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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935681/sex-differences-in-the-utilization-and-outcomes-of-surgical-aortic-valve-replacement-for-severe-aortic-stenosis
#1
Zakeih Chaker, Vinay Badhwar, Fahad Alqahtani, Sami Aljohani, Chad J Zack, David R Holmes, Charanjit S Rihal, Mohamad Alkhouli
BACKGROUND: Studies assessing the differential impact of sex on outcomes of aortic valve replacement (AVR) yielded conflicting results. We sought to investigate sex-related differences in AVR utilization, patient risk profile, and in-hospital outcomes using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. METHODS AND RESULTS: In total, 166 809 patients (63% male and 37% female) who underwent AVR between 2003 and 2014 were identified, and 48.5% had a concomitant cardiac surgery procedure...
September 21, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934986/identification-of-novel-candidate-disease-genes-from-de-novo-exonic-copy-number-variants
#2
Tomasz Gambin, Bo Yuan, Weimin Bi, Pengfei Liu, Jill A Rosenfeld, Zeynep Coban-Akdemir, Amber N Pursley, Sandesh C S Nagamani, Ronit Marom, Sailaja Golla, Lauren Dengle, Heather G Petrie, Reuben Matalon, Lisa Emrick, Monica B Proud, Diane Treadwell-Deering, Hsiao-Tuan Chao, Hannele Koillinen, Chester Brown, Nora Urraca, Roya Mostafavi, Saunder Bernes, Elizabeth R Roeder, Kimberly M Nugent, Patricia I Bader, Gary Bellus, Michael Cummings, Hope Northrup, Myla Ashfaq, Rachel Westman, Robert Wildin, Anita E Beck, LaDonna Immken, Lindsay Elton, Shaun Varghese, Edward Buchanan, Laurence Faivre, Mathilde Lefebvre, Christian P Schaaf, Magdalena Walkiewicz, Yaping Yang, Sung-Hae L Kang, Seema R Lalani, Carlos A Bacino, Arthur L Beaudet, Amy M Breman, Janice L Smith, Sau Wai Cheung, James R Lupski, Ankita Patel, Chad A Shaw, Paweł Stankiewicz
BACKGROUND: Exon-targeted microarrays can detect small (<1000 bp) intragenic copy number variants (CNVs), including those that affect only a single exon. This genome-wide high-sensitivity approach increases the molecular diagnosis for conditions with known disease-associated genes, enables better genotype-phenotype correlations, and facilitates variant allele detection allowing novel disease gene discovery. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data from 63,127 patients referred for clinical chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) at Baylor Genetics laboratories, including 46,755 individuals tested using exon-targeted arrays, from 2007 to 2017...
September 21, 2017: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933364/targeting-h19-an-imprinted-long-non-coding-rna-in-hepatic-functions-and-liver-diseases
#3
REVIEW
Chad Pope, Shashank Mishra, Joshua Russell, Qingqing Zhou, Xiao-Bo Zhong
H19 is a long non-coding RNA regulated by genomic imprinting through methylation at the locus between H19 and IGF2. H19 is important in normal liver development, controlling proliferation and impacting genes involved in an important network controlling fetal development. H19 also plays a major role in disease progression, particularly in hepatocellular carcinoma. H19 participates in the epigenetic regulation of many processes impacting diseases, such as activating the miR-200 pathway by histone acetylation to inhibit the epithelial-mesenchymal transition to suppress tumor metastasis...
March 8, 2017: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931252/a-simplified-method-of-accurate-postprocessing-of-diffusion-tensor-imaging-for-use-in-brain-tumor-resection
#4
Phillip A Bonney, Andrew K Conner, Lillian B Boettcher, Ahmed A Cheema, Chad A Glenn, Adam D Smitherman, Nathan A Pittman, Michael E Sughrue
BACKGROUND: Use of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in brain tumor resection has been limited in part by a perceived difficulty in implementing the techniques into neurosurgical practice. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate a simple DTI postprocessing method performed without a neuroscientist and to share results in preserving patient function while aggressively resecting tumors. METHODS: DTI data are obtained in all patients with tumors located within presumed eloquent cortices...
February 1, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930925/conical-modification-of-forearm-free-flaps-for-single-stage-reconstruction-after-total-orbital-exenteration
#5
Chad A Purnell, Elbert E Vaca, Marco F Ellis
BACKGROUND: Orbital exenteration is a significant reconstructive challenge for plastic surgeons. Options described for these defects range from healing by secondary intention to free tissue transfer. The authors present our preferred reconstruction of orbital defects with free forearm-based flaps, which provides quality soft tissue and orbital contouring in 1 stage to consistently allow placement of bone-anchored implants for eventual orbital prosthesis. METHODS: This conical shape of the orbit is deconstructed into a "Pac-Man" type shaped flap that leaves adequate depth for a prosthesis...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929930/child-mortality-and-poverty-in-three-world-regions-the-west-asia-and-sub-saharan-africa-1988-2010-evidence-of-relative-intra-regional-neglect
#6
Colin Pritchard, Steven Keen
AIMS: Poverty kills children. This study assesses the relationship between poverty and child mortality rates (CMRs) in 71 societies from three world regions to determine whether some countries, relative to their region, neglect their children. METHODS: Spearman rank order correlations were calculated to determine any association between the CMR and poverty data, including income inequality and gross national income. A current CMR one standard deviation (SD) above or below the regional average and a percentage change between 1988 and 2010 were used as the measures to assess the progress of nations...
December 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929346/o-glcnac-dependent-regulation-of-progesterone-receptor-function-in-breast-cancer
#7
Gloria M Trinca, Merit L Goodman, Evangelia K Papachristou, Clive S D'Santos, Prabhakar Chalise, Rashna Madan, Chad Slawson, Christy R Hagan
Emerging clinical trial data implicate progestins in the development of breast cancer. While the role for the progesterone receptor (PR) in this process remains controversial, it is clear that PR, a steroid-activated nuclear receptor, alters the transcriptional landscape of breast cancer. PR interacts with many different types of proteins, including transcriptional co-activators and co-repressors, transcription factors, nuclear receptors, and proteins that post-translationally modify PR (i.e., kinases and phosphatases)...
September 19, 2017: Hormones & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927277/benchmark-dose-modeling-estimates-of-the-concentrations-of-inorganic-arsenic-that-induce-changes-to-the-neonatal-transcriptome-proteome-and-epigenome-in-a-pregnancy-cohort
#8
Julia Rager, Scott S Auerbach, Grace A Chappell, Elizabeth Martin, Chad Thompson, Rebecca C Fry
Prenatal inorganic arsenic (iAs) exposure influences the expression of critical genes and proteins associated with adverse outcomes in newborns, in part through epigenetic mediators. The doses at which these genomic and epigenomic changes occur have yet to be evaluated in the context of dose-response modeling. The goal of the present study was to estimate iAs doses that correspond to changes in transcriptomic, proteomic, epigenomic, and integrated multi-omic signatures in human cord blood through benchmark dose (BMD) modeling...
September 19, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926767/stabilization-of-t4-bacteriophage-at-acidic-and-basic-ph-by-adsorption-on-paper
#9
Abigail Meyer, Melissa Greene, Chad Kimmelshue, Rebecca Cademartiri
Bacteriophages find applications in agriculture, medicine, and food safety. Many of these applications can expose bacteriophages to stresses that inactivate them including acidic and basic pH. Bacteriophages can be stabilized against these stresses by materials including paper, a common material in packaging and consumer products. Combining paper and bacteriophages creates antibacterial materials, which can reduce the use of antibiotics. Here we show that adsorption on paper protects T4, T5, and T7 bacteriophage from acidic and basic pH...
September 5, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924528/near-fatal-gastrointestinal-hemorrhage-in-a-child-with-medulloblastoma-on-high-dose-dexamethasone
#10
Derek Yecies, Daniel Tawfik, Jennifer Damman, Chad Thorson, David S Hong, Gerald A Grant, Rachel Bensen, Mihaela Damian
A four-year-old female was admitted to a university-based children's hospital with a newly-diagnosed posterior fossa tumor. She was started on famotidine and high-dose dexamethasone and underwent gross total resection of a medulloblastoma. She was continued on dexamethasone and famotidine. She exhibited postoperative posterior fossa syndrome and was started on enteral feeds via the nasoduodenal tube. She had small gastrointestinal bleeds on postoperative days eight, 11, and 18, and was found to have a well-circumscribed posterior duodenal ulcer...
July 7, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923844/red-flag-screening-for-low-back-pain-nothing-to-see-here-move-along-a-narrative-review
#11
REVIEW
Chad E Cook, Steven Z George, Michael P Reiman
Screening for red flags in individuals with low back pain (LBP) has been a historical hallmark of musculoskeletal management. Red flag screening is endorsed by most LBP clinical practice guidelines, despite a lack of support for their diagnostic capacity. We share four major reasons why red flag screening is not consistent with best practice in LBP management: (1) clinicians do not actually screen for red flags, they manage the findings; (2) red flag symptomology negates the utility of clinical findings; (3) the tests lack the negative likelihood ratio to serve as a screen; and (4) clinical practice guidelines do not include specific processes that aid decision-making...
September 18, 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923778/links-between-lower-urinary-tract-symptoms-intermittent-hypoxia-and-diabetes-causes-or-cures
#12
REVIEW
Lisa L Abler, Chad M Vezina
Bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) manifest as urinary frequency, urgency, incontinence and incomplete bladder emptying. Existing treatments ameliorate but do not eliminate most symptoms, leading to financial and personal burdens attributable to sustained medical therapies that may last a lifetime. The purpose of this review is to highlight evidence of causal associations between LUTS and several common comorbidities, including intermittent hypoxia (IH) concomitant with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes...
September 15, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923360/when-theory-and-biology-differ-the-relationship-between-reward-prediction-errors-and-expectancy
#13
Chad C Williams, Cameron D Hassall, Robert Trska, Clay B Holroyd, Olave E Krigolson
Comparisons between expectations and outcomes are critical for learning. Termed prediction errors, the violations of expectancy that occur when outcomes differ from expectations are used to modify value and shape behaviour. In the present study, we examined how a wide range of expectancy violations impacted neural signals associated with feedback processing. Participants performed a time estimation task in which they had to guess the duration of one second while their electroencephalogram was recorded. In a key manipulation, we varied task difficulty across the experiment to create a range of different feedback expectancies - reward feedback was either very expected, expected, 50/50, unexpected, or very unexpected...
September 15, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923143/validation-of-the-cognition-test-battery-for-spaceflight-in-a-sample-of-highly-educated-adults
#14
Tyler M Moore, Mathias Basner, Jad Nasrini, Emanuel Hermosillo, Sushila Kabadi, David R Roalf, Sarah McGuire, Adrian J Ecker, Kosha Ruparel, Allison M Port, Chad T Jackson, David F Dinges, Ruben C Gur
BACKGROUND: Neuropsychological changes that may occur due to the environmental and psychological stressors of prolonged spaceflight motivated the development of the Cognition Test Battery. The battery was designed to assess multiple domains of neurocognitive functions linked to specific brain systems. Tests included in Cognition have been validated, but not in high-performing samples comparable to astronauts, which is an essential step toward ensuring their usefulness in long-duration space missions...
October 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921604/stress-testing-the-affect-misattribution-procedure-heterogeneous-control-of-affect-misattribution-procedure-effects-under-incentives
#15
Chad J Hazlett, Adam J Berinsky
The affect misattribution procedure (AMP) is widely used to measure sensitive attitudes towards classes of stimuli, by estimating the effect that affectively charged prime images have on subsequent judgements of neutral target images. We test its resistance to efforts to conceal one's attitudes, by replicating the standard AMP design while offering small incentives to conceal attitudes towards the prime images. We find that although the average AMP effect remains positive, it decreases significantly in magnitude...
September 16, 2017: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919842/international-society-of-sports-nutrition-position-stand-nutrient-timing
#16
REVIEW
Chad M Kerksick, Shawn Arent, Brad J Schoenfeld, Jeffrey R Stout, Bill Campbell, Colin D Wilborn, Lem Taylor, Doug Kalman, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Richard B Kreider, Darryn Willoughby, Paul J Arciero, Trisha A VanDusseldorp, Michael J Ormsbee, Robert Wildman, Mike Greenwood, Tim N Ziegenfuss, Alan A Aragon, Jose Antonio
The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) provides an objective and critical review regarding the timing of macronutrients in reference to healthy, exercising adults and in particular highly trained individuals on exercise performance and body composition. The following points summarize the position of the ISSN:Nutrient timing incorporates the use of methodical planning and eating of whole foods, fortified foods and dietary supplements. The timing of energy intake and the ratio of certain ingested macronutrients may enhance recovery and tissue repair, augment muscle protein synthesis (MPS), and improve mood states following high-volume or intense exercise...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918936/intermittent-fasting-promotes-white-adipose-browning-and-decreases-obesity-by-shaping-the-gut%C3%A2-microbiota
#17
Guolin Li, Cen Xie, Siyu Lu, Robert G Nichols, Yuan Tian, Licen Li, Daxeshkumar Patel, Yinyan Ma, Chad N Brocker, Tingting Yan, Kristopher W Krausz, Rong Xiang, Oksana Gavrilova, Andrew D Patterson, Frank J Gonzalez
While activation of beige thermogenesis is a promising approach for treatment of obesity-associated diseases, there are currently no known pharmacological means of inducing beiging in humans. Intermittent fasting is an effective and natural strategy for weight control, but the mechanism for its efficacy is poorly understood. Here, we show that an every-other-day fasting (EODF) regimen selectively stimulates beige fat development within white adipose tissue and dramatically ameliorates obesity, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis...
September 13, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916851/commentary-application-of-human-acellular-breast-dermal-matrix-abdm-in-implant-based-breast-reconstruction-an-experimental-study
#18
Chad M Bailey, Lee L Q Pu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 15, 2017: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916225/stereotactic-radiosurgery-of-early-melanoma-brain-metastases-after-initiation-of-anti-ctl-4-treatment-is-associated-with-improved-intracranial-control
#19
Yi An, Wen Jiang, Betty Y S Kim, Jack M Qian, Chad Tang, Penny Fang, Jennifer Logan, Neil M D'Souza, Lauren E Haydu, Xin A Wang, Kenneth R Hess, Harriet Kluger, Isabella C Glitza, Anita Mahajan, James W Welsh, Steven H Lin, James B Yu, Michael A Davies, Patrick Hwu, Erik P Sulman, Paul D Brown, Veronica L S Chiang, Jing Li
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies suggest that radiation can boost antitumor immune response by stimulating release of tumor-specific antigens. However, the optimal timing between radiotherapy and immune checkpoint blockade to achieve potentially synergistic benefits is unclear. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Multi-institutional retrospective analysis was conducted of ninety-nine metastatic melanoma patients from 2007 to 2014 treated with ipilimumab who later received stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for new brain metastases that developed after starting immunotherapy...
September 12, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913811/emergency-neurological-life-support-third-edition-updates-in-the-approach-to-early-management-of-a-neurological-emergency
#20
Kristine H O'Phelan, Chad M Miller
Emergency Neurologic Life Support (ENLS) is an educational program designed to provide users advisory instructions regarding management for the first few hours of a neurologic emergency. The content of the course is divided into 14 modules, each addressing a distinct category of neurological injury. The course is appropriate for practitioners and providers from various backgrounds who work in environments of variable medical complexity. The focus of ENLS is centered on a standardized treatment algorithm, checklists, to guide early patient care, and a structured format for communication of findings and concerns to other healthcare professionals...
September 14, 2017: Neurocritical Care
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