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Autoinflammatory diseases

Judith A Smith
Protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an essential cell function. To safeguard this process in the face of environmental threats and internal stressors, cells mount an evolutionarily conserved response known as the unfolded protein response (UPR). Invading pathogens induce cellular stress that impacts protein folding, thus the UPR is well situated to sense danger and contribute to immune responses. Cytokines (inflammatory cytokines and interferons) critically mediate host defense against pathogens, but when aberrantly produced, may also drive pathologic inflammation...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Ann Marie Szymanski, Michael J Ombrello
The intersection of granulomatosis and autoinflammatory disease is a rare occurrence that can be generally subdivided into purely granulomatous phenotypes and disease spectra that are inclusive of granulomatous features. NOD2 (nucleotide binding oligomerization domain containing 2)-related disease, which includes Blau syndrome and early onset sarcoidosis, is the prototypic example of granulomatous inflammation in the context of monogenic autoinflammation. Granulomatous inflammation has also been observed in two related autoinflammatory diseases caused by mutations in PLCG2 (phospholipase C gamma 2)...
March 12, 2018: International Immunology
Yi Huang, Hua Jiang, Yun Chen, Xiaqiong Wang, Yanqing Yang, Jinhui Tao, Xianming Deng, Gaolin Liang, Huafeng Zhang, Wei Jiang, Rongbin Zhou
The dysregulation of NLRP3 inflammasome can cause uncontrolled inflammation and drive the development of a wide variety of human diseases, but the medications targeting NLRP3 inflammasome are not available in clinic. Here, we show that tranilast (TR), an old anti-allergic clinical drug, is a direct NLRP3 inhibitor. TR inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages, but has no effects on AIM2 or NLRC4 inflammasome activation. Mechanismly, TR directly binds to the NACHT domain of NLRP3 and suppresses the assembly of NLRP3 inflammasome by blocking NLRP3 oligomerization...
March 12, 2018: EMBO Molecular Medicine
Kazuki Kimura, Masafumi Mizooka, Kiyoshi Migita, Ryoko Ishida, Masatoshi Matsumoto, Satoshi Yamasaki, Nobusuke Kishikawa, Akihiro Kawahara, Yuka Kikuchi, Yuichiro Otani, Tomoki Kobayashi, Daisuke Miyamori, Takuya Ikuta, Hiroshi Nakamura, Kenichi Yokobayashi, Shuichi Iwamoto, Keishi Kanno, Hiromasa Ohira, Susumu Tazuma
Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most common genetic autoinflammatory disease, but it has been considered a rare disease in Japan. We herein describe five patients with FMF who were diagnosed both clinically and genetically at a single Japanese institute. A genetic investigation of MEFV detected heterozygosity for the compound mutations L110P/E148Q (n=2) and L110P/148Q/P369S/R406Q (n=1), and heterozygosity for M694I (n=1) and S503C (n=1). Colchicine prevented febrile attacks and accompanying symptoms in four patients...
March 9, 2018: Internal Medicine
S Georgin-Lavialle, I Kone-Paut, J Delaleu, G Sarrabay, G Grateau, I Touitou, V Hentgen
Tumour necrosis receptor associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) is a rare cosmopolitan dominant autosomal disease that belongs to the group of recurrent autoinflammatory syndromes. TRAPS is characterized by recurrent bouts of fever lasting more than 7 days, with arthralgia, myalgia, abdominal pain, erythematous rash and sometimes ocular symptoms. During flares, raised inflammatory markers are constant. The age of onset may occur during childhood but also during adulthood. TRAPS is caused by mutations in the TNF receptor 1 (TNFRSF1A) gene that may occur in most of the populations over the world...
March 7, 2018: La Revue de Médecine Interne
Z X Yu, L Q Zhong, H M Song, C Y Wang, W Wang, J Li, M S Ma
Objective: To summarize the clinical characteristics and treatment efficacy of the first reported case of a Chinese boy with stimulator of interferon genes (STING) associated vasculopathy with onset in infancy (SAVI). Methods: Sanger sequencing of the gene TMEM173 was performed based on systemic evaluation and clinical analysis of a highly suspected SAVI child admitted to Peking Union Medical College Hospital. A literature search (search terms included 'STING''SAVI''autoinflammatory diseases' and 'interferonopathy') was conducted using Chinese literature database, EMBASE and PubMed to include recently published SAVI studies (searched from January 2010 to December 2017)...
March 2, 2018: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Rob J W Arts, Leo A B Joosten, Mihai G Netea
During induction of trained immunity, monocytes and macrophages undergo a functional and transcriptional reprogramming toward increased activation. Important rewiring of cellular metabolism of the myeloid cells takes place during induction of trained immunity, including a shift toward glycolysis induced through the mTOR pathway, as well as glutaminolysis and cholesterol synthesis. Subsequently, this leads to modulation of the function of epigenetic enzymes, resulting in important changes in chromatin architecture that enables increased gene transcription...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Tridib Das, Zhongli Chen, Rudi W Hendriks, Mirjam Kool
Immune cell activation is a stringently regulated process, as exaggerated innate and adaptive immune responses can lead to autoinflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Perhaps the best-characterized molecular pathway promoting cell activation is the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway. Stimulation of this pathway leads to transcription of numerous pro-inflammatory and cell-survival genes. Several mechanisms tightly control NF-κB activity, including the key regulatory zinc finger (de)ubiquitinating enzyme A20/tumor necrosis factor α-induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Stephen Keddie, Shirley D'Sa, David Foldes, Aisling S Carr, Mary M Reilly, Michael P T Lunn
POEMS syndrome is a rare and disabling autoinflammatory condition characterised by a typical peripheral neuropathy and the presence of a monoclonal plasma cell disorder. The acronym 'POEMS' represents the complex and multisystem features of the disease, including polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, a monoclonal plasma cell disorder and skin disease. The diagnosis of POEMS is a significant challenge because of the heterogeneity of clinical presentations and variation of POEMS features. Patients are often misdiagnosed with another cause of inflammatory neuropathy and receive one or more ineffective immunomodulatory medications, resulting in delayed diagnosis and further clinical deterioration before a diagnosis is made...
March 6, 2018: Practical Neurology
Ali Sibtain Farooq Sheikh, Jonathan Marks, Neil Hopkinson
Adult-onset Still's disease is a systemic autoinflammatory disease the presentation of which can often mimic infection. As a consequence, there is often a delay in diagnosis. Serositis is a recognised but less common clinical feature that can result in complications including cardiac tamponade and constrictive pericarditis. We describe a case of adult-onset Still's disease without the hallmark rash or significant arthritis, presenting with polyserositis that showed a good response to initial steroid treatment and sustained remission with anakinra...
January 1, 2018: Scottish Medical Journal
Kensuke Asakura, Shunichi Yanai, Shotaro Nakamura, Keisuke Kawaski, Makoto Eizuka, Kazuyuki Ishida, Masaki Endo, Tamotsu Sugai, Kiyoshi Migita, Takayuki Matsumoto
RATIONALE: Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most common form of autoinflammatory disease. We report a rare case of FMF with gastrointestinal lesions mimicking Crohn disease. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 21-year-old Japanese man was referred to our institution, complaining of refractory diarrhea and weight loss of 14 kg during the past two years. He had presented with recurrent fever, abdominal pain, anal fistula and stomatitis. His father and one of his brothers had ulcerative colitis...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Mikhail M Kostik, Evgeny N Suspitsin, Marina N Guseva, Anastasia S Levina, Anastasia Y Kazantseva, Anna P Sokolenko, Evgeny N Imyanitov
NLRP12-related autoinflammatory disease (NLRP12-AID) is an exceptionally rare autosomal dominant disorder caused by germline mutations in NLRP12 gene. Very few patients with NLRP12-AD have been identified worldwide; therefore, there is a scarcity of data on phenotypic presentation of this syndrome. Here we provide evidence that NLRP12-AID may have clinical manifestations characteristic for primary immune deficiencies (PID). 246 children with periodic fever (PF) of unknown origin were subjects to the next generation sequencing (NGS) analysis; 213 of these patients had signs of primary immunodeficiency (PID) manifested by recurrent infections, while 33 kids had isolated PF...
March 2, 2018: Rheumatology International
F Rodrigues, V Hentgen, C Bachmeyer, I Kone-Paut, A Belot, G Grateau, G Sarrabay, S Georgin-Lavialle
The auto-inflammatory diseases linked to NLRC4 mutations are recently described entities. Transmission is autosomal dominant in 80 % of cases; cases of somatic mutation have already been reported. The disease may display two very different clinical phenotypes: the phenotype 1 (30 %), severe, is dominated by a multisystemic inflammation starting in the first year of life with symptoms of chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), macrophagic actication syndrome (MAS), or even a presentation suggesting a cryopyrinopathy in its CINCA form; the mortality of this phenotype is high (25 %)...
February 26, 2018: La Revue de Médecine Interne
Maria Zerkaoui, Fatima Zahra Laarabi, Yousra Ajhoun, Bouchra Chkirate, Abdelaziz Sefiani
BACKGROUND: Familial Mediterranean fever is an autoinflammatory disease of unknown etiology, characterized clinically by recurrent attacks of sudden-onset fever with arthralgia and/or thoracoabdominal pain and pathogenetically by autosomal recessive inheritance due to a mutation in the MEFV gene. Behçet's disease is an inflammatory disease characterized by recurrent oral and genital aphthous ulcerations, uveitis, and skin lesions. Preliminarily, our literature review suggested that patients with familial Mediterranean fever who also have Behçet's disease have only a single mutated familial Mediterranean fever gene...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Cem Gabay, Bruno Fautrel, Jürgen Rech, François Spertini, Eugen Feist, Ina Kötter, Eric Hachulla, Jacques Morel, Thierry Schaeverbeke, Mohamed A Hamidou, Thierry Martin, Bernhard Hellmich, Peter Lamprecht, Hendrik Schulze-Koops, Delphine Sophie Courvoisier, Andrew Sleight, Eduardo Jorge Schiffrin
OBJECTIVES: Adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) is a rare systemic autoinflammatory disease; its management is largely empirical. This is the first clinical study to determine if interleukin (IL)-18 inhibition, using the recombinant human IL-18 binding protein, tadekinig alfa, is a therapeutic option in AOSD. METHODS: In this phase II, open-label study, patients were ≥18 years with active AOSD plus fever or C reactive protein (CRP) levels ≥10 mg/L despite treatment with prednisone and/or conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs)...
February 22, 2018: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
Gabriel Velez, Alexander G Bassuk, Kellie A Schaefer, Brian Brooks, Lokesh Gakhar, MaryAnn Mahajan, Philip Kahn, Stephen H Tsang, Polly J Ferguson, Vinit B Mahajan
Mutations that activate the protease calpain-5 (CAPN5) cause a non-syndromic adult-onset autoinflammatory eye disease characterized by uveitis, altered synaptic signaling, retinal degeneration, neovascularization, and intraocular fibrosis. We describe a pediatric patient with severe inflammatory vitreoretinopathy accompanied by hearing loss and developmental delay associated with a novel, de novo CAPN5 missense mutation (c.865C>T, p.Arg289Trp) that shows greater hyperactivation of the calpain protease, indicating a genotype-phenotype correlation that links mutation severity to proteolytic activity and the possibility of earlier onset syndromic disease with auditory and neurological abnormalities...
February 22, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Molecular Case Studies
Christine McDonald, Min Shen, Erin E Johnson, Amrita Kabi, Qingping Yao
Yao syndrome (YAOS) is a systemic autoinflammatory disease (SAID), formerly termed nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-2 (NOD2)-associated autoinflammatory disease. Due to the recent identification of YAOS, the molecular mechanisms underlying its disease pathogenesis are unclear. With specific NOD2 variants as characteristic genotypic features of YAOS, our study examined NOD2 expression, transcript splicing, signaling pathway activation, and cytokine profiles in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 10 YAOS patients and six healthy individuals...
March 2018: Autoimmunity
Fawaz Awad, Eman Assrawi, Camille Louvrier, Claire Jumeau, Sophie Georgin-Lavialle, Gilles Grateau, Serge Amselem, Irina Giurgea, Sonia-Athina Karabina
Inflammasomes are intracellular multiprotein signaling complexes, mainly present in myeloid cells. They commonly assemble around a cytoplasmic receptor of the nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat containing receptor (NLR) family, although other cytoplasmic receptors like pyrin have been shown to form inflammasomes. The nucleation of the multiprotein scaffolding platform occurs upon detection of a microbial, a danger or a homeostasis pattern by the receptor that will, most commonly, associate with the adaptor protein ASC (apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD) through homotypic domain interactions resulting in recruitment of procaspase-1...
February 18, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Emily M Hatch
The nuclear envelope (NE), which is a critical barrier between the DNA and the cytosol, is capable of extensive dynamic membrane remodeling events in interphase. One of these events, interphase NE rupture and repair, can occur in both normal and disease states and results in the loss of nucleus compartmentalization. NE rupture is not lethal, but new research indicates that it could have broad impacts on genome stability and activate innate immune responses. These observations suggest a new model for how changes in NE structure could be pathogenic in cancer, laminopathies, and autoinflammatory syndromes, and redefine the functions of nucleus compartmentalization...
February 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
Wei-Wei Luo, Hong-Bing Shu
Although it has long been demonstrated that cytosolic DNA is a potent immune stimulant, it is only in recent years that the molecular mechanisms of DNA-stimulated innate immune responses have emerged. Studies have established critical roles for the DNA sensor cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) and the adapter protein MITA/STING in the innate immune response to cytosolic DNA or DNA viruses. Although the regulation of cGAS-MITA/STING-mediated signaling remains to be fully investigated, understanding the processes involved may help to explain the mechanisms of innate immune signaling events and perhaps autoinflammatory diseases and to provide potential therapeutic targets for drug intervention...
February 19, 2018: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
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