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adipokine and immune

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181253/adipocytes-properties-and-crosstalk-with-immune-system-in-obesity-related-inflammation
#1
REVIEW
Giulia Maurizi, Lucio Della Guardia, Angela Maurizi, Antonella Poloni
Obesity is a condition likely associated with several dysmetabolic conditions or worsening of cardiovascular and other chronic disturbances. A key role in this mechanism seem to be played by the onset of low-grade systemic inflammation, highlighting the importance of the interplay between adipocytes and immune system cells. Adipocytes express a complex and highly adaptive biological profile being capable to selectively activate different metabolic pathways in order to respond to environmental stimuli. It has been demonstrated how adipocytes, under appropriate stimulation, can easily differentiate and de-differentiate thereby converting themselves into different phenotypes according to metabolic necessities...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135006/contribution-of-maladaptive-adipose-tissue-expansion-to-development-of-cardiovascular-disease
#2
Guanghong Jia, Yan Jia, James R Sowers
The overweight and obesity epidemic has led to an increase in the metabolic syndrome and associated cardiovascular disease (CVD). These abnormalities include insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, vascular stiffness, hypertension, stroke, and coronary heart disease. Visceral white adipocyte tissue (WAT) expansion and associated fibrosis/stiffness of WAT promote insulin resistance and CVD through increases in proinflammatory adipokines, oxidative stress, activation of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, dysregulation of adipocyte apoptosis and autophagy, dysfunctional immune modulation, and adverse changes in the gut microbiome...
December 6, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115590/akt-signaling-pathway-in-macrophage-activation-and-m1-m2-polarization
#3
REVIEW
Eleni Vergadi, Eleftheria Ieronymaki, Konstantina Lyroni, Katerina Vaporidi, Christos Tsatsanis
Macrophages become activated initiating innate immune responses. Depending on the signals, macrophages obtain an array of activation phenotypes, described by the broad terms of M1 or M2 phenotype. The PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway mediates signals from multiple receptors including insulin receptors, pathogen-associated molecular pattern receptors, cytokine receptors, adipokine receptors, and hormones. As a result, the Akt pathway converges inflammatory and metabolic signals to regulate macrophage responses modulating their activation phenotype...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098913/diets-link-metabolic-syndrome-and-colorectal-cancer-development-review
#4
Jirakrit Saetang, Surasak Sangkhathat
Diets have been believed to be an important factor in the development of metabolic syndrome and colorectal cancer (CRC). In recent years, many studies have shown an intimate relationship between mucosal immunity, metabolism and diets, which has led to a greater understanding of the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome and CRC development. Although the precise effects of diets on oncogenesis have not been compl-etely elucidated, microbiota changes and inflammation are believed to be important factors that influence the development of CRC...
January 18, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054344/nutritional-effects-on-t-cell-immunometabolism
#5
Sivan Cohen, Keiko Danzaki, Nancie J MacIver
T cells are highly influenced by nutrient uptake from their environment, and changes in overall nutritional status, such as malnutrition or obesity, can result in altered T-cell metabolism and behavior. In states of severe malnutrition or starvation, T-cell survival, proliferation, and inflammatory cytokine production are all decreased, as is T-cell glucose uptake and metabolism. The altered T-cell function and metabolism seen in malnutrition is associated with altered adipokine levels, most particularly decreased leptin...
January 5, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053336/leptin-in-the-interplay-of-inflammation-metabolism-and-immune-system-disorders
#6
REVIEW
Vanessa Abella, Morena Scotece, Javier Conde, Jesús Pino, Miguel Angel Gonzalez-Gay, Juan J Gómez-Reino, Antonio Mera, Francisca Lago, Rodolfo Gómez, Oreste Gualillo
Leptin is one of the most relevant factors secreted by adipose tissue and the forerunner of a class of molecules collectively called adipokines. Initially discovered in 1994, its crucial role as a central regulator in energy homeostasis has been largely described during the past 20 years. Once secreted into the circulation, leptin reaches the central and peripheral nervous systems and acts by binding and activating the long form of leptin receptor (LEPR), regulating appetite and food intake, bone mass, basal metabolism, reproductive function and insulin secretion, among other processes...
January 5, 2017: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003312/energetics-and-the-immune-system-trade-offs-associated-with-non-acute-levels-of-crp-in-adolescent-gambian-girls
#7
Heather Shattuck-Heidorn, Meredith W Reiches, Andrew M Prentice, Sophie E Moore, Peter T Ellison
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The human immune system is an ever-changing composition of innumerable cells and proteins, continually ready to respond to pathogens or insults. The cost of maintaining this state of immunological readiness is rarely considered. In this paper we aim to discern a cost to non-acute immune function by investigating how low levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) relate to other energetic demands and resources in adolescent Gambian girls. METHODOLOGY: Data from a longitudinal study of 66 adolescent girls was used to test hypotheses around investment in immune function...
December 21, 2016: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999451/ffar4-gpr120-signaling-is-not-required-for-anti-inflammatory-and-insulin-sensitizing-effects-of-omega-3-fatty-acids
#8
Simone Isling Pærregaard, Marianne Agerholm, Annette Karen Serup, Tao Ma, Bente Kiens, Lise Madsen, Karsten Kristiansen, Benjamin Anderschou Holbech Jensen
Free fatty acid receptor-4 (FFAR4), also known as GPR120, has been reported to mediate the beneficial effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-PUFAs) by inducing an anti-inflammatory immune response. Thus, activation of FFAR4 has been reported to ameliorate chronic low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance accompanying obesity. However, conflicting reports on the role of FFAR4 in mediating the effects of ω3-PUFAs are emerging, suggesting that FFAR4 may not be the sole effector. Hence analyses of the importance of this receptor in relation to other signaling pathways and prominent effects of ω3-PUFAs remain to be elucidated...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994954/communication-between-natural-killer-t-cells-and-adipocytes-in-obesity
#9
Masashi Satoh, Kazuya Iwabuchi
Adipose tissue contains various types of immunocompetent cells, and these cells of innate and adaptive immunity control adipose tissue inflammation that blunts insulin sensitivity. Recent studies have shown that adipocytes express CD1d and present lipid antigen(s) to activate natural killer T (NKT) cells. The function of adipocytes is in turn modulated by cytokines that NKT cells produce to alter the expression of anti-inflammatory adipokine(s) and the production of inflammatory and chemoattractant cytokines...
October 2016: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918843/cucurbita-ficifolia-cucurbitaceae-modulates-inflammatory-cytokines-and-ifn-%C3%AE-in-obese-mice
#10
Á Fortis-Barrera, R García-Macedo, J C Almanza-Perez, G Blancas-Flores, A Zamilpa-Alvarez, J L Flores-Sáenz, M Cruz, R Román-Ramos, F J Alarcón-Aguilar
This study investigated the effect of aqueous extract of Cucurbita ficifolia Bouché on systemic chronic inflammation in an obesity model induced by monosodium glutamate (MSG) via modulating the expression of adipokines (TNF-α, IL-6, resistin, and adiponectin) and immune-regulatory cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-10). Cucurbita ficifolia extract was administered daily by gavage to lean and MSG-obese mice for 30 days. At the end of treatment, cytokine mRNA expression in adipose tissue was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the protein levels of these cytokines were also quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
September 19, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902989/plasma-levels-of-leptin-and-adiponectin-in-fragile-x-syndrome
#11
Małgorzata Zofia Lisik, Ewa Gutmajster, Aleksander L Sieroń
: Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of familial mental retardation and one of the leading known causes of autism. The mutation responsible for FXS is a large expansion of the CGG repeats in the promoter region of the FMR1 gene, resulting in the transcriptional silencing of the gene. Leptin may be considered a cytokine-like hormone with pleiotropic actions since it may be involved in the regulation of neuroendocrine functions and the immune system response, in addition to playing a role in development...
2016: Neuroimmunomodulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902979/altered-systemic-adipokines-in-patients-with-chronic-urticaria
#12
Hoang Kim Tu Trinh, Duy Le Pham, Ga-Young Ban, Hyun-Young Lee, Hae-Sim Park, Young-Min Ye
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence suggests that adipokines affect immune responses and chronic urticaria (CU) is associated with an altered immune response related to chronic systemic inflammation. Our objectives were to investigate whether adipokines are involved in CU pathogenesis and to outline relationships between adipokines and urticaria severity and quality of life. METHODS: Serum adiponectin, leptin, lipocalin-2 (LCN2), interleukin (IL)-10, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in 191 CU patients and 89 healthy controls...
2016: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895640/%C3%AF-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-as-immunomodulators-in-colorectal-cancer-new-potential-role-in-adjuvant-therapies
#13
REVIEW
Stefania Miccadei, Roberta Masella, Anna Maria Mileo, Sandra Gessani
Diet composition may affect the onset and progression of chronic degenerative diseases, including cancer, whose pathogenesis relies on inflammatory processes. Growing evidence indicates that diet and its components critically contribute to human health, affecting the immune system, secretion of adipokines, and metabolic pathways. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Antineoplastic drugs are widely used for CRC treatment, but drug resistance and/or off-target toxicity limit their efficacy...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881065/lipids-at-the-cross-road-of-autoimmunity-in-multiple-sclerosis
#14
Marcella Reale, Silvia Sánchez-Ramón
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by demyelination and neurodegeneration, driven by a Th17/Th1-immune response, which afflicts mainly young women. Although MS causes are not completely known, it is notorious that the disease is characterized by an extended focal degradation of the myelin sheath, with ulterior axon and neuronal damage. Lipid molecules play a main dual role in MS, both as target molecules of myelin destruction and as mediators of inflammation...
November 22, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859423/from-obesity-to-cancer-a-review-on-proposed-mechanisms
#15
REVIEW
Zoya Tahergorabi, Majid Khazaei, Mitra Moodi, Elham Chamani
Nowadays, obesity is considered as a serious and growing global health problem. It is documented that the overweight and obesity are major risk factors for a series of noncommunicable diseases, and in recent years, the obesity-cancer link has received much attention. Numerous epidemiological studies have shown that obesity is associated with increased risk of several cancer types, including colon, breast, endometrium, liver, kidney, esophagus, gastric, pancreatic, gallbladder, and leukemia, and can also lead to poorer treatment...
December 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832860/adiponectin-administration-prevents-weight-gain-and-glycemic-profile-changes-in-diet-induced-obese-immune-deficient-rag1-mice-lacking-mature-lymphocytes
#16
Xiaowen Liu, Nikolaos Perakakis, Huizhi Gong, John P Chamberland, Mary T Brinkoetter, Ole-Petter R Hamnvik, Christos S Mantzoros
BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation leading to insulin resistance and diabetes. Adiponectin is an adipokine that regulates inflammatory responses. The aim of our study was to investigate whether any effects of adiponectin against obesity and insulin-resistance may depend on the adaptive immune system. METHODS: We treated high-fat-diet fed Rag1-/- mice lacking mature lymphocytes with adiponectin over 7weeks and investigated alterations in their metabolic outcome and inflammatory state...
December 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798440/role-of-visceral-fat-in-colonic-inflammation-from-crohn-s-disease-to-diverticulitis
#17
Anna Paeschke, Ulrike Erben, Lea I Kredel, Anja A Kühl, Britta Siegmund
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The composition of activated adipose tissue with adipocytes secreting a broad spectrum of immune-modulatory adipokines next to adipose tissue-derived stromal cells and professional immune effector cells in the visceral fat creates a complex network of inflammatory processes shaping local immune responses in the adjacent inflamed intestinal mucosa. RECENT FINDINGS: In Crohn's disease a particular phenomenon called 'creeping fat' can be observed...
October 27, 2016: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753812/ssa-04-3-leptin-adiponectin-in-cardiometabolic-disease
#18
Patricio Lopez-Jaramillo
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are major causes of death and illness worldwide. In recent decades an increased prevalence of CVD mortality has been reported in low-medium income countries, which has been associated with changes in life styles, deficiencies in health systems and the persistence of social inequities.The metabolic syndrome comprises a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, with insulin resistance and increased adiposity as its central features. Identifying individuals with metabolic syndrome is important due to its association with an increased risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751590/metabolic-risk-factors-and-mechanisms-of-disease-in-epithelial-ovarian-cancer-a-review
#19
REVIEW
Eric R Craig, Angelina I Londoño, Lyse A Norian, Rebecca C Arend
OBJECTIVE: Epithelial ovarian cancer continues to be the deadliest gynecologic malignancy. Patients with both diabetes mellitus and obesity have poorer outcomes, yet research correlating metabolic abnormalities, such as metabolic syndrome, to ovarian cancer risk and outcomes is lacking. This article reviews the literature regarding metabolic derangements and their relationship to epithelial ovarian cancer, with a focus on potential mechanisms behind these associations. METHODS: PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for articles in the English language regarding epithelial ovarian cancer, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome, with a focus on studies conducted since 1990...
December 2016: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721574/multiple-sclerosis-and-obesity-possible-roles-of-adipokines
#20
REVIEW
José de Jesús Guerrero-García, Lucrecia Carrera-Quintanar, Rocío Ivette López-Roa, Ana Laura Márquez-Aguirre, Argelia Esperanza Rojas-Mayorquín, Daniel Ortuño-Sahagún
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disorder of the Central Nervous System that has been associated with several environmental factors, such as diet and obesity. The possible link between MS and obesity has become more interesting in recent years since the discovery of the remarkable properties of adipose tissue. Once MS is initiated, obesity can contribute to increased disease severity by negatively influencing disease progress and treatment response, but, also, obesity in early life is highly relevant as a susceptibility factor and causally related risk for late MS development...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
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