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adipokine and estrogen

Hong Zhao, Yelda C Orhan, Xiaoming Zha, Ecem Esencan, Robert T Chatterton, Serdar E Bulun
Cancer growth and metastasis depends on the availability of energy. Energy-sensing systems are critical in maintaining a balance between the energy supply and utilization of energy for tumor growth. A central regulator in this process is AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In times of energy deficit, AMPK is allosterically modified by the binding of increased levels of AMP and ADP, making it a target of specific AMPK kinases (AMPKKs). AMPK signaling prompts cells to produce energy at the expense of growth and motility, opposing the actions of insulin and growth factors...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
S Moradi, K Mirzaei, A A Abdurahman, S A Keshavarz
The researchers sought to test the possible link between resting metabolic rate and bone mineral density through four adipokines. Participants with lower resting metabolic rate (RMR) per kilogram demonstrated higher total bone mineral density (BMD), total T-score, and total Z-score. Omentin-1 had a mediatory effect on the relationship between RMR/kg of body weight and bone parameters. INTRODUCTION: The previous results of studies regarding the links between obesity and bone health are controversial...
January 23, 2017: Osteoporosis International
A E Newell-Fugate
With the increasing knowledge that gender influences normal physiology, much biomedical research has begun to focus on the differential effects of sex on tissue function. Sexual dimorphism in mammals is due to the combined effects of both genetic and hormonal factors. Hormonal factors are mutable particularly in females in whom the estrous cycle dominates the hormonal milieu. Given the severity of the obesity epidemic and the fact that there are differences in the obesity rates in men and women, the role of sex in white adipose tissue function is being recognized as increasingly important...
April 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Zachary A P Wintrob, Jeffrey P Hammel, Thaer Khoury, George K Nimako, Hsin-Wei Fu, Zahra S Fayazi, Dan P Gaile, Alan Forrest, Alice C Ceacareanu
BACKGROUND: Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and breast cancer (BC) share common cytokine signaling changes resultant from adipose tissue dysfunction. This modified adipokine signaling was shown to be directly associated with changes in the body mass index (BMI) and diet and it is expected to also be influenced by T2DM pharmacotherapy. We evaluated the relationship between pre-existing diabetes treatment, circulating adipokine levels at cancer diagnosis, and long-term outcomes. METHODS: All incident BC cases were reviewed (01/01/2003-12/31/2009, N=2194)...
January 2017: Cytokine
Katharina Nimptsch, Tobias Pischon
Obesity is associated with metabolic alterations that may pose a biological link between body fatness and risk of cancer. Elucidating the role of obesity-related biomarkers in cancer development is essential for developing targeted strategies aiming at obesity-associated cancer prevention. Molecular epidemiological studies of the past decades have provided evidence that major hormonal pathways linking obesity and cancer risk include the insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis, sex-steroid hormones, adipokines and chronic low-grade inflammation...
2016: Recent Results in Cancer Research
Zoya Tahergorabi, Majid Khazaei, Mitra Moodi, Elham Chamani
Nowadays, obesity is considered as a serious and growing global health problem. It is documented that the overweight and obesity are major risk factors for a series of noncommunicable diseases, and in recent years, the obesity-cancer link has received much attention. Numerous epidemiological studies have shown that obesity is associated with increased risk of several cancer types, including colon, breast, endometrium, liver, kidney, esophagus, gastric, pancreatic, gallbladder, and leukemia, and can also lead to poorer treatment...
December 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Function
Saad Misfer Al-Qahtani, Galyna Bryzgalova, Ismael Valladolid-Acebes, Marion Korach-André, Karin Dahlman-Wright, Suad Efendić, Per-Olof Berggren, Neil Portwood
Both functional ovaries and estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Understanding the mechanisms underlying the antidiabetic effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) may permit the development of a molecular targeting strategy for the treatment of metabolic disease. This study examines how the promotion of insulin sensitivity and weight loss by E2 treatment in high-fat-diet (HFD)-fed mice involve several anti-adipogenic processes in the visceral adipose tissue. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed specific reductions in visceral adipose tissue volume in HFD+E2 mice, compared with HFD mice...
January 1, 2017: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Mark E Diebel, Lawrence N Diebel, David M Liberati
INTRODUCTION: Obesity is a chronic low-grade inflammatory condition associated with the elaboration of proinflammatory cytokines and adipokines from adipose tissue. Gender dimorphism (in part due to sex hormones) has been identified after injury and hemorrhagic shock. We hypothesized that the sex hormones estrogen (E2) and testosterone (DHT) have disparate effects on inflammatory mediator production from adipose tissue under stress conditions. This was studied in an in vitro model. METHODS: Mature adipocytes differentiated from adipose-derived stem cells were cocultured (2:1) with macrophages (RAW 264...
December 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Vivian Morad, Annelie Abrahamsson, Preben Kjölhede, Charlotta Dabrosin
Exposure to sex steroids increases the risk of breast cancer but the exact mechanisms are yet to be elucidated. Events in the microenvironment are important for carcinogenesis. Diet containing phytoestrogens can affect the breast microenvironment and alter the risk of breast cancer. It has previously been shown that estrogen regulates extracellular levels of leptin, adiponectin, and VEGF in normal breast tissue in vivo. Whether these proteins correlate in breast tissue in vivo or if diet addition of flaxseed, a major source of phytoestrogens in Western diets, alters adipokine levels in breast tissue are unknown...
June 2016: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
Valeria Simone, Morena D'Avenia, Antonella Argentiero, Claudia Felici, Francesca Maria Rizzo, Giovanni De Pergola, Franco Silvestris
UNLABELLED: Obesity is an important risk factor for breast cancer (BC) in postmenopausal women; interlinked molecular mechanisms might be involved in the pathogenesis. Increased levels of estrogens due to aromatization of the adipose tissue, inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and prostaglandin E2, insulin resistance and hyperactivation of insulin-like growth factors pathways, adipokines, and oxidative stress are all abnormally regulated in obese women and contribute to cancerogenesis...
April 2016: Oncologist
Madhusmita Misra, Anne Klibanski
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a condition of severe undernutrition associated with adaptive changes in many endocrine axes. These changes include hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, acquired growth hormone resistance with low insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels, hypercortisolemia, altered secretion of adipokines and appetite-regulating hormones, and low bone mineral density (BMD). Bone health is impaired subsequent to a low body mass index, decreased lean mass, and the endocrine changes described above. In addition to low areal BMD, AN is characterized by a decrease in volumetric BMD, changes in bone geometry, and reductions in strength estimates, leading to an increased risk for fracture...
2016: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
Paul A Volden, Maxwell N Skor, Marianna B Johnson, Puneet Singh, Feenalie N Patel, Martha K McClintock, Matthew J Brady, Suzanne D Conzen
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), acting in an autocrine or paracrine fashion through G protein-coupled receptors, has been implicated in many physiologic and pathologic processes, including cancer. LPA is converted from lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) by the secreted phospholipase autotaxin (ATX). Although various cell types can produce ATX, adipocyte-derived ATX is believed to be the major source of circulating ATX and also to be the major regulator of plasma LPA levels. In addition to ATX, adipocytes secrete numerous other factors (adipokines); although several adipokines have been implicated in breast cancer biology, the contribution of mammary adipose tissue-derived LPC/ATX/LPA (LPA axis) signaling to breast cancer is poorly understood...
May 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
M Šrámková, M Dušková, J Vítků, J Včelák, P Matucha, O Bradnová, J de Cordeiro, L Stárka
The cyclical effects of hormones during the menstrual cycle (MC) are not just responsible for driving ovulation, but also have significant influence on dietary intake and appetite, as well as psychological and behavioral changes. The aim of our study was to describe changes and relationships between the MC and selected steroids, adipokines and food intake-related hormones. Twenty-seven women with regular menstrual cycles were included in the study, and their hormonal spectrum was measured in regular intervals starting from the first day of their cycle...
2015: Physiological Research
Emanuela A Greco, Andrea Lenzi, Silvia Migliaccio
During the last decades, obesity and osteoporosis have become important global health problems, and the belief that obesity is protective against osteoporosis has recently come into question. In fact, some recent epidemiologic and clinical studies have shown that a high level of fat mass might be a risk factor for osteoporosis and fragility fractures. Several potential mechanisms have been proposed to explain the complex relationship between adipose tissue and bone. Indeed, adipose tissue secretes various molecules, named adipokines, which are thought to have effects on metabolic, skeletal and cardiovascular systems...
December 2015: Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism
Michelle L Van Sinderen, Gregory R Steinberg, Sebastian B Jørgensen, Jane Honeyman, Jenny D Chow, Kerrie A Herridge, Amy L Winship, Evdokia Dimitriadis, Margaret E E Jones, Evan R Simpson, Wah Chin Boon
The maintenance of glucose homeostasis within the body is crucial for constant and precise performance of energy balance and is sustained by a number of peripheral organs. Estrogens are known to play a role in the maintenance of glucose homeostasis. Aromatase knockout (ArKO) mice are estrogen-deficient and display symptoms of dysregulated glucose metabolism. We aim to investigate the effects of estrogen ablation and exogenous estrogen administration on glucose homeostasis regulation. Six month-old female wildtype, ArKO, and 17β-estradiol (E2) treated ArKO mice were subjected to whole body tolerance tests, serum examination of estrogen, glucose and insulin, ex-vivo muscle glucose uptake, and insulin signaling pathway analyses...
2015: PloS One
Steven S Coughlin, Selina A Smith
BACKGROUND: Obesity, a risk factor for the development of postmenopausal breast cancer and certain other cancer types, has also been associated with poorer response to cancer therapy and cancer recurrence. The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis also influences cancer risk. METHODS: In this commentary, we consider the literature on IGF and its binding proteins and the risk of breast cancer, along with effects of obesity, adipokines, and insulin resistance on breast cancer, and the potential for lifestyle interventions to address weight gain and physical inactivity among at-risk women...
2015: Cancer and Clinical Oncology
Marc J Gunter, Tao Wang, Mary Cushman, Xiaonan Xue, Sylvia Wassertheil-Smoller, Howard D Strickler, Thomas E Rohan, JoAnn E Manson, Anne McTiernan, Robert C Kaplan, Philipp E Scherer, Rowan T Chlebowski, Linda Snetselaar, Dan Wang, Gloria Y F Ho
BACKGROUND: Adipokines and inflammation may provide a mechanistic link between obesity and postmenopausal breast cancer, yet epidemiologic data on their associations with breast cancer risk are limited. METHODS: In a case-cohort analysis nested within the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study, a prospective cohort of postmenopausal women, baseline plasma samples from 875 incident breast cancer case patients and 839 subcohort participants were tested for levels of seven adipokines, namely leptin, adiponectin, resistin, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, hepatocyte growth factor, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and for C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory marker...
September 2015: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Yuan Tao, L I Juan, Zhao Wei-Gang, F U Yong, Liu Shuai-Nan, Liu Quan, Shen Zhu-Fang
OBJECTIVE: To study the potential mechanisms via which estrogen exerts its effects on the insulin sensitivity in mice. METHODS: Totally 36 female C57BL/6J mice aged 6 weeks were randomly divided into six groups:normal diet (NOR) group, normal diet with ovariectomy (NOR+OVX) group, normal diet with ovariectomy and estrogen replacement (NOR+OVX+E2) group,high-fat diet (HF) group, high-fat diet with ovariectomy (HF+OVX) group, and high-fat diet with ovariectomy and estrogen replacement (HF+OVX+E2) group...
June 2015: Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
Pamela J Goodwin, Christine B Ambrosone, Chi-Chen Hong
Lifestyle factors, particularly obesity, have been associated with poor breast cancer outcomes in a large number of observational studies. Despite a growing body of research, controversy exists regarding obesity associations across breast cancer subtypes and the importance of obesity versus physical activity and dietary composition in determining breast cancer outcome. These controversies are reviewed and the complex biologic nature of the association of obesity with breast cancer addressed. Potential mediators, including insulin, estrogens, adipokines and inflammation markers are identified...
2015: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Yingying Qian, Dongmin Shi, Jinrong Qiu, Fang Zhu, Jing Qian, Shaohua He, Yongqian Shu, Yongmei Yin, Xiaofeng Chen
Leptin is a potent adipokine that plays an important role in the progression of breast cancer and interferes with the action of tamoxifen. We investigated the molecular mechanism underlying the effect of leptin on tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer cells that express leptin receptor (ObRb), and evaluated the impact of ObRb suppression on tamoxifen treatment in MCF-7 and tamoxifen-resistant (TAM-R) cells. Leptin-induced signaling pathway activation was examined by qRT-PCR and Western blotting. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays were performed to further examine the binding of estrogen receptor (ER) α on the promoter of cyclin D1 (CCND1) gene...
September 2015: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
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