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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102347/low-level-predation-by-lytic-phage-phiipla-rodi-promotes-biofilm-formation-and-triggers-the-stringent-response-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#1
Lucía Fernández, Silvia González, Ana Belén Campelo, Beatriz Martínez, Ana Rodríguez, Pilar García
An important lesson from the war on pathogenic bacteria has been the need to understand the physiological responses and evolution of natural microbial communities. Bacterial populations in the environment are generally forming biofilms subject to some level of phage predation. These multicellular communities are notoriously resistant to antimicrobials and, consequently, very difficult to eradicate. This has sparked the search for new therapeutic alternatives, including phage therapy. This study demonstrates that S...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101463/development-of-a-novel-human-single-chain-antibody-against-egfrviii-antigen-by-phage-display-technology
#2
Leila Rahbarnia, Safar Farajnia, Hossein Babaei, Jafar Majidi, Bahman Akbari, Shiva Ahdi Khosroshahi
Purpose: EGFRvIII as the most common mutant variant of the epidermal growth factor receptor is resulting from deletion of exons 2-7 in the coding sequence and junction of exons 1 and 8 through a novel glycine residue. EGFRvIII is highly expressed in glioblastoma, carcinoma of the breast, ovary, and lung but not in normal cells. The aim of the present study was identification of a novel single chain antibody against EGFRvIII as a promising target for cancer therapy. Methods: In this study, a synthetic peptide corresponding to EGFRvIII protein was used for screening a naive human scFv phage library...
December 2016: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095447/identification-and-characterization-of-single-chain-antibodies-that-specifically-bind-gi-noroviruses
#3
Amy M Hurwitz, Wanzhi Huang, Baijun Kou, Mary K Estes, Robert L Atmar, Timothy Palzkill
Norovirus infections commonly lead to outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis and spread quickly, resulting in many health and economic challenges prior to diagnosis. Rapid and reliable diagnostic tests are therefore essential to identify infections and to guide the appropriate clinical responses at the point-of-care. Existing tools, including RT-PCR and enzyme immunoassays, pose several limitations based on the significant time, equipment and expertise required to elicit results. Immunochromatographic assays available for use at the point-of-care have poor sensitivity and specificity, especially for genogroup I noroviruses, thus requiring confirmation of results with more sensitive testing methods...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094103/characterization-of-particulate-matter-binding-peptides-screened-from-phage-display
#4
Aw Wei Liang Alvin, Masayoshi Tanaka, Mina Okochi
Particulate matter (PM), especially particulates with diameters of less than 2.5 μm, can penetrate the alveolar region and increase the risk of respiratory diseases. This has stimulated research efforts to develop detection methods so that counter measures can be taken. In this study, four PM binding peptides were obtained by phage display and binding characteristics of these peptides were investigated using the peptide array. The strongest binding peptide, WQDFGAVRSTRS, displayed a binding property, measured in terms of spot intensity, 11...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092036/creation-of-phosphotyrosine-superbinders-by-directed-evolution-of-an-sh2-domain
#5
Haiming Huang, Tomonori Kaneko, Sachdev S Sidhu, Shawn S C Li
Commercial antibodies raised against phosphotyrosine have been widely used as reagents to detect or isolate tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins from cellular samples. However, these antibodies are costly and are not amenable to in-house production in an academic lab setting. In this chapter, we describe a method to generate super-high affinity SH2 domains, dubbed the phosphotyrosine superbinders, by evolving a natural SH2 domain using the phage display technology. The superbinders are stable and can be easily produced in Escherichia coli in large quantities...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091598/characterization-of-two-polyvalent-phages-infecting-enterobacteriaceae
#6
Sana Hamdi, Geneviève M Rousseau, Simon J Labrie, Denise M Tremblay, Rim Saïed Kourda, Karim Ben Slama, Sylvain Moineau
Bacteriophages display remarkable genetic diversity and host specificity. In this study, we explore phages infecting bacterial strains of the Enterobacteriaceae family because of their ability to infect related but distinct hosts. We isolated and characterized two novel virulent phages, SH6 and SH7, using a strain of Shigella flexneri as host bacterium. Morphological and genomic analyses revealed that phage SH6 belongs to the T1virus genus of the Siphoviridae family. Conversely, phage SH7 was classified in the T4virus genus of the Myoviridae family...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090795/isolation-and-characterization-of-anti-c-met-single-chain-fragment-variable-scfv-antibodies
#7
Elmira Safaie Qamsari, Zahra Sharifzadeh, Salman Bagheri, Farhad Riazi-Rad, Vahid Younesi, Mohsen Abolhassani, Sepideh Safaei Ghaderi, Behzad Baradaran, Mohammad Hossein Somi, Mehdi Yousefi
The receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) Met is the cell surface receptor for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) involved in invasive growth programs during embryogenesis and tumorgenesis. There is compelling evidence suggesting important roles for c-Met in colorectal cancer proliferation, migration, invasion, angiogenesis, and survival. Hence, a molecular inhibitor of an extracellular domain of c-Met receptor that blocks c-Met-cell surface interactions could be of great thera-peutic importance. In an attempt to develop molecular inhibitors of c-Met, single chain variable fragment (scFv) phage display libraries Tomlinson I + J against a specific synthetic oligopeptide from the extracellular domain of c-Met receptor were screened; selected scFv were then characterized using various immune techniques...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Immunotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081123/yersinia-enterocolitica-a-neglected-cause-of-human-enteric-infections-in-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire
#8
Daniel Saraka, Cyril Savin, Stephane Kouassi, Bakary Cissé, Eugène Koffi, Nicolas Cabanel, Sylvie Brémont, Hortense Faye-Kette, Mireille Dosso, Elisabeth Carniel
BACKGROUND: Enteropathogenic Yersinia circulate in the pig reservoir and are the third bacterial cause of human gastrointestinal infections in Europe. In West Africa, reports of human yersiniosis are rare. This study was conducted to determine whether pathogenic Yersinia are circulating in pig farms and are responsible for human infections in the Abidjan District. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From June 2012 to December 2013, pig feces were collected monthly in 41 swine farms of the Abidjan district...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075174/analysis-of-sivmac-envelope-specific-antibodies-selected-via-phage-display
#9
Sergio Ita, Mayara Rovariz Agostinho, Katherine Sullivan, Seung Yub Han, Rana Akleh, Welkin Johnson, Ismael Ben Farouck Fofana
We have constructed a single chain Fv (scFv) phage display library from an SIV-infected rhesus macaque that developed unusually high-titer neutralizing antibody responses against tier-3, neutralization-resistant SIVmac239. The library was screened using trimeric (gp140) and monomeric (gp120) forms of the SIVmac239 envelope (Env) glycoprotein. We also cloned variable-heavy and variable-light (VH-VL) antibody fragments from 7 previously described rhesus macaque B-cell lines (BLCL) that produce SIV gp120-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs)...
January 11, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075071/multi-target-selection-of-catalytic-antibodies-wih-%C3%AE-lactamase-activity-using-phage-display
#10
Melody A Shahsavarian, Nancy Chaaya, Narciso Costa, Didier Boquet, Alexandre Atkinson, Bernard Offmann, Srini V Kaveri, Sébastien Lacroix-Desmazes, Alain Friboulet, Bérangère Avalle, Séverine Padiolleau-Lefèvre
β-lactamase enzymes responsible for bacterial resistance to antibiotics are among the most important health threats to the human population today. Understanding the increasingly vast structural motifs responsible for the catalytic mechanism of β-lactamases will help improve the future design of new generation antibiotics and mechanism-based inhibitors of these enzymes. Here we report the construction of a large murine scFv phage display library of size 2.7×10(9) with extended diversity by combining different mouse models...
January 11, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073912/auxiliary-metabolic-genes-distinct-features-of-cyanophage-encoded-t-type-phycobiliprotein-lyase-%C3%AE-cpet
#11
Raphael Gasper, Julia Schwach, Jana Hartmann, Andrea Holtkamp, Jessica Wiethaus, Natascha Riedel, Eckhard Hofmann, Nicole Frankenberg-Dinkel
Auxiliary metabolic genes (AMG) are commonly found in the genomes of phages that infect cyanobacteria and increase cyanophage's fitness. AMGs are often homologs of host genes, and also typically related to photosynthesis. For example, the θcpeT gene in the cyanophage P-HM1 encodes a putative phycobiliprotein lyase related to cyanobacterial T-type lyases, which facilitate attachment of linear tetrapyrrole chromophores to Cys-155 of phycobiliprotein β-subunits, suggesting that θCpeT may also help assemble light-harvesting phycobiliproteins during infection...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072528/triosephosphate-isomerase-and-filamin-c-share-common-epitopes-as-novel-allergens-of-procambarus-clarkii
#12
Yang Yang, Yong-Xia Zhang, Meng Liu, Soheila J Maleki, Ming-Li Zhang, Qingmei Liu, Min-Jie Cao, Wen-Jin Su, Guang-Ming Liu
Triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) is a key enzyme in glycolysis and has been identified as an allergen in saltwater products. In this study, TIM with the molecular mass of 28 kDa was purified from the freshwater crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) muscle. A 90-kDa protein showed IgG/IgE cross-reactivity with TIM was purified and identified as filamin C (FLN c), which is an actin-binding proteins. TIM showed similar thermal and pH stability while better digestion resistant compared with FLN c. Result of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) experiment demonstrated the infinity of anti-TIM polyclonal antibody (pAb) to both TIM and FLN c...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064157/fviii-specific-human-chimeric-antigen-receptor-car-t-regulatory-cells-suppress-t-and-b-cell-responses-to-fviii
#13
Jeongheon Yoon, Anja Schmidt, Ai-Hong Zhang, Christoph Königs, Yong Chan Kim, David W Scott
Replacement therapy with factor VIII (FVIII) is used in hemophilia A patients for treatment of bleeding episodes or for prophylaxis. A common and serious problem with this therapy is the patient's immune response to FVIII, due to a lack of tolerance, leading to the formation of inhibitory antibodies. Development of tolerogenic therapies, other than standard ITI, is an unmet goal. We previously generated engineered antigen- specific regulatory T cells (Tregs), created by transduction of a recombinant T cell receptor (TCR) isolated from a hemophilia A subject's T cell clone...
November 15, 2016: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062577/overlapping-specificity-of-duplicated-human-pancreatic-elastase-3-isoforms-and-archetypal-porcine-elastase-1-provides-clues-to-evolution-of-digestive-enzymes
#14
Eszter Boros, Katalin Zboray, Dávid Héja, Gábor Pál, Miklós Sahin-Tóth
Chymotrypsin-like elastases (CELAs) are pancreatic serine proteinases which digest dietary proteins. CELAs are typically expressed in multiple isoforms which can vary among different species. The human pancreas does not express CELA1 but secretes two CELA3 isoforms, CELA3A and CELA3B. The reason for the CELA3 duplication and the substrate preferences of the duplicated isoforms are unclear. Here, we tested whether CELA3A and CELA3B evolved unique substrate specificities to compensate for the loss of CELA1. We constructed a phage library displaying variants of the substrate-like Schistocerca gregaria proteinase inhibitor 2 (SGPI-2) to select reversible, high-affinity inhibitors of human CELA3A, CELA3B, and porcine CELA1...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062210/hyperthermostable-binding-molecules-on-phage-assay-components-for-point-of-care-diagnostics-for-active-tuberculosis-infection
#15
Ning Zhao, John Spencer, Margaret A Schmitt, John D Fisk
Tuberculosis is the leading cause of death from infectious disease worldwide. The low sensitivity, extended processing time, and high expense of current diagnostics are major challenges to the detection and treatment of tuberculosis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis ornithine transcarbamylase (Mtb OTC, Rv1656) has been identified in the urine of patients with active TB infection and is a promising target for point-of-care diagnostics. Specific binding proteins with low nanomolar affinities for Mtb OTC were selected from a phage display library built upon a hyperthermostable Sso7d scaffold...
January 3, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056857/upregulation-of-mrps18a-in-breast-cancer-identified-by-selecting-phage-antibody-libraries-on-breast-tissue-sections
#16
Karen Marie Juul Sørensen, Theresa Meldgaard, Connie Jenning Melchjorsen, Agla J Fridriksdottir, Henrik Pedersen, Ole William Petersen, Peter Kristensen
BACKGROUND: One of the hallmarks of cancer is an altered energy metabolism, and here, mitochondria play a central role. Previous studies have indicated that some mitochondrial ribosomal proteins change their expression patterns upon transformation. METHOD: In this study, we have used the selection of recombinant antibody libraries displayed on the surface of filamentous bacteriophage as a proteomics discovery tool for the identification of breast cancer biomarkers...
January 5, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056291/-the-impacts-of-testosterone-on-insulin-sensitivity-and-chronic-low-grade
#17
C L Su, M Chen, W Xu, J F Lin
Objectives: Insulin resistance (IR) is a common manifestation in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Both clinical observations and animal studies have demonstrated that IR could be induced by hyperandrogenemia, which is the charac-teristic of PCOS.Nevertheless, the mechanisms of IR in PCOS are still unclear especially at the molecular level.We conduct this study to ellucidate the effects of androgen on insulin sensitivity and chronic low-grade inflammation in adult C57BL/6 female mice. Methods: Eleven adult female C57BL/6 mice aged 8 weeks weredaily injected with testosterone (1...
January 3, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046082/the-phage-lysin-plyss2-decolonizes-streptococcus-suis-from-murine-intranasal-mucosa
#18
Daniel B Gilmer, Jonathan E Schmitz, Mya Thandar, Chad W Euler, Vincent A Fischetti
Streptococcus suis infects pigs worldwide and may be zoonotically transmitted to humans with a mortality rate of up to 20%. S. suis has been shown to develop in vitro resistance to the two leading drugs of choice, penicillin and gentamicin. Because of this, we have pursued an alternative therapy to treat these pathogens using bacteriophage lysins. The bacteriophage lysin PlySs2 is derived from an S. suis phage and displays potent lytic activity against most strains of that species including serotypes 2 and 9...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045547/peptide-macrocycle-inhibitor-of-coagulation-factor-xii-with-subnanomolar-affinity-and-high-target-selectivity
#19
Simon Jan Middendorp, Jonas Wilbs, Claudia Quarroz, Sara Calzavarini, Anne Angelillo-Scherrer, Christian Heinis
Factor XII (FXII) is a plasma protease that has emerged in recent years as a potential target to treat or prevent pathological thrombosis, to inhibit contact activation in extracorporeal circulation, and to treat the swelling disorder hereditary angioedema. While several protein based inhibitors with high affinity for activated FXII (FXIIa) were developed, the generation of small molecule inhibitors has been challenging. In this work, we have generated a potent and selective FXIIa inhibitor by optimizing a peptide macrocycle that was recently evolved by phage display (Ki = 0...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043792/generation-of-a-novel-artificial-trkb-agonist-bm17d99-using-t7-phage-displayed-random-peptide-libraries
#20
Toshiyuki Ohnishi, Kotaro Sakamoto, Asano Asami-Odaka, Kimie Nakamura, Ayako Shimizu, Takashi Ito, Taiji Asami, Tetsuya Ohtaki, Hiroshi Inooka
Tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) is a known receptor of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Because it plays a critical role in the regulation of neuronal development, maturation, survival, etc., TrkB is a good target for drugs against central nervous system diseases. In this study, we aimed to generate peptidic TrkB agonists by applying random peptide phage display technology. After the phage panning against recombinant Fc-fused TrkB (TrkB-Fc), agonistic phages were directly screened against TrkB-expressing HEK293 cells...
December 30, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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