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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922661/lysophosphatidic-acid-inhibits-insulin-signaling-in-primary-rat-hepatocytes-via-the-lpa3-receptor-subtype-and-is-increased-in-obesity
#1
Susann Fayyaz, Lukasz Japtok, Fabian Schumacher, Dominik Wigger, Tim Julius Schulz, Kathrin Haubold, Erich Gulbins, Heinz Völler, Burkhard Kleuser
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Obesity is a main risk factor for the development of hepatic insulin resistance and it is accompanied by adipocyte hypertrophy and an elevated expression of different adipokines such as autotaxin (ATX). ATX converts lysophosphatidylcholine to lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and acts as the main producer of extracellular LPA. This bioactive lipid regulates a broad range of physiological and pathological responses by activation of LPA receptors (LPA1-6). METHODS: The activation of phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) signaling (Akt and GSK-3ß) was analyzed via western blotting in primary rat hepatocytes...
September 1, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920498/an-update-on-biomarker-discovery-and-use-in-axial-spondyloarthritis
#2
Walter P Maksymowych
Evaluation of diagnosis, disease activity, and risk for joint damage all represent important unmet clinical needs in the management of axial spondyloarthritis that have been explored using biomarkers. Areas Covered: This review used the search terms biomarkers, ankylosing spondylitis, spondyloarthritis, spondyloarthropathy, pathogenesis, genetics, diagnostic tools, prognosis, to explore advances in biomarker development relevant to unmet clinical needs. Expert Commentary: Despite major advances in the identification of genetic risk markers, HLA-B*27 remains the only marker with clinical utility for diagnostic purposes...
September 16, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915330/impact-of-adrenal-steroids-on-regulation-of-adipose-tissue
#3
Marco Infante, Andrea Armani, Caterina Mammi, Andrea Fabbri, Massimiliano Caprio
Corticosteroids are secreted by the adrenal glands and control the functions of adipose tissue via the activation of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR). In turn, adipocytes release a large variety of adipokines into the bloodstream, regulating the function of several organs and tissues, including the adrenal glands, hereby controlling corticosteroid production. In adipose tissue, the activation of the MR by glucocorticoids (GC) and aldosterone affects important processes such as adipocyte differentiation, oxidative stress, autophagic flux, adipokine expression as well as local production of GC through upregulation of the enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1)...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915328/cns-targets-of-adipokines
#4
Craig Beall, Lydia Hanna, Kate L J Ellacott
Our understanding of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ has been transformed over the last 20 years. During this time, a number of adipocyte-derived factors or adipokines have been identified. This article will review evidence for how adipokines acting via the central nervous system (CNS) regulate normal physiology and disease pathology. The reported CNS-mediated effects of adipokines are varied and include the regulation of energy homeostasis, autonomic nervous system activity, the reproductive axis, neurodevelopment, cardiovascular function, and cognition...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904917/evaluation-of-leptin-as-a-marker-of-insulin-resistance-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#5
Thiyagarajan Manjuladevi Moonishaa, Sunil Kumar Nanda, Muthukrishnan Shamraj, Rajendran Sivaa, Periyasamy Sivakumar, Kandasamy Ravichandran
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide, whose incidence is rapidly increasing in India. T2DM is caused by varying degrees of insulin resistance (IR) and relative insulin deficiency. Leptin, an adipokine with the primary function of regulating energy balance, is found to mediate insulin secretion and sensitivity in peripheral tissues. Hence, we aimed to determine the role of leptin in the development of IR in newly diagnosed T2DM patients...
July 2017: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895540/polymorphism-rs3123554-in-the-cannabinoid-receptor-gene-type-2-cnr2-reveals-effects-on-body-weight-and-insulin-resistance-in-obese-subjects
#6
Daniel Antonio de Luis, Olatz Izaola, David Primo, Beatriz de la Fuente, Rocio Aller
BACKGROUND: Few studies assessing the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms in CNR2 and obesity or its related metabolic parameters are available. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of polymorphism rs3123554 in the CNR2 receptor gene on obesity anthropometric parameters, insulin resistance, and adipokines in subjects with obesity. DESIGN: The study population consisted of 1027 obese subjects, who were performed bioelectrical impedance analyses, blood pressure measurements, serial assessments of dietary intake during three days, and biochemical tests...
October 2017: Endocrinología, diabetes y nutrición
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894517/effects-of-probiotic-and-prebiotic-supplementation-on-leptin-adiponectin-and-glycemic-parameters-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#7
Vahideh Behrouz, Shima Jazayeri, Naheed Aryaeian, Mohamad Javad Zahedi, Fatemeh Hosseini
BACKGROUND According to previous studies, probiotic and prebiotic supplementation have desirable effects on glycemic parameters. Thus far, the effect of supplementation on the glycemic parameters and adipokines in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has not been assessed. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of supplementation with probiotic and prebiotic on adiokines and glycemic parameters in the patients with NAFLD. METHODS In the present randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 89 patients with NAFLD were randomly divided into three groups to receive one probiotic capsule + 16 g/d maltodextrin (probiotic group) or 16 g/d oligofructose powder + one placebo capsule (prebiotic group), and one placebo capsule + 16 g/d maltodextrin (control group) for 12 weeks...
July 2017: Middle East Journal of Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894050/compounds-of-psoriasis-with-obesity-and-overweight
#8
Agnieszka Owczarczyk-Saczonek, Waldemar Placek
Many epidemiological studies have confirmed the relationship of obesity and psoriasis, and it is believed that obesity is an independent risk factor for its development and is associated with a worse prognosis. Furthermore, the reduction of body weight, using low-calorie diet combined with exercise, reduces the severity of psoriasis.Visceral adipose tissue is the largest endocrine organ, producing proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-17) and adipokines (adiponectin, omentin, chemerin). They participate in the development of dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, diabetes, and consequently of the cardiovascular diseases...
August 24, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893569/fatty-acid-binding-protein-4-promotes-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-cervical-squamous-cell-carcinoma-through-akt-gsk3%C3%AE-snail-signaling-pathway
#9
Jiangbo Jin, Ziyu Zhang, Song Zhang, Xinyu Chen, Zhen Chen, Ping Hu, Jianbin Wang, Caifeng Xie
Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) is a member of the fatty acid binding protein family which involved in a variety of biological cellular processes, including tumorigenesis. However, the role of this key adipokine in cervical cancer is still unclear. In this study, we explored the function of FABP4 in cervical cancer and the underlying molecular mechanisms. FABP4 was specifically elevated in tissue samples from patients with cervical squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) but not with cervical adenocarcinoma, and the level of FABP4 was correlated with E-cadherin and Vimentin expression...
September 8, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885729/leptin-induces-matrix-metalloproteinase-7-expression-to-promote-ovarian-cancer-cell-invasion-by-activating-erk-and-jnk-pathways
#10
Ahmad Ghasemi, Seyed Isaac Hashemy, Mahmoud Aghaei, Mojtaba Panjehpour
Leptin, an adipokine secreted by adipose tissue, induces cell invasion and metastasis. MMP7 is a member of the matrix metalloproteinase family that plays an important role in cell invasion. Here we evaluate the possible role and underlying mechanism of MMP7 in the leptin- mediated cell invasion in ovarian cancer cell lines. All experiments were carried out in cultured SKOV3, OVCAR3 and CaoV-3 ovarian cell lines. MMP7 expression was determined using the western blot following treatment to various concentrations of leptin for defined time intervals...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885548/novel-insights-into-the-adipokinome-of-obese-and-obese-diabetic-mouse-models
#11
Birgit Knebel, Simon Goeddeke, Gereon Poschmann, Daniel F Markgraf, Sylvia Jacob, Ulrike Nitzgen, Waltraud Passlack, Christina Preuss, Hans-Dieter Dicken, Kai Stühler, Sonja Hartwig, Stefan Lehr, Jorg Kotzka
The group of adipokines comprises hundreds of biological active proteins and peptides released from adipose tissue. Alterations of those complex protein signatures are suggested to play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of multifactorial, metabolic diseases. We hypothesized that also the pathophysiology of type-2-diabetes is linked to the dysregulation of the adipocyte secretome. To test this, we investigated mouse models with monogenic defects in leptin signaling which are susceptible to adipositas (C57BL/6 Cg-Lep(ob) (obob)) or adipositas with diabetes (C57BL/KS Cg-Lepr(db) (dbdb)) according to their genetic background...
September 8, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884987/the-link-between-chronic-spontaneous-urticaria-and-metabolic-syndrome
#12
G A Vena, N Cassano
Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and is considered a chronic low-level systemic inflammatory condition. Recent preliminary findings have shown an increased prevalence of MS among patients with chronic urticaria (CU) as compared to controls, with a particularly higher prevalence detected in patients with uncontrolled CU. Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) appears to share some pathomechanisms with MS, including a pro-inflammatory state, increased oxidative stress, alterations in adipokine profile and activation of the coagulation system...
September 2017: European Annals of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884306/probiotic-soy-milk-consumption-and-renal-function-among-type-2-diabetic-patients-with-nephropathy-a-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#13
Maryam Miraghajani, Nafiseh Zaghian, Abolfazl Dehkohneh, Maryam Mirlohi, Reza Ghiasvand
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one the most important complications of diabetes leading to end-stage renal disease. Dietary approaches have been considered to control of the kidney function deterioration among these patients. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of fortified soy milk with Lactobacillus plantarum A7 on renal function biomarkers in type 2 DN patients. Forty-eight DN subjects were attended to this parallel randomized trial study. Participants were randomly assigned to consume a diet containing 200 mL/day probiotic soy milk in intervention group or soy milk in the control condition for 8 weeks...
September 8, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880413/curcuminoids-lower-plasma-leptin-concentrations-a-meta-analysis
#14
Stephen L Atkin, Niki Katsiki, Giuseppe Derosa, Pamela Maffioli, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Curcumin is a naturally occurring polyphenol that has been suggested to improve several metabolic diseases. Leptin is an adipokine involved in metabolic status and appetite, with marked crosstalk with other systems. Available data suggest that curcumin may affect leptin levels; therefore, this meta-analysis was performed to evaluate this. A systematic review and meta-analysis were undertaken on all randomized controlled trials of curcumin studies that included the measurement of leptin. The search included PubMed-Medline, Scopus, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Google Scholar databases...
September 7, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877872/insulin-sensitivity-leptin-adiponectin-resistin-and-testosterone-in-adult-male-and-female-rats-after-maternal-neonatal-separation-and-environmental-stress
#15
Hershel Raff, Brian Hoeynck, Mack Jablonski, Cole Leonovicz, Jonathan M Phillips, Ashley L Gehrand
Care of premature infants often requires parental and caregiver separation particularly during hypoxic and hypothermic episodes. We have established a neonatal rat model of human prematurity involving maternal-neonatal separation and hypoxia with spontaneous hypothermia prevented with external heat. Adults previously exposed to these neonatal stressors show a sex difference in the insulin and glucose response to arginine stimulation suggesting a state of insulin resistance. The current study used this cohort of adult rats to evaluate insulin resistance (Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance [HOMA-IR]), plasma adipokines (reflecting insulin resistance states), and testosterone...
September 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875870/a-priori-defined-diet-quality-indices-biomarkers-and-risk-for-type-2-diabetes-in-five-ethnic-groups-the-multiethnic-cohort
#16
Simone Jacobs, Carol J Boushey, Adrian A Franke, Yurii B Shvetsov, Kristine R Monroe, Christopher A Haiman, Laurence N Kolonel, Loic Le Marchand, Gertraud Maskarinec
Dietary indices have been related to risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) predominantly in white populations. The present study evaluated this association in the ethnically diverse Multiethnic Cohort and examined four diet quality indices in relation to T2D risk, homoeostatic model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and biomarkers of dyslipidaemia, inflammation and adipokines. The T2D analysis included 166 550 white, African American, Native Hawaiian, Japanese American and Latino participants (9200 incident T2D cases)...
August 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875689/liver-fibrosis-in-the-context-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-the-role-of-adipokines
#17
Giovanni DI Maira, Mirella Pastore, Fabio Marra
Liver fibrosis is a multifaceted process that occurs as a consequence of chronic liver injury. This process is characterized by inflammation, activation of matrix-producing cells, matrix deposition and remodeling, and epithelial cell regeneration. In subjects with chronic liver damage, fibrogenesis is favored by the presence of obesity and insulin resistance, which are also relevant risk factors for the development and progression of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). It is now well-known that adipose tissue is not only involved in energy storage but also functions as an endocrine organ that secretes various bioactive substances known as adipokines...
September 5, 2017: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875223/circulating-adipokines-are-associated-with-pre-eclampsia-in-women-with-type-1-diabetes
#18
Clare B Kelly, Michelle B Hookham, Jeremy Y Yu, Samuel M Lockhart, Mei Du, Alicia J Jenkins, Alison Nankervis, Kristian F Hanssen, Tore Henriksen, Satish K Garg, Samar M Hammad, James A Scardo, Christopher E Aston, Christopher C Patterson, Timothy J Lyons
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The incidence of pre-eclampsia, a multisystem disorder of pregnancy, is fourfold higher in type 1 diabetic than non-diabetic women; it is also increased in women with features of the metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance. In a prospective study of pregnant women with type 1 diabetes, we measured plasma levels of adipokines known to be associated with insulin resistance: leptin, fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), adiponectin (total and high molecular weight [HMW]; also known as high molecular mass), retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) and resistin and evaluated associations with the subsequent development of pre-eclampsia...
September 5, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873415/proliferative-endocrine-effects-of-adipose-tissue-from-obese-animals-on-mcf7-cells-are-ameliorated-by-resveratrol-supplementation
#19
Christopher F Theriau, O'Llenecia S Sauvé, Marie-Soleil Beaudoin, David C Wright, Michael K Connor
Obesity is clearly associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. The purpose was to determine if obesity alters the adipocyte adipokine secretion profile, thereby altering the adipose-dependent paracrine/endocrine growth microenvironment surrounding breast cancer cells (MCF7). Additionally, we determined whether resveratrol (RSV) supplementation can counteract any obesity-dependent effects on breast cancer tumor growth microenvironment. Obese ZDF rats received standard chow diet or diet supplemented with 200 mg/kg body weight RSV...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872979/bone-marrow-adipocytes
#20
Mark C Horowitz, Ryan Berry, Brandon Holtrup, Zachary Sebo, Tracy Nelson, Jackie A Fretz, Dieter Lindskog, Jennifer L Kaplan, Gene Ables, Matthew S Rodeheffer, Clifford J Rosen
Adipocytes were identified in human bone marrow more than a century ago, yet until recently little has been known about their origin, development, function or interactions with other cells in the bone marrow. Little functional significance has been attributed to these cells, a paradigm that still persists today. However, we now know that marrow adipose tissue increases with age and in response to a variety of physiologic induction signals. Bone marrow adipocytes have recently been shown to influence other cell populations within the marrow and can affect whole body metabolism by the secretion of a defined set of adipokines...
August 24, 2017: Adipocyte
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