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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352742/cambogin-suppresses-dextran-sulphate-sodium-induced-colitis-by-enhancing-treg-cell-stability-and-function
#1
Yue Lu, Na-Mi Kim, Yi-Wen Jiang, Hong Zhang, Dan Zheng, Fu-Xiang Zhu, Rui Liang, Bin Li, Hong-Xi Xu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic and relapsing inflammatory disorder of gastrointestinal tract, and the dysfunction of immune regulation plays a critical role in IBD. Reflecting the limited use of current drugs and therapies for IBD treatment, it is necessary to explore novel drugs or therapies for this disease. We investigated the effect of cambogin in a mouse model of dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis and whether cambogin attenuates inflammation via Treg-cell-mediated immune modulation...
January 20, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352723/which-hiv-infected-adults-with-high-cd4-t-cell-counts-benefit-most-from-immediate-initiation-of-antiretroviral-therapy-a-post-hoc-subgroup-analysis-of-the-start-trial
#2
Jean-Michel Molina, Birgit Grund, Fred Gordin, Ian Williams, Mauro Schechter, Marcello Losso, Matthew Law, Ernest Ekong, Noluthando Mwelase, Athanasios Skoutelis, Martin J Wiselka, Linos Vandekerckhove, Thomas Benfield, David Munroe, Jens D Lundgren, James D Neaton
BACKGROUND: Immediate initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in asymptomatic adults with CD4 counts higher than 500 cells per μL, as recommended, might not always be possible in resource-limited settings. We aimed to identify subgroups of individuals who would benefit most from immediate treatment. METHODS: The START trial was a randomised controlled trial in asymptomatic, HIV-positive adults previously untreated with ART. Participants with CD4 counts higher than 500 cells per μL were randomly assigned to receive immediate ART or to defer ART until CD4 counts were lower than 350 cells per μL...
January 15, 2018: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352630/surgical-damage-to-the-lymphatic-system-promotes-tumor-growth-via-impaired-adaptive-immune-response
#3
Yoshiyuki Nakamura, Yasuhiro Fujisawa, Naoko Okiyama, Rei Watanabe, Ryota Tanaka, Yosuke Ishitsuka, Hideaki Tahara, Manabu Fujimoto
BACKGROUND: Both lymph nodes (LNs) and lymphatic channels from primary sites to regional LNs are critical for initiation of adaptive immunity. However, as LNs are common metastatic sites in skin cancers, LN biopsies or dissections are frequently performed. In addition, reconstructive skin flaps after tumor resection may damage lymphatic flow from primary sites to regional LNs. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to investigate the effect on tumor progression by such surgeries...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352371/innate-and-adaptive-t-cells-in-influenza-disease
#4
REVIEW
Simone Nüssing, Sneha Sant, Marios Koutsakos, Kanta Subbarao, Thi H O Nguyen, Katherine Kedzierska
Influenza is a major global health problem, causing infections of the respiratory tract, often leading to acute pneumonia, life-threatening complications and even deaths. Over the last seven decades, vaccination strategies have been utilized to protect people from complications of influenza, especially groups at high risk of severe disease. While current vaccination regimens elicit strain-specific antibody responses, they fail to generate cross-protection against seasonal, pandemic and avian viruses. Moreover, vaccines designed to generate influenza-specific T-cell responses are yet to be optimized...
January 20, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352298/hexokinase-ii-may-be-dispensable-for-cd4-t-cell-responses-against-a-virus-infection
#5
Siva Karthik Varanasi, Ujjaldeep Jaggi, Nissim Hay, Barry T Rouse
Activation of CD4 T cells leads to their metabolic reprogramming which includes enhanced glycolysis, catalyzed through hexokinase enzymes. Studies in some systems indicate that the HK2 isoform is the most up regulated isoform in activated T cells and in this report the relevance of this finding is evaluated in an infectious disease model. Genetic ablation of HK2 was achieved in only T cells and the outcome was evaluated by measures of T cell function. Our results show that CD4 T cells from both HK2 depleted and WT animals displayed similar responses to in vitro stimulation and yielded similar levels of Th1, Treg or Th17 subsets when differentiated in vitro...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352127/structural-covariance-of-gray-matter-volume-in-hiv-vertically-infected-adolescents
#6
Jielan Li, Lei Gao, Zhi Wen, Jing Zhang, Panying Wang, Ning Tu, Hao Lei, Fuchun Lin, Xi'en Gui, Guangyao Wu
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection significantly affect neurodevelopmental and behavioral outcomes. We investigated whether alterations of gray matter organization and structural covariance networks with vertical HIV infection adolescents exist, by using the GAT toolbox. MRI data were analysed from 25 HIV vertically infected adolescents and 33 HIV-exposed-uninfected control participants. The gray matter volume (GMV) was calculated, and structural brain networks were reconstructed from gray matter co-variance...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352109/role-of-b-and-t-lymphocyte-attenuator-in-renal-transplant-recipients-with-biopsy-proven-acute-rejection
#7
Zijie Wang, Haiwei Yang, Xuzhong Liu, Jingying Zhang, Zhijian Han, Jun Tao, Chunchun Zhao, Xiaobin Ju, Ruoyun Tan, Min Gu
BACKGROUND Acute rejection is a common predisposing cause of allograft dysfunction in kidney transplantation. Recently, the B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA)/herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM)/lymphotoxin (LIGHT)/CD160 pathway was found to be potentially involved in the regulation of T cell activation. This could mean that this pathway is involved in graft rejection in kidney transplantation; the present study aimed to explore this possibility. MATERIAL AND METHODS The expression of BTLA, HVEM, LIGHT and CD160 on peripheral CD4+, CD8+ and CD19+ lymphocytes were analyzed by flow cytometry in recipients with biopsy-proven acute rejection (BPAR) or stable allograft function, as well as in healthy volunteers...
January 20, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352091/precursors-of-human-cd4-cytotoxic-t-lymphocytes-identified-by-single-cell-transcriptome-analysis
#8
Veena S Patil, Ariel Madrigal, Benjamin J Schmiedel, James Clarke, Patrick O'Rourke, Aruna D de Silva, Eva Harris, Bjoern Peters, Gregory Seumois, Daniela Weiskopf, Alessandro Sette, Pandurangan Vijayanand
CD4+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CD4-CTLs) have been reported to play a protective role in several viral infections. However, little is known in humans about the biology of CD4-CTL generation, their functional properties, and heterogeneity, especially in relation to other well-described CD4+ memory T cell subsets. We performed single-cell RNA sequencing in more than 9000 cells to unravel CD4-CTL heterogeneity, transcriptional profile, and clonality in humans. Single-cell differential gene expression analysis revealed a spectrum of known transcripts, including several linked to cytotoxic and costimulatory function that are expressed at higher levels in the TEMRA (effector memory T cells expressing CD45RA) subset, which is highly enriched for CD4-CTLs, compared with CD4+ T cells in the central memory (TCM) and effector memory (TEM) subsets...
January 19, 2018: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352003/gene-expression-signatures-characterized-by-longitudinal-stability-and-interindividual-variability-delineate-baseline-phenotypic-groups-with-distinct-responses-to-immune-stimulation
#9
Adam D Scheid, Virginia P Van Keulen, Sara J Felts, Steven C Neier, Sumit Middha, Asha A Nair, Robert W Techentin, Barry K Gilbert, Jin Jen, Claudia Neuhauser, Yuji Zhang, Larry R Pease
Human immunity exhibits remarkable heterogeneity among individuals, which engenders variable responses to immune perturbations in human populations. Population studies reveal that, in addition to interindividual heterogeneity, systemic immune signatures display longitudinal stability within individuals, and these signatures may reliably dictate how given individuals respond to immune perturbations. We hypothesize that analyzing relationships among these signatures at the population level may uncover baseline immune phenotypes that correspond with response outcomes to immune stimuli...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352001/keap1-editing-using-crispr-cas9-for-therapeutic-nrf2-activation-in-primary-human-t-lymphocytes
#10
Sanjeev Noel, Sul A Lee, Mohanraj Sadasivam, Abdel R A Hamad, Hamid Rabb
Oxidant stress modifies T lymphocyte activation and function. Previous work demonstrated that murine T cell-specific kelch like-ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) deletion enhances antioxidant capacity and protects from experimental acute kidney injury. In this study, we used CRISPR technology to develop clinically translatable human T cell-specific KEAP1 deletion. Delivery of KEAP1 exon 2 specific Cas9:guide RNA in Jurkat T cells led to significant (∼70%) editing and upregulation of NRF2-regulated antioxidant genes NADPH dehydrogenase quinone 1 (NQO1) (up to 11-fold), heme oxygenase 1 (HO1) (up to 11-fold), and GCLM (up to 2-fold)...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351920/exceptional-response-to-pembrolizumab-in-a-metastatic-chemotherapy-radiation-resistant-ovarian-cancer-patient-harboring-a-cd274-pd-l1-genetic-rearrangement
#11
Stefania Bellone, Natalia Buza, Jungmin Choi, Luca Zammataro, Laurie Gay, Julia A Elvin, David L Rimm, Yuting Liu, Elena Ratner, Peter E Schwartz, Alessandro D Santin
PURPOSE: Ovarian carcinoma no longer responsive to surgery and chemotherapy remains an incurable disease. Alternative therapeutic options remain desperately needed. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We describe a heavily pretreated ovarian cancer patient with recurrent disease experiencing a remarkable clinical response to treatment with the anti-PD1 immune check-point inhibitor pembrolizumab. The clinical, pathological, and genomic characteristics of this exceptional ovarian cancer responder were carefully investigated using immunohistochemistry (IHC), quantitative multiplex fluorescence methods (ie, automated quantitative analysis, AQUA) and whole exome sequencing (WES) techniques...
January 19, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351788/elevated-inflammatory-cytokines-in-aqueous-cytokine-profile-in-hiv-1-infected-patients-with-cataracts-in-uganda
#12
Juliet Otiti-Sengeri, Robert Colebunders, Steven J Reynolds, Musa Muwonge, Getrude Nakigozi, Valerian Kiggundu, Fred Nalugoda, Damalie Nakanjako
BACKGROUND: Cataracts occur earlier among HIV-infected adults and this is attributed to various intraocular inflammatory processes that result in early degeneration. In this study we purposed to investigate whether HIV infected individuals with cataracts develop heightened intraocular inflammatory processes compared to their HIV negative counterparts by determining the concentration of 8 cytokines in the aqueous humour of HIV-positive adults with cataracts and their HIV-negative counterparts...
January 19, 2018: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351392/young-mice-expel-the-tapeworm-hymenolepis-diminuta-and-are-protected-from-colitis-by-triggering-a-memory-response-with-worm-antigen
#13
Toshio Arai, Fernando Lopes, Adam Shute, Arthur Wang, Derek M McKay
Infection with helminth parasites reduces the severity of concomitant inflammatory disease in adult mice. There is an alarming increase of IBD in children. It is important to determine if helminth therapy would be of value in pediatric IBD, and if triggering immunological memory to the worm would be anti-colitic. Three-week (young) and eight-week (adult) old Balb/c mice were infected with H. diminuta, and infectivity and T helper (TH)-2 immunity assessed. Other mice received H. diminuta {plus minus} a crude worm extract (HdE) 28-42 days post-infection (dpi) {plus minus} dinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (DNBS; 1...
January 4, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350748/protective-effect-of-chitosan-oligosaccharides-against-cyclophosphamide-induced-immunosuppression-and-irradiation-injury-in-mice
#14
Xingchen Zhai, Xin Yang, Pan Zou, Yong Shao, Shoujun Yuan, A M Abd El-Aty, Jing Wang
Chitosan oligosaccharides (COS), hydrolyzed products of chitosan, was found to display various biological activities. Herein, we assessed the immunostimulatory activity of COS both in in vitro and in vivo studies. In vitro cytotoxicity studies to murine macrophage RAW264.7 revealed that COS is safe even at the maximum tested concentration of 1000 μg/mL. It also stimulates the production of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and enhances the phagocytosis in COS-stimulated RAW264.7. We have shown that the COS could significantly (P < 0...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350470/specific-expression-of-pd-l1-in-rela-fusion-supratentorial-ependymoma-implications-for-pd-1-targeted-therapy
#15
Davis A Witt, Andrew M Donson, Vladimir Amani, Daniel C Moreira, Bridget Sanford, Lindsey M Hoffman, Michael H Handler, Jean M Mulcahy Levy, Kenneth L Jones, Anandani Nellan, Nicholas K Foreman, Andrea M Griesinger
BACKGROUND: A desperate need for novel therapies in pediatric ependymoma (EPN) exists, as chemotherapy remains ineffective and radiotherapy often fails. EPN have significant infiltration of immune cells, which correlates with outcome. Immune checkpoint inhibitors provide an avenue for new treatments. This study characterizes tumor-infiltrating immune cells in EPN and aims at predicting candidates for clinical trials using checkpoint inhibitors targeting PD-L1/PD-1 (programmed death ligand 1/programmed death 1)...
January 19, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350379/metabolic-syndrome-in-hiv-infected-adults-in-poland
#16
Magdalena Rogalska-Płońska, Anna Grzeszczuk, Paweł Rogalski, Mariusz Łucejko, Robert Flisiak
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MS) is usually diagnosed based on presence of abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure, elevated fasting plasma glucose, high serum triglycerides (TG) and low high-density lipoprotein levels (HDL). Whether HIV is associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome than general population remains unclear. AIM: Aim of the study was to determine the incidence of metabolic syndrome in the population of HIV infected adults and its association with clinical, virological and biochemical features...
January 19, 2018: Kardiologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349609/caspase-1-mediated-pyroptosis-of-the-predominance-for-driving-cd4-formula-see-text-t-cells-death-a-nonlocal-spatial-mathematical-model
#17
Wei Wang, Tongqian Zhang
Caspase-1-mediated pyroptosis is the predominance for driving CD4[Formula: see text] T cells death. Dying infected CD4[Formula: see text] T cells can release inflammatory signals which attract more uninfected CD4[Formula: see text] T cells to die. This paper is devoted to developing a diffusive mathematical model which can make useful contributions to understanding caspase-1-mediated pyroptosis by inflammatory cytokines IL-1[Formula: see text] released from infected cells in the within-host environment. The well-posedness of solutions, basic reproduction number, threshold dynamics are investigated for spatially heterogeneous infection...
January 18, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349532/a-novel-approach-in-treatment-of-tuberculosis-by-targeting-drugs-to-infected-macrophages-using-biodegradable-nanoparticles
#18
REVIEW
Shivangi, Laxman S Meena
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis is now causing death of more than 10 million people. Because of the development of drug-resistant TB, drug delivery to the infected site through nanoparticle had been studied for long time. Nanoparticles indicate different sorts of association with the natural particles of the body. Nanoparticles can be used as controlled or specific drug delivery system. It can be through temporal controlled or can be distribution controlled. Glucose polymer-based nanoparticles might play an important role as drug delivery system in case of targeted drug delivery in the infected site of the body or in infected macrophages, as they are biodegradable so there should not be any side effects of these particles in the body and also they show very slow immune response...
January 19, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348865/targeting-t-cell-malignancies-using-anti-cd4-car-nk-92-cells
#19
Kevin G Pinz, Elizabeth Yakaboski, Alexander Jares, Hua Liu, Amelia E Firor, Kevin H Chen, Masayuki Wada, Huda Salman, William Tse, Nabil Hagag, Fengshuo Lan, Elaine Lai-Han Leung, Xun Jiang, Yupo Ma
Peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs) are a group of very aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs) with poor prognoses and account for a majority of T-cell malignancies. Overall, the standard of care for patients with T-cell malignancies is poorly established, and there is an urgent clinical need for a new approach. As demonstrated in B-cell malignancies, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) immunotherapy provides great hope as a curative treatment regimen. Because PTCLs develop from mature T-cells, these NHLs are commonly CD4+, and CD4 is highly and uniformly expressed...
December 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348685/overexpression-of-adhesion-molecules-and-barrier-molecules-is-associated-with-differential-infiltration-of-immune-cells-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#20
Young Kwang Chae, Wooyoung M Choi, William H Bae, Jonathan Anker, Andrew A Davis, Sarita Agte, Wade T Iams, Marcelo Cruz, Maria Matsangou, Francis J Giles
Immunotherapy is emerging as a promising option for lung cancer treatment. Various endothelial adhesion molecules, such as integrin and selectin, as well as various cellular barrier molecules such as desmosome and tight junctions, regulate T-cell infiltration in the tumor microenvironment. However, little is known regarding how these molecules affect immune cells in patients with lung cancer. We demonstrated for the first time that overexpression of endothelial adhesion molecules and cellular barrier molecule genes was linked to differential infiltration of particular immune cells in non-small cell lung cancer...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
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