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tumor molecular subtype

Hong Tao, Yiran Cai, Liang Shi, Junfang Tang, Zhidong Liu, Zitong Wang, Lianqi Bai, Zhe Liu
BACKGROUND: Recent research into lung cancer-related driver genes has identified a distinctive molecular subtype of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) - anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive NSCLC. We evaluated the clinical features and survival rates of ALK-positive lung adenocarcinoma patients who had undergone surgery but had not received ALK inhibitor therapy, along with the characteristics of patients with distant metastases. METHODS: Clinical data of 40 patients with ALK-positive, postsurgical lung adenocarcinoma were retrospectively analyzed...
October 24, 2016: Thoracic Cancer
Hua Wang, Matthew B Schabath, Ying Liu, Ying Han, Qi Li, Robert J Gillies, Zhaoxiang Ye
PURPOSE: To determine if clinical and CT characteristics of surgically resected lung adenocarcinomas can distinguish those harboring ALK rearrangements from EGFR mutations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients who had surgical resection and histologically confirmed lung adenocarcinoma were enrolled, including 41 patients with ALK rearrangements and 66 patients with EGFR mutations. Eighteen categorical and six quantitative CT characteristics were used to evaluate the tumors...
November 2016: European Journal of Radiology
Pavel Sumazin, Yidong Chen, Lisa R Treviño, Stephen F Sarabia, Oliver A Hampton, Kayuri Patel, Toni-Ann Mistretta, Barry Zorman, Patrick Thompson, Andras Heczey, Sarah Comerford, David A Wheeler, Murali Chintagumpala, Rebecka Meyers, Dinesh Rakheja, Milton J Finegold, Gail Tomlinson, D Williams Parsons, Dolores López-Terrada
Despite being the most common liver cancer in children, hepatoblastoma (HB) is a rare neoplasm. Consequently, few pre-treatment tumors have been molecularly profiled and there are no validated prognostic or therapeutic biomarkers for HB patients. We report on the first large-scale effort to profile pre-treatment HBs at diagnosis. Our analysis of 88 clinically-annotated HBs revealed three risk-stratifying molecular subtypes that are characterized by differential activation of hepatic progenitor cell markers and metabolic pathways: high-risk tumors were characterized by up-regulated NFE2L2 activity, high LIN28B, HMGA2, SALL4 and AFP expression, and high coordinated expression of oncofetal proteins and stem cell markers; while low-risk tumors had low LIN28B and let-7 expression, and high HNF1A activity...
October 24, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Dai Horiuchi, Roman Camarda, Alicia Y Zhou, Christina Yau, Olga Momcilovic, Sanjeev Balakrishnan, Alexandra N Corella, Henok Eyob, Kai Kessenbrock, Devon A Lawson, Lindsey A Marsh, Brittany N Anderton, Julia Rohrberg, Ratika Kunder, Alexey V Bazarov, Paul Yaswen, Michael T McManus, Hope S Rugo, Zena Werb, Andrei Goga
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), in which cells lack expression of the estrogen receptor (ER), the progesterone receptor (PR) and the ERBB2 (also known as HER2) receptor, is the breast cancer subtype with the poorest outcome. No targeted therapy is available against this subtype of cancer owing to a lack of validated molecular targets. We previously reported that signaling involving MYC-an essential, pleiotropic transcription factor that regulates the expression of hundreds of genes-is disproportionally higher in triple-negative (TN) tumors than in receptor-positive (RP) tumors...
October 24, 2016: Nature Medicine
F Chen, Y Zhang, E Parra, J Rodriguez, C Behrens, R Akbani, Y Lu, J M Kurie, D L Gibbons, G B Mills, I I Wistuba, C J Creighton
Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) demonstrates remarkable molecular diversity. With the completion of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), there is opportunity for systematic analyses of the entire TCGA NSCLC cohort, including comparisons and contrasts between different disease subsets. On the basis of multidimensional and comprehensive molecular characterization (including DNA methylation and copy, and RNA and protein expression), 1023 NSCLC cases-519 from TCGA adenocarcinoma (AD) project and 504 from TCGA squamous cell carcinoma (SQCC) project-were classified using a 'cluster-of-clusters' analytic approach...
October 24, 2016: Oncogene
Kenji Amemiya, Yosuke Hirotsu, Taichiro Goto, Hiroshi Nakagomi, Hitoshi Mochizuki, Toshio Oyama, Masao Omata
Identifying genetic alterations in tumors is critical for molecular targeting of therapy. In the clinical setting, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue is usually employed for genetic analysis. However, DNA extracted from FFPE tissue is often not suitable for analysis because of its low levels and poor quality. Additionally, FFPE sample preparation is time-consuming. To provide early treatment for cancer patients, a more rapid and robust method is required for precision medicine. We present a simple method for genetic analysis, called touch imprint cytology combined with massively paralleled sequencing (touch imprint cytology [TIC]-seq), to detect somatic mutations in tumors...
October 24, 2016: Cancer Medicine
Adriana C Vidal, Stephen J Freedland
CONTEXT: In 2012, we published a detailed review on obesity and prostate cancer. Since then, new studies have brought further understanding regarding the role of obesity in selecting active surveillance candidates, and differing associations between obesity and prostate cancer as a function of race and molecular subtype of prostate cancer. OBJECTIVE: To review new manuscripts on these new concepts for which there were limited data before 2012. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A PubMed search from July 2012 to March 2016 was performed using the terms "prostate cancer" and "obesity"...
October 19, 2016: European Urology
Pat Whitworth, Peter Beitsch, Angela Mislowsky, James V Pellicane, Charles Nash, Mary Murray, Laura A Lee, Carrie L Dul, Michael Rotkis, Paul Baron, Lisette Stork-Sloots, Femke A de Snoo, Jennifer Beatty
PURPOSE: Hormone receptor-positive (HR+) tumors have heterogeneous biology and present a challenge for determining optimal treatment. In the Neoadjuvant Breast Registry Symphony Trial (NBRST) patients were classified according to MammaPrint/BluePrint subtyping to provide insight into the response to neoadjuvant endocrine therapy (NET) or neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT). OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this predefined substudy was to compare MammaPrint/BluePrint with conventional 'clinical' immunohistochemistry/fluorescence in situ hybridization (IHC/FISH) subtyping in 'clinical luminal' [HR+/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2-)] breast cancer patients to predict treatment sensitivity...
October 21, 2016: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Mir B Alikhan, Garrison Pease, William Watkin, Raymon Grogan, Thomas Krausz, Tatjana Antic
Epithelioid sarcoma (ES) is a malignant mesenchymal neoplasm with some morphologic or immunophenotypic evidence of epithelial differentiation. The "classical" subtype occurs in younger patients, often in distal extremities as compared to the "proximal" type. Tumors of the proximal type primarily arising in solid organs are rare with only few case reports in the literature. We report two cases of primary ES in the kidney of a 27-year-old female and the adrenal gland of a 73-year-old male. Clinical exam and imaging, including computer tomography and positron emission tomography did not reveal tumor elsewhere in both cases...
October 18, 2016: Human Pathology
Ivan A Zaporozhchenko, Evgeny S Morozkin, Tatyana E Skvortsova, Anastasia A Ponomaryova, Elena Yu Rykova, Nadezhda V Cherdyntseva, Evgeny S Polovnikov, Oksana A Pashkovskaya, Evgeny A Pokushalov, Valentin V Vlassov, Pavel P Laktionov
Lung cancer is a complex disease that often manifests at the point when treatment is not effective. Introduction of blood-based complementary diagnostics using molecular markers may enhance early detection of this disease and help reduce the burden of lung cancer. Here we evaluated the diagnostic potential of seven plasma miRNA biomarkers (miR-21, -19b, -126, -25, -205, -183, -125b) by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Influence clinical and demographical characteristics, including age, tumor stage and cancer subtype on miRNA levels was investigated...
2016: PloS One
Erik Norberg, Ana Lako, Pei-Hsuan Chen, Illana A Stanley, Feng Zhou, Scott B Ficarro, Bjoern Chapuy, Linfeng Chen, Scott Rodig, Donghyuk Shin, Dong Wook Choi, Sangho Lee, Margaret A Shipp, Jarrod A Marto, Nika N Danial
Diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) are a highly heterogeneous group of tumors in which subsets share molecular features revealed by gene expression profiles and metabolic fingerprints. While B-cell receptor (BCR)-dependent DLBCLs are glycolytic, OxPhos-DLBCLs rely on mitochondrial energy transduction and nutrient utilization pathways that provide pro-survival benefits independent of BCR signaling. Integral to these metabolic distinctions is elevated mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) activity in OxPhos-DLBCLs compared with BCR-DLBCLs, which is linked to greater protein abundance of ETC components...
October 21, 2016: Cell Death and Differentiation
L-C Horn, C E Brambs, R Handzel, S Lax, I Sändig, D Schmidt, K Schierle
The World Health Organization (WHO) classification from 2014 differentiates between different subtypes of mucinous adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix. A gastric subtype was recently described that showed no association with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infections, has a poor prognosis, is mainly diagnosed in women of Asian origin and can occur in patients with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. Although no clear grading system has been recommended in the WHO classification, it is likely that grading of adenocarcinomas of the uterine cervix will partly be based on the different patterns of invasion...
October 20, 2016: Der Pathologe
Hui Yao, Guangchun He, Shichao Yan, Chao Chen, Liujiang Song, Thomas J Rosol, Xiyun Deng
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), which accounts for 15-20% of all breast cancers, does not express estrogen receptor (ER) or progesterone receptor (PR) and lacks human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) overexpression or amplification. These tumors have a more aggressive phenotype and a poorer prognosis due to the high propensity for metastatic progression and absence of specific targeted treatments. Patients with TNBC do not benefit from hormonal or trastuzumab-based targeted therapies because of the loss of target receptors...
September 27, 2016: Oncotarget
Monika Pietrowska, Hanna C Diehl, Grzegorz Mrukwa, Magdalena Kalinowska-Herok, Marta Gawin, Mykola Chekan, Julian Elm, Grzegorz Drazek, Anna Krawczyk, Dariusz Lange, Helmut E Meyer, Joanna Polanska, Corinna Henkel, Piotr Widlak
Determination of the specific type of thyroid cancer is crucial for the prognosis and selection of treatment of this malignancy. However, in some cases appropriate classification is not possible based on histopathological features only, and it might be supported by molecular biomarkers. Here we aimed to characterize molecular profiles of different thyroid malignancies using mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) which enables the direct annotation of molecular features with morphological pictures of an analyzed tissue...
October 17, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Kirby Rickel, Fang Fang, Jianning Tao
Osteosarcoma is the predominant form of bone cancer, affecting mostly adolescents. Recent progress made in molecular genetic studies of osteosarcoma has changed our view on the cause of the disease and ongoing therapeutic approaches for patients. As we draw closer to gaining more complete catalogs of candidate cancer driver genes in common forms of cancer, the landscape of somatic mutations in osteosarcoma is emerging from its first phase. In this review, we summarize recent whole genome and/or whole exome genomic studies, and then put these findings in the context of genetic hallmarks of somatic mutations and mutational processes in human osteosarcoma...
October 16, 2016: Bone
Andreas Svensson, Tania Ramos-Moreno, Sofia Eberstål, Stefan Scheding, Johan Bengzon
Gene profiling has revealed that malignant gliomas can be divided into four distinct molecular subtypes, where tumors with a mesenchymal gene expression are correlated with short survival. The present investigation was undertaken to clarify whether human malignant gliomas contain endogenous mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC), fulfilling consensus criteria defined by The International Society for Cellular Therapy, recruited from the host. We found that MSC-like cells can be isolated from primary human malignant gliomas...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Alessia Nottegar, Fabrizio Tabbò, Claudio Luchini, Matteo Brunelli, Emilio Bria, Nicola Veronese, Antonio Santo, Sara Cingarlini, Eliana Gilioli, Chiara Ogliosi, Albino Eccher, Licia Montagna, Serena Pedron, Claudio Doglioni, Maria G Cangi, Giorgio Inghirami, Marco Chilosi
Pulmonary adenocarcinoma with enteric differentiation (PAED) is a rare subtype of lung adenocarcinoma recently recognized in the WHO classification. It is defined as an adenocarcinoma in which the enteric component exceeds 50% and have to show the expression of at least 1 immunohistochemical marker of enteric differentiation. Although the definition of this tumor type is very important, above all in the differential diagnosis between a primary lung tumor and a metastasis of colorectal adenocarcinoma, this cancer still lacks a distinctive immunohistochemical and molecular signature...
October 7, 2016: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Milan S Geybels, Karen D McCloskey, Ian G Mills, Janet L Stanford
BACKGROUND: Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) may affect prostate cancer (PCa) growth by various mechanisms including those related to androgens. The fusion of the androgen-regulated gene TMPRSS2 and the oncogene ERG (TMPRSS2:ERG or T2E) is common in PCa, and prostate tumors that harbor the gene fusion are believed to represent a distinct disease subtype. We studied the association of CCB use with the risk of PCa, and molecular subtypes of PCa defined by T2E status. METHODS: Participants were residents of King County, Washington, recruited for population-based case-control studies (1993-1996 or 2002-2005)...
October 18, 2016: Prostate
Dennis Wang, Nhu-An Pham, Jiefei Tong, Shingo Sakashita, Ghassan Allo, Lucia Kim, Naoki Yanagawa, Vibha Raghavan, Yuhong Wei, Christine To, Quang M Trinh, Maud H W Starmans, Michelle A Chan-Seng-Yue, Dianne Chadwick, Lei Li, Chang-Qi Zhu, Ni Liu, Ming Li, Sharon Lee, Vladimir Ignatchenko, Dan Strumpf, Paul Taylor, Nadeem Moghal, Geoffrey Liu, Paul C Boutros, Thomas Kislinger, Melania Pintilie, Igor Jurisica, Frances A Shepherd, John D McPherson, Lakshmi Muthuswamy, Michael F Moran, Ming-Sound Tsao
Availability of lung cancer models that closely mimic human tumors remains a significant gap in cancer research, as tumor cell lines and mouse models may not recapitulate the spectrum of lung cancer heterogeneity seen in patients. We aimed to establish a patient-derived tumor xenograft (PDX) resource from surgically resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Fresh tumor tissue from surgical resection was implanted and grown in the subcutaneous pocket of non-obese severe combined immune deficient (NOD SCID) gamma mice...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Chloé Najac, Sabrina M Ronen
Metabolic reprogramming is an important hallmark of cancer. Alterations in many metabolic pathways support the requirement for cellular building blocks that are essential for cancer cell proliferation. This metabolic reprogramming can be imaged using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). H MRS can inform on alterations in the steady-state levels of cellular metabolites, but the emergence of hyperpolarized C MRS has now also enabled imaging of metabolic fluxes in real-time, providing a new method for tumor detection and monitoring of therapeutic response...
October 2016: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
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