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Insect sting

Kyle Mikals, Douglas Beakes, Taylor A Banks
Hymenoptera venom allergy accounts for approximately 17% of all cases of anaphylaxis. Insect stings are a common occurrence across the world, with significant impact on active duty personnel. Venom immunotherapy (VIT) provides an effective treatment for those with systemic reactions to insect stings and other similar indications. We present a case of severe reaction to hymenoptera venom requiring an epinephrine drip and provide an overview for primary care providers on who should be referred to allergy or an allergist, carry an epinephrine auto-injector, and be a candidate for VIT...
October 2016: Military Medicine
Jean Sainte-Laudy, François Touraine, Delphine Cluzan, François Belle Moudourou
BACKGROUND: A major problem of venom-specific immunotherapy (VIT) is the absence of reliable parameters for deciding treatment discontinuation. AIM OF THE STUDY: Intracutaneous tests (ICTs), the basophil activation test (BAT), specific IgEs (sIgEs) and blocking factor (BF) activity were measured during VIT. We made an evaluation by means of a protective index (PI) including ICT, BAT and BF values. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A population of 45 patients who had experienced a systemic reaction after an insect sting were tested before VIT (T0), at 1 week (T1w), at 10 weeks (T10w) and at 21 weeks (T21w), and, for a subgroup of 17 patients, at 3-5 years (T3-5y)...
September 30, 2016: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
Holger Mosbech, Line Tang, Allan Linneberg
BACKGROUND: Insect sting reactions are frequently reported, but population studies documenting the frequency and the relation to IgE-sensitization and serum tryptase are scarce. METHODS: Questionnaire data and results from measurements of specific IgE against venom, major allergens and cross-reacting carbohydrate determinants (CCDs) were collected from 2,090 adult participants in a cross-sectional survey. RESULTS: 13% of the population reported symptoms of sting reactions and about half were systemic in nature...
2016: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
Hobart Lee, Sara Halverson, Regina Mackey
Insect bites and stings are common. Risk factors are mostly associated with environmental exposure. Most insect bites and stings result in mild, local, allergic reactions. Large local reactions and systemic reactions like anaphylaxis are possible. Common insects that bite or sting include mosquitoes, ticks, flies, fleas, biting midges, bees, and wasps. The diagnosis is made clinically. Identification of the insect should occur when possible. Management is usually supportive. For anaphylaxis, patients should be given epinephrine and transported to the emergency department for further evaluation...
September 2016: Primary Care
Konstantinos Tourlas, Deepa Burman
Allergic diseases are common in outpatient primary care. Allergy testing can guide management to determine allergy as a cause of symptoms and target therapeutic interventions. This article provides a review of common methods of allergy testing available so that physicians may counsel and refer patients appropriately. Immediate-type hypersensitivity skin tests can be used for airborne allergens, foods, insect stings, and penicillin. Radioallergosorbent testing can be used to evaluate immediate-type hypersensitivity...
September 2016: Primary Care
Douglas Silva Dos Santos, Evelise Leis Carvalho, Jeferson Camargo de Lima, Ricardo Vaz Breda, Raquel Soares Oliveira, Thiago Carrazoni de Freitas, Simone Denise Salamoni, Michelle Flores Domingues, Angela Regina Piovesan, Juliano Tomazzoni Boldo, Dênis Reis de Assis, Jaderson Costa da Costa, Cháriston André Dal Belo, Paulo Marcos Pinto
Animal venoms have been widely recognized as a major source of biologically active molecules. Bothriurus bonariensis, popularly known as black scorpion, is the arthropod responsible for the highest number of accidents involving scorpion sting in Southern Brazil. Here we reported the first attempt to investigate the neurobiology of B. bonariensis venom (BBV) in the insect and mammalian nervous system. BBV (32 μg/g) induced a slow neuromuscular blockade in the in vivo cockroach nerve-muscle preparations (70 ± 4%, n = 6, p < 0...
October 25, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
Theo Gülen, Janne Björkander
Bee and wasp stings can cause allergic reactions. Although the local reactions are more frequent, anaphylaxis due to insect stings can be potentially fatal. Rapid recognition of anaphylaxis is therefore critical and reactions should immediately be treated with i.m. adrenaline. Patients having experienced anaphylaxis should be referred to an allergist for diagnostic evaluation and possible venom-immunotherapy (VIT). The clinical history is essential in diagnosis of venom allergy as the test results are not always reliable...
2016: Läkartidningen
M Schiener, B Eberlein, C Moreno-Aguilar, G Pietsch, P Serrano, M McIntyre, L Schwarze, D Russkamp, T Biedermann, E Spillner, U Darsow, M Ollert, C B Schmidt-Weber, S Blank
BACKGROUND: Hymenoptera stings can cause severe anaphylaxis in untreated venom-allergic patients. A correct diagnosis regarding the relevant species for immunotherapy is often hampered by clinically irrelevant cross-reactivity. In vespid venom allergy, cross-reactivity between venoms of different species can be a diagnostic challenge. To address immunological IgE cross-reactivity on molecular level, seven recombinant antigens 5 of the most important Vespoidea groups were assessed by different diagnostic setups...
August 6, 2016: Allergy
Ainong Shi, Beiquan Mou
Leafminer (Liriomyza langei) is a major insect pest of many important agricultural crops, including spinach (Spinacia oleracea). Use of genetic resistance is an efficient, economic, and environment-friendly method to control this pest. The objective of this research was to conduct association analysis and identify single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers associated with leafminer resistance in spinach germplasm. A total of 300 USDA spinach germplasm accessions were used for the association analysis of leafminer resistance...
August 2016: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
Tetsuro Hosaka, Shinya Numata
Although urban green spaces are increasingly important both for humans and wildlife, an increase in urban green spaces may also increase human-wildlife conflicts in urban areas. However, few studies have examined the relationship between the size of green spaces and the level of conflicts with wildlife in multiple taxa, including invertebrates and vertebrates. To better understand current pest statistics and predict changes that will occur as the area of green spaces increases, we analysed a dataset compiling the number of pest consultations in 53 metropolitan districts in Tokyo over a 20-year period and its relationships with the area of green space...
2016: Scientific Reports
Tanuj Kanchan, Alok Atreya, Raghvendra Singh Shekhawat
Venomous insect stings are a cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The sting reactions are unpredictable and vary among individuals. A case of fatal insect sting in an elderly female is presented to discuss the associated challenges during necropsy.
July 26, 2016: Medico-legal Journal
Luis Caraballo, Josefina Zakzuk, Bee Wah Lee, Nathalie Acevedo, Jian Yi Soh, Mario Sánchez-Borges, Elham Hossny, Elizabeth García, Nelson Rosario, Ignacio Ansotegui, Leonardo Puerta, Jorge Sánchez, Victoria Cardona
Allergic diseases are distributed worldwide and their risk factors and triggers vary according to geographical and socioeconomic conditions. Allergies are frequent in the Tropics but aspects of their prevalence, natural history, risk factors, sensitizers and triggers are not well defined and some are expected to be different from those in temperate zone countries. The aim of this review is to investigate if allergic diseases in the Tropics have particularities that deserve special attention for research and clinical practice...
2016: World Allergy Organization Journal
Matthew P Vasievich, Jose Dario Martinez Villarreal, Kenneth J Tomecki
The popularity of international travel continues to increase among Americans, even though they often experience subsequent illness on return from their journey. The pathogens responsible are not necessarily endemic to the destination itself but are often the result of poor sanitary conditions or activities engaged in while away. Skin disease ranks third among all medical concerns in returning travelers. This review addresses the pathogenesis, epidemiology, clinical presentation, and treatment of the most common skin diseases in returning travelers: insect bites and bedbugs, cutaneous larva migrans, scabies, tungiasis, myiasis, leishmaniasis, viral exanthems, and marine envenomation...
June 25, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
Yingdan Chen, Songchao Yin, Meirong Li, Rongzhang Chen, Ling Wei, Han Ma, Shuwen Deng, Gert Sybren de Hoog, Wei Lai, Chun Lu, Peiying Feng
A first auricular case of chromoblastomycosis due to Fonsecaea nubica is reported in a 42-year-old Chinese male. He presented a slightly verrucous, erythematous plaque on his right auricle which had gradually extended over a 10-year period, and the patient reported a history of dog flea sting before onset of the lesions. Diagnosis was based on histopathological and mycological examination of clinical samples, which revealed muriform cells. Identification of the aetiological agent was assessed by morphological characteristics and confirmed at species level by sequencing of the rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS)...
October 2016: Mycoses
Grete Moth, Linda Huibers, Morten Bondo Christensen, Peter Vedsted
BACKGROUND: GPs answer all patient calls to the out-of-hours primary care (OOH-PC) services in Denmark. Knowledge is scarce on how the triage-GPs act on the specific reasons for encounter (RFE). OBJECTIVE: This study aims to describe the RFEs, the applied diagnoses and the severity of health problems presented in calls to the OOH-PC. METHODS: This was a 1-year cross-sectional study based on IT-integrated pop-up questionnaires addressing patients' health problems...
October 2016: Family Practice
John Carlson, David B K Golden
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Insect stings often induce large local reactions (LLRs) that result in morbidity. These reactions do have an immunologic basis; however, patients presenting with LLRs should be managed differently than those with systemic allergic reactions, as described in this review. RECENT FINDINGS: Morbidity results from the inflammation itself along with the iatrogenic consequences of treatment. The prescription of antihistamine medications and the use of antibiotics are generally not indicated for patients with LLRs because of the risks/side-effects of these medications and the low probability of benefit...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Jean-Luc Boevé, Frank Eertmans, Els Adriaens, Bart Rossel
Vespid wasps are ecologically beneficial predators of insects but their stings also pose a human health risk. Current control methods based on killing vespids are suboptimal. Here, the repellent effect against Vespula vulgaris of a 20% icaridin skin lotion was evaluated under field conditions. An experimental setup was designed in which six artificial skin pieces (10 × 10 cm) were video-recorded for 1 h, to count each min the numbers of flying and feeding vespids. Prior to monitoring, five pieces were successively smeared with 2 mg of cream per cm², in 30 min intervals, from t = -120 min to 0...
2016: Insects
Holly Sievwright, Hiroyoshi Higuchi
The basic structure of a bird feather may be adapted to suit a variety of functions on different parts of the body and in different species. In Oriental honey buzzards (Pernis ptilorhynchus), a species which often preys on the larvae of bees and wasps, it is thought that the bird's integument may provide protection against the stings of these insects. We investigated the structure of Oriental honey buzzard feathers from the face, head, and neck using light and scanning electron microscopy. The structure and appearance of the feathers were compared with those of two other hawk species which live in similar habitats but have different diets: the grey-faced buzzard (Butastur indicus) and the black kite (Milvus migrans)...
June 2016: Zoological Science
David J Fitzhugh, David I Bernstein
Subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy (SCIT) clearly benefits appropriately selected patients with allergic rhinitis, asthma and anaphylaxis to stinging insects. Since inception of SCIT, systemic allergic reactions (SRs) and severe anaphylaxis have been risk management challenges facing the practicing allergist. Recently it has estimated that 14% of reported SRs begin at least 30 minutes after injection administration or after the 30 minute recommended clinic observation period. Faced with the possibility that SRs could occur after the patient leaves the clinic, some practicing allergists routinely prescribe epinephrine auto-injectors to all injection patients...
September 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
Yong-Soon Park, Choong-Min Ryu
Since plants first appeared about 1.1 billion years ago, they have been faced with biotic and abiotic stresses in their environment. To overcome these stresses, plants developed defense strategies. Accumulating evidence suggests that the whitefly [Bemisia tabaci (Genn.)] affects the regulation of plant defenses and physiology. A recent study demonstrates that aboveground whitefly infestation positively modulates root biomass and anthocyanin pigmentation on brace roots of maize plants (Zea mays L.). In agreement with these observations, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and jasmonic acid (JA) contents and the expression of IAA- and JA-related genes are higher in whitefly-infested maize plants than in non-infected control plants...
May 3, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
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