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Type 2 diabetic

Darshan Khangura, L Romayne Kurukulasuriya, Adam Whaley-Connell, James R Sowers
The presence of hypertension in individuals with type 2 diabetes augments the risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In this regard, data support that management of hypertension in this high-risk population is a critical risk reduction strategy. In recent years, a number of work groups have redefined hypertension, management strategies, and targets. In this context, there is still considerable discussion on an appropriate target for blood pressure in the diabetic population. However, despite this discussion on target blood pressure, it is widely recognized that there is considerable residual risk for heightened cardiovascular events in the hypertensive, diabetic population despite widespread awareness and treatment...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Hypertension
Belén Pérez-Pevida, Daniela Stefania Trifu, Anna Kamocka, Julia Álvarez Hernández
CONTEXT: Bariatric surgery has beneficial effects on obesity and associated comorbidities such as glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, and renal and hepatic function. Nevertheless, this surgery is not free of complications and possible side effects due to restrictive and/or malabsorptive related components. CASE DESCRIPTION: We report the case of a 60-year-old woman whose past medical history included morbid obesity, hypertension and Scopinaro biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) with duodenal switch in 1998...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Soo Lim, Robert H Eckel, Kwang Kon Koh
The final goal in the management of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) is reduction in cardiovascular (CV) complications and total mortality. Various factors including hyperglycemia contribute to these complications and mortality directly and indirectly. In recent years, large-scale CV outcome trials with new antidiabetic medications, such as dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1) receptor agonists, and sodium glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, have been completed...
March 8, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Charrise M Ramkissoon, Pau Herrero, Jorge Bondia, Josep Vehi
The artificial pancreas (AP) system is designed to regulate blood glucose in subjects with type 1 diabetes using a continuous glucose monitor informed controller that adjusts insulin infusion via an insulin pump. However, current AP developments are mainly hybrid closed-loop systems that include feed-forward actions triggered by the announcement of meals or exercise. The first step to fully closing the loop in the AP requires removing meal announcement, which is currently the most effective way to alleviate postprandial hyperglycemia due to the delay in insulin action...
March 16, 2018: Sensors
Kai G Kahl, Michael Deuschle, Brendon Stubbs, Ulrich Schweiger
Background Severe mental illnesses (SMIs), i.e. major depression, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, are associated with an elevated risk for the development of type-2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disorders. Several factors have been associated with increased cardiometabolic morbidity and mortality in SMI, including lifestyle factors (smoking, inactivity, unhealthy diet), endocrine and immunologic alterations; however, the underlying mechanisms remain to be fully uncovered. It is now well accepted that visceral adipose tissue (VAT) promotes the development of cardiometabolic disorders, at least in part by inflammatory and metabolic functions...
March 16, 2018: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Mursel Bicer, Saltuk Bugra Baltaci, Suleyman Patlar, Rasim Mogulkoc, Abdulkerim Kasim Baltaci
Aim The present study aimed to examine the effects of melatonin supplementation on lipid peroxidation in the bone tissue of diabetic rats subjected to acute swimming exercise. Methods The study was conducted on 80 Sprague-Dawley type adult male rats which were equally allocated to eight groups: group 1, general control; group 2, melatonin-supplemented control; group 3, melatonin-supplemented diabetic control; group 4, swimming control; group 5, melatonin-supplemented swimming; group 6, melatonin-supplemented diabetic swimming; group 7, diabetic swimming; group 8, diabetic control...
March 16, 2018: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Changhwan Seo, Seonghun Kim, Misol Lee, Min-Uk Cha, Hyoungnae Kim, Seohyun Park, Hae-Ryong Yun, Jong Hyun Jhee, Youn Kyung Kee, Seung Hyeok Han, Tae-Hyun Yoo, Shin-Wook Kang, Jung Tak Park
OBJECTIVE: Patients with diabetic nephropathy (DMN) have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, strategies to reduce this risk are limited. Thyroid hormone replacement therapy (THRT) in patients with hypothyroidism has been shown to reduce several surrogate markers of CVD. Therefore, we performed a study to determine if THRT would reduce CVD risk in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) and DMN. METHODS: This was a retrospective, nonrandomized study of patients with type 2 diabetes, DMN, and SCH...
March 2018: Endocrine Practice
George Grunberger, Yehuda Handelsman, Zachary T Bloomgarden, Vivian A Fonseca, Alan J Garber, Richard A Haas, Victor L Roberts, Guillermo E Umpierrez
This document represents the official position of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American College of Endocrinology. Where there are no randomized controlled trials or specific U.S. FDA labeling for issues in clinical practice, the participating clinical experts utilized their judgment and experience. Every effort was made to achieve consensus among the committee members. Position statements are meant to provide guidance, but they are not to be considered prescriptive for any individual patient and cannot replace the judgment of a clinician...
March 2018: Endocrine Practice
Carol H Wysham, Dominic Pilon, Mike Ingham, Marie-Hélène Lafeuille, Bruno Emond, Rhiannon Kamstra, Michael Pfeifer, Patrick Lefebvre
OBJECTIVE: To compare glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) control and medication costs between patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treated with canagliflozin 300 mg (CANA) or a glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA) in a real-world setting. METHODS: Adults with T2DM newly initiated on CANA or a GLP-1 RA (index date) were identified from IQVIA™ Real-World Data Electronic Medical Records U.S. database (March 29, 2012-April 30, 2016). Inverse probability of treatment weighting accounted for differences in baseline characteristics...
March 2018: Endocrine Practice
Martin M Grajower
Hypoglycemia is the major side effect of insulin therapy. The elderly are especially vulnerable to episodes of hypoglycemia, and with greater risks of complications such as falls. Two new long-acting basal insulins, glargine-300 (Gla-300) and degludec, are associated with lower incidences of hypoglycemia than previously available basal insulins. One of them, Gla-300, was studied in the elderly and has a lower incidence of hypoglycemia in patients over 65 years old. These new data should be incorporated into decision making when treating the elderly patient with insulin, whether they have type 1 or 2 diabetes...
March 2018: Endocrine Practice
Galia Spectre, Fariborz Mobarrez, Ragnhild Stålesen, Claes-Göran Östenson, David Varon, Håkan Wallen, Paul Hjemdahl
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with prothrombotic alterations, and postprandial hyperglycemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular complications. We therefore investigated whether a standardized mixed meal alters circulating microparticles (MPs) and their procoagulant activity in DM patients. Patients with DM type 1 (T1DM, n = 11) and type 2 (T2DM; n = 9) were studied before and 90 min after a standardized meal (without premeal insulin). MPs in plasma derived from platelets (PMPs), endothelial cells (EMPs), or monocytes (MMPs) were measured by flow cytometry...
March 16, 2018: Platelets
Ye Seul Yang, Min Hyuk Lim, Seong Ok Lee, Eun Roh, Chang Ho Ahn, Soo Heon Kwak, Young Min Cho, Sungwan Kim, Andrea Mari, Kyong Soo Park, Hye Seung Jung
AIMS: Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) are anti-hypertensive drugs with renal protective effect. Additionally, they have been associated with the delayed onset of type 2 diabetes in high-risk populations, and some ARB were reported to increase insulin secretion and sensitivity in patients with prediabetes. Therefore, we studied the effects of ARB on insulin secretion in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-one patients were enrolled in this open-labeled, active comparator-controlled and crossover study...
March 15, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Lisa Menegazzo, Valentina Scattolini, Roberta Cappellari, Benedetta Maria Bonora, Mattia Albiero, Mario Bortolozzi, Filippo Romanato, Giulio Ceolotto, Saula Vigili de Kreutzeberg, Angelo Avogaro, Gian Paolo Fadini
AIMS: Diabetes is associated with an excess release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and an enhanced NETosis, a neutrophil cell death programme instrumental to anti-microbial defences, but also involved in tissue damage. We herein investigated whether the antidiabetic drug metformin protects against NETosis. METHODS: We measured NET components in the plasma of patients with pre-diabetes who were randomized to receive metformin or placebo for 2 months. To control for the effect on glucose, we also measured NET components in the plasma of patients with type 2 diabetes before and after treatment with insulin or dapagliflozin...
March 15, 2018: Acta Diabetologica
Michael Mendler, Stefan Kopf, Jan B Groener, Christin Riedinger, Thomas H Fleming, Peter P Nawroth, Jürgen G Okun
AIMS: 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICAR) is an endogenous activator of AMPK, a central regulator of energy homeostasis. Loss and/or reduction of AMPK signaling plays an important role in the development of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. The loss of AMPK in diabetes could be due to a loss of AICAR. The aim of this study was to characterize urine levels of AICAR in diabetes and determine whether an association exists with respect to late complications, e.g., retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy...
March 15, 2018: Acta Diabetologica
Rezvan Salehidoost, Asieh Mansouri, Massoud Amini, Sima Aminorroaya Yamini, Ashraf Aminorroaya
AIMS: The relationship between obesity and mortality rate among diabetic patients is a controversial topic. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between obesity and all-cause mortality risk in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In this retrospective database study, 2383 patients with type 2 diabetes, who had been registered in the Isfahan Endocrine and Metabolism Research Center, Iran, were enrolled between 1992 and 2010. The mean (SD) of diabetes duration and follow-up period was 15...
March 15, 2018: Acta Diabetologica
Kasper Meidahl Petersen, Søren Bøgevig, Jens Juul Holst, Filip Krag Knop, Mikkel Bring Christensen
Context: Glucagon's effects on hemodynamic parameters - most notably heart rate and cardiac contractility - are overlooked. The glucagon receptor is a central target in novel and anticipated type 2 diabetes therapies and hemodynamic consequences of glucagon signaling have therefore become increasingly important. In this review we summarize and evaluate published studies on glucagon pharmacology with focus on clinical hemodynamic effects in humans. Evidence acquisition: PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane library were searched for clinical studies concerning hemodynamic effects of glucagon (no year restriction)...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Marion Guerrero-Wyss, Samuel Durán Agüero, Lisse Angarita Dávila
The objective of the current research was to review and update evidence on the dietary effect of the consumption of tagatose in type 2 diabetes, as well as to elucidate the current approach that exists on its production and biotechnological utility in functional food for diabetics. Articles published before July 1, 2017, were included in the databases PubMed, EBSCO, Google Scholar, and Scielo, including the terms "Tagatose", "Sweeteners", "Diabetes Mellitus type 2", "Sweeteners", "D-Tag"...
2018: BioMed Research International
Jesús Emilo Quintero Ojeda, Maribel Aguilar-Medina, Vicente Olimón-Andalón, Rosa Alicia García Jau, Alfredo Ayala Ham, José Geovanni Romero Quintana, Erika de Lourdes Silva-Benítez, Guzmán Sanchez-Schmitz, Rosalío Ramos-Payán
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by persistent high levels of glucose in plasma. Chronic hyperglycemia is thought to increase oxidative stress and the formation of free radicals that in turn damage cells. Thus, we decided to determine the frequency of nuclear abnormalities in epithelial cells from cheek and tongue mucosa of DM patients with type 1 (DM1, treated only with insulin) and type 2 (DM2, treated with metformin) using the buccal micronucleus cytome (BMCyt) assay. Micronuclei frequency in cheek epithelial cells was higher in both DM1 (0...
2018: BioMed Research International
Yan Zheng, Liwei Liu, Jifeng Ye
Type 1 diabetes is a prevalent autoimmune disease of which the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. The aim of the study was to identify dysregulated modules of type 1 diabetes. After microarray data were preprocessed, 20,545 genes were obtained. By integrating gene expression data and protein-protein interactions (PPI) data, 48,778 new networks were obtained, including 7,953 genes. After simplifying networks, we obtained 24 target networks. By ranking networks with P-values, two modules with P<0...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Fukashi Ishibashi, Mitra Tavakoli
Aims: Hyperglycemia is associated with an increased risk of microvascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the reduction of the levels of HbA1c by tight glycemic control (GC) decreases the rate of microvascular complications and improves the neurological measures in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: Detailed clinical and neurological examinations including corneal confocal microscopy (CCM) were performed in 141 Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes and 60 age-matched control subjects at baseline and follow-up with GC for 4 years...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
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