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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745816/the-role-of-tacc3-in-mitotic-spindle-organization
#1
REVIEW
Zhi-Ming Ding, Chun-Jie Huang, Xiao-Fei Jiao, Di Wu, Li-Jun Huo
TACC3 regulates spindle organization during mitosis and also regulates centrosome-mediated microtubule nucleation by affecting γ-Tubulin ring complexes. In addition, it interacts with different proteins (such as ch-TOG, clathrin and Aurora-A) to function in mitotic spindle assembly and stability. By forming the TACC3/ch-TOG complex, TACC3 acts as a plus end-tracking protein to promote microtubule elongation. The TACC3/ch-TOG/clathrin complex is formed to stabilize kinetochore fibers by crosslinking adjacent microtubules...
July 26, 2017: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742026/aire-is-a-critical-spindle-associated-protein-in-embryonic-stem-cells
#2
Bin Gu, Jean-Philippe Lambert, Katie Cockburn, Anne-Claude Gingras, Janet Rossant
Embryonic stem (ES) cells go though embryo-like cell cycles regulated by specialized molecular mechanisms. However, it is not known whether there are ES cell-specific mechanisms regulating mitotic fidelity. Here we showed that Autoimmune Regulator (Aire), a transcription coordinator involved in immune tolerance processes, is a critical spindle-associated protein in mouse ES(mES) cells. BioID analysis showed that AIRE associates with spindle-associated proteins in mES cells. Loss of function analysis revealed that Aire was important for centrosome number regulation and spindle pole integrity specifically in mES cells...
July 25, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741966/the-connections-of-wnt-pathway-components-with-cell-cycle-and-centrosome-side-effects-or-a-hidden-logic
#3
Vítězslav Bryja, Igor Červenka, Lukáš Čajánek
Wnt signaling cascade has developed together with multicellularity to orchestrate the development and homeostasis of complex structures. Wnt pathway components - such as β-catenin, Dishevelled (DVL), Lrp6, and Axin-- are often dedicated proteins that emerged in evolution together with the Wnt signaling cascade and are believed to function primarily in the Wnt cascade. It is interesting to see that in recent literature many of these proteins are connected with cellular functions that are more ancient and not limited to multicellular organisms - such as cell cycle regulation, centrosome biology, or cell division...
July 25, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741098/regulation-of-paclitaxel-activity-by-microtubule-associated-proteins-in-cancer-chemotherapy
#4
REVIEW
Xingjuan Shi, Xiaoou Sun
Microtubules, highly dynamic components of the cytoskeleton, participate in diverse cellular activities such as mitosis, cell migration, and intracellular trafficking. Dysregulation of microtubule dynamics contributes to the development of serious diseases, including cancer. The dynamic properties and functions of microtubule network are regulated by microtubule-associated proteins. Paclitaxel, an anti-microtubule agent of the taxane family, has shown a success in clinical treatment of many cancer patients...
July 24, 2017: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740074/cdkl5-localizes-at-the-centrosome-and-midbody-and-is-required-for-faithful-cell-division
#5
Isabella Barbiero, Davide Valente, Chetan Chandola, Fiorenza Magi, Anna Bergo, Laura Monteonofrio, Marco Tramarin, Maria Fazzari, Silvia Soddu, Nicoletta Landsberger, Cinzia Rinaldo, Charlotte Kilstrup-Nielsen
The cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) gene has been associated with rare neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by the early onset of seizures and intellectual disability. The CDKL5 protein is widely expressed in most tissues and cells with both nuclear and cytoplasmic localization. In post-mitotic neurons CDKL5 is mainly involved in dendritic arborization, axon outgrowth, and spine formation while in proliferating cells its function is still largely unknown. Here, we report that CDKL5 localizes at the centrosome and at the midbody in proliferating cells...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739695/synergistic-effects-of-arsenite-on-radiosensitization-of-glioblastoma-cells
#6
Yasuharu Ninomiya, Dong Yu, Emiko Sekine-Suzuki, Tetsuo Nakajima
BACKGROUND/AIM: Glioblastoma is a frequent type of brain tumor and is radioresistant. Arsenite, which crosses the blood-brain barrier, shows synergistic effects with radiation in vitro and in vivo. The mechanism remains unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: As synergistic radiosensitization has been reported in p53-deficient cancer cells, radiosensitization was evaluated using the glioblastoma cell line, U87MG-E6, which harbors inactivated p53, in comparison with the cell line, HCT116 p53 (-/-)...
August 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735890/prognostic-validation-of-sky92-and-its-combination-with-iss-in-an-independent-cohort-of-patients-with-multiple-myeloma
#7
Erik H van Beers, Martin H van Vliet, Rowan Kuiper, Leonie de Best, Kenneth C Anderson, Ajai Chari, Sundar Jagannath, Andrzej Jakubowiak, Shaji K Kumar, Joan B Levy, Daniel Auclair, Sagar Lonial, Donna Reece, Paul Richardson, David S Siegel, A Keith Stewart, Suzanne Trudel, Ravi Vij, Todd M Zimmerman, Rafael Fonseca
BACKGROUND: High risk and low risk multiple myeloma patients follow a very different clinical course as reflected in their PFS and OS. To be clinically useful, methodologies used to identify high and low risk disease must be validated in representative independent clinical data and available so that patients can be managed appropriately. A recent analysis has indicated that SKY92 combined with the International Staging System (ISS) identifies patients with different risk disease with high sensitivity...
July 4, 2017: Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma & Leukemia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724890/centrosomal-protein-55-activates-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signalling-and-promotes-pancreatic-cancer-cells-aggressiveness
#8
Tao Peng, Wei Zhou, Feng Guo, He-Shui Wu, Chun-You Wang, Li Wang, Zhi-Yong Yang
Centrosomal protein 55 (CEP55) is a microtubule-bundling protein that participants in cell mitosis. It is overexpressed in several solid tumours and promotes the growth and invasion of cancer cells. However, the role of CEP55 in pancreatic cancer (PANC) remains unclear. Herein, upregulated expression of CEP55 (associated with poor prognosis) was detected in PANC using quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR, western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. Cell migration, colony formation, wound-healing, and Transwell matrix penetration assays, revealed that upregulation of CEP55 promoted PANC cells proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro, whereas knockdown of CEP55 attenuated it...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720575/hsp72-and-nek6-cooperate-to-cluster-amplified-centrosomes-in-cancer-cells
#9
Josephina Sampson, Laura O'Regan, Martin Js Dyer, Richard Bayliss, Andrew M Fry
Cancer cells frequently possess extra amplified centrosomes clustered into two poles whose pseudo-bipolar spindles exhibit reduced fidelity of chromosome segregation and promote genetic instability. Inhibition of centrosome clustering triggers multipolar spindle formation and mitotic catastrophe, offering an attractive therapeutic approach to selectively kill cells with amplified centrosomes. However, mechanisms of centrosome clustering remain poorly understood. Here, we identify a new pathway that acts through NIMA-related kinase 6 (Nek6) and Hsp72 to promote centrosome clustering...
July 18, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717875/mast-like-protein-kinase-ireh1-from-arabidopsis-thaliana-co-localizes-with-the-centrosome-when-expressed-in-animal-cells
#10
Elena M Chudinova, Pavel A Karpov, Artem I Fokin, Alla I Yemets, Dmytro I Lytvyn, Elena S Nadezhdina, Yaroslav B Blume
The similarity of IREH1 (Incomplete Root Hair Elongation 1) and animal MAST kinases was confirmed; IREH1cDNA was cloned while expressing in cultured animal cells co-localized with the centrosome. In mammals and fruit flies, microtubule-associated serine/threonine-protein kinases (MAST) are strongly involved in the regulation of the microtubule system. Higher plants also possess protein kinases homologous to MASTs, but their function and interaction with the cytoskeleton remain unclear. Here, we confirmed the sequence and structural similarity of MAST-related putative protein kinase IREH1 (At3g17850) and known animal MAST kinases...
July 17, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717663/refining-genotype-phenotype-correlation-in-alstr%C3%A3-m-syndrome-through-study-of-primary-human-fibroblasts
#11
Jian-Hua Chen, Tarekegn Geberhiwot, Timothy G Barrett, Richard Paisey, Robert K Semple
BACKGROUND: Alström syndrome (AS), featuring retinal dystrophy, neuronal deafness, cardiomyopathy, metabolic syndrome, and diffuse fibrosis, is caused by biallelic mutations in the centrosomal protein ALMS1. Genotype-phenotype correlation has been suggested without assessment of ALMS1 expression. METHODS: ALMS1 expression (real-time PCR and immunocytochemistry) and cilia formation (immunocytochemistry) were assessed in fibroblasts from deeply phenotyped volunteers diagnosed with AS recruited from a dedicated AS Service...
July 2017: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717168/dynamics-and-function-of-cxcr4-in-formation-of-the-granule-cell-layer-during-hippocampal-development
#12
Yuka Mimura-Yamamoto, Hiroshi Shinohara, Taichi Kashiwagi, Toru Sato, Seiji Shioda, Tatsunori Seki
In the developing hippocampus, granule cell progenitors (GCPs) arising in the ventricular zone (VZ) migrate to the subpial region, and form the granule cell layer (GCL) of the dentate gyrus (DG). To understand the mechanism of GCL formation, we investigated the dynamics and function of CXCR4 which is expressed by the GCPs and is a receptor of the CXCL12 chemokine secreted by cells surrounding the DG. In the VZ, CXCR4 was expressed on the plasma membrane of the GCPs. During their migration and in the DG, CXCR4 was internalized and accumulated as puncta close to the centrosomes, Golgi apparatus, and lysosomes...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714971/budding-yeast-wee1-distinguishes-spindle-pole-bodies-to-guide-their-pattern-of-age-dependent-segregation
#13
Jette Lengefeld, Manuel Hotz, Meaghen Rollins, Kristin Baetz, Yves Barral
Many asymmetrically dividing cells unequally partition cellular structures according to age. Yet, it is unclear how cells differentiate pre-existing from newly synthesized material. Yeast cells segregate the spindle pole body (SPB, centrosome equivalent) inherited from the previous mitosis to the bud, while keeping the new one in the mother cell. Here, we show that the SPB inheritance network (SPIN), comprising the kinases Swe1 (also known as Wee1) and Kin3 (also known as Nek2) and the acetyltransferase NuA4 (also known as Tip60), distinguishes pre-existing from new SPBs...
July 17, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712572/centriolar-satellites-control-gabarap-ubiquitination-and-gabarap-mediated-autophagy
#14
Justin Joachim, Minoo Razi, Delphine Judith, Martina Wirth, Emily Calamita, Vesela Encheva, Brian D Dynlacht, Ambrosius P Snijders, Nicola O'Reilly, Harold B J Jefferies, Sharon A Tooze
Autophagy maintains cellular health and homeostasis during stress by delivering cytosolic material captured by autophagosomes to lysosomes for degradation. Autophagosome formation is complex: initiated by the recruitment of autophagy (Atg) proteins to the formation site, it is sustained by activation of Atg proteins to allow growth and closure of the autophagosome. How Atg proteins are translocated to the forming autophagosome is not fully understood. Transport of the ATG8 family member GABARAP from the centrosome occurs during starvation-induced autophagosome biogenesis, but how centrosomal proteins regulate GABARAP localization is unknown...
July 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710492/nek1-kinase-domain-structure-and-its-dynamic-protein-interactome-after-exposure-to-cisplatin
#15
Talita D Melo-Hanchuk, Priscila Ferreira Slepicka, Gabriela Vaz Meirelles, Fernanda Luisa Basei, Diogo Ventura Lovato, Daniela Campos Granato, Bianca Alves Pauletti, Romenia Ramos Domingues, Adriana Franco Paes Leme, Alessandra Luiza Pelegrini, Guido Lenz, Stefan Knapp, Jonathan M Elkins, Jörg Kobarg
NEK family kinases are serine/threonine kinases that have been functionally implicated in the regulation of the disjunction of the centrosome, the assembly of the mitotic spindle, the function of the primary cilium and the DNA damage response. NEK1 shows pleiotropic functions and has been found to be mutated in cancer cells, ciliopathies such as the polycystic kidney disease, as well as in the genetic diseases short-rib thoracic dysplasia, Mohr-syndrome and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. NEK1 is essential for the ionizing radiation DNA damage response and priming of the ATR kinase and of Rad54 through phosphorylation...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706298/ckap2-phosphorylation-by-cdk1-cyclinb1-is-crucial-for-maintaining-centrosome-integrity
#16
Bum Ho Yoo, Du-Seock Kang, Chi-Hu Park, Kyeongjin Kang, Chang-Dae Bae
Previously, we have reported that CKAP2 is involved in the maintenance of centrosome integrity, thus allowing for proper mitosis in primary hepatocytes. To understand this biological process, we identified the mitosis-specific phosphorylation sites in mouse CKAP2 and investigated CKAP's possible role in cell cycle progression. Because we observed mouse CKAP2 depletion in amplified centrosomes and aberrant chromosomal segregation, which was rescued by ectopic expression of wild-type CKAP2, we focused on the centrosome duplication process among the various aspects of the cell cycle...
July 14, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705837/cyb-1-a-c-elegans-b-type-cyclin-maintains-proper-position-and-number-of-centrosomes-during-spermatogenesis
#17
Sunghee Yoon, Ichiro Kawasaki, Yhong-Hee Shim
Depletion of cyb-1, a major B-type cyclin expressed during C. elegans spermatogenesis, caused a meiotic division arrest in diakinesis-stage spermatocytes with multiple and mispositioned centrosomes. Association of SUN-1 and ZYG-12, two nuclear membrane proteins, is critical for centrosome-nuclear envelope attachment. We found that sun-1 depletion caused centrosome defects similar to those caused by cyb-1 depletion in diakinesis-stage spermatocytes. In addition, Ser8 and Ser43 residues in SUN-1 were dephosphorylated in cyb-1-depleted diakinesis-stage spermatocytes...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701341/computer-simulations-reveal-mechanisms-that-organize-nuclear-dynein-forces-to-separate-centrosomes
#18
Alessandro De Simone, Pierre Gönczy
Centrosome separation along the surface of the nucleus at the onset of mitosis is critical for bipolar spindle assembly. Dynein anchored on the nuclear envelope is known to be important for centrosome separation, but it is unclear how nuclear dynein forces are organized in an anisotropic manner to promote the movement of centrosomes away from each other. Here, we use computational simulations of C. elegans embryos to address this fundamental question, testing three potential mechanisms by which nuclear dynein may act...
July 12, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696795/decoy-receptor-3-down-regulates-centrosomal-protein-70%C3%A2-kda-specifically-in-rheumatoid-synovial-fibroblasts
#19
Koji Fukuda, Yasushi Miura, Toshihisa Maeda, Shinya Hayashi, Ryosuke Kuroda
OBJECTIVES: Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) competitively binds to Fas ligand, lymphotoxin-related inducible ligand that competes for glycoprotein D binding to herpes virus entry mediator on T cells (LIGHT) and TNF-like ligand 1A (TL1A), thereby preventing their effects. Using a microarray assay, we previously newly identified centrosomal protein 70 kDa (CEP70) as one of the genes whose expression in fibroblast-like synoviocytes from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA-FLS) is reduced by DcR3...
July 11, 2017: Modern Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694353/a-centrosomal-protein-for20-regulates-microtubule-assembly-dynamics-and-plays-a-role-in-cell-migration
#20
Shalini Srivastava, Dulal Panda
Here, we report that a centrosomal protein FOR20 (also named as C16orf63, FLJ31153 or PHSECRG2) can regulate the assembly and stability of microtubules. Both FOR20 IgG antibody and GST-tagged FOR20 could precipitate tubulin from HeLa cell extract indicating a possible interaction between FOR20 and tubulin. FOR20 was also detected in goat brain tissue extract and it cycled with microtubule-associated proteins. Further, FOR20 bound to purified tubulin and inhibited the assembly of tubulin in vitro. The over-expression of FOR20 depolymerized interphase microtubules and the depletion of FOR20 prevented nocodazole-induced depolymerization of microtubules in HeLa cells...
July 10, 2017: Biochemical Journal
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