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Athlete, training adaptation, monitoring

Daniel J Plews, Paul B Laursen, Martin Buchheit
PURPOSE: Heart rate variability (HRV) is a popular tool for monitoring autonomic nervous system status and training adaptation in athletes. It is believed that increases in HRV indicate effective training adaptation, but these are not always apparent in elite athletes. METHODS: Resting HRV was recorded in 4 elite rowers (Rower A, B, C and D) over the 7-week period prior to 2015 World Rowing Championship success. The natural logarithm of the square root of the mean sum of the squared differences between R-R intervals (Ln rMSSD), Ln rMSSD:R-R ratio trends, and the Ln rMSSD to R-R interval relationship were assessed for each champion-winning rower...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Andreas Zafeiridis, Anastasia Chrysovalantou Chatziioannou, Haralambos Sarivasiliou, Antonios Kyparos, Michalis G Nikolaidis, Ioannis S Vrabas, Alexandros Pechlivanis, Panagiotis Zoumpoulakis, Constantinos Baskakis, Konstantina Dipla, Georgios A Theodoridis
The overall metabolic/energetic stress that occurs during an acute bout of exercise is proposed to be the main driving force for long-term training adaptations. Continuous and high-intensity interval exercise protocols (HIIE) are currently prescribed to acquire the muscular and metabolic benefits of aerobic training. We applied (1)H NMR-based metabonomics to compare the overall metabolic perturbation and activation of individual bioenergetic pathways of three popular aerobic exercises matched for effort/strain...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
Kristina Fagher, Jenny Jacobsson, Toomas Timpka, Örjan Dahlström, Jan Lexell
BACKGROUND: Paralympic sport provides sporting opportunities for athletes with a disability, with the Paralympic Games as the main event. Participation in sport is, however, associated with a significant risk for sustaining injuries and illnesses. Our knowledge of sports-related injuries and illnesses in Paralympic sport is very limited and there are no large-scale epidemiological cohort studies. The purpose here is to present a protocol for a prospective longitudinal study: The Sports-Related Injuries and Illnesses in Paralympic Sport Study (SRIIPSS)...
2016: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation
Thomas Paulson, Victoria Goosey-Tolfrey
Despite the growing interest in Paralympic sport, the evidence-base for supporting elite wheelchair sport performance remains in its infancy when compared to able-bodied (AB) sport. Subsequently, current practice is often based on theory adapted from AB guidelines, with a heavy reliance on anecdotal evidence and practitioner experience. Many principles in training prescription and performance monitoring with wheelchair athletes are directly transferable from AB practice, including the periodisation and tapering of athlete loads around competition...
August 24, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Rodrigo Villar, Jason Gillis, Givanildo Santana, Daniel Santos Pinheiro, André L R A Almeida
The aims of this study were to design a specific Jiu-Jitsu anaerobic performance test (JJAPT) and investigate the relationship between blood lactate ([La]), heart rate (HR) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during simulated Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu combat (SBJJC) and JJAPT. Nine men elite Brazilian medium heavy weight athletes performed a 10-minute SBJJC and JJAPT that required performance of a common BJJ technique for five consecutive bouts of 1-minute with 45-s rest between bouts. [La] was measured by a lactate analyzer, HR by heart rate monitor, RPE using Borg's scale, and the number of butterfly lifts (NBL) was recorded...
June 29, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Guillaume Ravé, Jacques-Olivier Fortrat
PURPOSE: To show that heart rate variability (HRV) in the standing position better reflects the way in which athletes adapt to training in so-called intermittent sports than the indicator of resting parasympathetic tone usually employed in endurance sports. METHODS: Twenty professional soccer players (intermittent sport) took part in a 5-week training session divided into three successive periods: "Warm-up", "Intensive training" and "Tapering". At the beginning and end of each of the three periods, a stand test was carried out and the heart rate was recorded, beat by beat (Polar Team 2)...
August 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Dragana Kljajić, Fadilj Eminović, Milivoj Dopsaj, Dragan Pavlović, Sladjana Arsić, Jadranka Otašević
OBJECTIVES: Studying the quality of life of people with a spinal cord injury is of great importance as it allows the monitoring of both functioning and adaptation to disability. The aim of this study was to determine the difference between persons with a spinal cord injury involved in sports activities and those not involved in sports activities in relation to their quality of life and the presence of secondary health conditions (pressure ulcers, urinary infections, muscle spasms, osteoporosis, pain, kidney problems-infections, calculosis and poor circulation)...
June 1, 2016: Zdravstveno Varstvo
Ville Vesterinen, Ari Nummela, Tanja Laine, Esa Hynynen, Jussi Mikkola, Keijo Häkkinen
The aim of this study was to investigate whether a submaximal running test (SRT) with post-exercise heart rate recovery, heart rate variability and countermovement jump measurements could be used to monitor endurance training adaptation. Thirty-five endurance trained men and women completed an 18-week endurance training program. Maximal endurance performance and maximal oxygen uptake were measured every eight weeks. In addition, SRT with post-exercise heart rate recovery, heart rate variability and countermovement jump measurements were performed every four weeks...
April 19, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
F Pareja-Blanco, D Rodríguez-Rosell, L Sánchez-Medina, J Sanchis-Moysi, C Dorado, R Mora-Custodio, J M Yáñez-García, D Morales-Alamo, I Pérez-Suárez, J A L Calbet, J J González-Badillo
We compared the effects of two resistance training (RT) programs only differing in the repetition velocity loss allowed in each set: 20% (VL20) vs 40% (VL40) on muscle structural and functional adaptations. Twenty-two young males were randomly assigned to a VL20 (n = 12) or VL40 (n = 10) group. Subjects followed an 8-week velocity-based RT program using the squat exercise while monitoring repetition velocity. Pre- and post-training assessments included: magnetic resonance imaging, vastus lateralis biopsies for muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and fiber type analyses, one-repetition maximum strength and full load-velocity squat profile, countermovement jump (CMJ), and 20-m sprint running...
March 31, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Peter Düking, Andreas Hotho, Hans-Christer Holmberg, Franz Konstantin Fuss, Billy Sperlich
Athletes adapt their training daily to optimize performance, as well as avoid fatigue, overtraining and other undesirable effects on their health. To optimize training load, each athlete must take his/her own personal objective and subjective characteristics into consideration and an increasing number of wearable technologies (wearables) provide convenient monitoring of various parameters. Accordingly, it is important to help athletes decide which parameters are of primary interest and which wearables can monitor these parameters most effectively...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Anthony Bouillod, Julien Pinot, Flavien Soenen, Theo Ouvrard, Frederic Grappe
PURPOSE: This study aimed to 1) analyse the effect of the pedalling activity in different 4-min time trials (TT4) (laboratory and field conditions) and 2) make the comparison between TT4 and MAP determined from the classical incremental exercise test in laboratory. It was hypothesized that the exercises performed on the field would determine higher physical (PO) and mental (AL) involvements due to different environmental conditions. METHODS: Sixteen male cyclists underwent an incremental test to exhaustion and three TT4 under different conditions: cycle ergometer (CE), level ground (LG), and uphill (UP)...
March 22, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Clint R Bellenger, Joel T Fuller, Rebecca L Thomson, Kade Davison, Eileen Y Robertson, Jonathan D Buckley
BACKGROUND: Autonomic regulation of heart rate (HR) as an indicator of the body's ability to adapt to an exercise stimulus has been evaluated in many studies through HR variability (HRV) and post-exercise HR recovery (HRR). Recently, HR acceleration has also been investigated. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic literature review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of negative adaptations to endurance training (i.e., a period of overreaching leading to attenuated performance) and positive adaptations (i...
October 2016: Sports Medicine
Lieselot Decroix, Maria Francesca Piacentini, Gerard Rietjens, Romain Meeusen
PURPOSE: High training loads combined with other stressors can lead to performance decrements. The time needed to recover determines the diagnosis of (non)-functional overreaching or the overtraining syndrome. The aim of this study was to describe the effects of an 8-day (intensified) training camp of professional female cyclists on physical and cognitive performance. METHODS: Nine subjects performed a 30-min time trial (TT), cognitive test and profile of mood state questionnaire before, during and after a training camp (49% increased training volume)...
January 27, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Laurent Schmitt, Jacques Regnard, Grégoire P Millet
Among the tools proposed to assess the athlete's "fatigue," the analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) provides an indirect evaluation of the settings of autonomic control of heart activity. HRV analysis is performed through assessment of time-domain indices, the square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent normal R-R intervals (RMSSD) measured during short (5 min) recordings in supine position upon awakening in the morning and particularly the logarithm of RMSSD (LnRMSSD) has been proposed as the most useful resting HRV indicator...
2015: Frontiers in Physiology
Yoshio Suzuki, Tomomi Shimizu, Makoto Ota, Ryuzo Hirata, Kenji Sato, Yoshifumi Tamura, Akio Imanishi, Masayuki Watanabe, Keishoku Sakuraba
The main purpose of the systemic energy metabolism is to provide a source of energy, mainly glucose, for the brain; therefore, blood glucose levels would be expected to correlate with exercise performance. The individual training status may also affect the blood glucose levels. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between blood glucose levels and running velocity during prolonged running in athletes with different training statuses. Two female college athletes, a triathlete and a tennis player, ran a course that was 247...
September 2015: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Ian McKeown, Dale W Chapman, Kristie Lee Taylor, Nick B Ball
We describe the time course of adaptation to structured resistance training on entering a full-time high-performance sport program. Twelve international caliber female netballers (aged 19.9 ± 0.4 years) were monitored for 18 weeks with countermovement (CMJ: performed with body weight and 15 kg) and drop jumps (0.35-m box at body weight) at the start of each training week. Performance did not improve linearly or concurrently with loaded CMJ power improving 11% by Week 5 (effect size [ES] 0.93 ± 0.72) in contrast, substantial positive changes were observed for unloaded CMJ power (12%; ES 0...
May 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
José Luis Maté-Muñoz, Raúl Domínguez, Manuel Barba, Antonio J Monroy, Bárbara Rodríguez, Pedro Ruiz-Solano, Manuel V Garnacho-Castaño
This study was designed to identify the blood lactate threshold (LT2) for the half squat (HS) and to examine cardiorespiratory and metabolic variables during a HS test performed at a work intensity corresponding to the LT2. Twenty-four healthy men completed 3 test sessions. In the first, their one-repetition maximum (1RM) was determined for the HS. In the second session, a resistance HS incremental-load test was performed to determine LT2. Finally, in the third session, subjects performed a constant-load HS exercise at the load corresponding to the LT2 (21 sets of 15 repetitions with 1 min of rest between sets)...
September 2015: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Fabio Y Nakamura, Andrew A Flatt, Lucas A Pereira, Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo, Irineu Loturco, Michael R Esco
The aim of this study was to test the possibility of the ultra-short-term lnRMSSD (measured in 1-min post-1-min stabilization period) to detect training induced adaptations in futsal players. Twenty-four elite futsal players underwent HRV assessments pre- and post-three or four weeks preseason training. From the 10-min HRV recording period, lnRMSSD was analyzed in the following time segments: 1) from 0-5 min (i.e., stabilization period); 2) from 0-1 min; 1-2 min; 2-3 min; 3-4 min; 4-5 min and; 3) from 5-10 min (i...
September 2015: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Federico Quinzi, Valentina Camomilla, Alberto Di Mario, Francesco Felici, Paola Sbriccoli
PURPOSE: Training in martial arts is commonly performed by repeating a technical action continuously for a given number of times. This study aimed to investigate if the repetition of the task alters the proper technical execution, limiting the training efficacy for the technical evaluation during competition. This aim was pursued analyzing lower-limb kinematics and muscle activation during repeated roundhouse kicks. METHODS: Six junior karate practitioners performed continuously 20 repetitions of the kick...
April 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Fabian Sanchis-Gomar, Rafael Alis, Germán Rodríguez-Vicente, Alejandro Lucia, José A Casajús, Nuria Garatachea
In this reported clinical case, a healthy and well-trained male subject [aged 37 years, maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max) 64 mL·kg·min] ran for 23 hours and 35 minutes covering 160 km (6.7 km/h average running speed). The analysis of hematological and biochemical parameters 3 days before the event, just after termination of exercise, and after 24 and 48 hours of recovery revealed important changes on muscle and liver function, and hemolysis. The analysis of urine sediments showed an increment of red and white blood cells filtrations, compatible with transient nephritis...
September 2016: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
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