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Christine Gross, Veit Wiesmann, Sebastian Millen, Martina Kalmer, Thomas Wittenberg, Jan Gettemans, Andrea K Thoma-Kress
The delta-retrovirus Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) preferentially infects CD4+ T-cells via cell-to-cell transmission. Viruses are transmitted by polarized budding and by transfer of viral biofilms at the virological synapse (VS). Formation of the VS requires the viral Tax protein and polarization of the host cytoskeleton, however, molecular mechanisms of HTLV-1 cell-to-cell transmission remain incompletely understood. Recently, we could show Tax-dependent upregulation of the actin-bundling protein Fascin (FSCN-1) in HTLV-1-infected T-cells...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Mohammad Islamuddin, Garima Chouhan, Muzamil Yaqub Want, Hani A Ozbak, Hassan A Hemeg, Farhat Afrin
BACKGROUND: The therapy of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is limited by resistance, toxicity and decreased bioavailability of the existing drugs coupled with dramatic increase in HIV-co-infection, non-availability of vaccines and down regulation of cell-mediated immunity (CMI). Thus, we envisaged combating the problem with plant-derived antileishmanial drug that could concomitantly mitigate the immune suppression of the infected hosts. Several plant-derived compounds have been found to exert leishmanicidal activity via immunomodulation...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Jennie Johnstone, Robin Parsons, Fernando Botelho, Jamie Millar, Shelly McNeil, Tamas Fulop, Janet E McElhaney, Melissa K Andrew, Stephen D Walter, P J Devereaux, Mehrnoush Malek, Ryan R Brinkman, Jonathan Bramson, Mark Loeb
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether immune phenotypes associated with immunosenescence are predictive of frailty and mortality within 1-year in elderly nursing home residents. DESIGN: Cross sectional study of frailty; prospective cohort study of mortality. SETTING: Thirty-two nursing homes in four Canadian cities between September 2009 and October 2011. PARTICIPANTS: Nursing home residents aged 65 and older (N = 1,072, median age 86, 72% female)...
October 24, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Zhi-Dan Fan, Ya-Yuan Zhang, Yi-Hong Guo, Na Huang, Hui-Hui Ma, Hui Huang, Hai-Guo Yu
Interleukin (IL)-17 producing T helper (Th17) cells are major effector cells in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) has emerged as a potential site in the regulation of inflammation in RA but little is known of its functional role on the differentiation of Th17 cells. This study investigates the in vitro and in vivo effects of P2X7R on Th17 cell differentiation during type II collagen (CII) induced experimental arthritis model. In CII-treated dendritic cells (DCs) and DC/CD4(+) T coculture system, pretreatment with pharmacological antagonists of P2X7R (Suramin and A-438079) caused strong inhibition of production of Th17-promoting cytokines (IL-1β, TGF-β1, IL-23p19 and IL-6)...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jia Sun, Jintang Sun, Bingfeng Song, Lin Zhang, Qianqian Shao, Yanguo Liu, Daoying Yuan, Yun Zhang, Xun Qu
In tumor microenvironment, macrophages as a polarized M2 population promote tumor progression via releasing multiple cytokines and chemokines. A brown seaweed fucose-rich polysaccharide, fucoidan has antitumor activity and immune modulation through affecting tumor cells and lymphocytes. Here, we focused on the effect of fucoidan on macrophages especially M2 subtype. Our results demonstrated that fucoidan down-regulated partial cytokines and chemokines, especially a M2-type chemokine CCL22. Furthermore, fucoidan inhibited tumor cells migration and CD4(+) T lymphocytes, especially Treg cells, recruitment induced by M2 macrophages conditioned medium through suppression of CCL22...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jie Tang, Ce Chen, Cheng Zha, Zhaohua Wang, Chen Zhang, Linli Zeng, Baiqing Li
Objective To investigate the differences of proportions of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α)-producing cells in peripheral blood γδ T cells stimulated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis heat resistant antigen (MTB-HAg) among patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and healthy subjects (HC). Methods The peripheral blood specimens were collected from 15 normal adults, which were divided into HC group (n=9) and LTBI group (n=6), by enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) kit for diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, and 12 patients with active PTB...
November 2016: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
Joel E Gallant, Graeme Moyle, Juan Berenguer, Peter Shalit, Huyen Cao, Ya-Pei Liu, Joel Myers, Lisa Rosenblatt, Lingfeng Yang, Javier Szwarcberg
OBJECTIVES: Cobicistat (COBI) enhances atazanavir (ATV) pharmacokinetic parameters similarly to ritonavir (RTV) in both healthy volunteers and HIV-infected adults. Primary efficacy and safety outcomes of this Phase 3, international, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, active-controlled trial in HIV-1-infected treatment-naïve adults (GS-US-216-0114/NCT01108510) demonstrated that ATV+COBI was non-inferior to ATV+RTV, each in combination with emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/TDF), at Weeks 48 and 144, with high rates of virologic success for both regimens (85...
October 21, 2016: Current HIV Research
Dana Tedesco, Manoj Thapa, Sanjeev Gumber, Elizabeth J Elrod, Khalidur Rahman, Chris C Ibegbu, Joseph F Magliocca, Andrew B Adams, Frank Anania, Arash Grakoui
: Persistent hepatotropic viral infections are a common etiologic agent of chronic liver disease. Unresolved infection can be attributed to non-functional intrahepatic CD8+ T cell responses. In light of dampened CD8+ T cell responses, liver disease often manifests systemically as Ig-related syndromes due to aberrant B cell functions. These two opposing yet co-existing phenomena implicate the potential of altered CD4+ T cell help. Elevated CD4+ Foxp3+ T cells were evident in both human liver disease and a mouse model of chemically induced liver injury despite marked activation and spontaneous IgG production by intrahepatic B cells...
October 24, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
John S Thompson, Debra L Hardin, Judy F Glass, Joshua Dziba, Jeffrey Campion, Stephen A Brown
We have previously reported that GR-1 neutrophil/monocytes rose dramatically in the spleen, peaked by day 7 and declined through day 14. This period corresponded to the peak of acute Graft-Versus-Host Disease (aGVHD) in BALB/c mice transplanted with allogeneic donor cells. We now asked: what cytokines did these splenic neutrophil/monocytes express on day 7 and 14 post transplant? BALB/c mice were transplanted with allogeneic B6 or syngeneic BALB/c donor cells. Long term survival was recorded through day 31...
2016: SOJ Immunology
Wei Du, Nicholas D Leigh, Guanglin Bian, Emad Alqassim, Rachel E O'Neill, Lin Mei, Jingxin Qiu, Hong Liu, Philip L McCarthy, Xuefang Cao
Granzyme B (GzmB) is a key cytotoxic molecule utilized by T cells to kill pathogen-infected cells or transformed tumor cells. Previous studies using allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) murine models showed that GzmB is required for CD8(+) T cells to cause graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). However, our recent study demonstrated that GzmB-mediated damage of CD8(+) T cells diminished their graft-versus-tumor (GVT) activity. In this study, we examined the role of GzmB in GVT effect mediated by conventional CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells (CD4(+) Tcon)...
2016: J Immunol Res Ther
Lize Cuypers, Guangdi Li, Christoph Neumann-Haefelin, Supinya Piampongsant, Pieter Libin, Kristel Van Laethem, Anne-Mieke Vandamme, Kristof Theys
Despite significant progress in hepatitis C (HCV) treatment, global viral eradication remains a challenge. An in-depth map of its genome diversity within the context of structural and immunological constraints could contribute to the design of pan-genotypic antivirals and preventive vaccines. For such analyses, extensive information is only available for the highly prevalent HCV genotypes (GT) 1a and 1b. Using 647 GT1a and 408 GT1b full-genome sequences obtained from the Los Alamos database, we found that respectively 3 per cent and 82 per cent of all codon positions are under positive and negative selective pressure, suggesting variation mainly accumulates due to random genetic drift...
July 2016: Virus Evolution
Aranzazu Cruz-Adalia, Esteban Veiga
During infections, the first reaction of the host against microbial pathogens is carried out by innate immune cells, which recognize conserved structures on pathogens, called pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Afterward, some of these innate cells can phagocytose and destroy the pathogens, secreting cytokines that would modulate the immune response to the challenge. This rapid response is normally followed by the adaptive immunity, more specific and essential for a complete pathogen clearance in many cases...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Juanjuan Zhao, Chao Chen, Mengmeng Guo, Yijin Tao, PanPan Cui, Ya Zhou, Nalin Qin, Jing Zheng, Jidong Zhang, Lin Xu
Recent evidence showed that microRNA-7 (miR-7) played an important role in the pathologies of lung-related diseases. However, the potential role of miR-7 in acute lung injury (ALI) still remains poorly understood. Here, we assessed the effect of miR-7 deficiency on the pathology of ALI. We, first, found that the expression of miR-7 was upregulated in lung tissue in murine LPS-induced ALI model. Notably, we generated miR-7 knock down mice by using miRNA-Sponge technique and found that miR-7 deficiency could ameliorate the pathologies of lung as evidenced by accelerated body weight recovery, reduced level of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) proinflammatory cytokines and decreased number of BAL cells in ALI mice...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Ken M Kunisaki, Dennis E Niewoehner, Gary Collins, Bitten Aagaard, Nafisah B Atako, Elzbieta Bakowska, Amanda Clarke, Giulio Maria Corbelli, Ernest Ekong, Sean Emery, Elizabeth B Finley, Eric Florence, Rosa M Infante, Cissy M Kityo, Juan Sierra Madero, Daniel E Nixon, Ellen Tedaldi, Jørgen Vestbo, Robin Wood, John E Connett
BACKGROUND: Observational data have been conflicted regarding the potential role of HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) as a causative factor for, or protective factor against, COPD. We therefore aimed to investigate the effect of immediate versus deferred ART on decline in lung function in HIV-positive individuals. METHODS: We did a nested substudy within the randomised, controlled Strategic Timing of Antiretroviral Treatment (START) trial at 80 sites in multiple settings in 20 high-income and low-to-middle-income countries...
October 20, 2016: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
J Budna, Ł Spychalski, M Kaczmarek, M Frydrychowicz, J Goździk-Spychalska, H Batura-Gabryel, J Sikora
Tumors exert suppressive effects on the host immune system and tumor progression can be linked to functional impairments of immune cells. Regulatory T cells (Treg) are a subpopulation of T lymphocytes and play a key role in suppressing immune responses against autoimmune diseases and cancer. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of Treg in malignant and benign pleural effusions and to evaluate the relationship between Treg frequency and disease advance. Pleural effusions from 76 patients were subjected to a routine laboratory diagnosis and analyzed by conventional cytology...
October 18, 2016: Immunobiology
Van-Chien Bui, Thi-Huong Nguyen
Knowledge about the mechanism by which some antibodies can block HIV-1 entry is critical to our understanding of their function and may offer new avenues for controlling the adhesion of HIV-1 to the host cells. While much progress has been made, this mechanism remains unclear. Here, atomic force microscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and circular dichroism spectroscopy were used to measure some biophysical characteristics of the interaction of four-domains (D1-D4) membrane protein CD4 with anti-D3 antibody OKT4 and with HIV-1 entry blocking anti-D1 antibody Leu3a...
October 17, 2016: Immunobiology
Xiao-Qiu Li, Wei-Ge Wang, Ye Guo, Xiao-Yan Zhou, Xiao-Nan Hong, Xiong-Zeng Zhu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2016: Pathology
Gregory Orchard, Johan Niemann, Cyriac Abraham, Raymond Banh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2016: Pathology
Elizabeth Fink, Katherine Fuller, Brian Agan, Edward A Berger, Andrew Saphire, Gerald V Quinnan, John H Elder
The purpose of this study was to assess humoral antibody responses as a function of disease progression in a well-defined HIV+ cohort. We quantified antibodies to HIV-1 gp120, Gag and CD4 receptor by ELISA in sera from a cohort of 97 HIV+ subjects at defined stages of disease progression. We also measured antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) as a function of the clinical status of the patients. We purified antibodies to CD4 and gp120 and assessed them for specificity, ability to block gp120 binding to target cells, ability to block virus infection, and ability to facilitate ADCC...
October 22, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Taofeek K Owonikoko, Mukesh Kumar, Shu Yang, Alice O Kamphorst, Rathi N Pillai, Rama Akondy, Vivek Nautiyal, Monica S Chatwal, Wendy M Book, Anurag Sahu, Gabriel L Sica, Rafi Ahmed, Suresh S Ramalingam
INTRODUCTION: The increased availability of immunotherapeutic agents for the treatment of a wide array of cancer in the general oncology practice setting will reveal rare and unique toxicities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The mechanism of cardiac allograft rejection in the context of PD-1 antibody therapy was explored in a patient with cutaneous squamous cell cancer complicating long-standing cardiac allograft. Immune cell infiltrate in the myocardium and peripheral blood lymphocyte repertoire were assessed using myocardial biopsy and temporal analysis of peripheral blood samples...
October 22, 2016: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
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