Read by QxMD icon Read

adipokine and immune

Patricio Lopez-Jaramillo
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are major causes of death and illness worldwide. In recent decades an increased prevalence of CVD mortality has been reported in low-medium income countries, which has been associated with changes in life styles, deficiencies in health systems and the persistence of social inequities.The metabolic syndrome comprises a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, with insulin resistance and increased adiposity as its central features. Identifying individuals with metabolic syndrome is important due to its association with an increased risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Eric R Craig, Angelina I Londoño, Lyse A Norian, Rebecca C Arend
OBJECTIVE: Epithelial ovarian cancer continues to be the deadliest gynecologic malignancy. Patients with both diabetes mellitus and obesity have poorer outcomes, yet research correlating metabolic abnormalities, such as metabolic syndrome, to ovarian cancer risk and outcomes is lacking. This article reviews the literature regarding metabolic derangements and their relationship to epithelial ovarian cancer, with a focus on potential mechanisms behind these associations. METHODS: PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for articles in the English language regarding epithelial ovarian cancer, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome, with a focus on studies conducted since 1990...
October 14, 2016: Gynecologic Oncology
José de Jesús Guerrero-García, Lucrecia Carrera-Quintanar, Rocío Ivette López-Roa, Ana Laura Márquez-Aguirre, Argelia Esperanza Rojas-Mayorquín, Daniel Ortuño-Sahagún
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disorder of the Central Nervous System that has been associated with several environmental factors, such as diet and obesity. The possible link between MS and obesity has become more interesting in recent years since the discovery of the remarkable properties of adipose tissue. Once MS is initiated, obesity can contribute to increased disease severity by negatively influencing disease progress and treatment response, but, also, obesity in early life is highly relevant as a susceptibility factor and causally related risk for late MS development...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
Fortunata Carbone, Claudia La Rocca, Paola De Candia, Claudio Procaccini, Alessandra Colamatteo, Teresa Micillo, Veronica De Rosa, Giuseppe Matarese
The filed that links immunity and metabolism is rapidly expanding. The adipose tissue, by secreting a series of immune regulators called adipokines, represents the common mediator linking metabolic processes and immune system functions. The dysregulation of adipokine secretion, occurring in obese individuals or in conditions of malnutrition or dietary restriction, affects the activity of immune cells resulting in inflammatory autoimmune responses or increased susceptibility to infectious diseases. Alterations of cell metabolism that characterize several autoimmune diseases strongly support the idea that the immune tolerance is also regulated by metabolic pathways...
October 5, 2016: Seminars in Immunology
Thomas Karrasch, Andreas Schaeffler
Recently, adipocytes have been recognized as actively participating in local and systemic immune responses via the secretion of peptides detectable in relevant levels in the systemic circulation, the so-called "adipo(cyto)kines". Multiple studies appearing within the last 10-15 years have focused on the possible impact of adipose tissue depots on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Consequently, various hypotheses regarding the role of different adipokines in inflammatory diseases in general and in intestinal inflammatory processes in particular have been developed and have been further refined in recent years...
October 2016: Annals of Gastroenterology: Quarterly Publication of the Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology
Zujaja-Tul-Noor Hamid Mehmood, Dimitrios Papandreou
Vitamin D related research continues to expand and theorise regarding its involvement in obesity, as both hypovitaminosis D and obesity strike in pandemic proportions. Vitamin D plays an important role in immune system through Vitamin D Receptors (VDR), which are transcription factors located abundantly in the body. Due to this characteristic, it is potentially linked to obesity, which is a state of inflammation involving the release of cytokines from adipose tissue, and exerting stress on other organs in a state of positive energy balance...
September 15, 2016: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Alexander Kalinkovich, Gregory Livshits
Sarcopenia, an age-associated decline in skeletal muscle mass coupled with functional deterioration, may be exacerbated by obesity leading to higher disability, frailty, morbidity and mortality rates. In the combination of sarcopenia and obesity, the state called sarcopenic obesity (SOB), some key age- and obesity-mediated factors and pathways may aggravate sarcopenia. This review will analyze the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of SOB. In obese adipose tissue (AT), adipocytes undergo hypertrophy, hyperplasia and activation resulted in accumulation of pro-inflammatory macrophages and other immune cells as well as dysregulated production of various adipokines that together with senescent cells and the immune cell-released cytokines and chemokines create a local pro-inflammatory status...
October 1, 2016: Ageing Research Reviews
Jose A Santiago, Alyssa M Littlefield, Judith A Potashkin
Emerging research indicates that depression could be one of the earliest prodromal symptoms or risk factors associated with the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), the second most common neurodegenerative disorder worldwide, but the mechanisms underlying the association between both diseases remains unknown. Understanding the molecular networks linking these diseases could facilitate the discovery of novel diagnostic and therapeutics. Transcriptomic meta-analysis and network analysis of blood microarrays from untreated patients with PD and depression identified genes enriched in pathways related to the immune system, metabolism of lipids, glucose, fatty acids, nicotinamide, lysosome, insulin signaling and type 1 diabetes...
September 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
Giovanni Luca, Iva Arato, Francesca Mancuso, Mario Calvitti, Giulia Falabella, Giuseppe Murdolo, Giuseppe Basta, Don F Cameron, Barbara C Hansen, Francesca Fallarino, Tiziano Baroni, Maria Chiara Aglietti, Cristina Tortoioli, Maria Bodo, Riccardo Calafiore
BACKGROUND: Increased abdominal fat and chronic inflammation in the expanded adipose tissue of obesity contribute to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). The emerging immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory properties of Sertoli cells have prompted their application to experimental models of autoimmune/inflammatory disorders, including diabetes. The main goal of this work was to verify whether transplantation of microencapsulated prepubertal porcine Sertoli cells (MC-SC) in the subcutaneous abdominal fat depot of spontaneously diabetic and obese db/db mice (homozygous for the diabetes spontaneous mutation [Lepr(db) ]) would: (i) improve glucose homeostasis and (ii) modulate local and systemic immune response and adipokines profiles...
September 27, 2016: Xenotransplantation
Maria M Buckley, Rebecca O'Brien, Michelle Devlin, Aisling A Creed, Mark G Rae, Niall P Hyland, Eamonn M M Quigley, Declan P McKernan, Dervla O'Malley
In addition to its role in regulating energy homeostasis, the adipokine, leptin modifies gastrointestinal (GI) function. Indeed, leptin-resistant obese humans and leptin-deficient obese mice exhibit altered GI motility. In the functional GI disorder, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), circulating leptin levels are reported to differ from healthy controls. Additionally, IBS patients display altered cytokine profiles, including elevated circulating levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin (IL)-6, which bears structural homology and similarities in intracellular signalling to leptin...
September 27, 2016: Experimental Physiology
Patricio Lopez-Jaramillo
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are major causes of death and illness worldwide. In recent decades an increased prevalence of CVD mortality has been reported in low-medium income countries, which has been associated with changes in life styles, deficiencies in health systems and the persistence of social inequities.The metabolic syndrome comprises a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, with insulin resistance and increased adiposity as its central features. Identifying individuals with metabolic syndrome is important due to its association with an increased risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Mariagrazia Granata, Evangelia Skarmoutsou, Chiara Trovato, Giulio A Rossi, Maria Clorinda Mazzarino, Fabio D'Amico
Obesity, type 1 diabetes, and psoriasis are wide-ranging health problems. Genetics, epigenetics, and environmental factors together with immune disturbances are involved in these diseases. The white adipose tissue is an active endocrine organ, secreting a wide variety of soluble mediators called adipokines that have a central role in the relationship between adipose tissue and immune system. Inflammatory cytokines, including the IL-23/IL-17 and IL-18 axes, and microRNAs are involved in many processes, including immunity and inflammation, thus having a major role in the onset of these three diseases...
September 17, 2016: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
John R Koethe, Douglas C Heimburger, George PrayGod, Suzanne Filteau
The impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on innate and adaptive immune activation occurs in the context of host factors, which serve to augment or dampen the physiologic response to the virus. Independent of HIV infection, nutritional status, particularly body composition, affects innate immune activation through a variety of conditions, including reduced mucosal barrier defenses and microbiome dysbiosis in malnutrition and the proinflammatory contribution of adipocytes and stromal vascular cells in obesity...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Zhou-Yang Jiao, Jing Wu, Chao Liu, Bing Wen, Wen-Zeng Zhao, Xin-Ling Du
Obesity is associated with chronic low‑grade inflammation, which is characterized by increased infiltration of macrophages into adipose tissue. Acylation stimulating protein (ASP) is an adipokine derived from the immune complement system, which constitutes a link between adipocytes and macrophages, and is involved in energy homeostasis and inflammation. The purpose of the present study was to preliminarily investigate in vitro, whether functional α7nAChR in adipocytes may suppress ASP‑induced inflammation and determine the possible signaling mechanism...
October 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Chao-Wei Huang, Tzu-Wen Hong, Ying-Jing Wang, Ko-Chien Chen, Ju-Chun Pei, Tai-Yuan Chuang, Wen-Sung Lai, Sheng-Hong Tsai, Richard Chu, Wei-Cheng Chen, Lee-Yan Sheen, Satoru Takahashi, Shih-Torng Ding, Tang-Long Shen
BACKGROUND: A newly defined Cordyceps species, Ophiocordyceps formosana (O. formosana) has been implicated in multitudinous bioactivities, including lowering glucose and cholesterol levels and modulating the immune system. However, few literatures demonstrate sufficient evidence to support these proposed functions. Although the use of Cordyceps spp. has been previously addressed to improve insulin insensitivity and improve the detrimental symptoms of depression; its mechanistic nature remains unsettled...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Susanna Salmivesi, Marita Paassilta, Heini Huhtala, Riina Nieminen, Eeva Moilanen, Matti Korppi
AIM: Oral immunotherapy (OIT) is a promising but still experimental method to treat children with cow's milk (CM) allergy (CMA). We evaluated changes in allergic, immunological and inflammatory parameters, which happened during the six-month OIT for CMA. METHODS: We treated 28 school-aged children with CMA using OIT with a double-blind placebo-controlled design. After the controlled study finished, the placebo group was treated with the same but open-label OIT protocol...
November 2016: Acta Paediatrica
Lorenzo Glorie, Patrick C D'Haese, Anja Verhulst
Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) is a conserved exopeptidase with an important function in protein regulation. The activity of DPP4, an enzyme which can either be anchored to the plasma membrane or circulate free in the extracellular compartment, affects the glucose metabolism, cellular signaling, migration and differentiation, oxidative stress and the immune system. DPP4 is also expressed on the surface of osteoblasts, osteoclasts and osteocytes, and was found to play a role in collagen metabolism. Many substrates of DPP4 have an established role in bone metabolism, among which are incretins, gastrointestinal peptides and neuropeptides...
November 2016: Bone
Peter Mancuso
Adipose tissue has traditionally been defined as connective tissue that stores excess calories in the form of triacylglycerol. However, the physiologic functions attributed to adipose tissue are expanding, and it is now well established that adipose tissue is an endocrine gland. Among the endocrine factors elaborated by adipose tissue are the adipokines; hormones, similar in structure to cytokines, produced by adipose tissue in response to changes in adipocyte triacylglycerol storage and local and systemic inflammation...
2016: ImmunoTargets and Therapy
Magdalena Muc, Anabela Mota-Pinto, Cristina Padez
Obesity is a risk factor for asthma, and obese asthmatics have lower disease control and increased symptom severity. Several putative links have been proposed, including genetics, mechanical restriction of the chest and the intake of corticosteroids. The most consistent evidence, however, comes from studies of cytokines produced by the adipose tissue called adipokines. Adipokine imbalance is associated with both proinflammatory status and asthma. Although reverse causation has been proposed, it is now acknowledged that obesity precedes asthma symptoms...
August 12, 2016: Nutrition Research Reviews
Morena Scotece, Tamara Pérez, Javier Conde, Vanessa Abella, Veronica López, Jesús Pino, Miguel A Gonzalez-Gay, J J Gomez-Reino, Antonio Mera, Rodolfo Gomez, Oreste Gualillo
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic systemic musculoskeletal disorder involving inflammation, immunity and metabolic alterations. OA is commonly regarded as non-inflammatory disease; still inflammation is recognized as contributing to the symptoms and progression of OA. New evidence suggests that adipokines are involved in the pathophysiology of OA and might modulate the production of inflammatory mediators including in immune cells. However, the role of immune component in osteoarthritis is still poorly investigated...
July 29, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"