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Systemic autoimmune diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944502/immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-in-non-hiv-immunosuppressed-patients
#1
REVIEW
Hirohiko Sueki, Yoshiko Mizukawa, Yumi Aoyama
Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) represents a clinical phenomenon of immune-mediated inflammation against various antigens, including pathogenic microorganisms, drugs and unknown autoantigens, during recovery from immunosuppressed conditions. IRIS has become well recognized in HIV-infected populations. However, IRIS has seldom been recognized in HIV-negative immunocompromised patients. In the last 15 years, the immunopathogenesis of drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS) has been largely determined...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944137/pulmonary-hypertension-associated-with-antiphospholipid-antibody-call-for-a-screening-tool
#2
REVIEW
Rukma Parthvi, Rutuja R Sikachi, Abhinav Agrawal, Ajay Adial, Abhinav Vulisha, Sameer Khanijo, Arunabh Talwar
Antiphospholipid (aPL) antibodies are antibodies specific for anionic phospholipids. They are immunoglobulins that attack phospholipids, phospholipid-binding proteins, or phospholipid-protein complexes and are detected in anticardiolipin and lupus anticoagulant assays. aPL antibodies are often associated with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) which can be idiopathic or from secondary causes such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), infection or drugs. They have also been shown to be associated with Pulmonary Hypertension...
August 2017: Intractable & Rare Diseases Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942491/modulation-of-type-1-diabetes-risk-by-the-intestinal-microbiome
#3
REVIEW
Mikael Knip, Jarno Honkanen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize potential modulations of the intestinal microbiome aimed at preventing or delaying progression to overt type 1 diabetes in the light of recently identified perturbations of the gut microbiota associated with the development of type 1 diabetes. RECENT FINDINGS: Accumulated data suggest that the gut microbiota is involved at two different steps in the evolution of type 1 diabetes. At the first step, the intestinal tract is colonized by a microbial community unable to provide an adequate education of the immune system...
September 23, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942100/doppler-ultrasonography-can-be-useful-to-determine-the-etiology-of-idiopathic-sudden-sensorineural-hearing-loss
#4
Ahmet Mutlu, Isa Cam, Sinem Dasli, Murat Topdag
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate clinical features of both carotid and vertebral arteries in the idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL) patients and healthy individuals to contribute additional knowledge on vascular compromise theory. METHODS: This study was designed as a retrospective case control study in a tertiary referral center. 55 patients for ISSNHL and 35 healthy participants (70 ears) are involved to the study. All of the patients were evaluated for the systemic disorders and excluded other possible causes (autoimmune diseases, acoustic schwannoma, drug toxicity, etc) of ISSNHL...
September 20, 2017: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941499/genomic-investigation-of-lupus-in-the-skin
#5
REVIEW
Animesh A Sinha, Rama Dey-Rao
Lupus erythematosus is a chronic autoimmune disorder with a protean clinical manifestation affecting virtually every organ including skin, with tremendous variation between patients. This makes it vital to stratify patients on a molecular basis. We used gene microarray technology for large-scale screening combined with bioinformatics to investigate global patterns of gene expression in cutaneous lupus erythematosus to allow further insights into disease heterogeneity. Unbiased clustering exposed a clear separation between cutaneous lupus erythematosus skin and blood samples...
October 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology. Symposium Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940864/the-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome-cancer-predisposition-platelet-abnormalities-and-cytopenias
#6
REVIEW
Michele P Lambert, Abinaya Arulselvan, Amanda Schott, Stephen J Markham, Terrance B Crowley, Elaine H Zackai, Donna M McDonald-McGinn
The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (DS) is associated with variable phenotypic expression as findings range from severely affected individuals with the classical triad of DiGeorge and velocardiofacial syndromes, including congenital heart disease, immunodeficiency, hypocalcemia, and palatal abnormalities, to subtly affected adults who only come to attention following the diagnosis of a more severely affected child. The multiple manifestations can affect all organ systems, including the hematologic system resulting in baseline lower platelet counts for individuals with 22q11...
September 22, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939693/mass-spectrometry-techniques-for-studying-the-ubiquitin-system
#7
REVIEW
Rachel E Heap, Megan S Gant, Frederic Lamoliatte, Julien Peltier, Matthias Trost
Post-translational control of proteins through covalent attachment of ubiquitin plays important roles in all eukaryotic cell functions. The ubiquitin system in humans consists of 2 E1, 35 E2 and >600 E3 ubiquitin ligases as well as hundreds of deubiquitylases, which reverse ubiquitin attachment. Moreover, there are hundreds of proteins with ubiquitin-binding domains that bind one of the eight possible polyubiquitin chains. Dysfunction of the ubiquitin system is associated with many diseases such as cancer, autoimmunity and neurodegeneration, demonstrating the importance of ubiquitylation...
September 22, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939414/role-of-the-epigenetic-factor-sirt7-in-neuroinflammation-and-neurogenesis
#8
Nicolas Burg, Stefan Bittner, Erik Ellwardt
Epigenetic regulators are increasingly recognized as relevant modulators in the immune and nervous system. The class of sirtuins consists of NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylases that regulate transcription. Sirtuin family member Sirt1 has already been shown to influence the disease course in an animal model of autoimmune neuroinflammation (experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)). A role of Sirt7, a related epigenetic regulator, on immune system regulation has been proposed before, as these mice are more susceptible to develop inflammatory cardiomyopathy...
September 19, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939293/dose-dependent-s-allyl-cysteine-ameliorates-multiple-sclerosis-disease-related-pathology-by-reducing-oxidative-stress-and-biomerkers-of-dysbiosis-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#9
B M Escribano, E Luque, M Aguilar-Luque, M Feijóo, J Caballero-Villarraso, L A Torres, V Ramirez, F I García-Maceira, E Agüera, A Santamaria, I Túnez
Garlic is a component of the Mediterranean diet. S-allyl cysteine (SAC), the most common organosulphur present in garlic, possesses neuroprotective properties. This investigation was performed to evaluate the dose-dependent protective action of SAC on oxidative damage, inflammation and gut microbiota alterations biomarkers. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) as a model of multiple sclerosis (MS) was induced by the myelin oligrodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), whose effects were quantified by examining the changes in: clinical score, lipid peroxidation products, carbonylated proteins, glutathione system, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), and lypopolysaccharide membrane bacteria (LPS)...
September 19, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939244/clinicopathologic-significance-of-in-vivo-antinuclear-autoantibodies-in-oral-mucosal-biopsies
#10
Rana Alshagroud, Mirdza Neiders, Jill M Kramer, Lakshmanan Suresh
OBJECTIVE: Although antinuclear autoantibody (ANA) staining of oral biopsy specimens is indicative of chronic ulcerative stomatitis, it is not known whether this staining is characteristic of other autoimmune diseases. Our study was undertaken to characterize the various in vivo ANA patterns detected in the oral mucosa by direct immunofluorescence to describe the associated hematoxylin and eosin findings, and determine whether patients with these findings had a coexisting systemic connective tissue disease...
August 24, 2017: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938569/evaluation-of-autoantibody-signatures-in-meningioma-patients-using-human-proteome-arrays
#11
Shabarni Gupta, Shuvolina Mukherjee, Parvez Syed, Narendra Goud Pandala, Saket Choudhary, Vedita Anand Singh, Namrata Singh, Heng Zhu, Sridhar Epari, Santosh B Noronha, Aliasgar Moiyadi, Sanjeeva Srivastava
Meningiomas are one of the most common tumors of the Central nervous system (CNS). This study aims to identify the autoantibody biomarkers in meningiomas using high-density human proteome arrays (~17,000 full-length recombinant human proteins). Screening of sera from 15 unaffected healthy individuals, 10 individuals with meningioma grade I and 5 with meningioma grade II was performed. This comprehensive proteomics based investigation revealed the dysregulation of 489 and 104 proteins in grades I and II of meningioma, respectively, along with the enrichment of several signalling pathways, which might play a crucial role in the manifestation of the disease...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938475/modeling-the-sex-differences-and-inter-individual-variability-in-the-activity-of-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis
#12
Rohit T Rao, Ioannis P Androulakis
Significant sex differences exist in the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. These differences are thought to contribute to the disparity in the prevalence of various autoimmune and infectious diseases between males and females. We use a mathematical model of the HPA axis to evaluate the hypothesis that differential sensitivity and negative feedback of the HPA axis network are causal factors for the observed sex differences in its activity. In doing so, we implicitly account for the differential influence of gonadal hormones on the HPA axis...
August 31, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938006/association-between-circulating-mirnas-and-spinal-involvement-in-patients-with-axial-spondyloarthritis
#13
Klára Prajzlerová, Kristýna Grobelná, Markéta Hušáková, Šárka Forejtová, Astrid Jüngel, Steffen Gay, Jiří Vencovský, Karel Pavelka, Ladislav Šenolt, Mária Filková
OBJECTIVES: Dysregulation of miRNAs and their target genes contributes to the pathophysiology of autoimmune diseases. Circulating miRNAs may serve as diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers. We aimed to investigate the association between circulating miRNAs, disease activity and spinal involvement in patients with axial spondyloarthritis (AxSpA). METHODS: Total RNA was isolated from the plasma of patients with non-radiographic (nr)AxSpA, patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and healthy controls (HC) via phenol-chloroform extraction...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936778/preferential-reduction-of-circulating-innate-lymphoid-cells-type-2-in-patients-with-common-variable-immunodeficiency-with-secondary-complications-is-part-of-a-broader-immune-dysregulation
#14
David Friedmann, Baerbel Keller, Ina Harder, Jonas Schupp, Yakup Tanriver, Susanne Unger, Klaus Warnatz
PURPOSE: Over a third of patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) suffer from secondary complications like inflammatory organ disease, autoimmune manifestations, or lymphoproliferation contributing to increased morbidity and mortality in affected patients. Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have emerging roles in setting the milieu for physiological, but also pathological, immune responses and inflammation. We therefore sought to correlate the recently identified disturbed homeostasis of ILCs with alterations of the adaptive immune system in complex CVID patients (CVIDc)...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934563/hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis
#15
Hanny Al-Samkari, Nancy Berliner
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis is a life-threatening disorder characterized by unbridled activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) cells, and macrophages resulting in hypercytokinemia and immunemediated injury of multiple organ systems. It is seen in both children and adults and is recognized as primary (driven by underlying genetic mutations that abolish critical proteins required for normal function of cytotoxic T cells and NK cells) or secondary (resulting from a malignant, infectious, or autoimmune stimulus without an identifiable underlying genetic trigger)...
September 13, 2017: Annual Review of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934318/identification-of-lag3-high-affinity-aptamers-by-ht-selex-and-conserved-motif-accumulation-cma
#16
Mario Martínez Soldevilla, Sandra Hervas, Helena Villanueva, Teresa Lozano, Obdulia Rabal, Julen Oyarzabal, Juan José Lasarte, Maurizio Bendandi, Susana Inoges, Ascensión López-Díaz de Cerio, Fernando Pastor
LAG3 receptor belongs to a family of immune-checkpoints expressed in T lymphocytes and other cells of the immune system. It plays an important role as a rheostat of the immune response. Focus on this receptor as a potential therapeutic target in cancer immunotherapy has been underscored after the success of other immune-checkpoint blockade strategies in clinical trials. LAG3 showcases the interest in the field of autoimmunity as several studies show that LAG3-targeting antibodies can also be used for the treatment of autoimmune diseases...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934246/discovery-of-pf-06928215-as-a-high-affinity-inhibitor-of-cgas-enabled-by-a-novel-fluorescence-polarization-assay
#17
Justin Hall, Amy Brault, Fabien Vincent, Shawn Weng, Hong Wang, Darren Dumlao, Ann Aulabaugh, Dikran Aivazian, Dana Castro, Ming Chen, Jeffrey Culp, Ken Dower, Joseph Gardner, Steven Hawrylik, Douglas Golenbock, David Hepworth, Mark Horn, Lyn Jones, Peter Jones, Eicke Latz, Jing Li, Lih-Ling Lin, Wen Lin, David Lin, Frank Lovering, Nootaree Niljanskul, Ryan Nistler, Betsy Pierce, Olga Plotnikova, Daniel Schmitt, Suman Shanker, James Smith, William Snyder, Timothy Subashi, John Trujillo, Edyta Tyminski, Guoxing Wang, Jimson Wong, Bruce Lefker, Leslie Dakin, Karen Leach
Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) initiates the innate immune system in response to cytosolic dsDNA. After binding and activation from dsDNA, cGAS uses ATP and GTP to synthesize 2', 3' -cGAMP (cGAMP), a cyclic dinucleotide second messenger with mixed 2'-5' and 3'-5' phosphodiester bonds. Inappropriate stimulation of cGAS has been implicated in autoimmune disease such as systemic lupus erythematosus, thus inhibition of cGAS may be of therapeutic benefit in some diseases; however, the size and polarity of the cGAS active site makes it a challenging target for the development of conventional substrate-competitive inhibitors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933579/innate-immune-cells-for-immunotherapy-of-autoimmune-and-cancer-disorders
#18
Carolina Schäfer, Gabriel Ascui, Carolina H Ribeiro, Mercedes López, Rafael Prados-Rosales, Pablo A González, Susan M Bueno, Claudia A Riedel, Andrés Baena, Alexis M Kalergis, Leandro J Carreño
Modulation of the immune system has been widely targeted for the treatment of several immune-related diseases, such as autoimmune disorders and cancer, due to its crucial role in these pathologies. Current available therapies focus mainly on symptomatic treatment and are often associated with undesirable secondary effects. For several years, remission of disease and subsequently recovery of immune homeostasis has been a major goal for immunotherapy. Most current immunotherapeutic strategies are aimed to inhibit or potentiate directly the adaptive immune response by modulating antibody production and B cell memory, as well as the effector potential and memory of T cells...
September 21, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932736/mean-platelet-volume-and-immature-platelet-fraction-in-autoimmune-disorders
#19
REVIEW
Deonilson Schmoeller, Maria Mercedes Picarelli, Terezinha Paz Munhoz, Carlos Eduardo Poli de Figueiredo, Henrique Luiz Staub
Mean platelet volume (MPV), measured using automated blood analysers, has been appraised as a potential biomarker in cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and cancer. The test, a useful tool in differentiation of thrombocytopenic states, has now been carried out for autoimmune disorders, but data are yet scarce. Controversial results have been obtained in systemic and organ-specific autoimmune disorders. Another test, the immature platelet fraction (IPF) reflects the amount of young, reticulated platelets...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932368/cancer-risk-among-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-a-cohort-study-in-isfahan-iran
#20
Masoud Etemadifar, Hamidreza Jahanbani-Ardakani, Sara Ghaffari, Maboobeh Fereidan-Esfahani, Hossein Changaei, Nazila Aghadoost, Ameneh Jahanbani Ardakani, Negin Moradkhani
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS), a central nervous system (CNS) autoimmune disorder, affects 2.3 million people around the world. Cancer kills around 7.5 million people annually. Both diseases have similar risks and intertwining molecular causes. Most studies focusing on MS and cancer have found an insignificant difference or reduction in the amount of cancer found in the MS community. METHODS: We performed a cohort study using data from Isfahan Multiple Sclerosis Society (IMSS) and Isfahan cancer society and followed-up for 8 years on average (2006-2014)...
2017: Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine
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