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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779260/fifteen-years-of-pmtct-hiv-and-syphilis-outcomes-in-haiti-from-monotherapy-to-option-b
#1
Marie Marcelle Deschamps, Deanna Jannat-Khah, Vanessa Rouzier, Jerry Bonhomme, Julma Pierrot, Myung Hee Lee, Elaine Abrams, Jean Pape, Margaret L McNairy
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate mother and infant outcomes in the largest prevention of mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT) program in Haiti in order to identify gaps towards elimination of HIV and syphilis. METHODS: Based on retrospective data from HIV+ pregnant women and their infants enrolled in PMTCT care from 1999-2014, we assessed maternal enrolment in PMTCT, receipt of antiretrovirals before delivery, maternal retention through delivery, as well as infant enrolment in PMTCT, HIV testing, and HIV infection...
May 19, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779162/beyond-social-desirability-bias-investigating-inconsistencies-in-self-reported-hiv-testing-and-treatment-behaviors-among-hiv-positive-adults-in-north-west-province-south-africa
#2
Alyssa C Mooney, Chadwick K Campbell, Mary-Jane Ratlhagana, Jessica S Grignon, Sipho Mazibuko, Emily Agnew, Hailey Gilmore, Scott Barnhart, Adrian Puren, Starley B Shade, Teri Liegler, Sheri A Lippman
This mixed-methods study used qualitative interviews to explore discrepancies between self-reported HIV care and treatment-related behaviors and the presence of antiretroviral medications (ARVs) in a population-based survey in South Africa. ARV analytes were identified among 18% of those reporting HIV-negative status and 18% of those reporting not being on ART. Among participants reporting diagnosis over a year prior, 19% reported multiple HIV tests in the past year. Qualitative results indicated that participant misunderstandings about their care and treatment played a substantial role in reporting inaccuracies...
May 19, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778842/curcumin-attenuates-sepsis-induced-acute-organ-dysfunction-by-preventing-inflammation-and-enhancing-the-suppressive-function-of-tregs
#3
Longwang Chen, Yang Lu, Linjun Zhao, Lili Hu, Qiaomeng Qiu, Zhuoling Zhang, Mengfang Li, Guangliang Hong, Bing Wu, Guangju Zhao, Zhongqiu Lu
Sepsis is characterized by the extensive release of cytokines and other mediators. It results in a dysregulated immune response and can lead to organ damage and death. Curcumin has anti-inflammatory properties and immunoregulation functions in various disorders such as sepsis, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular diseases, lung fibrosis, gallstone formation, and diabetes. This paper investigates the effects of curcumin on immune status and inflammatory response in mice subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)...
May 17, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778208/enhanced-infection-of-avian-influenza-virus-h9n2-with-infectious-laryngeotracheitis-vaccination-in-chickens
#4
Nagah Arafat, Abdelfattah H Eladl, Basma H Marghani, Mohamed A Saif, Reham A El-Shafei
Avian influenza and infectious laryngeotracheitis viruses are common causes of respiratory diseases in chickens with economical importance worldwide. In this study, we investigated the effect of experimental co-infection of avian influenza virus-H9N2 (AIV-H9N2) with infectious laryngeotracheitis virus (ILTV) live-attenuated vaccine (LAR-VAC® ) on chickens. Four experimental groups were included in this study: negative control group, AIV-H9N2 group, AIV-H9N2+LAR-VAC® group, and LAR-VAC® group. AIV-H9N2 was inoculated intranasally to challenged groups at 35 days of age...
June 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778008/plasma-metabolic-changes-in-chinese-hiv-infected-patients-receiving-lopinavir-ritonavir-based-treatment-implications-for-hiv-precision-therapy
#5
Xiaolin Li, Tong Wu, Yongjun Jiang, Zining Zhang, Xiaoxu Han, Wenqing Geng, Haibo Ding, Jing Kang, Qi Wang, Hong Shang
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study is to profile the metabolic changes in the plasma of HIV patients receiving lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r)-based highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) relative to their treatment-naïve phase, aimed to identify precision therapy for HIV for improving prognosis and predicting dyslipidemia caused by LPV/r. METHODS: 38 longitudinal plasma samples were collected from 19 HIV-infected patients both before and after antiretroviral therapy, and 18 samples from healthy individuals were used as controls...
May 16, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777913/the-tp53-induced-glycolysis-and-apoptosis-regulator-mediates-cooperation-between-htlv-1-p30-ii-and-the-retroviral-oncoproteins-tax-and-hbz-and-is-highly-expressed-in-an-in-vivo-xenograft-model-of-htlv-1-induced-lymphoma
#6
Tetiana Hutchison, Aditi Malu, Laçin Yapindi, Rachel Bergeson, Kendra Peck, Megan Romeo, Carolyn Harrod, Jordan Pope, Louisa Smitherman, Wesleigh Gwinn, Lee Ratner, Courtney Yates, Robert Harrod
The human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) is an oncoretrovirus that infects and transforms CD4+ T-cells and causes adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) -an aggressive lymphoproliferative disease that is highly refractive to most anticancer therapies. The HTLV-1 proviral genome encodes several regulatory products within a conserved 3' nucleotide sequence, known as pX; however, it remains unclear how these factors might cooperate or dynamically interact in virus-infected cells. Here we demonstrate that the HTLV-1 latency-maintenance factor p30II induces the TP53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator (TIGAR) and counters the oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage, and cytotoxicity caused by the viral oncoproteins Tax and HBZ...
May 16, 2018: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777462/a-composite-of-multisystem-injury-and-neurocognitive-impairment-in-hiv-infection-association-with-everyday-functioning
#7
María J Marquine, Ilse Flores, Rujvi Kamat, Neco Johnson, Anya Umlauf, Scott Letendre, Dilip Jeste, Igor Grant, David Moore, Robert K Heaton
The Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) Index is a composite marker of multisystem injury among HIV-infected persons. We aimed to examine its cross-sectional association with functional outcomes, after considering neurocognitive impairment (NCI) and other well-established correlates of everyday functioning among HIV-infected persons. Participants included 670 HIV-infected adults (ages 18-76; 88% male; 63% non-Hispanic White; median current CD4 = 404 cells/mm3 ; 67% on antiretroviral therapy; AIDS = 63%) enrolled in observational studies at the University of California San Diego HIV Neurobehavioral Research Program...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777446/the-degree-of-hiv-1-amino-acid-variability-is-strictly-related-to-different-disease-progression-rates
#8
Rossana Scutari, Monica Faieta, Roberta D'Arrigo, Lavinia Fabeni, Cristina Mussini, Andrea Cossarizza, Claudio Casoli, Carlo Federico Perno, Valentina Svicher, Claudia Alteri, Stefano Aquaro
The aim of this study is to evaluate the amino acid variability of HIV-1 Gp41, C2-V3, and Nef in a group of patients characterized by different disease progression rates. HIV-1 sequences were collected from 19 Long term non progressor patients (LTNPs), 9 slow progressors (SPs), and 11 rapid progressors (RPs). Phylogenetic trees were estimated by MEGA 6. Differences in amino acid variability among sequences belonging to the 3 groups have been evaluated by amino acid divergence, Shannon entropy analysis, and the number of amino acid mutations (defined as amino acid variations compared with HxB2)...
May 17, 2018: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777158/mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-t-cells-in-the-formation-of-tertiary-lymphoid-structures-in-lupus-nephritis
#9
S Esmaeil Dorraji, Aud-Malin K Hovd, Premasany Kanapathippillai, Gunnstein Bakland, Gro Østli Eilertsen, Stine L Figenschau, Kristin A Fenton
Tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS) develop in the kidneys of lupus-prone mice and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients with lupus nephritis (LN). Here we investigated the presence of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the development of TLS in murine LN, as well as the role of human MSCs as lymphoid tissue organizer (LTo) cells on the activation of CD4+ T cells from three groups of donors including Healthy, SLE and LN patients. Mesenchymal stem like cells were detected within the pelvic wall and TLS in kidneys of lupus-prone mice...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777119/changes-in-t-cell-effector-functions-over-an-8-year-period-with-tnf-antagonists-in-patients-with-chronic-inflammatory-rheumatic-diseases
#10
Ilaria Sauzullo, Rossana Scrivo, Paola Sessa, Fabio Mengoni, Vincenzo Vullo, Guido Valesini, Claudio Maria Mastroianni
The aim of the study was to clarify the effect of long-term anti-TNF therapy on T cell function in patients with rheumatologic immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMID). The production of IFNγ by T cells was evaluated at baseline and after 1, 2, 4, and 8 years of anti-TNF agents by means of a QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube assay. The T cell proliferation and surface co-expression of CD25/CD134 in response to phytohaemagglutinin together with the in vitro impact of anti-TNF therapy on the functional capacity of T cells were evaluated after 8 years from the onset of the biological treatment...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777029/cd4-t-cell-affinity-diversity-is-equally-maintained-during-acute-and-chronic-infection
#11
Rakieb Andargachew, Ryan J Martinez, Elizabeth M Kolawole, Brian D Evavold
TCR affinity for peptide MHC dictates the functional efficiency of T cells and their propensity to differentiate into effectors and form memory. However, in the context of chronic infections, it is unclear what the overall profile of TCR affinity for Ag is and if it differs from acute infections. Using the comprehensive affinity analysis provided by the two-dimensional micropipette adhesion frequency assay and the common indirect affinity evaluation methods of MHC class II tetramer and functional avidity, we tracked IAb GP61-80 -specific cells in the mouse model of acute (Armstrong) and chronic (clone 13) lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776614/characterisation-of-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cell-populations-in-periparturient-dairy-cows-that-develop-metritis
#12
John J Bromfield, Meghan M Watt, Sossi M Iacovides
Bacterial contamination of the uterus following calving is ubiquitous in the dairy cow, 40% of cows develop postpartum uterine infection, including metritis. While predisposing factors like twinning and dystocia are associated with metritis, it is unclear why some cows remain healthy following calving and others develop uterine infection, negatively impacting animal health, milk production and economic return. Here, we profiled peripheral blood mononuclear cells of cows before calving and during postpartum metritis...
June 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776611/nasal-delivery-of-chitosan-alginate-nanoparticle-encapsulated-bee-apis-mellifera-venom-promotes-antibody-production-and-viral-clearance-during-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-infection-by-modulating-t-cell-related-responses
#13
Jina Lee, Yun-Mi Kim, Ju-Heon Kim, Cheong-Weon Cho, Jong-Woon Jeon, Jin-Kyu Park, Sang-Ho Lee, Bock-Gie Jung, Bong-Joo Lee
In this study, we administered specially developed chitosan/alginate nanoparticle encapsulated BV (CH/AL-BV) which has slow-releasing properties and mucosal adhesiveness to pig via nasal route and evaluate whether it can facilitate systemic immune response and improve clearance of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The CH/AL-BV-administered group with PRRSV vaccination showed significantly enhanced Th1-related responses including a high population of CD4+ T lymphocyte and cytokine mRNA levels including interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin (IL)-12 and increased PRRSV-specific IgG levels...
June 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775667/identification-of-novel-hla-a11-restricted-t-cell-epitopes-in-the-ebola-virus-nucleoprotein
#14
Dan Li, Pei Li, Nianping Song, Yuting Jiang, Yang Zeng, Guangyu Zhao, Yunzhi Fa, Huahu Ye, Yuchun Lone, Yusen Zhou, Shihui Sun, Lin Zeng
The Ebola virus (EBOV) is a very contagious virus that is highly fatal in humans and animals. The largest epidemic was in West Africa in 2014, in which over 11,000 people died. However, to date, there are no licensed vaccines against it. Studies show that CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses, especially cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses, play key roles in protecting individuals from EBOV infection. Since HLA-restricted epitope vaccines are likely to be effective and safe immunization strategies for infectious diseases, the present study screened for CTL epitopes in the EBOV-nucleoprotein that are restricted by HLA-A11 (a common allele in Chinese people)...
May 15, 2018: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775622/clinicopathological-analysis-of-immunohistochemical-expression-of-retinoic-acid-related-orphan-receptor-%C3%AE-t-in-peripheral-t-cell-lymphoma-not-otherwise-specified
#15
Eriko Yanagida, Hiroaki Miyoshi, Keisuke Kawamoto, Kazutaka Nakashima, Kotaro Matsuda, Kyohei Yamada, Reiji Muto, Koji Nagafuji, Masao Seto, Koichi Ohshima
Peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS) is cytologically and phenotypically heterogeneous. Retinoic acid-related orphan receptor-γt (RORγt) is a transcription factor that regulates the differentiation of naïve CD4+ helper T-cells to Th17 cells. In the present study, we immunohistochemically confirmed the expression of RORγt in PTCL-NOS. Pathological and clinical investigations were performed for 170 cases of PTCL-NOS. RORγt-positive cases accounted for 17.6% (30/170) of the total cases and they showed a significantly higher frequency of CD8 positivity (P=...
May 15, 2018: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775115/immunofluorescent-localization-of-non-myelinating-schwann-cells-and-their-interactions-with-immune-cells-in-mouse-thymus
#16
Dailun Hu, Philip K Nicholls, Changfu Yin, Khama Kelman, Qionglan Yuan, Wayne K Greene, Zhongli Shi, Bin Ma
The thymus is innervated by sympathetic/parasympathetic nerve fibers from the peripheral nervous system (PNS), suggesting a neural regulation of thymic function including T-cell development. Despite some published studies, data on the innervation and nerve-immune interaction inside the thymus remain limited. In the present study, we used immunofluorescent staining of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) coupled with confocal microscopy/three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction to reveal the distribution of non-myelinating Schwann cells (NMSC) and their interactions with immune cells inside mouse thymus...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774468/salivary-anti-coxsackievirus-b4-neutralizing-activity-and-pattern-of-immune-parameters-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-a-pilot-study
#17
Magloire Pandoua Nekoua, Akadiri Yessoufou, Enagnon Kazali Alidjinou, Francis Badia-Boungou, Kabirou Moutairou, Famara Sane, Didier Hober
AIMS: Enteroviruses, especially coxsackieviruses B (CV-B), have been associated with the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D). An anti-CV-B4 neutralizing activity in saliva of T1D patients was previously reported. Our aim was to study the association between the saliva anti-CV-B4 neutralizing activity and immune parameters in T1D patients in comparison with non-diabetic individuals. METHODS: Saliva and blood samples were collected from 15 T1D patients and 8 controls...
May 17, 2018: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774106/hematopoietic-restricted-ptpn11e76k-reveals-indolent-mpn-progression-in-mice
#18
Stefan P Tarnawsky, Wen-Mei Yu, Cheng-Kui Qu, Rebecca J Chan, Mervin C Yoder
Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia (JMML) is a pediatric myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) that has a poor prognosis. Somatic mutations in Ptpn11 are the most frequent cause of JMML and they commonly occur in utero . Animal models of mutant Ptpn11 have probed the signaling pathways that contribute to JMML. However, existing models may inappropriately exacerbate MPN features by relying on non-hematopoietic-restricted Cre-loxP strains or transplantations into irradiated recipients. In this study we generate hematopoietic-restricted models of Ptpn11E76K-mediated disease using Csf1r-MCM and Flt3Cre...
April 24, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774030/changes-in-the-tcr%C3%AE-repertoire-and-tumor-immune-signature-from-a-cutaneous-melanoma-patient-immunized-with-the-csf-470-vaccine-a-case-report
#19
Mariana Aris, Alicia Inés Bravo, María Betina Pampena, Paula Alejandra Blanco, Ibel Carri, Daniel Koile, Patricio Yankilevich, Estrella Mariel Levy, María Marcela Barrio, José Mordoh
The allogeneic therapeutic vaccine CSF-470 has demonstrated a significant benefit over medium-dose IFNα2b in the distant metastasis-free survival for stages IIB-IIC-III cutaneous melanoma patients in a randomized phase II/III clinical trial (CASVAC-0401, NCT01729663). At the end of the 2-year CSF-470 immunization protocol, patient #006 developed several lung and one subcutaneous melanoma metastases; this later was excised. In this report, we analyzed the changes throughout vaccination of immune populations in blood and in the tumor tissue, with special focus on the T-cell repertoire...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774028/nlrp3-inflammasome-and-caspase-1-11-pathway-orchestrate-different-outcomes-in-the-host-protection-against-trypanosoma-cruzi-acute-infection
#20
Augusto F Paroli, Patricia V Gonzalez, Cintia Díaz-Luján, Luisina I Onofrio, Alfredo Arocena, Roxana C Cano, Eugenio A Carrera-Silva, Susana Gea
Infection with protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi results in activation of nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat containing receptors (NLRs). NLR activation leads to inflammasome formation, the activation of caspase-1, and the subsequent cleavage of IL-1β and IL-18. Considering that inflammasome activation and IL-1β induction by macrophages are key players for an appropriate T cell response, we investigated the relevance of NLR pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) and caspase-1/11 to elucidate their roles in the induction of different T cell phenotypes and the relationship with parasite load and hepatic inflammation during T...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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