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adipokine and immune

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334911/mertk-rs4374383-variant-predicts-incident-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-diabetes-role-of-mononuclear-cell-activation-and-adipokine-response-to-dietary-fat
#1
Giovanni Musso, Maurizio Cassader, Franco De Michieli, Elena Paschetta, Silvia Pinach, Francesca Saba, Daria Bongiovanni, Luciana Framarin, Mara Berrutti, Nicola Leone, Stefania Corvisieri, Renato Parente, Federica Molinaro, Antonio Sircana, Bo Simona, Roberto Gambino
The loss-of-function rs4374383 G>A variant in Myeloid-epithelial-reproductive Tyrosine Kinase (MERTK) gene has been linked to hepatic fibrosis in chronic liver diseases. MERTK is expressed by immune and non-immune cells involved in inflammation, metabolism and vascular homeostasis. We assessed the impact of MERTK rs4374383 G>A variant on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) incidence and severity and on glucose and lipid metabolism.We followed-up 305 healthy nonobese nondiabetic, metabolic syndrome-free insulin sensitive participants in a population-based study, characterized for MERTK G>A polymorphism, adipokine profile and inflammatory markers...
March 8, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285098/role-of-leptin-as-a-link-between-metabolism-and-the-immune-system
#2
REVIEW
Antonio Pérez-Pérez, Teresa Vilariño-García, Patricia Fernández-Riejos, Jenifer Martín-González, Juan José Segura-Egea, Víctor Sánchez-Margalet
Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone not only with an important role in the central control of energy metabolism, but also with many pleiotropic effects in different physiological systems. One of these peripheral functions of leptin is a regulatory role in the interplay between energy metabolism and the immune system, being a cornerstone of the new field of immunometabolism. Leptin receptor is expressed throughout the immune system and the regulatory effects of leptin include cells from both the innate and adaptive immune system...
March 4, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258671/the-role-of-chemerin-in-human-disease
#3
Magdalena Stojek
Adipose tissue is not merely a storage depot of triacylglycerols but also a major endocrine organ. Its cells, including adipocytes, synthesize and secrete a range of biologically active molecules termed adipokines. Adipokines that display the properties of cytokines are often called adipocytokines. In recent years there has been increasing interest in a new adipokine called chemerin. Chemerin is a protein synthesized mostly by the adipose tissue and the liver as inactive pre‑pro‑chemerin. After the intracellular hydrolytic cutting off of the 20‑amino‑acid N‑terminal polypeptide, it is secreted into the bloodstream as inactive pro‑chemerin...
February 15, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237848/il-17-axis-accelerates-the-inflammatory-progression-of-obese-in-mice-via-tbk1-and-ikbke-pathway
#4
Seung Hoon Lee, JooYeon Jhun, Jae-Kyung Byun, Eun-Kyung Kim, KyoungAh Jung, Ji Eun Lee, Jong Young Choi, Sung-Hwan Park, Mi-La Cho
Obesity mediates immune inflammatory response and induces IL-17 expression. Adipgenesis can be regulated by IL-17 and it causes TBK1 activation. The inhibition of TBK1 and the inhibition of I IKBKE reduces inflammatory response and improves obesity. It is hypothesized that IL-17 deficiency inhibits obesity progression and inflammation. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiated in vitro and treated with IL-17. RAW264.7 cells and differentiated 3T3-L1 were pretreated with TBK1 inhibitor and then stimulated with IL-17...
February 22, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237179/translating-the-biology-of-adipokines-in-atherosclerosis-and-cardiovascular-diseases-gaps-and-open-questions
#5
REVIEW
M Ruscica, A Baragetti, A L Catapano, G D Norata
AIM: Critically discuss the available data, to identify the current gaps and to provide key concepts that will help clinicians in translating the biology of adipokines in the context of atherosclerosis and cardio-metabolic diseases. DATA SYNTHESIS: Adipose tissue is nowadays recognized as an active endocrine organ, a function related to the ability to secrete adipokines (such as leptin and adiponectin) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha and resistin)...
December 23, 2016: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181253/adipocytes-properties-and-crosstalk-with-immune-system-in-obesity-related-inflammation
#6
REVIEW
Giulia Maurizi, Lucio Della Guardia, Angela Maurizi, Antonella Poloni
Obesity is a condition likely associated with several dysmetabolic conditions or worsening of cardiovascular and other chronic disturbances. A key role in this mechanism seem to be played by the onset of low-grade systemic inflammation, highlighting the importance of the interplay between adipocytes and immune system cells. Adipocytes express a complex and highly adaptive biological profile being capable to selectively activate different metabolic pathways in order to respond to environmental stimuli. It has been demonstrated how adipocytes, under appropriate stimulation, can easily differentiate and de-differentiate thereby converting themselves into different phenotypes according to metabolic necessities...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135006/contribution-of-maladaptive-adipose-tissue-expansion-to-development-of-cardiovascular-disease
#7
Guanghong Jia, Yan Jia, James R Sowers
The overweight and obesity epidemic has led to an increase in the metabolic syndrome and associated cardiovascular disease (CVD). These abnormalities include insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, vascular stiffness, hypertension, stroke, and coronary heart disease. Visceral white adipocyte tissue (WAT) expansion and associated fibrosis/stiffness of WAT promote insulin resistance and CVD through increases in proinflammatory adipokines, oxidative stress, activation of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, dysregulation of adipocyte apoptosis and autophagy, dysfunctional immune modulation, and adverse changes in the gut microbiome...
December 6, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115590/akt-signaling-pathway-in-macrophage-activation-and-m1-m2-polarization
#8
REVIEW
Eleni Vergadi, Eleftheria Ieronymaki, Konstantina Lyroni, Katerina Vaporidi, Christos Tsatsanis
Macrophages become activated initiating innate immune responses. Depending on the signals, macrophages obtain an array of activation phenotypes, described by the broad terms of M1 or M2 phenotype. The PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway mediates signals from multiple receptors including insulin receptors, pathogen-associated molecular pattern receptors, cytokine receptors, adipokine receptors, and hormones. As a result, the Akt pathway converges inflammatory and metabolic signals to regulate macrophage responses modulating their activation phenotype...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098913/diets-link-metabolic-syndrome-and-colorectal-cancer-development-review
#9
Jirakrit Saetang, Surasak Sangkhathat
Diets have been believed to be an important factor in the development of metabolic syndrome and colorectal cancer (CRC). In recent years, many studies have shown an intimate relationship between mucosal immunity, metabolism and diets, which has led to a greater understanding of the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome and CRC development. Although the precise effects of diets on oncogenesis have not been compl-etely elucidated, microbiota changes and inflammation are believed to be important factors that influence the development of CRC...
January 18, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054344/nutritional-effects-on-t-cell-immunometabolism
#10
REVIEW
Sivan Cohen, Keiko Danzaki, Nancie J MacIver
T cells are highly influenced by nutrient uptake from their environment, and changes in overall nutritional status, such as malnutrition or obesity, can result in altered T-cell metabolism and behavior. In states of severe malnutrition or starvation, T-cell survival, proliferation, and inflammatory cytokine production are all decreased, as is T-cell glucose uptake and metabolism. The altered T-cell function and metabolism seen in malnutrition is associated with altered adipokine levels, most particularly decreased leptin...
February 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053336/leptin-in-the-interplay-of-inflammation-metabolism-and-immune-system-disorders
#11
REVIEW
Vanessa Abella, Morena Scotece, Javier Conde, Jesús Pino, Miguel Angel Gonzalez-Gay, Juan J Gómez-Reino, Antonio Mera, Francisca Lago, Rodolfo Gómez, Oreste Gualillo
Leptin is one of the most relevant factors secreted by adipose tissue and the forerunner of a class of molecules collectively called adipokines. Initially discovered in 1994, its crucial role as a central regulator in energy homeostasis has been largely described during the past 20 years. Once secreted into the circulation, leptin reaches the central and peripheral nervous systems and acts by binding and activating the long form of leptin receptor (LEPR), regulating appetite and food intake, bone mass, basal metabolism, reproductive function and insulin secretion, among other processes...
January 5, 2017: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003312/energetics-and-the-immune-system-trade-offs-associated-with-non-acute-levels-of-crp-in-adolescent-gambian-girls
#12
Heather Shattuck-Heidorn, Meredith W Reiches, Andrew M Prentice, Sophie E Moore, Peter T Ellison
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The human immune system is an ever-changing composition of innumerable cells and proteins, continually ready to respond to pathogens or insults. The cost of maintaining this state of immunological readiness is rarely considered. In this paper we aim to discern a cost to non-acute immune function by investigating how low levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) relate to other energetic demands and resources in adolescent Gambian girls. METHODOLOGY: Data from a longitudinal study of 66 adolescent girls was used to test hypotheses around investment in immune function...
December 21, 2016: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999451/ffar4-gpr120-signaling-is-not-required-for-anti-inflammatory-and-insulin-sensitizing-effects-of-omega-3-fatty-acids
#13
Simone Isling Pærregaard, Marianne Agerholm, Annette Karen Serup, Tao Ma, Bente Kiens, Lise Madsen, Karsten Kristiansen, Benjamin Anderschou Holbech Jensen
Free fatty acid receptor-4 (FFAR4), also known as GPR120, has been reported to mediate the beneficial effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-PUFAs) by inducing an anti-inflammatory immune response. Thus, activation of FFAR4 has been reported to ameliorate chronic low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance accompanying obesity. However, conflicting reports on the role of FFAR4 in mediating the effects of ω3-PUFAs are emerging, suggesting that FFAR4 may not be the sole effector. Hence analyses of the importance of this receptor in relation to other signaling pathways and prominent effects of ω3-PUFAs remain to be elucidated...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994954/communication-between-natural-killer-t-cells-and-adipocytes-in-obesity
#14
Masashi Satoh, Kazuya Iwabuchi
Adipose tissue contains various types of immunocompetent cells, and these cells of innate and adaptive immunity control adipose tissue inflammation that blunts insulin sensitivity. Recent studies have shown that adipocytes express CD1d and present lipid antigen(s) to activate natural killer T (NKT) cells. The function of adipocytes is in turn modulated by cytokines that NKT cells produce to alter the expression of anti-inflammatory adipokine(s) and the production of inflammatory and chemoattractant cytokines...
October 2016: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918843/cucurbita-ficifolia-cucurbitaceae-modulates-inflammatory-cytokines-and-ifn-%C3%AE-in-obese-mice
#15
Á Fortis-Barrera, R García-Macedo, J C Almanza-Perez, G Blancas-Flores, A Zamilpa-Alvarez, J L Flores-Sáenz, M Cruz, R Román-Ramos, F J Alarcón-Aguilar
This study investigated the effect of aqueous extract of Cucurbita ficifolia Bouché on systemic chronic inflammation in an obesity model induced by monosodium glutamate (MSG) via modulating the expression of adipokines (TNF-α, IL-6, resistin, and adiponectin) and immune-regulatory cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-10). Cucurbita ficifolia extract was administered daily by gavage to lean and MSG-obese mice for 30 days. At the end of treatment, cytokine mRNA expression in adipose tissue was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the protein levels of these cytokines were also quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
September 19, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902989/plasma-levels-of-leptin-and-adiponectin-in-fragile-x-syndrome
#16
Małgorzata Zofia Lisik, Ewa Gutmajster, Aleksander L Sieroń
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of familial mental retardation and one of the leading known causes of autism. The mutation responsible for FXS is a large expansion of the CGG repeats in the promoter region of the FMR1 gene, resulting in the transcriptional silencing of the gene. Leptin may be considered a cytokine-like hormone with pleiotropic actions since it may be involved in the regulation of neuroendocrine functions and the immune system response, in addition to playing a role in development...
2016: Neuroimmunomodulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902979/altered-systemic-adipokines-in-patients-with-chronic-urticaria
#17
Hoang Kim Tu Trinh, Duy Le Pham, Ga-Young Ban, Hyun-Young Lee, Hae-Sim Park, Young-Min Ye
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence suggests that adipokines affect immune responses and chronic urticaria (CU) is associated with an altered immune response related to chronic systemic inflammation. Our objectives were to investigate whether adipokines are involved in CU pathogenesis and to outline relationships between adipokines and urticaria severity and quality of life. METHODS: Serum adiponectin, leptin, lipocalin-2 (LCN2), interleukin (IL)-10, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in 191 CU patients and 89 healthy controls...
2016: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895640/%C3%AF-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-as-immunomodulators-in-colorectal-cancer-new-potential-role-in-adjuvant-therapies
#18
REVIEW
Stefania Miccadei, Roberta Masella, Anna Maria Mileo, Sandra Gessani
Diet composition may affect the onset and progression of chronic degenerative diseases, including cancer, whose pathogenesis relies on inflammatory processes. Growing evidence indicates that diet and its components critically contribute to human health, affecting the immune system, secretion of adipokines, and metabolic pathways. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Antineoplastic drugs are widely used for CRC treatment, but drug resistance and/or off-target toxicity limit their efficacy...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881065/lipids-at-the-cross-road-of-autoimmunity-in-multiple-sclerosis
#19
Marcella Reale, Silvia Sánchez-Ramón
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by demyelination and neurodegeneration, driven by a Th17/Th1-immune response, which afflicts mainly young women. Although MS causes are not completely known, it is notorious that the disease is characterized by an extended focal degradation of the myelin sheath, with ulterior axon and neuronal damage. Lipid molecules play a main dual role in MS, both as target molecules of myelin destruction and as mediators of inflammation...
November 22, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859423/from-obesity-to-cancer-a-review-on-proposed-mechanisms
#20
REVIEW
Zoya Tahergorabi, Majid Khazaei, Mitra Moodi, Elham Chamani
Nowadays, obesity is considered as a serious and growing global health problem. It is documented that the overweight and obesity are major risk factors for a series of noncommunicable diseases, and in recent years, the obesity-cancer link has received much attention. Numerous epidemiological studies have shown that obesity is associated with increased risk of several cancer types, including colon, breast, endometrium, liver, kidney, esophagus, gastric, pancreatic, gallbladder, and leukemia, and can also lead to poorer treatment...
December 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Function
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