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adipokine and immune

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513775/adiponectin-inhibits-oxidization-induced-differentiation-of-t-helper-cells-through-inhibiting-costimulatory-cd40-and-cd80
#1
Y Xiao, T Deng, Z Shang, D Wang
Adiponectin is a multifunctional adipokine that has several oligomeric forms in the blood stream, which broadly regulates innate and acquired immunity. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to observe the differentiation of T helper (Th) cells and expression of costimulatory signaling molecules affected by adiponectin. The mRNA and protein expression levels of adiponectin and its receptors in oxidized low density lipoprotein cholesterol-treated endothelial cells were assayed by real time PCR and immunofluorescence...
May 15, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490813/leptin-receptor-antagonism-of-inkt-cell-function-a-novel-strategy-to-combat-multiple-myeloma
#2
M Favreau, E Menu, D Gaublomme, K Vanderkerken, S Faict, K Maes, E De Bruyne, S Govindarajan, M Drennan, S Van Calenbergh, X Leleu, L Zabeau, J Tavernier, K Venken, D Elewaut
A hallmark of bone marrow changes with aging is the increase in adipocyte composition, but how this impacts development of multiple myeloma (MM) is unknown. Here, we report the role of the adipokine leptin as master regulator of anti-myeloma tumor immunity by modulating the invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cell function. A marked increase in serum leptin levels and leptin receptor (LR) expression on iNKT cells in MM patients and the 5T33 murine MM model was observed. MM cells and leptin synergistically counteracted anti-tumor functionality of both murine and human iNKT cells...
May 11, 2017: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458349/impact-of-pioglitazone-on-macrophage-dynamics-in-adipose-tissues-of-cecal-ligation-and-puncture-treated-mice
#3
Takeshi Matsutani, Kazuhiro Tamura, Masahiko Kutsukake, Akihisa Matsuda, Eiichi Tachikawa, Eiji Uchida
Pioglitazone improves sepsis-induced organ injury accompanied with anti-inflammatory effects on visceral adipose tissue. However, its action in adipose immune cells remains to be ascertained. We investigated the effects of pioglitazone on visceral adipose macrophage population and polarisation in cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis mice. Eight-week-old male mice were assigned to 3 groups: 1) sham-operated group, 2) CLP group, or 3) pioglitazone-treated CLP group. Pioglitazone (10 mg/kg) was injected intraperitonally for 7 d and CLP surgery was performed...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412873/%C3%AE-3-adrenergic-receptors-adipokines-and-neuroendocrine-activation-during-stress-induced-by-repeated-immune-challenge-in-male-and-female-rats
#4
Agnesa Csanova, Natasa Hlavacova, Malgorzata Hasiec, Michal Pokusa, Barbora Prokopova, Daniela Jezova
The main hypothesis of the study is that stress associated with repeated immune challenge has an impact on β3-adrenergic receptor gene expression in the brain. Sprague-Dawley rats were intraperitoneally injected with increasing doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 5 consecutive days. LPS treatment was associated with body weight loss and increased anxiety-like behavior. In LPS-treated animals of both sexes, β3-receptor gene expression was increased in the prefrontal cortex but not the hippocampus. LPS treatment decreased β3-receptor gene expression in white adipose tissue with higher values in males compared to females...
April 16, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390430/impact-of-the-body-mass-index-on-perioperative-immunological-disturbances-in-patients-with-hip-and-knee-arthroplasty
#5
Simon Jasinski-Bergner, Anna-Luise Radetzki, Janine Jahn, David Wohlrab, Heike Kielstein
BACKGROUND: Obesity increases the risk for knee and hip joint implantation and negatively contributes to wound healing. In this study, in 52 patients undergoing hip and knee arthroplasty the amount of peripheral immune effector cells pre- and post-operative, as well as the expression of certain soluble factors affecting the functions of immune effector cells were investigated. METHODS: The peripheral immune cells and the expression of the soluble factors were determined by flow cytometry and correlated to each other in dependency of the BMI, the sex, and the kind of arthroplasty...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359913/obesity-altered-t-cell-metabolism-and-the-response-to-infection
#6
REVIEW
William D Green, Melinda A Beck
An epidemic of obesity over the past three decades increases the risk of chronic and infectious diseases for adults and children alike. Within the past few years, obesity has been shown to impair the adaptive immune response to infection through alterations in T cell functioning. Growing evidence suggests that perturbations in T cell metabolism drives this stunted immune response, stemming from nutrient, hormone and adipokine dysregulation in the obese. In this review, recent findings in the fields of obesity and T cell mediated immunity demonstrate a unique relationship between altered mechanisms of T cell metabolic homeostasis and plasticity of adaptive immune responses in the obese setting...
March 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353634/vitamin-d-insufficiency-exacerbates-adipose-tissue-macrophage-infiltration-and-decreases-ampk-sirt1-activity-in-obese-rats
#7
Eugene Chang, Yangha Kim
Obesity is recognized as a state of chronic low-grade systemic inflammation due to adipose tissue macrophage infiltration and production of proinflammatory adipokines. Decreased vitamin D status is associated with obesity. The specific aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of vitamin D on obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized and fed a normal diet (NOR, 1000 IU vitamin D/kg diet), a 45% high-fat diet (HF, 1000 IU vitamin D/kg diet), or a 45% high-fat diet containing 25 IU vitamin D/kg diet (HF+LVD) for 12 weeks...
March 29, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348560/specific-strains-of-lactic-acid-bacteria-differentially-modulate-the-profile-of-adipokines-in-vitro
#8
Emanuel Fabersani, María Claudia Abeijon-Mukdsi, Romina Ross, Roxana Medina, Silvia González, Paola Gauffin-Cano
Obesity induces local/systemic inflammation accompanied by increases in macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue and production of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and hormones. Previous studies have shown that probiotics could improve the intestinal dysbiosis induced by metabolic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Microorganisms could (directly or indirectly) affect adipokine levels due to their capacity to induce translocation of several intestinal microbial antigens into systemic circulation, which could lead to metabolic endotoxemia or produce immunomodulation in different organs...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348559/mir-31-links-lipid-metabolism-and-cell-apoptosis-in-bacteria-challenged-apostichopus-japonicus-via-targeting-ctrp9
#9
Yina Shao, Chenghua Li, Wei Xu, Pengjuan Zhang, Weiwei Zhang, Xuelin Zhao
The biological functions of microRNAs (miRNAs) have been studied in a number of eukaryotic species. Recent studies on vertebrate animals have demonstrated critical roles of miRNA in immune and metabolic activities. However, studies on the functions of miRNA in invertebrates are very limited. Here, we demonstrated that miR-31 from Apostichopus japonicus disrupts the balance of lipid metabolism, thus resulting in cell apoptosis by targeting complement C1q tumor necrosis factor-related protein 9 (AjCTRP9), a novel adipokine with pleiotropic functions in immunity and metabolism...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334911/mertk-rs4374383-variant-predicts-incident-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-diabetes-role-of-mononuclear-cell-activation-and-adipokine-response-to-dietary-fat
#10
Giovanni Musso, Maurizio Cassader, Franco De Michieli, Elena Paschetta, Silvia Pinach, Francesca Saba, Daria Bongiovanni, Luciana Framarin, Mara Berrutti, Nicola Leone, Stefania Corvisieri, Renato Parente, Federica Molinaro, Antonio Sircana, Simona Bo, Roberto Gambino
The loss-of-function rs4374383 G > A variant in Myeloid-epithelial-reproductive Tyrosine Kinase (MERTK) gene has been linked to hepatic fibrosis in chronic liver diseases. MERTK is expressed by immune and non-immune cells involved in inflammation, metabolism and vascular homeostasis. We assessed the impact of MERTK rs4374383 G > A variant on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) incidence and severity and on glucose and lipid metabolism. We followed-up 305 healthy nonobese nondiabetic, metabolic syndrome-free insulin sensitive participants in a population-based study, characterized for MERTK G > A polymorphism, adipokine profile and inflammatory markers...
May 1, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285098/role-of-leptin-as-a-link-between-metabolism-and-the-immune-system
#11
REVIEW
Antonio Pérez-Pérez, Teresa Vilariño-García, Patricia Fernández-Riejos, Jenifer Martín-González, Juan José Segura-Egea, Víctor Sánchez-Margalet
Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone not only with an important role in the central control of energy metabolism, but also with many pleiotropic effects in different physiological systems. One of these peripheral functions of leptin is a regulatory role in the interplay between energy metabolism and the immune system, being a cornerstone of the new field of immunometabolism. Leptin receptor is expressed throughout the immune system and the regulatory effects of leptin include cells from both the innate and adaptive immune system...
March 4, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258671/the-role-of-chemerin-in-human-disease
#12
Magdalena Stojek
Adipose tissue is not merely a storage depot of triacylglycerols but also a major endocrine organ. Its cells, including adipocytes, synthesize and secrete a range of biologically active molecules termed adipokines. Adipokines that display the properties of cytokines are often called adipocytokines. In recent years there has been increasing interest in a new adipokine called chemerin. Chemerin is a protein synthesized mostly by the adipose tissue and the liver as inactive pre‑pro‑chemerin. After the intracellular hydrolytic cutting off of the 20‑amino‑acid N‑terminal polypeptide, it is secreted into the bloodstream as inactive pro‑chemerin...
February 15, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237848/il-17-axis-accelerates-the-inflammatory-progression-of-obese-in-mice-via-tbk1-and-ikbke-pathway
#13
Seung Hoon Lee, JooYeon Jhun, Jae-Kyung Byun, Eun-Kyung Kim, KyoungAh Jung, Ji Eun Lee, Jong Young Choi, Sung-Hwan Park, Mi-La Cho
Obesity mediates immune inflammatory response and induces IL-17 expression. Adipgenesis can be regulated by IL-17 and it causes TBK1 activation. The inhibition of TBK1 and the inhibition of I IKBKE reduces inflammatory response and improves obesity. It is hypothesized that IL-17 deficiency inhibits obesity progression and inflammation. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiated in vitro and treated with IL-17. RAW264.7 cells and differentiated 3T3-L1 were pretreated with TBK1 inhibitor and then stimulated with IL-17...
February 22, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237179/translating-the-biology-of-adipokines-in-atherosclerosis-and-cardiovascular-diseases-gaps-and-open-questions
#14
REVIEW
M Ruscica, A Baragetti, A L Catapano, G D Norata
AIM: Critically discuss the available data, to identify the current gaps and to provide key concepts that will help clinicians in translating the biology of adipokines in the context of atherosclerosis and cardio-metabolic diseases. DATA SYNTHESIS: Adipose tissue is nowadays recognized as an active endocrine organ, a function related to the ability to secrete adipokines (such as leptin and adiponectin) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha and resistin)...
May 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181253/adipocytes-properties-and-crosstalk-with-immune-system-in-obesity-related-inflammation
#15
REVIEW
Giulia Maurizi, Lucio Della Guardia, Angela Maurizi, Antonella Poloni
Obesity is a condition likely associated with several dysmetabolic conditions or worsening of cardiovascular and other chronic disturbances. A key role in this mechanism seem to be played by the onset of low-grade systemic inflammation, highlighting the importance of the interplay between adipocytes and immune system cells. Adipocytes express a complex and highly adaptive biological profile being capable to selectively activate different metabolic pathways in order to respond to environmental stimuli. It has been demonstrated how adipocytes, under appropriate stimulation, can easily differentiate and de-differentiate thereby converting themselves into different phenotypes according to metabolic necessities...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135006/contribution-of-maladaptive-adipose-tissue-expansion-to-development-of-cardiovascular-disease
#16
Guanghong Jia, Yan Jia, James R Sowers
The overweight and obesity epidemic has led to an increase in the metabolic syndrome and associated cardiovascular disease (CVD). These abnormalities include insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, vascular stiffness, hypertension, stroke, and coronary heart disease. Visceral white adipocyte tissue (WAT) expansion and associated fibrosis/stiffness of WAT promote insulin resistance and CVD through increases in proinflammatory adipokines, oxidative stress, activation of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, dysregulation of adipocyte apoptosis and autophagy, dysfunctional immune modulation, and adverse changes in the gut microbiome...
December 6, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115590/akt-signaling-pathway-in-macrophage-activation-and-m1-m2-polarization
#17
REVIEW
Eleni Vergadi, Eleftheria Ieronymaki, Konstantina Lyroni, Katerina Vaporidi, Christos Tsatsanis
Macrophages become activated initiating innate immune responses. Depending on the signals, macrophages obtain an array of activation phenotypes, described by the broad terms of M1 or M2 phenotype. The PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway mediates signals from multiple receptors including insulin receptors, pathogen-associated molecular pattern receptors, cytokine receptors, adipokine receptors, and hormones. As a result, the Akt pathway converges inflammatory and metabolic signals to regulate macrophage responses modulating their activation phenotype...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098913/diets-link-metabolic-syndrome-and-colorectal-cancer-development-review
#18
REVIEW
Jirakrit Saetang, Surasak Sangkhathat
Diets have been believed to be an important factor in the development of metabolic syndrome and colorectal cancer (CRC). In recent years, many studies have shown an intimate relationship between mucosal immunity, metabolism and diets, which has led to a greater understanding of the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome and CRC development. Although the precise effects of diets on oncogenesis have not been compl-etely elucidated, microbiota changes and inflammation are believed to be important factors that influence the development of CRC...
March 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054344/nutritional-effects-on-t-cell-immunometabolism
#19
REVIEW
Sivan Cohen, Keiko Danzaki, Nancie J MacIver
T cells are highly influenced by nutrient uptake from their environment, and changes in overall nutritional status, such as malnutrition or obesity, can result in altered T-cell metabolism and behavior. In states of severe malnutrition or starvation, T-cell survival, proliferation, and inflammatory cytokine production are all decreased, as is T-cell glucose uptake and metabolism. The altered T-cell function and metabolism seen in malnutrition is associated with altered adipokine levels, most particularly decreased leptin...
February 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053336/leptin-in-the-interplay-of-inflammation-metabolism-and-immune-system-disorders
#20
REVIEW
Vanessa Abella, Morena Scotece, Javier Conde, Jesús Pino, Miguel Angel Gonzalez-Gay, Juan J Gómez-Reino, Antonio Mera, Francisca Lago, Rodolfo Gómez, Oreste Gualillo
Leptin is one of the most relevant factors secreted by adipose tissue and the forerunner of a class of molecules collectively called adipokines. Initially discovered in 1994, its crucial role as a central regulator in energy homeostasis has been largely described during the past 20 years. Once secreted into the circulation, leptin reaches the central and peripheral nervous systems and acts by binding and activating the long form of leptin receptor (LEPR), regulating appetite and food intake, bone mass, basal metabolism, reproductive function and insulin secretion, among other processes...
January 5, 2017: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
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