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adipokine and immune

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769086/inflammatory-pattern-of-the-infrapatellar-fat-pad-in-dogs-with-canine-cruciate-ligament-disease
#1
Manuel R Schmidli, Bettina Fuhrer, Nadine Kurt, David Senn, Michaela Drögemüller, Ulrich Rytz, David E Spreng, Simone Forterre
BACKGROUND: Despite the importance of inflammation during the pathogenesis of cranial cruciate ligament disease (CCLD) in dogs and despite the latest knowledge suggesting a significant role of adipose tissue in osteoarthritis, the infrapatellar fat pad (IFP) was up to now mostly disregarded in veterinary investigations. In the present study, the inflammatory activity of the IFP, the main adipose structure within the stifle joint, was thoroughly investigated to evaluate its potential impact in the pathogenesis of this common disease of our canine companions...
May 16, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747483/circulating-levels-of-apelin-36-in-patients-with-mild-to-moderate-psoriasis
#2
Alessandra Capo, Marta Di Nicola, Erica Costantini, Marcella Reale, Paolo Amerio
BACKGROUND: Affecting vascular function, immune regulation, adipocyte and glucose metabolism, adipokines are essential partecipants in the pathogenesis of psoriatic comorbidities such as metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance. The aim of this study is to measure plasma levels of circulating apelin-36, a newly discovered peptide hormone acting on glucose metabolism and other adipokines in patients with mild to moderate psoriasis and in a control group. METHODS: Serum levels of apelin-36, RBP4, Visfatin, HMW Adiponectin, CRP, fasting glucose and insulin were measured in 19 consecutive patients with mild to moderate psoriasis and 17 healthy subjects...
May 10, 2018: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743341/involvement-of-adipose-tissue-inflammation-and-dysfunction-in-virus-induced-type-1-diabetes
#3
James C Needell, Madalyn Brown, Danny Zipris
The etiopathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D) remains poorly understood. We used the LEW1.WR1 rat model of Kilham rat virus (KRV)-induced T1D to better understand the role of the innate immune system in the mechanism of virus-induced disease. We observed that infection with KRV results in cell influx into visceral adipose tissue soon following infection prior to insulitis and hyperglycemia. In sharp contrast, subcutaneous adipose tissue is free of cellular infiltration, whereas β-cell inflammation and diabetes are observed beginning on day 14 post-infection...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729889/the-inflammatory-state-of-adipose-tissue-is-not-affected-by-the-anti-inflammatory-response-of-the-a2a-adenosine-system-and-mir-221-pten
#4
J D Cortés-Garcia, M Briones-Espinoza, M Vega-Cárdenas, V M Ruíz-Rodríguez, A Mendez-Mancilla, Arturo E Gómez-Otero, J M Vargas Morales, M H García-Hernández, D P Portales-Pérez
Obesity is a chronic inflammatory state with cytokines, adipokines, and miRNAs. The A2a-adenosine system decreases activation and cytokine release in immune cells. MiR-221 is upregulated in carcinogenesis and inflammatory processes, where its targets PTEN and ETS-1, negatively regulates the Akt pathway and induces the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, respectively. However, the roles of the A2a-adenosine system and miR-221 in adipose tissue are unknown. The aim of this work was to evaluate the A2a-adenosine and miRNA pathways as immune modulators in adipose tissue...
May 3, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720894/pleiotropic-associations-of-rarres2-gene-variants-and-circulating-chemerin-levels-potential-roles-of-chemerin-involved-in-the-metabolic-and-inflammation-related-diseases
#5
Leay-Kiaw Er, Semon Wu, Lung-An Hsu, Ming-Sheng Teng, Yu-Ching Sun, Yu-Lin Ko
Chemerin, an adipokine and inflammatory mediator, is associated with metabolic, inflammation- and immune-mediated diseases. The genetic, clinical, and biomarker correlates of circulating chemerin levels have not been completely elucidated. We analyzed the determinants and correlates of retinoic acid receptor responder 2 ( RARRES2 ; encoding chemerin) gene variants and chemerin levels in the Taiwanese population. In total, 612 individuals were recruited. Clinical and metabolic phenotypes, 13 inflammatory markers, 5 adipokines, and 6 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering the RARRES2 region were analyzed...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719734/collagen-overlays-can-inhibit-leptin-and-adiponectin-secretion-but-not-lipid-accumulation-in-adipocytes
#6
Sherri L Christian, Nikitha K Pallegar, Robert J Brown, Alicia M Viloria-Petit
Background: White adipose tissue (WAT) is essential for energy storage as well as being an active endocrine organ. The secretion of adipokines by adipocytes can affect whole body metabolism, appetite, and contribute to overall health. WAT is comprised of lipid-laden mature adipocytes, as well as immune cells, endothelial cells, pre-adipocytes, and adipose-derived stem cells. In addition, the presence of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in WAT can actively influence adipocyte differentiation, growth, and function...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709261/cancer-as-a-matter-of-fat-the-crosstalk-between-adipose-tissue-and-tumors
#7
REVIEW
Ernst Lengyel, Liza Makowski, John DiGiovanni, Mikhail G Kolonin
Obesity has been linked to the increased risk and aggressiveness of many types of carcinoma. A state of chronic inflammation in adipose tissue (AT), resulting in genotoxic stress, may contribute to carcinogenesis and cancer initiation. Evidence that AT plays a role in cancer aggressiveness is solid and mounting. During cancer progression, tumor cells engage in a metabolic symbiosis with adjacent AT. Mature adipocytes provide adipokines and lipids to cancer cells, while stromal and immune cells from AT infiltrate carcinomas and locally secrete paracrine factors within the tumor microenvironment...
May 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662759/investigation-of-bioeffects-of-g-protein-coupled-receptor-1-on-bone-turnover-in-male-mice
#8
Jian Li, Liang Xiang, Xiaotong Jiang, Bin Teng, Yutao Sun, Guanlian Chen, Jie Chen, Jian V Zhang, Pei-Gen Ren
Maintenance of healthy bone quality and quantity requires a well-coordinated balance between bone formation by osteoblasts and bone resorption by osteoclasts. Chemerin is a novel adipokine with known functions such as regulating immunity and energy homeostasis through activation of chemokine-like receptor 1 (CMKLR1). G protein-coupled receptor 1 (GPR1) is the second mammalian chemerin receptor with similar binding affinity as CMKLR1. In male GPR1-/- mice, a phenotype with significantly low bone mineral density was observed...
July 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Translation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655569/activation-of-the-porcine-alveolar-macrophages-via-toll-like-receptor-4-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-mediated-pathway-provides-a-mechanism-of-resistin-leading-to-inflammation
#9
Bi Li, Jing Fang, Zhicai Zuo, Sirui Yin, Tingting He, Mingxian Yang, Junliang Deng, Liuhong Shen, Xiaoping Ma, Shumin Yu, Ya Wang, Zhihua Ren, Hengmin Cui
Resistin, a previously discovered cysteine-rich adipokine known to regulate glucose metabolism, has been emerged as a mediator in inflammation and immunity. Its level was supposed to be related to the expression of indicators, such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in inflammation. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) was reported to be a receptor for resistin in cells, like leukocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). However, the pro-inflammatory role of resistin and its intracellular mechanisms in alveolar macrophages have not been thoroughly validated...
April 11, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559515/the-conundrum-of-omega-3-fatty-acids-in-cancer-prevention-studies-which-one-how-much-what-biomarkers
#10
EDITORIAL
Carol J Fabian, Bruce F Kimler
Marine omega-3 fatty acids promote resolution of inflammation and have potential to reduce risk of obesity-related breast cancer. For prevention trials in obese women, inflammatory cytokines, aromatase, and measures of breast immune cell infiltration are logical, as are biomarkers of growth factor, adipokine, and estrogen signaling. Where best to look for marker change: in the circulation (easiest), in benign breast tissue (most relevant), or in visceral adipose (inflammation often most marked)? A null biomarker modulation trial may reflect limitations in design, source and dose of fatty acids, or biomarkers and should not lead to premature abandonment of marine omega-3 fatty acids for cancer prevention...
March 20, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556503/the-unexplored-role-of-intra-articular-adipose-tissue-in-the-homeostasis-and-pathology-of-articular-joints
#11
Luminita Labusca, Florin Zugun-Eloae
Intra-articular adipose tissue deposits known as articular fat pads (AFPs) are described to exist within synovial joints. Their assumed role in normal joint biomechanics is increasingly objectivized by means of advanced methods of functional imaging. AFPs possess structural similarity with body subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT), however, seems to be regulated by independent metabolic loops. AFP dimension are conserved during extreme WAT states: obesity, metabolic syndrome, lipodystrophy, and cachexia...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548819/leptin-in-autoimmune-mechanisms-of-systemic-rheumatic-diseases
#12
Luca Navarini, Domenico Paolo Emanuele Margiotta, Marta Vadacca, Antonella Afeltra
In the last two decades, white adipose tissue (WAT) has been recognized as a key actor of many physiological and pathological conditions. WAT is able to produce mediators, named "adipokines", which may affect systemic homeostasis. In particular, leptin is not only involved in appetite and energy metabolism, but also in immune system. Increasing evidence established that leptin can regulate both innate and adaptive immunity mainly with pro-inflammatory effects but also, to a lesser extent, with anti-inflammatory features...
June 1, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508690/leptin-and-adiponectin-supplementation-modifies-mesenteric-lymph-node-lymphocyte-composition-and-functionality-in-suckling-rats
#13
Blanca Grases-Pintó, Mar Abril-Gil, Maria J Rodríguez-Lagunas, Margarida Castell, Francisco J Pérez-Cano, Àngels Franch
At birth, when immune responses are insufficient, there begins the development of the defence capability against pathogens. Leptin and adiponectin, adipokines that are present in breast milk, have been shown to play a role in the regulation of immune responses. We report here, for the first time, the influence of in vivo adipokine supplementation on the intestinal immune system in early life. Suckling Wistar rats were daily supplemented with leptin (0·7 μg/kg per d, n 36) or adiponectin (35 μg/kg per d, n 36) during the suckling period...
March 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508519/caffeic-acid-phenethyl-ester-improves-metabolic-syndrome-by-activating-ppar%C3%AE-and-inducing-adipose-tissue-remodeling-in-diet-induced-obese-mice
#14
Soon-Hee Kim, Hee-Sook Park, Moon Ju Hong, Haeng Jeon Hur, Dae Young Kwon, Myung-Sunny Kim
SCOPE: This study investigated the effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a bioactive component of honeybee hives, on the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome (MetS) by comparing the efficacy of CAPE intake at the beginning of obesity and after obesity. The functional mechanism of CAPE was also investigated. METHODS AND RESULTS: C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) containing 0.05% CAPE (HFD+C) for 12 weeks (HFD+C(Pre) group) or received HFD+C for 6 weeks after consuming the HFD for 6 weeks (HFD+C(Post) group)...
March 5, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486050/adipokines-and-inflammation-is-it-a-question-of-weight
#15
REVIEW
Vera Francisco, Jesus Pino, Miguel Angel Gonzalez-Gay, Antonio Mera, Francisca Lago, Rodolfo Gómez, Ali Mobasheri, Oreste Gualillo
Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the Western society and is increasing in the developing world. It is considered as one of the major contributors to the global burden of disability and chronic diseases, including autoimmune, inflammatory and degenerative diseases. Research conducted on obesity and its complications over the last two decades has transformed the outdated concept of white adipose tissue (WAT) merely serving as an energy depot. WAT is now recognized as an active and inflammatory organ capable of producing a wide variety of factors known as adipokines...
May 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461239/-secretory-function-of-white-adipose-tissue-and-adipokines-biological-effects-and-clinical-significance-review
#16
O Sulaieva, Y Chereshneva, N Kartashkina, M Ivanova, D Tsomartova
In addition to accumulation and metabolism of triglycerides, white adipose tissue is recognized as the active endocrine organ, whose dysfunction is associated with the development of a wide range of diseases. The secretome of adipocytes is represented by a wide range of adipokines, which vary in depot and sex-specific manner. In addition, adipokines have diverse biological effects, correlations with different metabolic features and functions. In this review, the data on biological effects, origin and the clinical significance of adipokines are discussed...
January 2018: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413760/multifaceted-roles-of-interleukin-6-in-adipocyte-breast-cancer-cell-interaction
#17
REVIEW
Jones Gyamfi, Minseob Eom, Ja-Seung Koo, Junjeong Choi
Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women worldwide, with a developmental process spanning decades. The malignant cells recruit a variety of cells including fibroblasts, endothelial cells, immune cells, and adipocytes, creating the tumor microenvironment. The tumor microenvironment has emerged as active participants in breast cancer progression and response to treatment through autocrine and paracrine interaction with the malignant cells. Adipose tissue is abundant in the breast cancer microenvironment; interactions with cancer cells create cancer-associated adipocytes which produce a variety of adipokines that influence breast cancer initiation, metastasis, angiogenesis, and cachexia...
April 2018: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407432/thyroid-autoimmunity-an-interplay-of-factors
#18
Stephen J Merrill, Sarah B Minucci
The literature on thyroid autoimmunity has identified many potential factors at play for the initiation and progression of autoimmune thyroid diseases. These factors include genetic susceptibility, environmental factors, some drugs, iodine and selenium, infection, molecular mimics, and immune system defects. The sheer number of feasible factors makes sorting out the necessary agents from the fellow travelers difficult. In addition, many of these factors have the capability to interact-further confusing the picture...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382608/metabolic-syndrome-autoimmunity-and-rheumatic-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Gabriela Medina, Olga Vera-Lastra, Ana Lilia Peralta-Amaro, María Pilar Jiménez-Arellano, Miguel Angel Saavedra, María Pilar Cruz-Domínguez, Luis J Jara
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic and cardiovascular (CV) risk factors including obesity and visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension contributing to CV mortality. The interface between the metabolic and immune systems has been of great interest recently. These interactions are regulated through genetics, nutritional status, and the intestinal microbiome. Alterations in the immune-metabolic cross-talk contribute to the development of autoimmune diseases. Adipokines exert a variety of metabolic activities contributing to the ethiopathogenesis of MetS and are involved in the regulation of both inflammatory processes and autoimmunity occurring in rheumatic diseases...
January 31, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345342/high-fat-diet-and-leptin-promote-tumor-progression-by-inducing-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells
#20
Virginia K Clements, Tiha Long, Ramses Long, Chas Figley, Daniel M C Smith, Suzanne Ostrand-Rosenberg
Obesity is a risk factor for cancer incidence and cancer mortality. The association of obesity and cancer is attributed to multiple factors, but the tightest linkage is with the chronic, low-grade inflammation that accompanies obesity. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are known facilitators of cancer progression that act by suppressing the activation and function of tumor-reactive T cells. Because MDSC quantity and function are driven by chronic inflammation, we hypothesized that MDSC may accumulate in obese individuals and facilitate tumor growth by suppressing antitumor immunity...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
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