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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792380/alirocumab-as-add-on-therapy-to-statins-current-evidence-and-clinical-potential
#1
Johann Auer, Robert Berent
Atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVDs) are associated with a substantial mortality, physical morbidity, and mental disability. Elevated plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels play a major role in the pathophysiology of ASCVDs. Statins have been shown to reduce ASCVD risk and associated events and are recommended as first-line therapy for treatment of hypercholesterolemia by current international guidelines. The key issue is to attain guideline-recommended LDL-C levels (below 70 mg/dl) for patients at very high cardiovascular risk...
May 1, 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792269/pcsk9-inhibition-ready-for-prime-time-in-ckd
#2
Marion Mafham, Richard Haynes
Lowering LDL cholesterol reduces the risk of atherosclerotic vascular disease in a wide range of patients with chronic kidney disease, with no evidence of a threshold below which further reductions no longer reduce risk. Statins safely lower LDL cholesterol, but novel inhibitors of proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin 9 (PCSK9) provide additional reductions which may reduce atherosclerotic vascular disease yet further in this high risk population.
June 2018: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790969/microcatheter-first-pass-effect-predicts-acute-intracranial-artery-atherosclerotic-disease-related-occlusion
#3
Ting-Yu Yi, Wen-Huo Chen, Yan-Min Wu, Mei-Fang Zhang, A-Lai Zhan, Yue-Hong Chen, Zong-Zhong Wu, Yan-Chuan Shi, Bai-Ling Chen
BACKGROUND: The differentiation between intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS) and intracranial embolism as the immediate cause of acute ischemic stroke requiring endovascular therapy is important but challenging. In cases of ICAS, we often observe a phenomenon we call the microcatheter "first-pass effect," which is temporary blood flow through the occluded intracranial artery when the angiographic microcatheter is initially advanced through the site of total occlusion and immediately retrieved proximally...
May 22, 2018: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790688/loganic-acid-and-anthocyanins-from-cornelian-cherry-cornus-mas-l-fruits-modulate-diet-induced-atherosclerosis-and-redox-status-in-rabbits
#4
Tomasz Sozański, Alicja Z Kucharska, Stanisław Dzimira, Jan Magdalan, Dorota Szumny, Agnieszka Matuszewska, Beata Nowak, Narcyz Piórecki, Adam Szeląg, Małgorzata Trocha
BACKGROUND: Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) is a plant growing in southeast Europe, in the past used in folk medicine. There are many previous publications showing the preventive effects of (poly)phenolic compounds, especially anthocyanins, on cardiovascular diseases, but there is a lack of studies comparing the effects of (poly)phenolics and other constituents of fruits. OBJECTIVES: We have attempted to determine if iridoids and anthocyanins from cornelian cherry fruits may affect the formation of atherosclerotic plaques in the aorta as well as lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in the livers of cholesterol-fed rabbits...
April 25, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790056/a-10-year-trend-in-statin-use-among-older-adults-in-australia-an-analysis-using-national-pharmacy-claims-data
#5
Richard Ofori-Asenso, Jenni Ilomäki, Ella Zomer, Andrea J Curtis, Sophia Zoungas, Danny Liew
BACKGROUND: Statins have become standard of care in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The objective of this study was to examine the trends in statin use among Australians aged ≥ 65 years for the period 2007-2016. METHODS: Data from the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme covering a 10% random sample of the Australian population were analysed. The 1-year prevalence and incidence of statin use were determined for each year, as were the percentage of statin dispensations according to statin type or intensity and the percentage of new users prescribed each statin type or intensity...
May 23, 2018: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789903/stabilization-of-symptomatic-carotid-atherosclerotic-plaques-by-statins-a-clinico-pathological-analysis
#6
Takao Konishi, Naohiro Funayama, Tadashi Yamamoto, Daisuke Hotta, Ryota Nomura, Yusuke Nakagaki, Takeo Murahashi, Kenji Kamiyama, Tetsuyuki Yoshimoto, Takeshi Aoki, Shinya Tanaka
Human and animal studies have revealed a stabilization of atherosclerotic plaques by statins. However, the stabilization of human carotid plaques has not been thoroughly described pathologically. This analysis explored the relationship between statin therapy and plaque stability in carotid endarterectomy (CEA) specimens. We analyzed specimens harvested between May 2015 and February 2017, from 79 consecutive patients presenting with > 70% carotid artery stenoses, of whom 66 were untreated (group 1) and 13 treated (group 2) with a statin...
May 22, 2018: Heart and Vessels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789355/hdl-functionality-and-cardiovascular-outcome-among-non-dialysis-chronic-kidney-disease-patients
#7
Kathrin Untersteller, Sabine Meissl, Markus Trieb, Insa Emrich, Adam Zawada, Michael Holzer, Eva Knuplez, Danilo Fliser, Gunnar Heine, Gunther Marsche
Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). CKD profoundly affects high-density lipoprotein (HDL) composition and functionality, but if abnormal HDL independently contributes to cardiovascular events in CKD patients remains elusive. In the present study, we assessed whether compositional and functional properties of HDL predict cardiovascular outcome among 526 non-dialysis CKD patients who participate in the CARE FOR HOMe study. We measured HDL cholesterol, the content of HDL-associated pro-inflammatory serum amyloid A (SAA) and activities of the HDL enzymes paraoxonase and lipoprotein associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2)...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788706/the-association-between-10-year-atherosclerotic-cardiovascular-diseases-risk-score-calculated-using-2013-american-college-of-cardiology-american-heart-association-guidelines-and-serum-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-level-among-aged-40-79-years-in-korea-the-sixth-korea
#8
Mun Hee Kim, Young Sang Kim, Hye Jin Oh, Yu Ri Kwon, Hye Won Kim
BACKGROUND: We examined the relationship between 10-year predicted atherosclerosis cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk score and 25-hydroxyvitamin D in Koreans aged 40-79 years. METHODS: A population-based, cross-sectional design was used from data based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2014. RESULTS: A total of 1,134 healthy Koreans aged 40-79 years were included. A positive relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and ASCVD score was shown in women (β=0...
May 2018: Korean Journal of Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787963/sirt1-activator-e1231-protects-from-experimental-atherosclerosis-and-lowers-plasma-cholesterol-and-triglycerides-by-enhancing-abca1-expression
#9
Tingting Feng, Peng Liu, Xiao Wang, Jinque Luo, Xuan Zuo, Xinhai Jiang, Chang Liu, Yongzhen Li, Ni Li, Minghua Chen, Ningyu Zhu, Xiaowan Han, Chao Liu, Yanni Xu, Shuyi Si
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent protein deacetylase. Recent studies have demonstrated that enhancing SIRT1 expression or activity may modulate cholesterol and lipid metabolism. However, pharmacological and molecular regulators for SIRT1 are scarce. Here, we aimed to find novel small molecule modulators of SIRT1 to regulate cholesterol and lipid metabolism. METHODS: A high-throughput screening assay was established to identify SIRT1 activators...
April 30, 2018: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786594/-brain-microbleeds-definition-pathophysiology-and-the-consequences
#10
Marek Mazurek, Ewa Papuć, Konrad Rejdak
Brain microbleeds are defined as small, circular hypointense changes in T2-sequensec of brain MRI, well demarcated from the surrounding tissue. They represent the phagocytized products of blood distribution extravasated from pathologically altered vessels. The echo-T2-dependent gradient (GRE) and magnetic susceptibility testing (SWI) sequences are usually used to visualize them. The pathogenesis of microbleeds very complex but angiopathy associated with arterial hypertension and cerebral amyloid angiopathy play a special role...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786405/surgical-versus-endovascular-revascularization-of-subclavian-artery-arteriosclerotic-disease
#11
Marco V Usai, Michel J Bosiers, Theodosios Bisdas, Giovanni Torsello, Efthymis Beropoulis, Bernd Kasprzak, Arne Stachmann, Konstantinos Stavroulakis
BACKGROUND: Endovascular treatment offers an alternative less-invasive approach to open repair for subclavian artery atherosclerotic disease (SAAD). However, only few studies compared the outcomes of both strategies in the long run. This study reports on the performance of endovascular and surgical revascularization for SAAD. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted on patients treated for SAAD at two institutions between January 1998 and December 2015. Primary outcome of this study was the composite endpoint of re-intervention-free survival (RFS) defined as time to re-intervention and/or death from any cause...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785166/takotsubo-syndrome-induced-by-malignant-pheochromocytoma-in-a-patient-with-type-2-papillary-renal-cell-carcinoma-a-case-report
#12
Anca Diana Demea, Dan-Grigore Dunca, Roxana Adina Radu, Lucia Agoşton-Coldea
The clinical presentation of the Takotsubo syndrome mimics an acute coronary syndrome with chest pain, ischemia-like ECG changes, mild to moderate myocardial enzyme elevation, and apical ballooning on echocardiography and ventriculography. On coronary angiography, epicardial coronary arteries are either normal or exhibit minimal atherosclerotic changes. Primary Takotsubo syndrome usually occurs in postmenopausal women in whom symptoms are triggered by emotional or physical stress, associated with catecholamine surges...
2018: Clujul Medical (1957)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784893/a-comparison-between-decision-tree-and-random-forest-in-determining-the-risk-factors-associated-with-type-2-diabetes
#13
Habibollah Esmaily, Maryam Tayefi, Hassan Doosti, Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan, Hossein Nezami, Alireza Amirabadizadeh
BACKGROUND: We aimed to identify the associated risk factors of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using data mining approach, decision tree and random forest techniques using the Mashhad Stroke and Heart Atherosclerotic Disorders (MASHAD) Study program. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. METHODS: The MASHAD study started in 2010 and will continue until 2020. Two data mining tools, namely decision trees, and random forests, are used for predicting T2DM when some other characteristics are observed on 9528 subjects recruited from MASHAD database...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Research in Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784555/correlation-between-mdcta-and-carotid-plaque-histological-heterogeneity-a-pilot-study
#14
Gian Franco Veraldi, Pier Francesco Nocini, Albino Eccher, Alberto Fenzi, Andrea Sboarina, Luca Mezzetto
BACKGROUND: The aim of this pilot study was to identify multidetector computed tomography angiography (MDCTA) features that may help identify carotid atherosclerotic plaques (CAPs) with severe histological heterogeneity. METHODS: Thirty-one CAPs (9 symptomatic) were evaluated histologically using a semiquantitative scale. The CAPs were assessed for the presence of ulceration, lipids, fibrosis, thrombotic deposits, haemorrhage, neovascularisation, and inflammation...
May 18, 2018: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783234/-myocardial-bridge-as-the-only-cause-of-acute-coronary-syndrome-among-the-young-patients
#15
Liudmila O Miakinkova, Yurii V Teslenko, Irina V Tsyhanenko
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Myocardial bridge is an inborn anomaly of coronary artery development, when a part of it is submerged in a myocard, which is pressing the coronary artery to a systola and restrains coronary blood circulation. Generally this feature of coronary blood circulation does not cause any clinical symptoms because the 85% of coronary blood stream of the left ventricle is provided by diastolic filling. Hemodynamic changes in atherosclerosis, tahicardie, hypertrophie of myocard are leading to the manifestation of clinical symptoms of ischemia...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783233/-multisemic-atrophy-a-description-of-the-clinical-case-of-olivopontocerebellar-atrophy-against-the-background-of-stenosing-atherosclerotic-vascular-lesions
#16
Kateryna A Tarianyk, Nataliya V Lytvynenko, Tetiana I Purdenko, Viсtoria M Gladka, Tatyana V Pluzhnikova, Elena N Zyablenko
Features of the onset, the course of the disease causes difficulties in the early diagnosis and formulation of the correct diagnosis. Olivopontocerebellar atrophy is characterized by a broad polymorphism of clinical manifestations. There is a need to develop new methods of symptomatic and neuroprotective treatment, as well as the optimization of non-drug therapy.
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783062/ykl-40-levels-increase-with-declining-ankle-brachial-index-and-are-associated-with-long-term-cardiovascular-mortality-in-peripheral-arterial-disease-patients
#17
Clemens Höbaus, Maximilian Tscharre, Carsten Thilo Herz, Gerfried Pesau, Thomas Wrba, Renate Koppensteiner, Gerit-Holger Schernthaner
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: YKL-40 is an inflammatory marker secreted by macrophages and is expressed in atherosclerotic plaques. YKL-40 increases in coronary artery disease (CAD) with poor coronary collateral vessel development. Higher levels are linked to reduced survival in CAD patients. Studies evaluating YKL-40 in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) are scarce. This study aims to elucidate a possible link between YKL-40 and PAD severity as well as cardiovascular long-term mortality...
May 9, 2018: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782986/antiglycation-study-of-hmg-r-inhibitors-and-tocotrienol-against-glycated-bsa-and-ldl-a-comparative-study
#18
Rabia Nabi, Sahir Sultan Alvi, Rizwan Khan, Shafeeque Ahmad, Saheem Ahmad, M Salman Khan
Non-enzymatic glycation mediated advanced glycation end products (AGEs) generation results in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) which is greatly influenced by 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl Co-A reductase (HMG-R) activity. HMG-R inhibitors, statins, are well known for reducing mortality and morbidity of ASCVD in patients with diabetes due to their pleiotropic effects independent of cholesterol lowering. Due to distinct chemical structures, various statins may play important role in the inhibition of AGEs mediated pathologies...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782391/impact-of-age-on-the-association-between-24-h-ambulatory-blood-pressure-measurements-and-target-organ-damage
#19
Thomas B Olesen, Manan Pareek, Jacob V Stidsen, Marie K Blicher, Susanne Rasmussen, Julie K K Vishram-Nielsen, Kathrine Kjaer-Hansen, Michael H Olsen
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of age on the associations between hemodynamic components derived from 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (24-h ABPM) and target organ damage, in apparently healthy, nonmedicated individuals. METHODS: Twenty-four-hour ABPM and target organ damage (left ventricular mass index, pulse wave velocity, urine albumin : creatinine ratio and carotid atherosclerotic plaques) were evaluated in 1408 individuals. Associations were examined in regression models, stratified for age [middle-aged (41 or 51 years) or elderly (61 or 71 years)], and adjusted for sex, smoking status, and total-cholesterol...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782274/-dysfunctional-high-density-lipoproteins-role-in-atherogenesis-and-potential-targets-for-phospholipid-therapy
#20
T I Torchovskaya, V A Kudinov, T S Zakharova, S S Markin
In recent years the number of articles on damages of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) properties in patients with atherosclerosis has sharply increased. First, it concerns their ability to accept cholesterol (CH) from macrophages - the basis of antiatherogenic action of HDL. This ability was assessed ex vivo - by activity of cell cholesterol (CH) efflux to HDL or into patient's serum. In many works inverse relationship was shown between CH acceptor capacity of HDL and severity of atherosclerotic disease or frequency of its exacerbations during long-term observation, independent from HDL CH concentration...
March 2018: Kardiologiia
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