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phenytoin with epilepsi

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445430/seizure-prophylaxis-in-the-immediate-post-hemorrhagic-period-in-patients-with-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#1
Thomas V Kodankandath, Salman Farooq, Wled Wazni, John-Andrew Cox, Christopher Southwood, Gregory Rozansky, Vijay Johnson, John R Lynch
Introduction: Seizures are a well-known complication of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) and occur most commonly in the immediate posthemorrhagic period. Most commonly used antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) for seizure prophylaxis in aSAH include phenytoin and levetiracetam. There is no reliable data available on the safety and efficacy of restricting AED prophylaxis only till the aneurysm is secured. Methods: We retrospectively chart reviewed patients admitted to our neurosciences intensive care unit (NICU) with aSAH during the past two years...
December 2017: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437004/therapeutic-drug-monitoring-of-phenytoin-by-simple-rapid-accurate-highly-sensitive-and-novel-method-and-its-clinical-applications
#2
Abdul Sami Shaikh, Ruichen Guo
BACKGROUND: Phenytoin has very challenging pharmacokinetic properties. To prevent its toxicity and ensure efficacy, continuous therapeutic monitoring is required. It is hard to get a simple, accurate, rapid, easily available, economical and highly sensitive assay in one method for therapeutic monitoring of phenytoin. OBJECTIVE: The present study is directed towards establishing and validating a more simple, rapid, an accurate, highly sensitive, novel and environment friendly liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) method for offering rapid and reliable TDM results of phenytoin in epileptic patients to physicians and clinicians for making immediate and rational decision...
February 9, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427835/phenytoin-related-ataxia-in-patients-with-epilepsy-clinical-and-radiological-characteristics
#3
Priya D Shanmugarajah, Nigel Hoggard, Daniel P Aeschlimann, Pascale C Aeschlimann, Gary J Dennis, Stephen J Howell, Markus Reuber, Richard A Grünewald, Marios Hadjivassiliou
PURPOSE: Phenytoin is an effective anticonvulsant for focal epilepsy. Its use can be associated with long-term adverse effects including cerebellar ataxia. Whilst phenytoin is toxic to Purkinje cells in vitro; the clinical and radiological phenotype and mechanism of cerebellar degeneration in vivo remain unclear. We describe the prevalence, clinical and radiological characteristics of phenytoin-related ataxia. METHODS: Patients with epilepsy receiving treatment with phenytoin were recruited from the Epilepsy clinics at Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield, UK...
February 2, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414565/current-state-of-the-union-of-epilepsy-care-in-the-united-states-antiepileptic-drugs-an-introduction-to-the-connectors-project
#4
Joseph I Sirven, Patricia O Shafer, Linda Kalilani, Imane Wild, Jesse Fishman, Steve Owens
PURPOSE: How antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are used in the United States (US) is one proxy public health indicator for the current state of epilepsy management. The use of phenytoin, other older AEDs, and newer AEDs may act as an indicator for the quality of epilepsy practice in addition to the current American Academy of Neurology quality measures. Data on AED used by states and populations can help identify which public health interventions are necessary to improve the status of epilepsy care...
February 1, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389596/flavonoid-compounds-as-reversing-agents-of-the-p-glycoprotein-mediated-multidrug-resistance-an-in-vitro-evaluation-with-focus-on-antiepileptic-drugs
#5
Ana Ferreira, Márcio Rodrigues, Ana Fortuna, Amílcar Falcão, Gilberto Alves
The pharmacoresistance to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) remains a major unsolved therapeutic need. The overexpression of multidrug transporters, as the P-glycoprotein (P-gp), at the level of the blood-brain barrier of epileptic patients has been suggested as a key mechanism underlying the refractory epilepsy. Thus, efforts have been made to search for therapeutically useful P-gp inhibitors. Herein, the strategy of flavonoid/AED combined therapy was exploited as a possible approach to overcome the P-gp-mediated pharmacoresistance...
January 2018: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366689/in-vivo-study-of-teratogenic-and-anticonvulsant-effects-of-antiepileptics-drugs-in-zebrafish-embryo-and-larvae
#6
C S Martinez, D A Feas, M Siri, D E Igartúa, N S Chiaramoni, SdV Alonso, M J Prieto
Epilepsy is a neurological disorder treated with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Since AEDs are administered in women in childbearing age, it is critical to study if drugs are capable of inducing developmental toxicity. Along the bibliography available, there is no research comparing teratogenicity and anticonvulsant effect within the same study. In the present study, we evaluated the teratogenic and anticonvulsant effects of six different AEDs: carbamazepine, levetiracetam, lamotrigine, phenobarbital, phenytoin and valproic acid...
January 20, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363050/effect-of-age-related-factors-on-the-pharmacokinetics-of-lamotrigine-and-potential-implications-for-dose-optimisation-in-epilepsy-patients
#7
Sven C van Dijkman, Nico C B de Jager, Willem M Rauwé, Meindert Danhof, Oscar Della Pasqua
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In this study, we evaluate the performance of allometric concepts to predict the implications of age and size on the pharmacokinetics of lamotrigine, and assess the dose rationale across different age groups from 0.2 to 91 years. METHODS: An allometrically scaled pharmacokinetic model was developed using adolescent and adult data, taking into account the effect of comedications. Model parameters were then used to extrapolate lamotrigine pharmacokinetics to older adults (> 65 years), children (4-12 years) and infants and toddlers (0...
January 23, 2018: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338667/docosahexaenoic-acid-prevents-resistance-to-antiepileptic-drugs-in-two-animal-models-of-drug-resistant-epilepsy
#8
Melika Moezifar, Mohammad Sayyah, Morteza Zendehdel, Hakimeh Gavzan
OBJECTIVES: One-third of epileptic patients are resistant to antiepileptic drugs. Few clinical studies with small sample size indicate that polyunsaturated fatty acids could control drug-resistant epilepsy. We examined the efficacy of acute and chronic administration of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in two animal models of drug-resistant epilepsies, i.e. 6-Hz psychomotor seizures in mice and lamotrigine (LTG)-resistant kindled rats. METHODS: Mice received a single injection of DHA (300 µM, i...
January 16, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329017/amiodarone-a-multi-channel-blocker-enhances-anticonvulsive-effect-of-carbamazepine-in-the-mouse-maximal-electroshock-model
#9
Monika Banach, Monika Popławska, Kinga K Borowicz-Reutt
Cardiac arrhythmia may occur in the course of epilepsy. Simultaneous therapy of the two diseases might be complicated by drug interactions since antiarrhythmic and antiepileptic agents share some molecular targets. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of amiodarone, an antiarrhythmic drug working as a multi-channel blocker, on the protective activity of four classical antiepileptic drugs in the maximal electroshock test in mice. Amiodarone at doses up to 75 mg/kg did not affect the electroconvulsive threshold in mice...
January 5, 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320603/drug-management-for-acute-tonic-clonic-convulsions-including-convulsive-status-epilepticus-in-children
#10
REVIEW
Amy McTague, Timothy Martland, Richard Appleton
BACKGROUND: Tonic-clonic convulsions and convulsive status epilepticus (currently defined as a tonic-clonic convulsion lasting at least 30 minutes) are medical emergencies and require urgent and appropriate anticonvulsant treatment. International consensus is that an anticonvulsant drug should be administered for any tonic-clonic convulsion that has been continuing for at least five minutes. Benzodiazepines (diazepam, lorazepam, midazolam) are traditionally regarded as first-line drugs and phenobarbital, phenytoin and paraldehyde as second-line drugs...
January 10, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308710/medication-adherence-and-adverse-effect-profile-of-antiepileptic-drugs-in-nigerian-patients-with-epilepsy
#11
Joseph O Fadare, Taofiki A Sunmonu, Idowu A Bankole, Kehinde A Adekeye, Sani A Abubakar
AIM: Medication adherence remains a major challenge among patients with epilepsy (PWE) with the adverse effect profile of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) as one of its main drivers. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study among PWE in selected Nigerian tertiary healthcare facilities using the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale and the Liverpool Adverse Effect Profile (LAEP). RESULTS: 126 PWE from four tertiary healthcare facilities were included in this study comprising of 59 (46...
January 8, 2018: Neurodegenerative Disease Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288229/genetic-variation-in-cfh-predicts-phenytoin-induced-maculopapular-exanthema-in-european-descent-patients
#12
Mark McCormack, Hongsheng Gui, Andrés Ingason, Doug Speed, Galen E B Wright, Eunice J Zhang, Rodrigo Secolin, Clarissa Yasuda, Maxwell Kwok, Stefan Wolking, Felicitas Becker, Sarah Rau, Andreja Avbersek, Kristin Heggeli, Costin Leu, Chantal Depondt, Graeme J Sills, Anthony G Marson, Pauls Auce, Martin J Brodie, Ben Francis, Michael R Johnson, Bobby P C Koeleman, Pasquale Striano, Antonietta Coppola, Federico Zara, Wolfram S Kunz, Josemir W Sander, Holger Lerche, Karl Martin Klein, Sarah Weckhuysen, Martin Krenn, Lárus J Gudmundsson, Kári Stefánsson, Roland Krause, Neil Shear, Colin J D Ross, Norman Delanty, Munir Pirmohamed, Bruce C Carleton, Fernando Cendes, Iscia Lopes-Cendes, Wei-Ping Liao, Terence J O'Brien, Sanjay M Sisodiya, Stacey Cherny, Patrick Kwan, Larry Baum, Gianpiero L Cavalleri
OBJECTIVE: To characterize, among European and Han Chinese populations, the genetic predictors of maculopapular exanthema (MPE), a cutaneous adverse drug reaction common to antiepileptic drugs. METHODS: We conducted a case-control genome-wide association study of autosomal genotypes, including Class I and II human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles, in 323 cases and 1,321 drug-tolerant controls from epilepsy cohorts of northern European and Han Chinese descent. Results from each cohort were meta-analyzed...
December 29, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248452/protective-effect-of-terminalia-chebula-against-seizures-seizure-induced-cognitive-impairment-and-oxidative-stress-in-experimental-models-of-seizures-in-rats
#13
Ritesh Kumar, Renu Arora, Amit Agarwal, Y K Gupta
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Teminalia chebula (TC) has been traditionally used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine primarily for gastrointestinal disorders. Its fruit extract has also been used to treat epilepsy and other CNS disorders. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the effect of hydroalcoholic fruit extract of Terminalia chebula (HETC) on experimental models of seizures, seizure-induced cognitive impairment and oxidative stress in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vitro antioxidant activity of HETC was evaluated by using ABTS, NO and DPPH radical scavenging assay...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243813/antiepileptic-drug-monotherapy-for-epilepsy-a-network-meta-analysis-of-individual-participant-data
#14
REVIEW
Sarah J Nevitt, Maria Sudell, Jennifer Weston, Catrin Tudur Smith, Anthony G Marson
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a common neurological condition with a worldwide prevalence of around 1%. Approximately 60% to 70% of people with epilepsy will achieve a longer-term remission from seizures, and most achieve that remission shortly after starting antiepileptic drug treatment. Most people with epilepsy are treated with a single antiepileptic drug (monotherapy) and current guidelines from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in the United Kingdom for adults and children recommend carbamazepine or lamotrigine as first-line treatment for partial onset seizures and sodium valproate for generalised onset seizures; however a range of other antiepileptic drug (AED) treatments are available, and evidence is needed regarding their comparative effectiveness in order to inform treatment choices...
December 15, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196247/early-and-late-posttraumatic-epilepsy-in-the-setting-of-traumatic-brain-injury-a-meta-analysis-and-review-of-antiepileptic-management
#15
Christopher D Wilson, Josh D Burks, Richard B Rodgers, Robert M Evans, Adewale A Bakare, Sam Safavi-Abbasi
BACKGROUND: Moderate to severe traumatic brain injury confers increased risk of posttraumatic seizures (PTSs). Early PTSs are diagnosed when seizures develop within 7 days after injury, whereas seizures diagnosed as late PTSs occur later. Patients have been treated with phenytoin (PHT) to prevent early PTSs and more recently with levetiracetam (LEV). Various regimens have been tried in patients to prevent late PTSs with variable success. We assessed and compared effectiveness of these drugs on early and late PTS prevention...
December 2, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193939/-prevalence-of-subclinical-hypothyroidism-in-pediatric-patients-with-drug-resistant-epilepsy
#16
Adriana Lorena Aparicio-Claure, Jesús Darío Rayo-Mares, Elisa Nishimura-Meguro, Julia Rocío Herrera-Márquez, Juan Pablo Muñoz-Montúfar, Juan Carlos Núñez-Enríquez
BACKGROUND: In several studies it has been reported a high prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism in children with epilepsy secondary to the use of monotherapy with valproic acid, carbamazepine and phenytoin. The aim of this article is to determine the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism in children with drug-resistant epilepsy treated at the Pediatric Neurology Service of the Hospital de Pediatría, Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI in Mexico City. METHODS: We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study...
September 2017: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097018/antiepileptic-drugs-and-liver-disease
#17
REVIEW
Jorge Vidaurre, Satyanarayana Gedela, Shannon Yarosz
Acute, symptomatic seizures or epilepsy may complicate the course of hepatic disease. Choosing the most appropriate antiepileptic drug in this setting represents a difficult challenge, as most medications are metabolized by the liver. This article focuses on the acute and chronic treatment of seizures in patients with advanced liver disease and reviews the hepatotoxic potential of specific antiepileptic drugs. Newer antiepileptic drugs without, or with minimal, hepatic metabolism, such as levetiracetam, lacosamide, topiramate, gabapentin, and pregabalin should be used as first-line therapy...
December 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095797/influence-of-renal-function-on-pharmacokinetics-of-antiepileptic-drugs-metabolized-by-cyp3a4-in-a-patient-with-renal-impairment
#18
Yoshiaki Yamamoto, Naotaka Usui, Takuji Nishida, Miho Mori, Yukitoshi Takahashi, Katsumi Imai, Yoshiyuki Kagawa, Yushi Inoue
BACKGROUND: Several studies have demonstrated that renal impairment not only decreases renal clearance, but also hepatic clearance of medications that are CYP3A4 substrates. We evaluated the influence of renal function on the pharmacokinetics of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) metabolized by CYP3A4. METHODS: We retrospectively calculated the concentration/dose ratio (CD ratio) for topiramate and clobazam in an epilepsy patient with renal impairment. In addition, we determined the CD ratio of perampanel in 17 patients with normal renal function and compared it with that in the patient with renal impairment...
October 31, 2017: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071470/the-challenge-of-pharmacotherapy-in-children-and-adolescents-with-epilepsy-adhd-comorbidity
#19
REVIEW
Alberto Verrotti, Romina Moavero, Gianvito Panzarino, Claudia Di Paolantonio, Renata Rizzo, Paolo Curatolo
Epilepsy is common in children and adolescents where its prevalence is 3.2-5.5/1000. About one-third of patients also have attention deficit hyperactivity/impulsivity disorder (ADHD). The possible relationship between epilepsy and ADHD is still unclear, and ADHD symptoms (such as inattention, hyperactivity, behavioral disturbances) are frequently considered as adverse effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). The literature was searched for data on the behavioral effects of AEDs. Phenobarbital is the most frequently reported medication to induce symptoms of ADHD, followed by topiramate and valproic acid...
January 2018: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961159/in-vitro-assessment-of-the-effect-of-antiepileptic-drugs-on-expression-and-function-of-abc-transporters-and-their-interactions-with-abcc2
#20
Gurpreet Kaur Grewal, Samiksha Kukal, Neha Kanojia, Krateeka Madan, Luciano Saso, Ritushree Kukreti
ABC transporters have a significant role in drug disposition and response and various studies have implicated their involvement in epilepsy pharmacoresistance. Since genetic studies till now are inconclusive, we thought of investigating the role of xenobiotics as transcriptional modulators of ABC transporters. Here, we investigated the effect of six antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) viz. phenytoin, carbamazepine, valproate, lamotrigine, topiramate and levetiracetam, on the expression and function of ABCB1, ABCC1, ABCC2 and ABCG2 in Caco2 and HepG2 cell lines through real time PCR, western blot and functional activity assays...
September 29, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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