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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067060/update-on-pharmacotherapy-of-myoclonic-seizures
#1
Pasquale Striano, Vincenzo Belcastro
Myoclonic seizures are brief, involuntary muscular jerks arising from the central nervous system that can occur in different epilepsy syndromes, including idiopathic generalized epilepsies or the most severe group of epileptic encephalopathies. Valproate is commonly the first choice alone or in combination with some benzodiazepines or levetiracetam. However, more treatment options exist today as there is emerging evidence to support the efficacy of some newer antiepileptic drugs. In addition, of major importance remains avoidance of medications (e...
January 8, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057897/review-and-update-of-the-hong-kong-epilepsy-guideline-on-status-epilepticus
#2
REVIEW
E Lw Fung, B Bh Fung
Convulsive status epilepticus is the most extreme form of seizure. It is a medical and neurological emergency that requires prompt and appropriate treatment. Treatment of convulsive status epilepticus is usually divided into stages/steps. The International League Against Epilepsy has released a new definition of status epilepticus that may help to unify the definition in future studies. Over the last few years new information has become available regarding its management. The Rapid Anticonvulsant Medication Prior to Arrival Trial demonstrated non-inferiority of intramuscular midazolam in early status epilepticus compared with intravenous lorazepam...
January 6, 2017: Hong Kong Medical Journal, Xianggang Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939141/clinical-profile-and-changes-of-serum-lipid-levels-in-epileptic-patients-after-cerebral-infarction
#3
Ken Ikeda, Masahiro Sawada, Harumi Morioka, Maya Kyuzen, Junya Ebina, Junpei Nagasawa, Masaru Yanagihashi, Ken Miura, Yuichi Ishikawa, Takehisa Hirayama, Takanori Takazawa, Osamu Kano, Kiyokazu Kawabe, Yasuo Iwasaki
BACKGROUND: Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) may increase development of dyslipidemia and cerebrovascular disease (CVD). We examined the clinical profile and changes of serum lipid levels after AED monotherapy in patients with poststroke epilepsy (PSE) after cerebral infarction (CI). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Medical records were reviewed in consecutive 2144 CI patients. Monotherapy of valproate, carbamazepine (CBZ), phenytoin (PHT), zonisamide, levetiracetam, or lamotrigine was performed in PSE patients...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932863/non-imidazole-based-histamine-h3-receptor-antagonists-with-anticonvulsant-activity-in-different-seizure-models-in-male-adult-rats
#4
Bassem Sadek, Ali Saad, Gniewomir Latacz, Kamil Kuder, Agnieszka Olejarz, Tadeusz Karcz, Holger Stark, Katarzyna Kieć-Kononowicz
A series of twelve novel non-imidazole-based ligands (3-14) was developed and evaluated for its in vitro binding properties at the human histamine H3 receptor (hH3R). The novel ligands were investigated for their in vivo protective effects in different seizure models in male adult rats. Among the H3R ligands (3-14) tested, ligand 14 showed significant and dose-dependent reduction in the duration of tonic hind limb extension in maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizure model subsequent to acute systemic administration (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), whereas ligands 4, 6, and 7 without appreciable protection in MES model were most promising in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) model...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914224/a-systematic-review-of-epileptic-seizures-in-adults-with-subdural-haematomas
#5
REVIEW
Sae-Yeon Won, Juergen Konczalla, Daniel Dubinski, Adriano Cattani, Colleen Cuca, Volker Seifert, Felix Rosenow, Adam Strzelczyk, Thomas M Freiman
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic epileptic seizures (PTS) are a serious complication in patients with subdural haematoma (SDH). However, to date, several studies have shown discordances about SDH-associated seizures in terms of incidence, risk factors and prophylactic antiepileptic treatment. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyse the incidence, risk factors of PTS and the role of prophylactic antiepileptic treatment in patients with SDH. DATA SOURCES: A systematic literature review examining PTS in patients with SDH was performed using PubMed gateway, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Excerpta Medica dataBASE between September 1961 and February 2016...
November 25, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875747/new-model-of-pharmacoresistant-seizures-induced-by-3-mercaptopropionic-acid-in-mice
#6
Andrea Enrique, Sofía Goicoechea, Rocío Castaño, Facundo Taborda, Luisa Rocha, Sandra Orozco, Elena Girardi, Luis Bruno Blanch
About 30% of the patients with epilepsy do not respond to clinically established anticonvulsants, despite having effective concentrations of the antiepileptic drug in plasma. Therefore, new preclinical models of epilepsy are needed to identify more efficacious treatments. We describe here a new drug-resistant seizure model in mice to be used at the early stages of pre-clinical trials. This model consists in inducing daily generalized seizures for 23 consecutive days by administration of 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MP)...
October 27, 2016: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854111/the-risk-of-hypotension-and-seizures-in-patients-receiving-prophylactic-anti-epileptic-drugs-for-supratentorial-craniotomy
#7
Julius Höhne, Karl M Schebesch, Christian Ott, Alexander Brawanski, Max Lange
BACKGROUND: Perioperative seizure prophylaxis with antiepileptic drugs (AED) has been advocated in patients undergoing supratentorial craniotomy. The practice remains controversial. The reasoning presupposes that the possibility of an adverse drug reaction from the AED is lower than the probability of harm from a seizure. Even short periods of hypotension during the operation can lead to acute kidney and myocardial injury. We retrospectively evaluated cardiovascular effects and tolerability of Levetiracetam (LEV) alone, LEV and Lacosamid (LCM) as compared to Phenytoin (PHT)...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853355/anticonvulsant-effects-of-isomeric-nonimidazole-histamine-h3-receptor-antagonists
#8
Bassem Sadek, Ali Saad, Johannes Stephan Schwed, Lilia Weizel, Miriam Walter, Holger Stark
Phenytoin (PHT), valproic acid, and modern antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), eg, remacemide, loreclezole, and safinamide, are only effective within a maximum of 70%-80% of epileptic patients, and in many cases the clinical use of AEDs is restricted by their side effects. Therefore, a continuous need remains to discover innovative chemical entities for the development of active and safer AEDs. Ligands targeting central histamine H3 receptors (H3Rs) for epilepsy might be a promising therapeutic approach. To determine the potential of H3Rs ligands as new AEDs, we recently reported that no anticonvulsant effects were observed for the (S)-2-(4-(3-(piperidin-1-yl)propoxy)benzylamino)propanamide (1)...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843822/impact-of-antiepileptic-drugs-on-bone-health-need-for-monitoring-treatment-and-prevention-strategies
#9
REVIEW
Ekta Arora, Harmanjit Singh, Yogendra Kumar Gupta
Epilepsy is the most common neurological disorder affecting approximately 50 million people worldwide. In India, overall prevalence of epilepsy is reported to be 5.59/1000 population. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) constitute the main-stay of treatment with a large number of AEDs available in the market. High incidence of adverse effects is a major limitation with AEDs. One of the major concerns is significant metabolic effects on the bone. However, little attention has been paid to this issue because most of the bone effects remain subclinical for a long time and may take years to manifest clinically...
April 2016: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843704/association-between-antiepileptic-drugs-and-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-patients-with-epilepsy-a-population-based-case-control-study
#10
Dong-Zong Hung, Cheng-Li Lin, Yi-Wen Li, Yen-Ning Lin, Ying-Ray Lee, Charles-C N Wang, Jih-Jung Chen, Yun-Ping Lim
BACKGROUND: This study explored whether antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) use increases the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: We conducted a case-control study using data from the National Health Insurance system of Taiwan. The case group comprised 1,454 epilepsy patients with newly diagnosed HCC, and the control group comprised 1,448 epilepsy patients without HCC. Both groups had similar distributions of sex and age, and follow-up duration. Possible associations with the AEDs in Taiwan were examined...
November 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821519/hyperhomocysteinaemia-in-children-receiving-phenytoin-and-carbamazepine-monotherapy-a-cross-sectional-observational-study
#11
Saravanan Chandrasekaran, Sooraj Patil, Renu Suthar, Savita Verma Attri, Jitendra Kumar Sahu, Naveen Sankhyan, Mini Tageja, Pratibha Singhi
OBJECTIVE: Long-term therapy with phenytoin and carbamazepine is known to cause hyperhomocysteinaemia. We evaluated the prevalence of hyperhomocysteinaemia in North Indian children receiving phenytoin or carbamazepine monotherapy for >6 months duration and the effect of folic acid supplementation on plasma homocysteine. METHODS: In this cross-sectional observational study we enrolled consecutive children aged 2-12 years with epilepsy who had received phenytoin or carbamazepine monotherapy for >6 months...
November 7, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819746/monotherapy-treatment-of-epilepsy-in-pregnancy-congenital-malformation-outcomes-in-the-child
#12
REVIEW
Jennifer Weston, Rebecca Bromley, Cerian F Jackson, Naghme Adab, Jill Clayton-Smith, Janette Greenhalgh, Juliet Hounsome, Andrew J McKay, Catrin Tudur Smith, Anthony G Marson
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that certain antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are teratogenic and are associated with an increased risk of congenital malformation. The majority of women with epilepsy continue taking AEDs throughout pregnancy; therefore it is important that comprehensive information on the potential risks associated with AED treatment is available. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of prenatal exposure to AEDs on the prevalence of congenital malformations in the child...
7, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777862/availability-and-cost-of-major-and-first-line-antiepileptic-drugs-a-comprehensive-evaluation-in-the-capital-of-madagascar
#13
Jeremy Jost, Adeline Raharivelo, Voa Ratsimbazafy, Mandy Nizard, Emilie Auditeau, Charles R Newton, Pierre-Marie Preux
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of epilepsy is high in Madagascar (23.5/1000), as is the treatment gap (estimated at 92 %). The health system of the country is underfunded; some AEDs are used, and the national drug policy does not encourage price regulation or the administration of generic agents. We conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the availability and cost of solid oral AED formulations in Antananarivo, capital of Madagascar. Data were gathered from all officially registered pharmacies (according to the drug agency list, updated in 2015) by means of telephone interviews lasting no more than 10 min and conducted by a native Malagasy speaker...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749771/comparative-persistence-of-antiepileptic-drugs-in-patients-with-epilepsy-a-strobe-compliant-retrospective-cohort-study
#14
Edward Chia-Cheng Lai, Cheng-Yang Hsieh, Chien-Chou Su, Yea-Huei Kao Yang, Chin-Wei Huang, Swu-Jane Lin, Soko Setoguchi
We compared persistence of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) including carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, gabapentin, lamotrigine, topiramate, valproic acid, and phenytoin in an Asian population with epilepsy.A retrospective cohort study was conducted by analyzing Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). Adult epilepsy patients newly prescribed with AEDs between 2005 and 2009 were included. The primary outcome was persistence, defined as the treatment duration from the date of AED initiation to the date of AED discontinuation, switching, hospitalization due to seizure or disenrollment from databases, whichever came first...
August 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663280/pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-influence-of-n-palmitoylethanolamine-arachidonyl-2-chloroethylamide-and-win-55-212-2-on-the-anticonvulsant-activity-of-antiepileptic-drugs-against-audiogenic-seizures-in-dba-2-mice
#15
Rita Citraro, Emilio Russo, Antonio Leo, Roberto Russo, Carmen Avagliano, Michele Navarra, Antonio Calignano, Giovambattista De Sarro
We evaluated the effects of ACEA (selective cannabinoid (CB)1 receptor agonist), WIN 55,212-2 mesylate (WIN; non-selective CB1 and CB2 receptor agonist) and N-palmitoylethanolamine (PEA; an endogenous fatty acid of ethanolamide) in DBA/2 mice, a genetic model of reflex audiogenic epilepsy. PEA, ACEA or WIN intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration decreased the severity of tonic-clonic seizures. We also studied the effects of PEA, WIN or ACEA after co-administration with NIDA-41020 (CB1 receptor antagonist) or GW6471 (PPAR-α antagonist) and compared the effects of WIN, ACEA and PEA in order to clarify their mechanisms of action...
November 15, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27644408/proconvulsant-effects-of-the-ketogenic-diet-in-electroshock-induced-seizures-in-mice
#16
Iwona Zarnowska, Jarogniew J Luszczki, Tomasz Zarnowski, Piotr Wlaz, Stanislaw J Czuczwar, Maciej Gasior
Among non-pharmacological treatments, the ketogenic diet (KD) has the strongest demonstrated evidence of clinical success in drug resistant epilepsy. In an attempt to model the anticonvulsant effects of the KD pre-clinically, the present study assessed the effects of the KD against electroshock-induced convulsions in mice. After confirming that exposure to the KD for 2 weeks resulted in stable ketosis and hypoglycemia, mice were exposed to electroshocks of various intensities to establish general seizure susceptibility...
September 20, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629998/myoclonus-and-seizures-in-progressive-myoclonus-epilepsies-pharmacology-and-therapeutic-trials
#17
Roberto Michelucci, Elena Pasini, Patrizia Riguzzi, Eva Andermann, Reetta Kälviäinen, Pierre Genton
Generalized motor seizures, usually tonic-clonic, tonic-vibratory, myoclonic or clonic, and stimulus-sensitive/action myoclonus are typical features of progressive myoclonus epilepsies (PMEs). Despite the introduction of many anticonvulsants, the treatment of these symptoms, particularly myoclonus, remains challenging, due to the incomplete and often transitory effects of most drugs. Moreover, treatment is only symptomatic, since therapy targeting the underlying aetiology for these genetic conditions is in its infancy...
September 1, 2016: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27602091/association-between-abcb1-genetic-polymorphism-and-the-effect-on-epilepsy-following-phenytoin-treatment
#18
Fei Sun, Bo-Qiang Cao, Bo Wang, Shi-Qiang Wu, De-Hua Jiang
The aim of the study was to analyze the effect of ABCB1 genetic polymorphisms on the efficacy of phenytoin (PHT) treatment in epilepsy patients. In total, 200 epilepsy patients who were administered PHT were divided into the responsive and pharmaco-resistance groups depending on the clinical data of PHT treatment in epilepsy patients. The serum concentration of PHT was detected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). ABCB1 polymorphisms were analyzed by the polymerase chain reaction restriction-fragment length polymorphism method...
September 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27596103/current-treatment-options-for-early-onset-pediatric-epileptic-encephalopathies
#19
REVIEW
Rolla Shbarou
The management of early-onset, genetically determined epilepsies is often challenging. First-line anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) often include phenobarbital, phenytoin, oxcarbazepine, carbamazepine, clonazepam, levetiracetam, and valproic acid. Combinations of medications are used in these patients with often intractable seizures, and they include topiramate, clobazam, felbamate, lacosamide, lamotrigine, rufinamide, vigabatrin, ACTH, oral steroids, and the ketogenic diet. Vagus nerve stimulator therapy offers some relief in selected patients...
October 2016: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590225/toxicity-of-antiepileptic-drugs-to-mitochondria
#20
Josef Finsterer
Some of the side and beneficial effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are mediated via the influence on mitochondria. This is of particular importance in patients requiring AED treatment for mitochondrial epilepsy. AED treatment in patients with mitochondrial disorders should rely on the known influences of AEDs on these organelles. AEDs may influence various mitochondrial functions or structures in a beneficial or detrimental way. There are AEDs in which the toxic effect outweighs the beneficial effect, such as valproic acid (VPA), carbamazepine (CBZ), phenytoin (PHT), or phenobarbital (PB)...
September 3, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
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