rs4374383 G > A variant in Myeloid-epithelial-reproductive Tyrosine Kinase (MERTK) gene has been linked to hepatic fibrosis in chronic liver diseases. MERTK is expressed by immune and non-immune cells involved in inflammation, metabolism and vascular homeostasis. We assessed the impact of MERTK rs4374383 G > A variant on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) incidence and severity and on glucose and lipid metabolism. We followed-up 305 healthy nonobese nondiabetic, metabolic syndrome-free insulin sensitive participants in a population-based study, characterized for MERTK G > A polymorphism, adipokine profile and inflammatory markers...
May 1, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
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