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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650577/time-dependent-trends-in-cardiovascular-adverse-events-during-follow-up-after-carotid-or-iliofemoral-endarterectomy
#1
I D van Koeverden, S T W van Haelst, S Haitjema, J-P P M de Vries, F L Moll, H M den Ruijter, I E Hoefer, G W Dalmeijer, G J de Borst, G Pasterkamp
BACKGROUND: Recent observations have suggested a decline in vulnerable carotid artery and iliofemoral atherosclerotic plaque characteristics over the past decade. The aim of this study was to determine whether, in the presence of clinically manifest carotid or peripheral artery disease, secondary adverse cardiovascular events decreased over this period. METHODS: Patients included in the Athero-Express biobank between 2003 and 2012 were analysed. During 3-year follow-up, composite cardiovascular endpoints were documented yearly, including: myocardial infarction, coronary interventions, stroke, peripheral interventions and cardiovascular death...
June 26, 2017: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650342/inflammatory-ly6chi-monocytes-and-their-conversion-to-m2-macrophages-drive-atherosclerosis-regression
#2
Karishma Rahman, Yuliya Vengrenyuk, Stephen A Ramsey, Noemi Rotllan Vila, Natasha M Girgis, Jianhua Liu, Viktoria Gusarova, Jesper Gromada, Ada Weinstock, Kathryn J Moore, P'ng Loke, Edward A Fisher
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease, and developing therapies to promote its regression is an important clinical goal. We previously established that atherosclerosis regression is characterized by an overall decrease in plaque macrophages and enrichment in markers of alternatively activated M2 macrophages. We have now investigated the origin and functional requirement for M2 macrophages in regression in normolipidemic mice that received transplants of atherosclerotic aortic segments. We compared plaque regression in WT normolipidemic recipients and those deficient in chemokine receptors necessary to recruit inflammatory Ly6Chi (Ccr2-/- or Cx3cr1-/-) or patrolling Ly6Clo (Ccr5-/-) monocytes...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650320/combination-of-exendin-4-and-dpp-4-silencing-promoted-angiogenesis-of-human-coronary-artery-endothelial-cells-via-activation-of-pi3k-akt-pathway
#3
Xuewen Qi, Haifeng Liu, Limei Mao, Peng Sun, Degui Kong
This study was aimed to explore the combined effects of Exendin-4 with dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-4) silencing on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced cell proliferation and angiogenesis in Human Coronary Artery Endothelial Cells (HCAECs), as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms which were involved in this process. HCAECs were treated by exendin-4, small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting DPP-4 (DPP-4-siRNA) or exendin-4 plus DPP-4-siRNA, respectively. Cell migration, proliferation and angiogenesis in vitro were assessed by scratch-wound assay, MTT, tran swell assay, and matrigel tube formation, respectively...
March 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649497/spectral-analysis-assisted-photoacoustic-imaging-for-lipid-composition-differentiation
#4
Yingchun Cao, Ayeeshik Kole, Lu Lan, Pu Wang, Jie Hui, Michael Sturek, Ji-Xin Cheng
Recent advances in atherosclerotic plaque detection have shown that not only does lipid core size and depth play important roles in plaque rupture and thrombi formation, but lipid composition, especially cholesterol deposition, is equally important in determining lesion vulnerability. Here, we demonstrate a spectral analysis assisted photoacoustic imaging approach to differentiate and map lipid compositions within an artery wall. The approach is based on the classification of spectral curves obtained from the sliding windows along time-of-flight photoacoustic signals via a numerical k-means clustering method...
September 2017: Photoacoustics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649159/initial-simulated-ffr-investigation-using-flow-measurements-in-patient-specific-3d-printed-coronary-phantoms
#5
Lauren Shepard, Kelsey Sommer, Richard Izzo, Alexander Podgorsak, Michael Wilson, Zaid Said, Frank J Rybicki, Dimitrios Mitsouras, Stephen Rudin, Erin Angel, Ciprian N Ionita
PURPOSE: Accurate patient-specific phantoms for device testing or endovascular treatment planning can be 3D printed. We expand the applicability of this approach for cardiovascular disease, in particular, for CT-geometry derived benchtop measurements of Fractional Flow Reserve, the reference standard for determination of significant individual coronary artery atherosclerotic lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Coronary CT Angiography (CTA) images during a single heartbeat were acquired with a 320×0...
February 11, 2017: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648532/the-stent-is-not-to-blame-lessons-learned-with-a-simplified-us-version-of-the-frozen-elephant-trunk
#6
Ourania Preventza, Joseph S Coselli, Jessica Mayor, Katherine Simpson, Julius Carillo, Matt D Price, Lorraine D Cornwell, Shuab Omer, Kim I de la Cruz, Faisal G Bakaeen, Arin Jobe
BACKGROUND: We analyzed trends, assessed outcomes and lessons learned, and investigated whether using a simplified US version of the frozen elephant trunk (FET) technique to treat complex arch pathology poses additional risk. METHODS: From 2010 to 2015, we performed 129 consecutive ET procedures (traditional ET [t-ET], n = 92 [71.3%]; FET, n = 37 [28.7%]) for chronic dissecting (n = 62 [48.1%]) and atherosclerotic aneurysms (n = 67 [51.9%]). A stepwise logistic regression model using preoperative and intraoperative variables was created to analyze the outcomes...
June 22, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648478/imaging-vulnerable-plaques-by-targeting-inflammation-in-atherosclerosis-using-fluorescent-labeled-dual-ligand-microparticles-of-iron-oxide-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#7
Joyce M S Chan, Claudia Monaco, Marzena Wylezinska-Arridge, Jordi L Tremoleda, Jennifer E Cole, Michael Goddard, Maggie S H Cheung, Kishore K Bhakoo, Richard G J Gibbs
OBJECTIVE: Identification of patients with high-risk asymptomatic carotid plaques remains an elusive but essential step in stroke prevention. Inflammation is a key process in plaque destabilization and a prelude to clinical sequelae. There are currently no clinical imaging tools to assess the inflammatory activity within plaques. This study characterized inflammation in atherosclerosis using dual-targeted microparticles of iron oxide (DT-MPIO) as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) probe...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648438/recent-trends-in-epidemiology-of-dyslipidemias-in-india
#8
REVIEW
Rajeev Gupta, Ravinder S Rao, Anoop Misra, Samin K Sharma
Dyslipidemia is the most important atherosclerotic risk factor. Review of population based studies in India shows increasing mean total cholesterol levels. Recent studies have reported that high cholesterol is present in 25-30% of urban and 15-20% rural subjects. This prevalence is lower than high-income countries. The most common dyslipidemia in India are borderline high LDL cholesterol, low HDL cholesterol and high triglycerides. Studies have reported that over a 20-year period total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels have increased among urban populations...
May 2017: Indian Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647998/-analysis-of-optical-coherence-tomography-of-early-and-very-late-stent-restenosis-after-drug-eluting-stent-implantation
#9
Z J Liu, B Shi, C C Deng, G X Xu, R Z Zhao, C Y Shen, Z L Wang, H L Liu
Objective: Using optical coherence tomography (OCT) to analyze the morphological characteristics of lesions between early in-stent restenosis (E-ISR) and very late in-stent restenosis (VL-ISR) after drug-eluting stents (DES) implantation. Methods: In 25 patients (DES) with ISR, OCT images were acquired before percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), the morphological characteristics of E-ISR (<1 years, n=14) and VL-ISR (>3 years, n=11) were compared.The quantitative and qualitative analysis of the entire stent and the minimum lumen area (MLA) site were carried out respectively...
June 20, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647778/a-correlation-between-secondary-structure-and-rheological-properties-of-low-density-lipoproteins-at-air-water-interfaces
#10
Ziad Khattari
The secondary structure of apolipoprotein B-100 is studied within the bulk phase and at the air/water interface. In these "in viro" experiments, infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) study was performed at the air/water interface while circular dichroism (CD) was conducted in the bulk phase. In the bulk phase, the conformational structure containing a significant amount of β-structure, whereas varying amount of α-helix, unordered structures, and β-sheet were observed at the air/water interface depending on the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) film interfacial pressure...
June 24, 2017: Journal of Biological Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646901/effect-of-ezetimibe-add-on-therapy-over-52%C3%A2-weeks-extension-analysis-of-prospective-randomized-trial-research-study-in-type-2-diabetes-subjects
#11
Kentaro Sakamoto, Mitsunobu Kawamura, Takayuki Watanabe, Keiko Ashidate, Takahide Kohro, Akira Tanaka, Yasumichi Mori, Motoki Tagami, Tsutomu Hirano, Tsutomu Yamazaki, Teruo Shiba
BACKGROUND: Lowering cholesterol levels decreases the risk of atherosclerotic diseases. Effective ways to stably reduce LDL-C level are warranted in type 2 diabetic patients, a high-risk population for CVD, with various anti-diabetic therapeutic background. The RESEARCH study focuses on LDL-C reduction in this population along with modifications of the lipid profiles. We evaluated long-term ezetimibe add-on therapy in T2DM patients with hypercholesterolemia. METHODS: In a randomized, multicenter, open-label, prospective study, a total of 109 T2DM patients not attaining LDL-C target value despite first-line dose statin (10 mg of atorvastatin or 1 mg of pitavastatin) therapy in Japan were recruited...
June 24, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646792/bacterial-profile-in-human-atherosclerotic-plaques
#12
Annika Lindskog Jonsson, Frida Fåk Hållenius, Rozita Akrami, Elias Johansson, Per Wester, Conny Arnerlöv, Fredrik Bäckhed, Göran Bergström
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Several studies have confirmed the presence of bacterial DNA in atherosclerotic plaques, but its contribution to plaque stability and vulnerability is unclear. In this study, we investigated whether the bacterial plaque-profile differed between patients that were asymptomatic or symptomatic and whether there were local differences in the microbial composition within the plaque. METHODS: Plaques were removed by endarterectomy from asymptomatic and symptomatic patients and divided into three different regions known to show different histological vulnerability: A, upstream of the maximum stenosis; B, site for maximum stenosis; C, downstream of the maximum stenosis...
June 8, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646427/tanshinone-iia-attenuates-atherosclerosis-in-apolipoprotein-e-knockout-mice-infected-with-porphyromonas-gingivalis
#13
Yan Xuan, Yue Gao, Hao Huang, Xiaoxuan Wang, Yu Cai, Qing Xian Luan
Tanshinone IIA (TSA), a pharmacologically active component isolated from Danshen, may prevent cardiovascular diseases due to its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-adipogenic effects. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major periodontal pathogen, may contribute to the progression of atherosclerosis. Here, we studied the effects of TSA on atherosclerosis in ApoE(-/-) mice with P. gingivalis infection. Eight-week-old ApoE(-/-) mice were randomized to (a) phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), (b) P. gingivalis, and (c) P...
June 23, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645652/androgen-inhibits-key-atherosclerotic-processes-by-directly-activating-adtrp-transcription
#14
Chunyan Luo, Elisabeth Pook, Bo Tang, Weiyi Zhang, Sisi Li, Kirsten Leineweber, Shing-Hu Cheung, Qiuyun Chen, Martin Bechem, Jing-Shan Hu, Volker Laux, Qing Kenneth Wang
Low androgen levels are associated with an increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD), thrombosis and myocardial infarction (MI), suggesting that androgen has a protective role. However, little is known about the underlying molecular mechanism. Our genome-wide association study identified the ADTRP gene encoding the androgen-dependent TFPI regulating protein as a susceptibility gene for CAD and MI. The expression level of ADTRP was regulated by androgen, but the molecular mechanism is unknown. In this study, we identified the molecular mechanism by which androgen regulates ADTRP expression and tested the hypothesis that androgen plays a protective role in cardiovascular disease by activating ADTRP expression...
June 20, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644968/serum-lipoprotein-associated-phospholipase-a2-predicts-the-formation-of-carotid-artery-plaque-and-its-vulnerability-in-anterior-circulation-cerebral-infarction
#15
Yuping Yang, Tao Xue, Juehua Zhu, Jiayi Xu, Xiaowei Hu, Penghao Wang, Tao Kong, Yan Yan, Lihui Yang, Shouru Xue
OBJECTIVE: Circulation inflammation markers such as high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) are considered as predictors of cerebral and cardiac vascular diseases. However, the role of hsCRP and Lp-PLA2 in the anterior circulation cerebral infarction (ACI) is to be elaborated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We included 100 patients with acute anterior circulation cerebral infarction (AaCI group) and 50 non-infarction subjects (control group)...
June 12, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644210/frequency-domain-optical-coherence-tomography-plaque-morphology-in-stable-coronary-artery-disease-sex-differences
#16
Luca Mariani, Francesco Burzotta, Cristina Aurigemma, Andrea Romano, Giampaolo Niccoli, Antonio M Leone, Italo Porto, Carlo Trani, Filippo Crea
BACKGROUND: The cause for discrepancy in the clinical presentation and outcome of coronary artery disease (CAD) between men and women is not established. Different prevalences of risk factors or specific sex-related atherosclerotic aspects have been advocated as possible explanations. We investigated coronary plaque morphology looking at possible differences in plaque vulnerability between men and women with stable CAD. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively collected and analyzed clinical data and coronary plaque morphology by frequency-domain optical coherence tomography in men and women with stable CAD...
June 21, 2017: Coronary Artery Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644150/rapid-fluorescence-lifetime-estimation-with-modified-phasor-approach-and-laguerre-deconvolution-a-comparative-study
#17
Farzad Fereidouni, Dimitris Gorpas, Dinglong Ma, Hussain Fatakdawala, Laura Marcu
Fluorescence lifetime imaging has been shown to serve as a valuable tool for interrogating and diagnosis of biological tissue at mesoscopic level. The ability to analyze fluorescence decay curves to extract lifetime values in real-time is crucial for clinical translation and applications such as tumor margin delineation or intracoronary imaging of atherosclerotic plaques. In this work, we compare the performance of two popular non-parametric (fit-free) methods for determining lifetime values from fluorescence decays in real-time -Phasor approach and Laguerre deconvolution...
June 23, 2017: Methods and Applications in Fluorescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644091/prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-patients-with-familial-hypercholesterolaemia-the-role-of-pcsk9-inhibitors
#18
Ivan Pećin, Merel L Hartgers, G Kees Hovingh, Ricardo Dent, Željko Reiner
Familial hypercholesterolaemia is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder characterised by elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and consequently an increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Familial hypercholesterolaemia is relatively common, but is often underdiagnosed and undertreated. Cardiologists are likely to encounter many individuals with familial hypercholesterolaemia; however, patients presenting with premature ASCVD are rarely screened for familial hypercholesterolaemia and fasting lipid levels are infrequently documented...
January 1, 2017: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643478/critical-role-of-tnf-inhibition-in-combination-therapy-for-elderly-mice-with-atherosclerosis
#19
Kyung-Yeon Park, Tae-Hwe Heo
We have previously shown that the combination of pravastatin and sarpogrelate is synergistically beneficial for atherosclerosis. In this study, we investigated whether the pravastatin-sarpogrelate combination was sufficient for treatment in an old mouse model of atherosclerosis or if additional intervention would be needed to address the newly included aging factor and its complex pathophysiological impact on the atherosclerogenic state. We added an anti-TNF biologic to the combination treatment cocktail because of the known pathologic roles of TNF in the aging process...
June 23, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643240/pcsk9-inhibitors-treating-the-right-patients-in-daily-practice
#20
REVIEW
Peta King, Stephen J Nicholls
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Monoclonal antibodies that inhibit proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) have emerged as a novel approach to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering. The potential role of PCSK9 inhibitors in clinical practice will be reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical trials have demonstrated that PCSK9 inhibitors produce robust LDL-C lowering when administered either as monotherapy or in combination with statins. This provides the opportunity to achieve effective lipid lowering in familial hypercholesterolemia, patients with either established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease or high risk primary prevention and an important opportunity to treat patients with statin intolerance...
August 2017: Current Cardiology Reports
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