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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799509/update-on-pharmacological-treatment-of-progressive-myoclonus-epilepsies
#1
Edoardo Ferlazzo, Dorothee Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenite, Gerrit-Jan de Haan, Felix Felix Nitschke, Saija Ahonen, Sara Gasparini, Berge A Minassian
BACKGROUND: Progressive myoclonus epilepsies (PMEs) are a group of rare inherited diseases featuring a combination of myoclonus, seizures and variable degree of cognitive impairment. Despite extensive investigations, a large number of PMEs remain undiagnosed. In this review, we focus on the current pharmacological approach to PMEs. METHODS: References were mainly identified through PubMed search until February 2017 and backtracking of references in pertinent studies...
August 9, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792705/homocysteine-metabolism-and-hematological-parameters-in-early-stage-of-phenytoin-treated-epileptic-children
#2
Tarun K Sharma, S K Vardey, S Sitaraman
BACKGROUND: Long-term antiepileptic drug (AED) therapy has been associated with metabolic consequences that lead to an increase in risk of atherosclerosis in patients with epilepsy. Earlier published studies showed conflicting results about the levels of hematological parameters, serum homocysteine, folate, and vitamin B12, in epileptics treated with phenytoin monotherapy. Therefore, we evaluated homocysteine metabolism and hematological parameters in early stage of phenytoin treated epileptic children...
July 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758238/design-synthesis-and-docking-study-of-pyrimidine-triazine-hybrids-for-gaba-estimation-in-animal-epilepsy-models
#3
Meeta Sahu, Nadeem Siddiqui, Mohd Javed Naim, Ozair Alam, Mohammad Shahar Yar, Vidushi Sharma, Sharad Wakode
A series of new pyrimidine-triazine hybrids (4a-t) was designed and synthesized, from which potent anticonvulsant agents were identified. Most of the compounds exhibited promising anticonvulsant activity against the maximal electroshock (MES) and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ) tests, along with minimal motor impairment with higher safety compared to the standard drugs, phenytoin and carbamazepine. In the series, 5-(4-(4-fluorophenyl)-6-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-thioxo-5,6-dihydropyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)-1,2-dihydro-1,2,4-triazin-3(6H)-one (4o) and 5-(6-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-thioxo-5,6-dihydropyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)-1,2-dihydro-1,2,4-triazin-3(6H)-one (4s) emerged as most potent anticonvulsant agents with median doses of 22...
July 31, 2017: Archiv der Pharmazie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748348/impact-of-genetic-polymorphisms-on-phenytoin-pharmacokinetics-and-clinical-outcomes-in-the-middle-east-and-north-africa-region
#4
REVIEW
Renée Dagenais, Kyle John Wilby, Hazem Elewa, Mary H H Ensom
BACKGROUND: Genetic polymorphisms are known to influence outcomes with phenytoin yet effects in the Middle East and North Africa region are poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the impact of genetic polymorphisms on phenytoin pharmacokinetics and clinical outcomes in populations originating from the Middle East and North Africa region, and to characterize genotypic and allelic frequencies within the region for genetic polymorphisms assessed...
July 26, 2017: Drugs in R&D
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745680/-the-decreased-level-of-plasma-carnitine-in-patients-with-epilepsy
#5
E D Belousova
Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have long been known to affect carnitine metabolism, dropping the plasma free carnitine. Valproate (VPA) was considered to be the strongest carnitine-reducing agent. VPA-induced hyperammonemic encephalopathy and hepatotoxicity are well known, and pre-existing carnitine deficiency can be a predisposing factor, especially in congenital metabolic disorders. Several studies have shown that carnitine supplementation in patients receiving VPA to result in subjective and objective improvements and to prevent VPA-induced hepatotoxicity and encephalopathy, in parallel with increases in carnitine serum concentrations...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732239/effects-of-antiepileptic-drugs-on-mitochondrial-functions-morphology-kinetics-biogenesis-and-survival
#6
REVIEW
Josef Finsterer, Fulvio A Scorza
OBJECTIVES: Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) exhibit adverse and beneficial effects on mitochondria, which have a strong impact on the treatment of patients with a mitochondrial disorder (MID) with epilepsy (mitochondrial epilepsy). This review aims at summarizing and discussing recent findings concerning the effect of AEDs on mitochondrial functions and the clinical consequences with regard to therapy of mitochondrial epilepsy and of MIDs in general. METHODS: Literature review...
July 13, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717415/chronic-antiepileptic-drug-use-and-functional-network-efficiency-a-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#7
Tamar M van Veenendaal, Dominique M IJff, Albert P Aldenkamp, Richard H C Lazeron, Paul A M Hofman, Anton J A de Louw, Walter H Backes, Jacobus F A Jansen
AIM: To increase our insight in the neuronal mechanisms underlying cognitive side-effects of antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment. METHODS: The relation between functional magnetic resonance-acquired brain network measures, AED use, and cognitive function was investigated. Three groups of patients with epilepsy with a different risk profile for developing cognitive side effects were included: A "low risk" category (lamotrigine or levetiracetam, n = 16), an "intermediate risk" category (carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, phenytoin, or valproate, n = 34) and a "high risk" category (topiramate, n = 5)...
June 28, 2017: World Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706399/comparative-effect-of-divided-doses-of-adult-solid-and-liquid-oral-formulations-of-antiepileptic-drugs-in-the-management-of-pediatric-epilepsy
#8
Ravi Prasad Nidanapu, Bascarane Tamijarassy, Subramanian Mahadevan, Batmanabane Gitanjali
OBJECTIVE: To compare the differences in the efficacy and safety of the commonly prescribed AEDs in the management of epilepsy in children when using divided doses of adult solid oral formulations (DDSF) with the liquid oral formulations (LFs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients who had one or more seizures per month and prescribed with DDSF were recruited. Initially the patients were continued on DDSF for 4 months following which they were switched over to LF for the subsequent 4 months...
April 2017: Journal of Pharmacology & Pharmacotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689437/the-effect-of-antiepileptic-drugs-on-the-kidney-function-and-structure
#9
Sherifa Ahmed Hamed
Long-term use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is associated with number of somatic conditions. Data from experimental, cross-sectional and prospective studies have evidence for the deleterious effect of some AEDs on the kidney. Areas covered: This review summarized the current knowledge of the effect of AEDs on the kidney including evidence and mechanisms. Fanconi syndrome was reported with valproate (VPA) therapy in severely disabled children with epilepsy. Renal tubular acidosis and urolithiasis were reported with acetazolamide, topirmate and zonisamide, drugs with carbonic anhydrase inhibition properties...
July 26, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686997/management-of-epilepsy-in-merrf-syndrome
#10
REVIEW
Josef Finsterer, Sinda Zarrouk-Mahjoub
Myoclonic epilepsy with ragged-red fibers (MERRF) syndrome is a rare syndromic mitochondrial disorder (MID) with a broad phenotypic but narrow genotypic heterogeneity. One of the predominant phenotypic features in addition to myopathy is epilepsy. The most frequent seizure type in MERRF is generalised myoclonic seizure but also focal myoclonic, focal atonic, generalised tonic-clonic, generalised atonic, generalised myoclonic-atonic, typical absences, or tonic-clonic seizures of unknown onset have been reported...
June 24, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680914/antiepileptic-drug-therapy-in-patients-with-autoimmune-epilepsy
#11
Anteneh M Feyissa, A Sebastian López Chiriboga, Jeffrey W Britton
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to report the pattern of usage and efficacy of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in patients with autoimmune epilepsy (AE). METHODS: We retrospectively studied the Mayo Clinic's electronic medical record of patients with AE in which seizures were the main presenting feature. Clinical data, including demographics, seizure characteristics, type of AED and immunotherapy used, presence of neural antibody, and treatment outcomes, were reviewed. RESULTS: The medical records of 252 adult patients diagnosed with autoimmune encephalitis and paraneoplastic disorders were reviewed...
July 2017: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661008/antiepileptic-drug-monotherapy-for-epilepsy-a-network-meta-analysis-of-individual-participant-data
#12
REVIEW
Sarah J Nevitt, Maria Sudell, Jennifer Weston, Catrin Tudur Smith, Anthony G Marson
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a common neurological condition with a worldwide prevalence of around 1%. Approximately 60% to 70% of people with epilepsy will achieve a longer-term remission from seizures, and most achieve that remission shortly after starting antiepileptic drug treatment. Most people with epilepsy are treated with a single antiepileptic drug (monotherapy) and current guidelines from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in the United Kingdom for adults and children recommend carbamazepine or lamotrigine as first-line treatment for partial onset seizures and sodium valproate for generalised onset seizures; however a range of other antiepileptic drug (AED) treatments are available, and evidence is needed regarding their comparative effectiveness in order to inform treatment choices...
June 29, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649495/non-hyperammonaemic-valproate-encephalopathy-after-20%C3%A2-years-of-treatment
#13
Elizabeth Caruana Galizia, Jeremy D Isaacs, Hannah R Cock
Sodium valproate is a commonly used antiseizure drug with broad indications for different seizuretypes and epilepsy syndromes. Well-recognised side effects include weight gain, tremor, dizziness, and unsteadiness. Non-hyperammonaemic parkinsonism, with or without cognitive impairment, is a rare adverse effect of sodium valproate. We present the case of a sixty year-old lady with a generalized seizure disorder, treated with phenytoin, valproate, lamotrigine and clonazepam. Following withdrawal of phenytoin she developed an akinetic-rigid syndrome, with ataxia and marked cognitive impairment...
2017: Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648954/fosphenytoin-induced-purple-glove-syndrome-a-case-report
#14
Joseph W Newman, Joseph R Blunck, Ronald K Fields, John E Croom
BACKGROUND: Purple glove syndrome (PGS) is a poorly understood severe adverse drug reaction that is typically associated with intravenous phenytoin administration. Although fosphenytoin is thought to circumvent this risk of PGS, we reveal a rare case of PGS in a patient treated with fosphenytoin therapy. CASE SUMMARY: A 71-year-old male with history of epilepsy was admitted for seizures and traumatic brain injury and intravenous fosphenytoin and levetiracetam were initiated...
September 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641169/association-between-switching-antiepileptic-drug-products-and-healthcare-utilization-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Patrick Kwan, André Palmini
AIMS: There is ongoing concern whether switching between different antiepileptic drug (AED) products may compromise patient care. We systematically reviewed changes in healthcare utilization following AED switch. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE databases (1980-October 2016) for studies that assessed the effect of AED switching in patients with epilepsy on outpatient visits, emergency room visits, hospitalization and hospital stay duration. RESULTS: A total of 14 articles met the inclusion criteria...
June 19, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638280/anticonvulsant-hypersensitivity-syndrome-after-phenytoin-administration-in-an-adolescent-patient-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#16
Malik Ghannam, Shaden Mansour, Aya Nabulsi, Qusay Abdoh
BACKGROUND: Hypersensitivity is a rare adverse drug reaction (ADR) associated with anti-epileptic medications. Phenytoin is one of the commonly used drugs for treatment of epilepsy that encounters a hypersensitivity reaction. This reaction can be ranged from mild cutaneous rash to anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome (AHS) or drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) that includes fever, rash, eosinophilia and involvement of multiple internal organs. CASE PRESENTATION: A 15 year old middle eastern female patient from Gaza strip with free past medical and allergic history...
2017: Clinical and Molecular Allergy: CMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595534/a-review-of-levetiracetam-in-neonates
#17
Amit Agrawal, Anita Banergee
BACKGROUND: Neonatal seizures are the most common clinical manifestation of central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction and are associated with various neurological sequelae. There are currently no evidence-based guidelines for the management of neonatal seizures and currently used drugs such as phenobarbital, and phenytoin have limited efficacy and potential toxicities. Newer second line anticonvulsant, levetiracetam, has been used in refractory neonatal seizures despite limited data and off-label use...
June 6, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575767/lacosamide-and-concomitant-use-of-antiepileptic-and-other-medications-in-a-us-population-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#18
Linda Kalilani, Chao Lu, Bosny Pierre-Louis, Michael Gold
Information on the use of lacosamide and concomitant antiepileptic and non-antiepileptic drugs (non-AEDs) is available from clinical trials and observational studies with small sample sizes. This retrospective cohort study was conducted to gain insight into the use of lacosamide in a large number of patients with epilepsy in real-life clinical practice with less restrictive selection criteria compared with clinical trial participants. The Truven Health MarketScan (Commercial Claims and Medicare Supplemental) database was used to identify patients with a prior diagnosis of epilepsy with at least one prescription claim for lacosamide between June 2009 and September 2013 and continuous health insurance enrolment with medical and pharmacy coverage during the 1-year pre-index baseline period...
May 30, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524224/-epileptic-encephalopathies-in-infancy-how-do-we-treat-them-does-the-aetiology-influence-the-response-to-treatment
#19
S Roldan
INTRODUCTION: Resistance to treatments is a common feature of Ohtahara, Aicardi, West and Dravet syndromes, as well as malignant migrating epilepsy in infancy. AIMS: To update the therapeutic management and to analyse whether the aetiology somehow determines the treatment. DEVELOPMENT: Convulsive seizures in the first year of life may be due to a potentially treatable aetiology, which makes it essential to carry out a complete evaluation so as to be able to begin, as early as possible, the most suitable and the non-specific symptomatic treatments to control the seizures, which prevents or minimises their deleterious effects...
May 17, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523600/sodium-channel-blockers-in-the-treatment-of-epilepsy
#20
Martin J Brodie
Sodium channel blockers have been the mainstay of the pharmacological management of focal and generalised tonic-clonic seizures for more than 70 years. The focus of this paper will be on phenytoin, carbamazepine, lamotrigine, oxcarbazepine, rufinamide, lacosamide and eslicarbazepine acetate. All these antiepileptic drugs have similar efficacy and share similar dose-dependent, adverse effect profiles, although phenytoin, carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine are more likely to cause idiosyncratic reactions than the others...
July 2017: CNS Drugs
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