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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454331/centrosome-amplification-in-chondrosarcomas-a-primary-cell-culture-and-cryopreserved-tumor-sample-study
#1
Carla Aparecida Pinheiro, Iberê Cauduro Soares, Valter Penna, Jeremy Squire, Rui Manuel Vieira Reis, Sandra Regina Morini da Silva, Isabela de Carvalho, Marjori Leiva Camparoto, Maicon Fernando Zanon da Silva, Adhemar Longatto Longatto Filho
The genetics background underlying the aggressiveness of chondrosarcoma (CS) is poorly understood. One possible cause of malignant transformation is chromosomal instability, which involves an error in mitotic segregation due to numerical and/or functional abnormalities of centrosomes. The present study aimed to evaluate centrosome amplification in cryopreserved samples of tumor tissue from patients with CS. An analysis was performed on 3 primary cultures of tumors from patients who underwent surgery between January 2012 and December 2012 at the Department of Orthopedics at the Barretos Cancer Hospital (Barretos, Brazil)...
March 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454295/nima-related-kinase-2-regulates-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cell-growth-and-proliferation
#2
Xiao-Bo Lai, Yu-Qiang Nie, Hong-Li Huang, Ying-Fei Li, Chuang-Yu Cao, Hui Yang, Bo Shen, Zhi-Qiang Feng
NIMA-related kinase 2 (Nek2) is often upregulated in human cancer and is important in regulating the cell cycle and gene expression, and maintaining centrosomal structure and function. The present study aimed to investigate the expression pattern, clinical significance, and biological function of Nek2 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). mRNA and protein levels of Nek2 were examined in HCC and corresponding normal liver tissues. The MTT and soft agar colony formation assays, and flow cytometry were employed to assess the roles of Nek2 in cell proliferation and growth...
March 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448044/generation-of-ipsc-derived-human-brain-organoids-to-model-early-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#3
Elke Gabriel, Jay Gopalakrishnan
The restricted availability of suitable in vitro models that can reliably represent complex human brain development is a significant bottleneck that limits the translation of basic brain research into clinical application. While induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have replaced the ethically questionable human embryonic stem cells, iPSC-based neuronal differentiation studies remain descriptive at the cellular level but fail to adequately provide the details that could be derived from a complex, 3D human brain tissue...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447620/dna-replication-licensing-factor-cdc6-and-plk4-kinase-antagonistically-regulate-centrosome-duplication-via-sas-6
#4
Xiaowei Xu, Shijiao Huang, Boyan Zhang, Fan Huang, Wangfei Chi, Jingyan Fu, Gang Wang, Si Li, Qing Jiang, Chuanmao Zhang
Centrosome number is tightly controlled during the cell cycle to ensure proper spindle assembly and cell division. However, the underlying mechanism that controls centrosome number remains largely unclear. We show herein that the DNA replication licensing factor Cdc6 is recruited to the proximal side of the centrioles via cyclin A to negatively regulate centrosome duplication by binding and inhibiting the cartwheel protein Sas-6 from forming a stable complex with another centriole duplication core protein, STIL...
April 27, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447612/distinct-molecular-cues-ensure-a-robust-microtubule-dependent-nuclear-positioning-in-the-drosophila-oocyte
#5
Nicolas Tissot, Jean-Antoine Lepesant, Fred Bernard, Kevin Legent, Floris Bosveld, Charlotte Martin, Orestis Faklaris, Yohanns Bellaïche, Maïté Coppey, Antoine Guichet
Controlling nucleus localization is crucial for a variety of cellular functions. In the Drosophila oocyte, nuclear asymmetric positioning is essential for the reorganization of the microtubule (MT) network that controls the polarized transport of axis determinants. A combination of quantitative three-dimensional live imaging and laser ablation-mediated force analysis reveal that nuclear positioning is ensured with an unexpected level of robustness. We show that the nucleus is pushed to the oocyte antero-dorsal cortex by MTs and that its migration can proceed through distinct tracks...
April 27, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446817/shh-mediated-centrosomal-recruitment-of-pka-promotes-symmetric-proliferative-neuroepithelial-cell%C3%A2-division
#6
Murielle Saade, Elena Gonzalez-Gobartt, Rene Escalona, Susana Usieto, Elisa Martí
Tight control of the balance between self-expanding symmetric and self-renewing asymmetric neural progenitor divisions is crucial to regulate the number of cells in the developing central nervous system. We recently demonstrated that Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signalling is required for the expansion of motor neuron progenitors by maintaining symmetric divisions. Here we show that activation of Shh/Gli signalling in dividing neuroepithelial cells controls the symmetric recruitment of PKA to the centrosomes that nucleate the mitotic spindle, maintaining symmetric proliferative divisions...
April 27, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441108/novel-clades-of-the-hu-ihf-superfamily-point-to-unexpected-roles-in-the-eukaryotic-centrosome-chromosome-partitioning-and-biologic-conflicts
#7
A Maxwell Burroughs, Gurmeet Kaur, Dapeng Zhang, L Aravind
The HU superfamily of proteins, with a unique DNA-binding mode, has been extensively studied as the primary chromosome-packaging protein of the bacterial superkingdom. Representatives also play a role in DNA-structuring during recombination events and in eukaryotic organellar genome maintenance. However, beyond these well-studied roles, little is understood of the functional diversification of this large superfamily. Using sensitive sequence and structure analysis methods we identify multiple novel clades of the HU superfamily...
April 25, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428259/rabl2-interacts-with-the-ift-b-complex-and-cep19-and-participates-in-ciliary-assembly
#8
Yuya Nishijima, Yohei Hagiya, Tomohiro Kubo, Ryota Takei, Yohei Katoh, Kazuhisa Nakayama
Proteins localized to the basal body and the centrosome play crucial roles in ciliary assembly and functions. Although RABL2 and CEP19 are conserved in ciliated organisms and have been implicated in ciliary/flagellar functions, their roles were poorly understood. We here showed that RABL2 interacts with CEP19 and is recruited to the mother centriole and basal body in a CEP19-dependent manner, and that CEP19 is recruited to the centriole probably via its binding to the centrosomal protein FGFR1OP. Disruption of the RABL2 gene in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii resulted in the non-flagellated phenotype, suggesting a crucial role of RABL2 in ciliary/flagellar assembly...
April 20, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423708/targeting-the-centriolar-replication-factor-stil-synergizes-with-dna-damaging-agents-for-treatment-of-ovarian-cancer
#9
Noa Rabinowicz, Lingegowda S Mangala, Kevin R Brown, Cintia Checa-Rodriguez, Asher Castiel, Oren Moskovich, Giulia Zarfati, Luba Trakhtenbrot, Adva Levy-Barda, Dahai Jiang, Cristian Rodriguez-Aguayo, Sunila Pradeep, Yael van Praag, Gabriel Lopez-Berestein, Ahuvit David, Ilya Novikov, Pablo Huertas, Robert Rottapel, Anil K Sood, Shai Izraeli
Advanced ovarian cancer is an incurable disease. Thus, novel therapies are required. We wished to identify new therapeutic targets for ovarian cancer. ShRNA screen performed in 42 ovarian cancer cell lines identified the centriolar replication factor STIL as an essential gene for ovarian cancer cells. This was verified in-vivo in orthotopic human ovarian cancer mouse models. STIL depletion by administration of siRNA in neutral liposomes resulted in robust anti-tumor effect that was further enhanced in combination with cisplatin...
March 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422092/hierarchical-assembly-of-centriole-subdistal-appendages-via-centrosome-binding-proteins-ccdc120-and-ccdc68
#10
Ning Huang, Yuqing Xia, Donghui Zhang, Song Wang, Yitian Bao, Runsheng He, Junlin Teng, Jianguo Chen
In animal cells, the centrosome is the main microtubule-organizing centre where microtubules are nucleated and anchored. The centriole subdistal appendages (SDAs) are the key structures that anchor microtubules in interphase cells, but the composition and assembly mechanisms of SDAs are not well understood. Here, we reveal that centrosome-binding proteins, coiled-coil domain containing (CCDC) 120 and CCDC68 are two novel SDA components required for hierarchical SDA assembly in human cells. CCDC120 is anchored to SDAs by ODF2 and recruits CEP170 and Ninein to the centrosome through different coiled-coil domains at its N terminus...
April 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420331/arsenic-treatment-increase-aurora-a-overexpression-through-e2f1-activation-in-bladder-cells
#11
Yu-Ting Kao, Chin-Han Wu, Shan-Ying Wu, Sheng-Hui Lan, Hsiao-Sheng Liu, Ya-Shih Tseng
BACKGROUND: Arsenic is a widely distributed metalloid compound that has biphasic effects on cultured cells. In large doses, arsenic can be toxic enough to trigger cell death. In smaller amounts, non-toxic doses may promote cell proliferation and induces carcinogenesis. Aberration of chromosome is frequently detected in epithelial cells and lymphocytes of individuals from arsenic contaminated areas. Overexpression of Aurora-A, a mitotic kinase, results in chromosomal instability and cell transformation...
April 18, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417908/cytokinesis-failure-leading-to-chromosome-instability-in-v-src-induced-oncogenesis
#12
REVIEW
Yuji Nakayama, Shuhei Soeda, Masayoshi Ikeuchi, Keiko Kakae, Naoto Yamaguchi
v-Src, an oncogene found in Rous sarcoma virus, is a constitutively active variant of c-Src. Activation of Src is observed frequently in colorectal and breast cancers, and is critical in tumor progression through multiple processes. However, in some experimental conditions, v-Src causes growth suppression and apoptosis. In this review, we highlight recent progress in our understanding of cytokinesis failure and the attenuation of the tetraploidy checkpoint in v-Src-expressing cells. v-Src induces cell cycle changes-such as the accumulation of the 4N cell population-and increases the number of binucleated cells, which is accompanied by an excess number of centrosomes...
April 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415605/kifc1-is-essential-for-acrosome-formation-and-nuclear-shaping-during-spermiogenesis-in-the-lobster-procambarus-clarkii
#13
Dan-Dan Ma, Lian Bi, Wan-Xi Yang
In order to study the function of kinesin-14 motor protein KIFC1 during spermatogenesis of Procambarus clarkii, the full length of kifc1 was cloned from testes cDNA using Rapid-Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE). The deduced KIFC1 protein sequence showed the highest similarity between Procambarus clarkii and Eriocheir senensis (similarity rate as 64%). According to the results of in situ hybridization (ISH), the kifc1 mRNA was gathered in the acrosome location above nucleus in the mid- and late-stage spermatids...
March 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409309/asymmetric-and-unequal-cell-divisions-in-ascidian-embryos
#14
Takefumi Negishi, Hiroki Nishida
Asymmetric cell division during embryogenesis contributes to cell diversity by generating daughter cells that adopt distinct developmental fates. In this chapter, we summarize current knowledge of three examples of asymmetric cell division occurring in ascidian early embryos: (1) Three successive cell divisions that are asymmetric in terms of cell fate and unequal in cell size in the germline lineage at the embryo posterior pole. A subcellular structure, the centrosome-attracting body (CAB), and maternal PEM mRNAs localized within it control both the positioning of the cell division planes and segregation of the germ cell fates...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409302/asymmetric-cell-division-in-the-one-cell-c-elegans-embryo-multiple-steps-to-generate-cell-size-asymmetry
#15
Anne Pacquelet
The first division of the one-cell C. elegans embryo has been a fundamental model in deciphering the mechanisms underlying asymmetric cell division. Polarization of the one-cell zygote is induced by a signal from the sperm centrosome and results in the asymmetric distribution of PAR proteins. Multiple mechanisms then maintain PAR polarity until the end of the first division. Once asymmetrically localized, PAR proteins control several essential aspects of asymmetric division, including the position of the mitotic spindle along the polarity axis...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402892/geometric-asymmetry-induces-upper-limit-of-mitotic-spindle-size
#16
Jingchen Li, Hongyuan Jiang
Proper organelle size is critical for many cell functions. However, how cells sense and control their organelle size remains elusive. Here, we develop a general model to study the size control of mitotic spindles by considering both extrinsic and intrinsic factors, such as the limited number of building blocks of the spindle, the interaction between the spindle and cell boundary, the DNA content, the forces generated by various molecular motors, and the dynamics of microtubules. We show that multiple pairs of chromatids, two centrosomes, and microtubules can self-assemble to form a mitotic spindle robustly...
April 11, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402684/a-nonsense-alms1-mutation-underlies-alstr%C3%A3-m-syndrome-in-an-extended-mennonite-kindred-settled-in-north-mexico
#17
Marisa Cruz-Aguilar, Carlos Galaviz-Hernández, José Hiebert-Froese, Martha Sosa-Macías, Juan Carlos Zenteno
AIM: Alström syndrome (AS) is a rare autosomal recessive multisystem disease caused by biallelic mutations in ALMS1, a gene encoding a widely expressed centrosomal/basal body protein. Although more than 200 pathogenic mutations in ALMS1 have been identified to date in AS patients from various ethnic populations, there are very few reports of ALMS1 founder mutations in isolated populations. Our aim was to describe the molecular characterization of an isolate of AS patients from an extended inbred Mennonite kindred settled in Mexico...
April 12, 2017: Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401181/kat2-mediated-plk4-acetylation-contributes-to-genomic-stability-by-preserving-centrosome-number
#18
Marjorie Fournier, László Tora
We have recently identified the first human lysine (K) acetyltransferase 2A and 2B (called KAT2A/2B; known also as GCN5/PCAF, respectively)-dependent acetylome and revealed a mechanism by which KAT2A/2B-mediated acetylation of serine/threonine polo-like kinase 4 (PLK4) maintains correct centrosome number in human cells, therefore contributing to the maintenance of genome stability.(1).
2017: Molecular & Cellular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400424/increased-taxon-sampling-reveals-thousands-of-hidden-orthologs-in-flatworms
#19
Jose M Martin-Duran, Joseph F Ryan, Bruno Vellutini, Kevin Pang, Andreas Hejnol
Gains and losses shape the gene complement of animal lineages and are a fundamental aspect of genomic evolution. Acquiring a comprehensive view of the evolution of gene repertoires is limited by the intrinsic limitations of common sequence similarity searches and available databases. Thus, a subset of the gene complement of an organism consists of hidden orthologs, i.e., those with no apparent homology to sequenced animal lineages - mistakenly considered new genes - but actually representing rapidly evolving orthologs or undetected paralogs...
April 11, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398834/dry-preservation-of-spermatozoa-considerations-for-different-species
#20
REVIEW
Jennifer Patrick, Pierre Comizzoli, Gloria Elliott
The current gold standard for sperm preservation is storage at cryogenic temperatures. Dry preservation is an attractive alternative, eliminating the need for ultralow temperatures, reducing storage maintenance costs, and providing logistical flexibility for shipping. Many seeds and anhydrobiotic organisms are able to survive extended periods in a dry state through the accumulation of intracellular sugars and other osmolytes and are capable of returning to normal physiology postrehydration. Using techniques inspired by nature's adaptations, attempts have been made to dehydrate and dry preserve spermatozoa from a variety of species...
April 2017: Biopreservation and Biobanking
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