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Tao Xu, Shan-Yu Zhang, Xiao-Mei Xu, Shuai Zhao, Kai-Heng Zhu, Wei-Wei Zhang, Ling-Li Zhao
Alcohol can decrease cell proliferation in neural cells. The proliferation of neural cells can be inhibited by the asymmetric division of neural progenitor cells. However, whether alcohol inhibits cell proliferation through inducing cell asymmetric division is not yet clear. Here, we reported that the percentage of asymmetric division was increased in alcohol-treated Neuro2a cells owing to the impaired-spindle orientation. Meanwhile, the expression of Centrosome protein-J (CPAP) which plays an important role in spindle orientation was reduced in Neuro2a cells...
May 17, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Kazuyuki Hirai, Zhuo Wang, Kohei Miura, Takaaki Hayashi, Takeshi Awasaki, Moe Wada, Yoko Keira, Hiroyuki O Ishikawa, Kyoichi Sawamura
ELYS determines the subcellular localizations of Nucleoporins (Nups) during interphase and mitosis. We made loss-of-function mutations of Elys in Drosophila melanogaster and found that ELYS is dispensable for zygotic viability and male fertility but the maternal supply is necessary for embryonic development. Subsequent to fertilization, mitotic progression of the embryos produced by the mutant females is severely disrupted at the first cleavage division, accompanied by irregular behavior of mitotic centrosomes...
May 18, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Michael J Bond, Marina Bleiler, Lauren E Harrison, Eric W Scocchera, Masako Nakanishi, Narendran G-Dayanandan, Santosh Keshipeddy, Daniel W Rosenberg, Dennis L Wright, Charles Giardina
AK3 compounds are mitotic-arrest agents that induce high levels of γH2AX during mitosis and apoptosis following release from arrest. We synthesized a potent AK3 derivative, AK306, that induced arrest and apoptosis of the HCT116 colon cancer cell line with an EC50 of ~50 nM. AK306 was active on a broad spectrum of cancer cell lines with total growth inhibition values ranging from ~25 nM to 25 µM. Using biotin and BODIPY-linked derivatives of AK306, binding to clathrin heavy chain (CLTC/CHC) was observed, a protein with roles in endocytosis and mitosis...
May 16, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
Pu Wang, Yu Cheng Lu, Jie Wang, Lan Wang, Hanry Yu, Yuan Fei Li, Alice Kong, Juliana Chan, Shaochin Lee
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Type 2 diabetes is associated with oxidative stress and DNA damage which can cause centrosome amplification. Thus, the study investigated centrosome amplification in type 2 diabetes and the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Centrosome numbers in human peripheral blood mononuclear blood cells (PBMC) from healthy subjects and patients with type 2 diabetes were compared to access the association between type 2 diabetes and centrosome amplification. Colon cancer cells were used to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the centrosome amplification triggered by high glucose, insulin and palmitic acid...
May 11, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Maciej Gagat, Adrian Krajewski, Dariusz Grzanka, Alina Grzanka
Cyclin F is a part of the Skp, Cullin, F-box containing ligase complex. The activity of cyclin F includes cell cycle control, centrosome duplication and response to DNA damage. The cyclin F expression pattern is very similar to cyclin A, but cyclin F is an orphan cyclin without its cyclin-dependent kinase partner. There is little evidence concerning the role of cyclin F in cancer. In the present study, for the first time, we present analysis from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data in the context of expression of cyclin F mRNA in melanoma patients...
May 16, 2018: Oncology Reports
Sophie Quintin, Shaohe Wang, Julien Pontabry, Ambre Bender, François Robin, Vincent Hyenne, Frédéric Landmann, Christelle Gally, Karen Oegema, Michel Labouesse
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 14, 2018: Development
Florence L Marlow
Maternal control of development begins with production of the oocyte during oogenesis. All of the factors necessary to complete oocyte maturation, meiosis, fertilization, and early development are produced in the transcriptionally active early oocyte. Active transcription of the maternal genome is a mechanism to ensure that the oocyte and development of the early embryo begin with all of the factors needed for successful embryonic development. To achieve the maximum maternal store, only one functional cell is produced from the meiotic divisions that produce the oocyte...
2018: F1000Research
Allison M Gicking, Kyle W Swentowsky, R Kelly Dawe, Weihong Qiu
In most eukaryotes, cytoplasmic dynein serves as the primary cytoskeletal motor for minus-end-directed processes along microtubules. However, land plants lack dynein, having instead a large number of kinesin-14s, which suggests that kinesin-14s may have evolved to fill the cellular niche left by dynein. In addition, land plants do not have centrosomes, but contain specialized microtubule-based structures called phragmoplasts that facilitate the formation of new cell walls following cell division. This Review aims to compile the evidence for functional diversification of kinesin-14s in land plants...
May 12, 2018: FEBS Letters
Mi Young Seo, Kunsoo Rhee
The centrosome is the major microtubule-organizing center and plays important roles in intracellular transport, cellular morphology, and motility. In mitotic cells, centrosomes function as spindle poles to pull a set of chromosomes into daughter cells. In quiescent cells, primary cilia are originated from the centrosomes. Given its involvement in various cellular processes, it is little surprising that the organelle would also participate in apoptotic events. However, it remains elusive how the centrosome changes in structure and organization during apoptosis...
May 11, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Jeffrey B Woodruff
Cells compartmentalize biochemical reactions using organelles, which can be membrane-enclosed or built entirely of proteins and ribonucleic acids. Recent studies indicate that many organelles which lack membranes have liquid-like properties, including the ability to flow, fuse, and undergo rapid internal rearrangement. The assembly of these "biomolecular condensates" has been described as liquid-liquid phase separation, whereby their constituent components demix from the cytoplasm, similar to water separating from oil...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
Xue-Ping Ma, Wenping Zhang, Bu-Qiang Wu, Jun Qin
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic relevance of CEP55 in lung cancer (LC). MATERIAL AND METHODS LC microarray profile GSE30219 was obtained from the GEO database. The 2-sample t test was performed to clarify the difference in CEP55 expression between LC and normal lung tissue. The chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were preformed to investigate the relationship between CEP55 expression and the clinical features of LC patients. Log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards regression analysis were conducted to evaluate the disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) of LC patients...
May 11, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Josef Dvorak, Bohuslav Melichar, Alzbeta Filipova, Jana Grimova, Nela Grimova, Aneta Rozsypalova, David Buka, Rene Voboril, Radek Zapletal, Tomas Buchler, Igor Richter, David Buka
The immune synapse (IS) is a temporary interface between an antigen-presenting cell and an effector lymphocyte. Viral synapse is a molecularly organized cellular junction that is structurally similar to the IS. Primary cilium is considered as a functional homologue of the IS due to the morphological and functional similarities in architecture between both micotubule structures. It has been hypothesized that endogenous electromagnetic field in the cell is generated by a unique cooperating system between mitochondria and microtubules...
March 2018: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
Kun Gao, Yuanyuan Zhang, Qing Shi, Jianong Zhang, Liang Zhang, Huiru Sun, Dongyue Jiao, Xiayin Zhao, Hongru Tao, Youheng Wei, Yuqi Wang, Hexige Saiyin, Shi-Min Zhao, Yao Li, Pingzhao Zhang, Chenji Wang
Cytokinesis is the last step of cell division and is concluded by the abscission of the intercellular bridge that connects two daughter cells. The tight regulation of cytokinesis completion is essential because cytokinesis failure is associated with various human diseases. Here, we report that iASPP, a member of the apoptosis-stimulating proteins of p53 (ASPP) family, is required for proper cell division. iASPP depletion results in abnormal midbody structure and failed cytokinesis. We used protein affinity purification methods to identify the functional partners of iASPP...
May 9, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Rebecca Wellmann, Brittany A Borden, Keith Danahey, Rita Nanda, Blase N Polite, Walter M Stadler, Mark J Ratain, Peter H O'Donnell
BACKGROUND: Germline and tumor pharmacogenomics impact drug responses, but germline markers less commonly guide oncology prescribing. The authors hypothesized that a critical number of clinically actionable germline pharmacogenomic associations exist, representing clinical implementation opportunities. METHODS: In total, 125 oncology drugs were analyzed for positive germline pharmacogenomic associations in journals with impact factors ≥5. Studies were assessed for design and genotyping quality, clinically relevant outcomes, statistical rigor, and evidence of drug-gene effects...
May 9, 2018: Cancer
Robert F Shearer, Kari-Anne Myrum Frikstad, Jessie McKenna, Rachael A McCloy, Niantao Deng, Andrew Burgess, Trond Stokke, Sebastian Patzke, Darren N Saunders
Primary cilia are crucial for signal transduction in a variety of pathways, including Hedgehog and Wnt. Disruption of primary cilia formation (ciliogenesis) is linked to numerous developmental disorders (known as ciliopathies) and diseases, including cancer. The Ubiquitin-Proteasome System (UPS) component UBR5 was previously identified as a putative positive regulator of ciliogenesis in a functional genomics screen. UBR5 is an E3 Ubiquitin ligase that is frequently deregulated in tumours, but its biological role in cancer is largely uncharacterised, partly due to a lack of understanding of interacting proteins and pathways...
May 9, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Zachary C Elmore, Rodrigo X Guillen, Kathleen L Gould
CK1 protein kinases contribute to multiple biological processes, but how they are tailored to function in compartmentalized signaling events is largely unknown. Hhp1 and Hhp2 (Hhp1/2) are the soluble CK1 family members in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. One of their functions is to inhibit the septation initiation network (SIN) during a mitotic checkpoint arrest. The SIN is assembled by Sid4 at spindle pole bodies (SPBs), and though Hhp1/2 co-localize there, it is not known how they are targeted there nor if their SPB localization is required for SIN inhibition...
May 9, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Andrew Muroyama, Michael Terwilliger, Bushu Dong, Harrison Suh, Terry Lechler
In most differentiated cells, microtubules reorganize into non-centrosomal arrays that are cell-type specific. In the columnar absorptive enterocytes of the intestine, microtubules form polarized apical-basal arrays that have been proposed to play multiple roles. However, in vivo testing of these hypotheses has been hampered by a lack of genetic tools to specifically perturb microtubules. Here, we analyze mice in which microtubules are disrupted by conditional inducible expression of the microtubule-severing protein spastin...
May 9, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Ewelina Betleja, Rashmi Nanjundappa, Tao Cheng, Moe R Mahjoub
The two centrioles of the centrosome in quiescent cells are inherently asymmetric structures that differ in age, morphology and function. How these asymmetric properties are established and maintained during quiescence remains unknown. Here we show that a daughter centriole-associated ciliopathy protein, Cep120, plays a critical inhibitory role at daughter centrioles. Depletion of Cep120 in quiescent mouse and human cells causes accumulation of pericentriolar material (PCM) components including Pericentrin, Cdk5Rap2, Ninein and Cep170...
May 9, 2018: ELife
Carla A M Lopes, Marta Mesquita, Ana Isabel Cunha, Joana Cardoso, Sara Carapeta, Cátia Laranjeira, António E Pinto, José B Pereira-Leal, António Dias-Pereira, Mónica Bettencourt-Dias, Paula Chaves
Centrosome abnormalities are a typical hallmark of human cancers. However, the origin and dynamics of such abnormalities in human cancer are not known. In this study, we examined centrosomes in Barrett's esophagus tumorigenesis, a well-characterized multistep pathway of progression, from the premalignant condition to the metastatic disease. This human cancer model allows the study of sequential steps of progression within the same patient and has representative cell lines from all stages of disease. Remarkably, centrosome amplification was detected as early as the premalignant condition and was significantly expanded in dysplasia...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
Pedro Monteiro, Susana A Godinho
Structural centrosomal aberrations have long been described in cancer, but their impact on cell physiology and tumorigenesis remains unclear. Ganier et al. (2018) show that centrosome structural abnormalities facilitate cell dissemination by promoting budding of epithelial mitotic cells.
May 7, 2018: Developmental Cell
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