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phenytoin with epilepsi

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317156/synthesis-and-anticonvulsant-properties-of-new-3-3-diphenyl-2-5-dioxo-pyrrolidin-1-yl-acetamides-and-3-3-diphenyl-propionamides
#1
Jolanta Obniska, Anna Rapacz, Sabina Rybka, Małgorzata Góra, Paweł Żmudzki, Krzysztof Kamiński
The focused library of new amides derived from 3,3-diphenyl-2,5-dioxo-pyrrolidin-1-yl-acetic acid (2a-t) and 3,3-diphenyl-propionic acid (3a-t) as potential anticonvulsant agents was synthesized. The final products were obtained in the amidation reaction of the given carboxylic acid (2, 3) with appropriate secondary amines in the presence of carbonyldiimidazole (CDI) as a coupling reagent. The initial anticonvulsant screening was performed in mice intraperitoneally (i.p.) using the "classical" maximal electroshock (MES) and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ) seizure models, whereas the acute neurological toxicity was determined applying the rotarod test...
March 20, 2017: Archiv der Pharmazie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315465/early-preclinical-evaluation-of-dihydropyrimidin-thi-ones-as-potential-anticonvulsant-drug-candidates
#2
Mariana Matias, Gonçalo Campos, Samuel Silvestre, Amílcar Falcão, Gilberto Alves
Although significant advances are occurring in epilepsy research, about 30% of epileptic patients are still inadequately controlled by standard drug therapy. For this reason, it continues to be important to develop new chemical entities through which epilepsy could be effectively controlled. In this study, the anticonvulsant activity of forty-two dihydropyrimidin(thi)ones was explored and their efficacy was evaluated in rodents against the maximal electroshock seizure (MES) and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole tests...
March 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302415/a-prospective-study-to-assess-the-association-between-genotype-phenotype-and-prakriti-in-individuals-on-phenytoin-monotherapy
#3
Saket J Thaker, Prajakta P Gandhe, Charuta J Godbole, Shital R Bendkhale, Nitin B Mali, Urmila M Thatte, Nithya J Gogtay
BACKGROUND: Genetic polymorphisms in drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) impart distinct drug metabolizing capacity and a unique phenotype to an individual. Phenytoin has large inter-individual variability in metabolism due to polymorphisms in CYP2C9 and CYP2C19. As per Ayurveda, Prakriti imparts a unique phenotype to an individual. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether Prakriti can substitute phenotyping [therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM)] and genotyping in individualizing therapy with phenytoin in epilepsy patients...
January 2017: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293110/efficacy-and-safety-of-oxcarbazepine-in-the-treatment-of-children-with-epilepsy-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#4
Hua Geng, Chengzhong Wang
BACKGROUND: To assess the efficacy and safety of oxcarbazepine (OXC) in the treatment of children with epilepsy. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Scopus, SinoMed (Chinese BioMedical Literature Service System, China), and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (China) database were systematically reviewed. Eligible studies were those that compared the efficacy and safety of OXC with other antiepileptic drugs in epilepsy...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290134/animal-models-of-seizures-and-epilepsy-past-present-and-future-role-for-the-discovery-of-antiseizure-drugs
#5
Wolfgang Löscher
The identification of potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of epilepsy requires the use of seizure models. Except for some early treatments, including bromides and phenobarbital, the antiseizure activity of all clinically used drugs was, for the most part, defined by acute seizure models in rodents using the maximal electroshock and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole seizure tests and the electrically kindled rat. Unfortunately, the clinical evidence to date would suggest that none of these models, albeit useful, are likely to identify those therapeutics that will effectively manage patients with drug resistant seizures...
March 13, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281491/status-epilepticus-refractory-and-super-refractory
#6
REVIEW
Deepanshu Dubey, Jayantee Kalita, Usha K Misra
Status epilepticus (SE) is an important neurological emergency. It is defined as seizures lasting for 5 minutes or more or recurrent seizures without recovery of consciousness to baseline between the attacks. Refractory SE (RSE) is defined as SE persisting despite sufficient dose of benzodiazepines and at least one antiepileptic drug (AED), irrespective of time. Super refractory SE (SRSE) is defined as SE that continues for 24 hours or more after the use of anesthetic therapy, including cases that recur on weaning of the anesthestic agent...
2017: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240353/carbamazepine-versus-phenytoin-monotherapy-for-epilepsy-an-individual-participant-data-review
#7
REVIEW
Sarah J Nevitt, Anthony G Marson, Jennifer Weston, Catrin Tudur Smith
BACKGROUND: This is an updated version of the original Cochrane Review published in Issue 2, 2002 and its subsequent updates in 2010 and 2015.Epilepsy is a common neurological condition in which recurrent, unprovoked seizures are caused by abnormal electrical discharges from the brain. It is believed that with effective drug treatment, up to 70% of individuals with active epilepsy have the potential to become seizure-free and go into long-term remission shortly after starting drug therapy with a single antiepileptic drug in monotherapy...
February 27, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239528/prevalence-of-cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-people-with-epilepsy
#8
Rosa Maria Vivanco-Hidalgo, Alejandra Gomez, Antia Moreira, Laura Díez, Roberto Elosua, Jaume Roquer
OBJECTIVES: Epilepsy has been associated with cardiovascular comorbidity. This study aimed to assess the potential association between cardiovascular risk factors (CRFs), antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), and etiology. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A single-center retrospective epilepsy cohort from the decade of 2004-2013 was assessed. Poisson regression models with robust variance were estimated to obtain CRF prevalence ratios (PR) according to AED prescription and etiology...
February 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237319/epilepsy-treatment-in-adults-and-adolescents-expert-opinion-2016
#9
REVIEW
Jerry J Shih, Julia B Whitlock, Nicole Chimato, Emily Vargas, Steven C Karceski, Ryan D Frank
INTRODUCTION: There are over twenty anti-seizure medications and anti-seizure devices available commercially in the United States. The multitude of treatment options for seizures can present a challenge to clinicians, especially those who are not subspecialists in the epilepsy field. Many clinical questions are not adequately answered in double-blind randomized controlled studies. In the presence of a knowledge gap, many clinicians consult a respected colleague with acknowledged expertise in the field...
February 22, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235655/association-between-antiepileptic-drug-dose-and-long-term-response-in-patients-with-refractory-epilepsy
#10
Nicholas P Poolos, Christina E Castagna, Stephen Williams, Alison B Miller, Tyler J Story
Seizures in patients with medically refractory epilepsy remain a substantial clinical challenge, not least because of the dearth of evidence-based guidelines as to which antiepileptic drug (AED) regimens are the most effective, and what doses of these drugs to employ. We sought to determine whether there were regions in the dosage range of commonly used AEDs that were associated with superior efficacy in patients with refractory epilepsy. We retrospectively analyzed treatment records from 164 institutionalized, developmentally disabled patients with refractory epilepsy, averaging 17years of followup per patient...
February 21, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230619/population-pharmacokinetics-of-topiramate-in-japanese-pediatric-and-adult-patients-with-epilepsy-using-routinely-monitored-data
#11
Masato Takeuchi, Ikuko Yano, Satoko Ito, Mitsuhiro Sugimoto, Shota Yamamoto, Atsushi Yonezawa, Akio Ikeda, Kazuo Matsubara
BACKGROUND: Topiramate is a second-generation antiepileptic drug used as monotherapy and adjunctive therapy in adults and children with partial seizures. A population pharmacokinetic (PPK) analysis was performed to improve the topiramate dosage adjustment for individualized treatment. METHODS: Patients whose steady-state serum concentration of topiramate was routinely monitored at Kyoto University Hospital from April 2012 to March 2013 were included in the model-building data...
April 2017: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229367/inhibition-of-mtor-pathway-by-rapamycin-decreases-p-glycoprotein-expression-and-spontaneous-seizures-in-pharmacoresistant-epilepsy
#12
Xiaosa Chi, Cheng Huang, Rui Li, Wei Wang, Mengqian Wu, Jinmei Li, Dong Zhou
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has been demonstrated to mediate multidrug resistance in various tumors by inducing P-glycoprotein (P-gp) overexpression. Here, we investigated the correlation between the mTOR pathway and P-gp expression in pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Temporal cortex specimens were obtained from patients with refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) and age-matched controls who underwent surgeries at West China Hospital of Sichuan University between June 2014 and May 2015. We established a rat model of epilepsy kindled by coriaria lactone (CL) and screened pharmacoresistant rats (non-responders) using phenytoin...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225152/topical-phenytoin-for-treating-pressure-ulcers
#13
REVIEW
Xiang Yong Hao, Hong Ling Li, He Su, Hui Cai, Tian Kang Guo, Ruifeng Liu, Lei Jiang, Yan Fei Shen
BACKGROUND: Pressure ulcers are common in clinical practice and pose a significant health problem worldwide. Apart from causing suffering to patients, they also result in longer hospital stays and increase the cost of health care. A variety of methods are used for treating pressure ulcers, including pressure relief, patient repositioning, biophysical strategies, nutritional supplementation, debridement, topical negative pressure, and local treatments including dressings, ointments and creams such as bacitracin, silver sulphadiazine, neomycin, and phenytoin...
February 22, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202425/levetiracetam-induced-thrombocytopenia-in-a-patient-with-status-epilepticus
#14
Jonguk Kim, Jung-Won Shin
Levetiracetam has broad-spectrum activity in epilepsy. In contrast to phenytoin, levetiracetam has an ideal pharmacokinetic profile without any severe haemodynamic side effects and therefore intravenous loading of levetiracetam is commonly used in adult patients with status epilepticus, especially those who have medical problems. However, levetiracetam-induced serious adverse effects, such as thrombocytopenia and pancytopenia, have been reported in the literature. Here, we describe a case of status epilepticus after cardiac arrest treated with levetiracetam in which severe thrombocytopenia developed and was successfully managed by discontinuation of levetiracetam...
February 15, 2017: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176298/what-does-the-u-s-medicare-administrative-claims-database-tell-us-about-initial-antiepileptic-drug-treatment-for-older-adults-with-new-onset-epilepsy
#15
Roy C Martin, Edward Faught, Jerzy P Szaflarski, Joshua Richman, Ellen Funkhouser, Kendra Piper, Lucia Juarez, Chen Dai, Maria Pisu
OBJECTIVE: Disparities in epilepsy treatment are not uncommon; therefore, we examined population-based estimates of initial antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in new-onset epilepsy among racial/ethnic minority groups of older US Medicare beneficiaries. METHODS: We conducted retrospective analyses of 2008-2010 Medicare administrative claims for a 5% random sample of beneficiaries augmented for minority representation. New-onset epilepsy cases in 2009 had ≥1 International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) 345...
April 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067060/update-on-pharmacotherapy-of-myoclonic-seizures
#16
REVIEW
Pasquale Striano, Vincenzo Belcastro
Myoclonic seizures are brief, involuntary muscular jerks arising from the central nervous system that can occur in different epilepsy syndromes, including idiopathic generalized epilepsies or the most severe group of epileptic encephalopathies. Valproate is commonly the first choice alone or in combination with some benzodiazepines or levetiracetam. However, more treatment options exist today as there is emerging evidence to support the efficacy of some newer antiepileptic drugs. In addition, of major importance remains avoidance of medications (e...
February 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057897/review-and-update-of-the-hong-kong-epilepsy-guideline-on-status-epilepticus
#17
REVIEW
E Lw Fung, B Bh Fung
Convulsive status epilepticus is the most extreme form of seizure. It is a medical and neurological emergency that requires prompt and appropriate treatment. Treatment of convulsive status epilepticus is usually divided into stages/steps. The International League Against Epilepsy has released a new definition of status epilepticus that may help to unify the definition in future studies. Over the last few years new information has become available regarding its management. The Rapid Anticonvulsant Medication Prior to Arrival Trial demonstrated non-inferiority of intramuscular midazolam in early status epilepticus compared with intravenous lorazepam...
January 6, 2017: Hong Kong Medical Journal, Xianggang Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939141/clinical-profile-and-changes-of-serum-lipid-levels-in-epileptic-patients-after-cerebral-infarction
#18
Ken Ikeda, Masahiro Sawada, Harumi Morioka, Maya Kyuzen, Junya Ebina, Junpei Nagasawa, Masaru Yanagihashi, Ken Miura, Yuichi Ishikawa, Takehisa Hirayama, Takanori Takazawa, Osamu Kano, Kiyokazu Kawabe, Yasuo Iwasaki
BACKGROUND: Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) may increase development of dyslipidemia and cerebrovascular disease (CVD). We examined the clinical profile and changes of serum lipid levels after AED monotherapy in patients with poststroke epilepsy (PSE) after cerebral infarction (CI). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Medical records were reviewed in consecutive 2144 CI patients. Monotherapy of valproate, carbamazepine (CBZ), phenytoin (PHT), zonisamide, levetiracetam, or lamotrigine was performed in PSE patients...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932863/non-imidazole-based-histamine-h3-receptor-antagonists-with-anticonvulsant-activity-in-different-seizure-models-in-male-adult-rats
#19
Bassem Sadek, Ali Saad, Gniewomir Latacz, Kamil Kuder, Agnieszka Olejarz, Tadeusz Karcz, Holger Stark, Katarzyna Kieć-Kononowicz
A series of twelve novel non-imidazole-based ligands (3-14) was developed and evaluated for its in vitro binding properties at the human histamine H3 receptor (hH3R). The novel ligands were investigated for their in vivo protective effects in different seizure models in male adult rats. Among the H3R ligands (3-14) tested, ligand 14 showed significant and dose-dependent reduction in the duration of tonic hind limb extension in maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizure model subsequent to acute systemic administration (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), whereas ligands 4, 6, and 7 without appreciable protection in MES model were most promising in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) model...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914224/a-systematic-review-of-epileptic-seizures-in-adults-with-subdural-haematomas
#20
REVIEW
Sae-Yeon Won, Juergen Konczalla, Daniel Dubinski, Adriano Cattani, Colleen Cuca, Volker Seifert, Felix Rosenow, Adam Strzelczyk, Thomas M Freiman
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic epileptic seizures (PTS) are a serious complication in patients with subdural haematoma (SDH). However, to date, several studies have shown discordances about SDH-associated seizures in terms of incidence, risk factors and prophylactic antiepileptic treatment. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyse the incidence, risk factors of PTS and the role of prophylactic antiepileptic treatment in patients with SDH. DATA SOURCES: A systematic literature review examining PTS in patients with SDH was performed using PubMed gateway, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Excerpta Medica dataBASE between September 1961 and February 2016...
February 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
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