Read by QxMD icon Read


Jes M Sanders, Alexandra B Steverson, Anna E Pawlowski, Daniel Schneider, Chad J Achenbach, Donald M Lloyd-Jones, Matthew J Feinstein
BACKGROUND: Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected (HIV+) persons have elevated risks for various manifestations of cardiovascular disease (CVD). No studies to our knowledge have compared atrial fibrillation (AF) and atrial flutter (AFL) prevalence and associated characteristics for HIV+ persons and matched uninfected controls. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Persons with diagnoses of HIV receiving care at a large urban academic medical center were frequency-matched 1:2 on age, sex, race, zip code, and clinic location with uninfected persons...
2018: PloS One
Nuria González, Krisha McKee, Rebecca M Lynch, Ivelin S Georgiev, Laura Jimenez, Eulalia Grau, Eloísa Yuste, Peter D Kwong, John R Mascola, José Alcamí
BACKGROUND: Only a small fraction of HIV-1-infected patients develop broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs), a process generally associated to chronic antigen stimulation. It has been described that rare aviremic HIV-1-infected patients can generate bNAbs but this issue remains controversial. To address this matter we have assessed bNAb responses in a large cohort of long-term non-progressors (LTNPs) with low or undetectable viremia. METHODS: Samples from the LTNP cohort of the Spanish AIDS Research Network (87 elite and 42 viremic controllers) and a control population of 176 viremic typical-progressors (TPs) were screened for bNAbs using Env-recombinant viruses...
2018: PloS One
Magdalena Dryglewska, Bogdan Kolarz, Maria Majdan
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease that results in uncontrolled immune system activation and overproduction of autoantibodies. The pathogenesis of the disease is complex and not fully understood, nevertheless, genetic and environmental factors play an important role. So far, about 30 genes have been identified to be involved in the SLE pathomechanism. However, not all genetically predisposed individuals develop the disease. This phenomenon can be associated with epigenetic changes that occur under the influence of environmental factors...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Mariana V Meireles, Ana Roberta P Pascom, Elisabeth C Duarte
OBJECTIVE: To identify clinical, sociodemographic and treatment-related factors associated with early virological response in HIV-infected adults starting antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Brazil in 2014-2015. METHODS: Data from four information systems from the Brazilian AIDS Program were combined to create a historical cohort. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to assess the likelihood of not achieving virological suppression (VLS), defined as having either a viral load count (VL) >200 copies/mL or an aids-related death recorded within 180±90 days after treatment initiation...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Hongyoon Choi, Kwon Joong Na
Although metabolic modulation in the tumor microenvironment (TME) is one of the key mechanisms of cancer immune escape, there is a lack of understanding of the comprehensive immune landscape of the TME and its association with tumor metabolism based on clinical evidence. We aimed to investigate the relationship between the immune landscape in the TME and tumor glucose metabolism in lung adenocarcinoma. Methods: Using RNA sequencing and image data, we developed a transcriptome-based tumor metabolism estimation model...
2018: Theranostics
Jiehua Zhou, Daniel Lazar, Haitang Li, Xin Xia, Sangeetha Satheesan, Paige Charlins, Denis O'Mealy, Ramesh Akkina, Sheena Saayman, Marc S Weinberg, John J Rossi, Kevin V Morris
Gene-based therapies represent a promising therapeutic paradigm for the treatment of HIV-1, as they have the potential to maintain sustained viral inhibition with reduced treatment interventions. Such an option may represent a long-term treatment alternative to highly active antiretroviral therapy. Methods: We previously described a therapeutic approach, referred to as transcriptional gene silencing (TGS), whereby small noncoding RNAs directly inhibit the transcriptional activity of HIV-1 by targeting sites within the viral promoter, specifically the 5' long terminal repeat (LTR)...
2018: Theranostics
Yanying Guo, Jazyra Zynat, Shuqing Xing, Liang Xin, Suli Li, Nurongguli Mammat, Yuan Chen, Limin Zhao, Hongli Zhao, Xinling Wang
Recent incidence rates for Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) and hypothyroidism are higher than those of previous studies. Previous studies indicated that T helper cells may have a major role in the pathogenesis and development of HT, but there is no consensus in the literature. The aim of the present study was to explore the peripheral T helper cell response in the different stages of HT. In this cross-sectional study, we performed flow cytometry analysis to determine the various T cell subsets of 389 patients with HT (34 patients with HT who developed overt hypothyroidism, and 148 patients with HT who developed subclinical hypothyroidism), as well as 51 healthy controls...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Rachel V Jimenez, Tyler T Wright, Nicholas R Jones, Jianming Wu, Andrew W Gibson, Alexander J Szalai
C-reactive protein (CRP) is the prototypical acute phase reactant, increasing in blood concentration rapidly and several-fold in response to inflammation. Recent evidence indicates that CRP has an important physiological role even at low, baseline levels, or in the absence of overt inflammation. For example, we have shown that human CRP inhibits the progression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in CRP transgenic mice by shifting CD4+ T cells away from the TH 1 and toward the TH 2 subset. Notably, this action required the inhibitory Fcγ receptor IIB (FcγRIIB), but did not require high levels of human CRP...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Kimberly Schmitt, Ramesh Akkina
In the current quest for a complete cure for HIV/AIDS, highly sensitive HIV-1 latency detection methods are critical to verify full viral eradication. Until now, the in vitro quantitative viral outgrowth assays (qVOA) have been the gold standard for assessing latent HIV-1 viral burden. However, these assays have been inadequate in detecting the presence of ultralow levels of latent virus in a number of patients who were initially thought to have been cured, but eventually showed viral rebound. In this context, new approaches utilizing in vivo mouse-based VOAs are promising...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Seung Hyun Lee, Eun-Hye Seo, Hyun Jun Park, Chung-Sik Oh, Cho Long Kim, Sewon Park, Seong-Hyop Kim
This study assessed the effects of crystalloid versus synthetic colloid in vitro on immune cells co-cultured with mouse splenocytes. Mouse splenocytes were co-cultured with three different types of fluid: Plasma solution-A® (CJ HealthCare, Seoul, Korea; the crystalloid group); Tetraspan 6%® (B. Braun Medical, Melsungen, Germany; the Colloid-T group); and Volulyte 6%® (Fresenius Kabi, Bad Homburg vor dér-Höhe, Germany; Colloid-V group). To evaluate the acquired immune response, cluster of differentiation (CD) 4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells were measured...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Annemieke Abel, Christiane Steeg, Francis Aminkiah, Otchere Addai-Mensah, Marylyn Addo, Nicola Gagliani, Christian Casar, Denis Dekugmen Yar, Ellis Owusu-Dabo, Thomas Jacobs, Maria Sophia Mackroth
The immune response of malaria patients is a main factor influencing the clinical severity of malaria. A tight regulation of the CD4+ T cell response or the induction of tolerance have been proposed to contribute to protection from severe or clinical disease. We therefore compared the CD4+ T cell phenotypes of Ghanaian children with complicated malaria, uncomplicated malaria, asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) infection or no infection. Using flow cytometric analysis and automated multivariate clustering, we characterized the expression of the co-inhibitory molecules CTLA-4, PD-1, Tim-3, and LAG-3 and other molecules implicated in regulatory function on CD4+ T cells...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yuki Katayama, Masashi Tachibana, Nozomi Kurisu, Yukako Oya, Yuichi Terasawa, Hiroshi Goda, Kouji Kobiyama, Ken J Ishii, Shizuo Akira, Hiroyuki Mizuguchi, Fuminori Sakurai
Oncolytic reovirus, which possesses 10 segments of dsRNA genome, mediates antitumor effects via not only virus replication in a tumor cell-specific manner, but also activation of antitumor immunity; however, the mechanism(s) of reovirus-induced activation of antitumor immunity have not been fully elucidated. Recent studies have demonstrated that overcoming an immunosuppressive environment in tumor-bearing hosts is important to achieve efficient activation of antitumor immunity. Among the various types of cells involved in immunosuppression, it has been revealed that myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are significantly increased in tumor-bearing hosts and play crucial roles in the immunosuppression in tumor-bearing hosts...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Sandra Vreman, Gael Auray, Huub F J Savelkoul, Annemarie Rebel, Artur Summerfield, Norbert Stockhofe-Zurwieden
The present study investigated the innate immune response in vitro to determine porcine neonate responses with Toll-like receptor (TLR)2 ligand (Pam3Cys) or TLR9 ligand (CpG) and compare these with adults. We identified the same phenotypically defined dendritic cells (DC) subsets and DC proportions in porcine neonate and adult blood by flow cytometry, which were plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs): CD14- CD4+ CD172a+ CADM1- ) and conventional DCs (cDCs), the latter being further divided into a cDC1 (CD14- CD4- CD172alow CADM1+ ) and a cDC2 (CD14- CD4- CD172a+ CADM1+ ) subset...
March 16, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Te-Yu Lin, Chia-Jui Yang, Chung-Eng Liu, Hung-Jen Tang, Tun-Chieh Chen, Guan-Jhou Chen, Tung-Che Hung, Kuan-Yin Lin, Chien-Yu Cheng, Yi-Chien Lee, Shih-Ping Lin, Mao-Song Tsai, Yu-Lin Lee, Shu-Hsing Cheng, Chien-Ching Hung, Ning-Chi Wang
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Acute HIV infection is characterized by a high concentration of HIV RNA in the plasma and rapid depletion of the CD4 cell count. This multicenter, retrospective observational study aimed to characterize the manifestations of acuteHIV infection in Taiwan. METHODS: Between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2016, all patients aged 20 years or greater who presented with acute HIV infection were included. Demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients at diagnosis were collected...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
Michael R Pranzatelli, Tyler J Allison, Elizabeth D Tate
INTRODUCTION: Flow cytometric cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lymphocyte subset analysis has improved the diagnosis of neuroinflammation and identified multiple markers of inflammation in opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS). The aim of this exploratory, retrospective study was to analyze the effect of immunotherapy on these markers to determine which agents are disease modifying. METHODS: Cross-sectional immunological observations were made in an IRB-approved case-control study, and patients were treated empirically...
March 5, 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
C A A Lemos, F R Verri, R S Cruz, J F Santiago Júnior, L P Faverani, E P Pellizzer
No consensus has been reached on the use of dental implants in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients. This systematic review evaluated dental implants in HIV-positive patients in terms of implant survival and success rates, marginal bone loss, and complications. The review was conducted according to the PRISMA checklist. Two independent reviewers performed a comprehensive search of the PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and Cochrane Library databases for studies published until October 2017. Six studies were selected for review...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Jiangchao Li, Xiaohan Zhang, Qing Liu, Mingming Yang, Zijun Zhou, Yuxiang Ye, Zeqi Zhou, Xiaodong He, Lijing Wang
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are found frequently in patients and mice bearing tumors, which derived from immature myeloid cells. In healthy individuals, immature myeloid cells formed in the bone marrow differentiating to dendritic cells, macrophages and neutrophils. However, it is unclear whether some gene deficiency will lead to MDSCs accumulation in mice without bearing tumor. Here, we observed that MDSCs accumulated in the bone marrow of matrix metalloproteinase 12 knockout mice (MMP12-/- mice) compared with wild type mice (MMP12+/+ mice)...
December 13, 2017: Cellular Immunology
Baoren Zhang, Yi Liu, Xu Lan, Xiaoxi Xu, Xiaoning Zhang, Xiang Li, Yiming Zhao, Guang Li, Caigan Du, Shanzheng Lu, Hao Wang
BACKGROUND: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) characterized by chronic inflammation of colon. It is commonly believed that the imbalance of immune system and overwhelming production of cytokines are involved in the pathogenesis of UC. Recent studies demonstrated that interleukin-35 (IL-35), a key player in the regulation of inflammation, has been identified as potential therapeutic target to treat UC. However, conventional intravenous administration is costly and inconvenient...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Li Huang, Meijuan Wang, Yongdong Yan, Wenjing Gu, Xinxing Zhang, Jiahong Tan, Huiming Sun, Wei Ji, Zhengrong Chen
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of OX40L in regulating helper T (Th) cells differentiation through phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway in vitro and in vivo experiments. METHODS: Serum samples of patients with asthma and healthy controls were used to explore the association between OX40L and Th cells. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure the serum concentrations of OX40L, IL-4, IFN-γ, IL-17 and TGF-β...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Lilija Miller, Eva Ringler, Klaus Maximilian Kistner, Zoe Waibler
The most severe side effect in haemophilia A (HA) treatment is the development of anti-factor VIII antibodies, also called inhibitors. Why inhibitors develop in a proportion of treated HA patients and how this can be prevented remains largely unanswered. Among numerous theories, the presence of immunological danger signals, associated with events such as surgery or infection, has been proposed to play a role. In this study, we demonstrate that human dendritic cells (DC) synergistically activated by a combination of factor VIII (FVIII) concentrate plus the bacterial danger signal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induce a significantly stronger activation of autologous CD4+ T cells than DC pretreated with FVIII or LPS alone...
March 19, 2018: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"