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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812214/the-role-of-human-papillomavirus-on-the-prognosis-and-treatment-of-oropharyngeal-carcinoma
#1
Nicholas Fung, Farhoud Faraji, Hyunseok Kang, Carole Fakhry
Human papillomavirus positive oropharyngeal cancer (HPV-positive OPC) is a distinct subtype of head and neck carcinoma (HNC) distinguished from HPV-negative HNC by its risk factor profile, clinical behavior, and molecular biology. Compared to HPV-negative HNC, HPV-positive OPC exhibits significantly better prognosis and an enhanced response to treatment. Recognition of the survival benefit of HPV-positive tumors has led to therapeutic de-intensification strategies aiming to mitigate treatment-related toxicities while maintaining high response rates...
August 15, 2017: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810145/integrative-analysis-identifies-four-molecular-and-clinical-subsets-in-uveal-melanoma
#2
A Gordon Robertson, Juliann Shih, Christina Yau, Ewan A Gibb, Junna Oba, Karen L Mungall, Julian M Hess, Vladislav Uzunangelov, Vonn Walter, Ludmila Danilova, Tara M Lichtenberg, Melanie Kucherlapati, Patrick K Kimes, Ming Tang, Alexander Penson, Ozgun Babur, Rehan Akbani, Christopher A Bristow, Katherine A Hoadley, Lisa Iype, Matthew T Chang, Andrew D Cherniack, Christopher Benz, Gordon B Mills, Roel G W Verhaak, Klaus G Griewank, Ina Felau, Jean C Zenklusen, Jeffrey E Gershenwald, Lynn Schoenfield, Alexander J Lazar, Mohamed H Abdel-Rahman, Sergio Roman-Roman, Marc-Henri Stern, Colleen M Cebulla, Michelle D Williams, Martine J Jager, Sarah E Coupland, Bita Esmaeli, Cyriac Kandoth, Scott E Woodman
Comprehensive multiplatform analysis of 80 uveal melanomas (UM) identifies four molecularly distinct, clinically relevant subtypes: two associated with poor-prognosis monosomy 3 (M3) and two with better-prognosis disomy 3 (D3). We show that BAP1 loss follows M3 occurrence and correlates with a global DNA methylation state that is distinct from D3-UM. Poor-prognosis M3-UM divide into subsets with divergent genomic aberrations, transcriptional features, and clinical outcomes. We report change-of-function SRSF2 mutations...
August 14, 2017: Cancer Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810144/integrated-genomic-characterization-of-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma
#3
(no author information available yet)
We performed integrated genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic profiling of 150 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) specimens, including samples with characteristic low neoplastic cellularity. Deep whole-exome sequencing revealed recurrent somatic mutations in KRAS, TP53, CDKN2A, SMAD4, RNF43, ARID1A, TGFβR2, GNAS, RREB1, and PBRM1. KRAS wild-type tumors harbored alterations in other oncogenic drivers, including GNAS, BRAF, CTNNB1, and additional RAS pathway genes. A subset of tumors harbored multiple KRAS mutations, with some showing evidence of biallelic mutations...
August 14, 2017: Cancer Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809778/reprimo-a-potential-p53-dependent-tumor-suppressor-gene-is-frequently-hypermethylated-in-estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-positive-breast-cancer
#4
Kurt Buchegger, Ismael Riquelme, Tamara Viscarra, Carmen Ili, Priscilla Brebi, Tim Hui-Ming Huang, Juan Carlos Roa
Aberrant DNA methylation is a hallmark of many cancers. Currently, there are four intrinsic molecular subtypes in breast cancer (BC): Luminal A, B, Her2-positive, and triple negative (TNBC). Recently, The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project has revealed that Luminal subtypes have higher levels of genome-wide methylation that may be a result of Estrogen/Estrogen receptor α (E2/ERα) signaling pathway activation. In this study, we analyze promoter CpG-island (CGIs) of the Reprimo (RPRM) gene in breast cancers (n = 77), cell lines (n = 38), and normal breast tissue (n = 10) using a MBDCap-seq database...
August 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808873/elevated-hu-antigen-receptor-hur-expression-is-associated-with-tumor-aggressiveness-and-poor-prognosis-but-not-with-cox-2-expression-in-invasive-breast-carcinoma-patients
#5
Constantinos Giaginis, Anastasia Sampani, Iolly Kotta-Loizou, Ioanna Giannopoulou, Eugene Danas, Ekaterini Politi, Gerasimos Tsourouflis, Gregorios Kouraklis, Efstratios Patsouris, Antonios Keramopoulos, Lydia Nakopoulou, Stamatios Theocharis
Hu-antigen R (HuR), a RNA-binding protein, is considered to play a crucial role in tumor development and progression by stabilizing or regulating a group of cellular mRNAs of cancer-related genes, such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). The present study aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of HuR and COX-2 expression in invasive breast carcinoma. HuR and COX-2 protein expression was assessed immunohistochemically on paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissue sections obtained from 121 patients and was statistically analyzed with clinicopathological parameters, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), as well as with tumor cells' proliferative capacity and overall and disease-free patients' survival...
August 14, 2017: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807365/-the-breakthrough-of-personalized-medicine-new-hopes-and-new-challenges
#6
REVIEW
Ronan Flippot, Christophe Massard, Edouard Auclin, David Azria, Héloïse Bourien, Philippe Rochigneux, Antoine Schernberg, Loïc Verlingue, Lara Zafrani, Stéphane Vignot
The development of personalized medicine in oncology is based on biomarkers that help select populations for more efficient and less toxic therapies. The onset of molecular biology led to new paradigms in drug development, with efficacy data reported in early clinical trials and accelerated approvals. Multiple clinical trials, including SHIVA, SAFIR-01 and MOSCATO-01, have been developed to evaluate the interest of treatment decision-making based on tumor molecular profiling, with the ambition to replace historical clinical and pathological classifications...
August 11, 2017: Bulletin du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807232/ovarian-cancer-novel-molecular-aspects-for-clinical-assessment
#7
REVIEW
Raffaele Palmirotta, Erica Silvestris, Stella D'Oronzo, Angela Cardascia, Franco Silvestris
Ovarian cancer is a very heterogeneous tumor which has been traditionally characterized according to the different histological subtypes and differentiation degree. In recent years, innovative molecular screening biotechnologies have allowed to identify further subtypes of this cancer based on gene expression profiles, mutational features, and epigenetic factors. These novel classification systems emphasizing the molecular signatures within the broad spectrum of ovarian cancer have not only allowed a more precise prognostic prediction, but also proper therapeutic strategies for specific subgroups of patients...
September 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801656/comprehensive-mirna-expression-profiling-in-human-t-cell-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-by-small-rna-sequencing
#8
Annelynn Wallaert, Wouter Van Loocke, Lucie Hernandez, Tom Taghon, Frank Speleman, Pieter Van Vlierberghe
T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is a genetically heterogeneous disease that can be classified into different molecular genetic subtypes according to their mRNA gene expression profile. In this study, we applied RNA sequencing to investigate the full spectrum of miRNA expression in primary T-ALL patient samples, T-ALL leukemia cell lines and healthy donor thymocytes. Notably, this analysis revealed that genetic subtypes of human T-ALL also display unique miRNA expression signatures, which are largely conserved in human T-ALL cell lines with corresponding genetic background...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800945/impact-of-age-at-diagnosis-on-racial-disparities-in-endometrial-cancer-patients
#9
Christopher M Tarney, Chunqiao Tian, Guisong Wang, Elizabeth A Dubil, Nicholas W Bateman, John K Chan, Mohamed A Elshaikh, Michele L Cote, Joellen M Schildkraut, Craig D Shriver, Thomas P Conrads, Chad A Hamilton, G Larry Maxwell, Kathleen M Darcy
INTRODUCTION: Although black patients with endometrial cancer (EC) have worse survival compared with white patients, the interaction between age/race has not been examined. The primary objective was to evaluate the impact of age at diagnosis on racial disparities in disease presentation and outcome in EC. METHODS: We evaluated women diagnosed with EC between 1991 and 2010 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results. Mutation status for TP53 or PTEN, or with the aggressive integrative, transcript-based, or somatic copy number alteration-based molecular subtype were acquired from the Cancer Genome Atlas...
August 8, 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799073/immunotherapy-in-breast-cancer-the-emerging-role-of-pd-1-and-pd-l1
#10
REVIEW
François Bertucci, Anthony Gonçalves
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of the review is to summarize the data regarding PD-L1 expression in breast cancer and the results of first clinical trials with PD-1 or PD-L1 inhibitors in patients with metastatic breast cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: PD-L1 expression is heterogeneous across primary breast cancers, and is generally associated with the presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and the presence of poor-prognosis features such as high grade, and aggressive molecular subtypes (triple-negative (TN), basal, HER2-enriched)...
August 10, 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797504/update-on-families-of-round-cell-sarcomas-other-than-classical-ewing-sarcomas
#11
REVIEW
Francois Le Loarer, Daniel Pissaloux, Jean Michel Coindre, Franck Tirode, Dominique Ranchere Vince
This article focuses on families of round cell sarcomas other than classical Ewing sarcomas. Until recently, these tumors were referred to as so-called Ewing-like tumors, as they morphologically resemble Ewing sarcomas but are negative for canonical fusion transcripts of Ewing sarcomas involving gene members of the ETS family of transcription factors. Clinicopathologic and molecular evidence has dramatically influenced the diagnostic approach of these tumors in recent years. Molecular data that support these sarcoma subtypes are biologically distinct from those of Ewing sarcomas, thereby advocating discarding the all-embracing and confusing terminology of "Ewing-like tumors...
September 2017: Surgical Pathology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797035/protein-expression-patterns-of-cell-cycle-regulators-in-operable-breast-cancer
#12
Flora Zagouri, Vassiliki Kotoula, George Kouvatseas, Maria Sotiropoulou, Triantafyllia Koletsa, Theofani Gavressea, Christos Valavanis, Helen Trihia, Mattheos Bobos, Georgios Lazaridis, Angelos Koutras, George Pentheroudakis, Pantelis Skarlos, Dimitrios Bafaloukos, Niki Arnogiannaki, Sofia Chrisafi, Christos Christodoulou, Pavlos Papakostas, Gerasimos Aravantinos, Paris Kosmidis, Charisios Karanikiotis, George Zografos, Christos Papadimitriou, George Fountzilas
BACKGROUND-AIM: To evaluate the prognostic role of elaborate molecular clusters encompassing cyclin D1, cyclin E1, p21, p27 and p53 in the context of various breast cancer subtypes. METHODS: Cyclin E1, cyclin D1, p53, p21 and p27 were evaluated with immunohistochemistry in 1077 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from breast cancer patients who had been treated within clinical trials. Jaccard distances were computed for the markers and the resulted matrix was used for conducting unsupervised hierarchical clustering, in order to identify distinct groups correlating with prognosis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796549/association-of-brca-mutation-types-imaging-features-and-pathologic-findings-in-patients-with-breast-cancer-with-brca1-and-brca2-mutations
#13
Su Min Ha, Eun Young Chae, Joo Hee Cha, Hak Hee Kim, Hee Jung Shin, Woo Jung Choi
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to retrospectively evaluate the relationships between the BRCA mutation types, imaging features, and pathologic findings of breast cancers in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified patients with breast cancer with BRCA gene mutations from January 2000 to December 2014. After excluding patients who underwent lesion excision before MRI, 99 BRCA1 and 103 BRCA2 lesions in 187 women (mean age, 39...
August 10, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794806/recent-developments-in-the-treatment-of-metastatic-colorectal-cancer
#14
REVIEW
Jonathan M Loree, Scott Kopetz
Over the past decade there have been significant advances in the molecular characterization of colorectal cancer (CRC) that are driving treatment decisions. Expanded RAS testing beyond KRAS exon 2 was established as crucial for identifying patients who will respond to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapies and low-frequency mutations in RAS/tumor heterogeneity are gaining recognition as potential mechanisms of resistance. Despite this progress, the fact that we do not understand why left-sided but not right-sided tumors have improved outcomes following anti-EGFR therapy highlights our superficial understanding of this disease...
August 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794686/tumor-infiltrating-leukocyte-density-is-independent-of-tumor-grade-and-molecular-subtype-in-aggressive-breast-cancer-of-western-kenya
#15
Rispah T Sawe, Simeon K Mining, Ayub V Ofulla, Kirtika Patel, Bernard Guyah, David Chumba, Jenifer R Prosperi, Maggie Kerper, Zonggao Shi, Mayra Sandoval-Cooper, Katherine Taylor, Sunil Badve, M Sharon Stack, Laurie E Littlepage
BACKGROUND: Tumors commonly are infiltrated by leukocytes, or tumor infiltrating leukocytes (TILs). It remains unclear, however, if the density and type of individual TILs has a direct or simply correlative role in promoting poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. Breast cancer in Kenyan women is aggressive with presentation at a young age, with advanced grade (grade III), large tumor size (>2.0 cm), and poor prognosis. We previously observed that the tumors were predominantly estrogen receptor positive (ER+) but also included both a high percentage of triple negative tumors and also increased immune cell infiltration within the tumors...
2017: Tropical Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791647/analysis-of-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-induced-by-overexpression-of-twist
#16
Jing-Wen Bai, Yong-Qu Zhang, Yao-Chen Li, Guo-Jun Zhang
Breast cancer, the most common malignancy among women worldwide, is a heterogeneous disease, and it therefore has remarkably different biological characteristics and clinical behavior. Breast cancer has been divided into several different molecular subtypes based on the status of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2, also named as ErbB2) status. Her2 is a member of EGFR family of transmembrane tyrosine kinase-type receptors, and is involved in the activation of its downstream signaling cascades, which could promote cell proliferation, metastasis, and angiogenesis in tumors...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780976/prospective-clinical-integration-of-an-amplicon-based-next-generation-sequencing-method-to-select-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients-for-genotype-tailored-treatments
#17
Jon Zugazagoitia, Daniel Rueda, Nuria Carrizo, Ana Belen Enguita, David Gómez-Sánchez, Asunción Díaz-Serrano, Elisabeth Jiménez, Antonio Mérida, Rosa Calero, Ricardo Lujan, Eduardo De Miguel, Pablo Gámez, Vicente Díaz-Hellín, Juan Antonio Nuñez, Lara Iglesias, Irene Ferrer, Luis Paz-Ares, Santiago Ponce-Aix
INTRODUCTION: A substantial fraction of non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) harbor targetable genetic alterations. In this study, we analyzed the feasibility and clinical utility of integrating a next-generation sequencing (NGS) panel into our routine lung cancer molecular subtyping algorithm. PATIENTS AND METHODS: After routine pathologic and molecular subtyping, we implemented an amplicon-based gene panel for DNA analysis covering mutational hot spots in 22 cancer genes in consecutive advanced-stage NSCLCs...
June 23, 2017: Clinical Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780646/a-comparative-study-of-ki-67-antigen-expression-between-luminal-a-and-triple-negative-subtypes-of-breast-cancer
#18
Umbelina Soares Borges, Danylo Rafhael Costa-Silva, João Paulo da Silva-Sampaio, Carla Solange Escórcio-Dourado, Airton Mendes Conde, Viriato Campelo, Luiz Henrique Gebrim, Benedito Borges da Silva, Pedro Vitor Lopes-Costa
Tumor biomarkers such as hormone receptors, HER-2 and Ki-67 are used routinely in clinical practice for classification of molecular subtypes of breast cancer. Cell proliferation evaluated by Ki-67 antigen expression is important to determine tumor aggressiveness. However, there is a paucity of studies comparing Ki-67 expression in an expressive number of cells among molecular subtypes of breast cancer, particularly among less and more aggressive tumors, such as luminal A and triple-negative, which have led us to the present study...
September 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780132/commentary-on-comprehensive-molecular-characterization-of-papillary-renal-cell-carcinoma-cancer-genome-atlas-research-network-n-engl-j-med-2016-jan-14-374-2-135-45
#19
Byron H Lee
BACKGROUND: Papillary renal-cell carcinoma, which accounts for 15%-20% of renal-cell carcinomas, is a heterogeneous disease that consists of various types of renal cancer, including tumors with indolent, multifocal presentation, and solitary tumors with an aggressive, highly lethal phenotype. Little is known about the genetic basis of sporadic papillary renal-cell carcinoma, and no effective forms of therapy for advanced disease exist. METHODS: We performed comprehensive molecular characterization of 161 primary papillary renal-cell carcinomas, using whole-exome sequencing, copy-number analysis, messenger RNA and microRNA sequencing, DNA-methylation analysis, and proteomic analysis...
August 2, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778088/impact-of-inducible-nitric-oxide-synthase-inos-expression-on-triple-negative-breast-cancer-outcome-and-activation-of-egfr-and-erk-signaling-pathways
#20
Pablo Garrido, Aliaa Shalaby, Elaine M Walsh, Nessa Keane, Mark Webber, Maccon Keane, Francis J Sullivan, Michael J Kerin, Grace Callagy, Aideen E Ryan, Sharon A Glynn
Inflammation is implicated in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) progression. TNBC carries a worse prognosis than other breast cancer subtypes, and with the clinical and molecular heterogeneity of TNBC, there is a lack of effective therapeutic targets available. Identification of molecular targets for TNBC subtypes is crucial towards personalized patient stratification. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) has been shown to induce p53 mutation accumulation, basal-like gene signature enrichment and transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) via s-nitrosylation...
July 26, 2017: Oncotarget
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