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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938693/the-regulation-of-immune-cells-by-lactobacilli-a-potential-therapeutic-target-for-anti-atherosclerosis-therapy
#1
REVIEW
Ya-Hui Ding, Lin-Yan Qian, Jie Pang, Jing-Yang Lin, Qiang Xu, Li-Hong Wang, Dong-Sheng Huang, Hai Zou
Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease regulated by several immune cells including lymphocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells. Gut probiotic bacteria like Lactobacilli have been shown immunomodificatory effects in the progression of atherogenesis. Some Lactobacillus stains can upregulate the activity of regulatory T-lymphocytes, suppress T-lymphocyte helper (Th) cells Th1, Th17, alter the Th1/Th2 ratio, influence the subsets ratio of M1/M2 macrophages, inhibit foam cell formation by suppressing macrophage phagocytosis of oxidized low-density lipoprotein, block the activation of the immune system with dendritic cells, which are expected to suppress the atherosclerosis-related inflammation...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937652/new-insights-into-the-role-of-inflammation-in-the-pathogenesis-of-atherosclerosis
#2
REVIEW
Meng-Yu Wu, Chia-Jung Li, Ming-Feng Hou, Pei-Yi Chu
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by the accumulation of lipids, smooth muscle cell proliferation, cell apoptosis, necrosis, fibrosis, and local inflammation. Immune and inflammatory responses have significant effects on every phase of atherosclerosis, and increasing evidence shows that immunity plays a more important role in atherosclerosis by tightly regulating its progression. Therefore, understanding the relationship between immune responses and the atherosclerotic microenvironment is extremely important...
September 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936395/antioxidative-activity-of-high-density-lipoprotein-hdl-mechanistic-insights-into-potential-clinical-benefit
#3
REVIEW
Fernando Brites, Maximiliano Martin, Isabelle Guillas, Anatol Kontush
Uptake of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles by macrophages represents a key step in the development of atherosclerotic plaques, leading to the foam cell formation. Chemical modification of LDL is however necessary to induce this process. Proatherogenic LDL modifications include aggregation, enzymatic digestion and oxidation. LDL oxidation by one-electron (free radicals) and two-electron oxidants dramatically increases LDL affinity to macrophage scavenger receptors, leading to rapid LDL uptake and fatty streak formation...
December 2017: BBA Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935983/model-based-vascular-elastography-improves-the-detection-of-flow-induced-carotid-artery-remodeling-in-mice
#4
Vyacheslav A Korshunov, Hexuan Wang, Rifat Ahmed, Deanne M Mickelsen, Qian Zhou, Chen Yan, Marvin M Doyley
Increased arterial thickness measured with ultrasound correlates with future cardiovascular events, but conventional ultrasound imaging techniques cannot distinguish between intima, media, or atherosclerotic plaque in the carotid artery. In this work, we evaluated how well vascular elastography can detect intimal changes in a mouse model of carotid remodeling. We ligated the left external and internal branches of the carotid artery of male FVB mice and performed sham operations for 2 weeks. High-resolution ultrasound imaging accurately detected lower blood velocities and low blood volume flow in the carotid arteries after ligation in FVB mice...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935967/mircrorna-19a-promotes-vascular-inflammation-and-foam-cell-formation-by-targeting-hbp-1-in-atherogenesis
#5
Heming Chen, Xiaoyi Li, Shuiyi Liu, Lu Gu, Xinmin Zhou
Atherosclerosis, a serious threat to human cardiovascular health, involves inflammation throughout its various stages of development. MicroRNAs play an important regulatory role in macrophages that respond to inflammation, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. In this work, we study the impact of miR-19a in macrophage-derived foam cell formation during atherogenesis. A microarray-based analysis of serums from patients with coronary heart disease in comparison with healthy controls reveals a significant enrichment of miR-19a in the serums of atherosclerosis patients...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935756/perinatal-hypercholesterolemia-exacerbates-atherosclerosis-lesions-in-offspring-by-altering-metabolism-of-trimethylamine-n-oxide-and-bile-acids
#6
Charlotte Trenteseaux, Anh-Thu Gaston, Audrey Aguesse, Guillaume Poupeau, Pierre de Coppet, Ramaroson Andriantsitohaina, Jamila Laschet, Valérie Amarger, Michel Krempf, Estelle Nobecourt-Dupuy, Khadija Ouguerram
OBJECTIVE: Experimental studies suggest that maternal hypercholesterolemia may be relevant for the early onset of cardiovascular disease in offspring. We investigated the effect of perinatal hypercholesterolemia on the atherosclerosis development in the offspring of apolipoprotein E-deficient mice and the underlying mechanism. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Atherosclerosis and related parameters were studied in adult male or female apolipoprotein E-deficient mice offspring from either normocholesterolemic or hypercholesterolemic mothers and normocholesterolemic fathers...
September 21, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933419/the-cardiovascular-effects-of-cocoa-polyphenols-an-overview
#7
REVIEW
Ana Clara Aprotosoaie, Anca Miron, Adriana Trifan, Vlad Simon Luca, Irina-Iuliana Costache
Cocoa is a rich source of high-quality antioxidant polyphenols. They comprise mainly catechins (29%-38% of total polyphenols), anthocyanins (4% of total polyphenols) and proanthocyanidins (58%-65% of total polyphenols). A growing body of experimental and epidemiological evidence highlights that the intake of cocoa polyphenols may reduce the risk of cardiovascular events. Beyond antioxidant properties, cocoa polyphenols exert blood pressure lowering activity, antiplatelet, anti-inflammatory, metabolic and anti-atherosclerotic effects, and also improve endothelial function...
December 17, 2016: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933120/-explore-anti-atherosclerotic-mechanism-of-component-compatibility-of-danshen-and-shanzha-based-on-network-pharmacology-and-cell-level
#8
Jian-Yong Zhang, Lan Wang, Ri-Xin Liang, Bin Yang
To explore the anti-atherosclerotic mechanism of active component compatibility of Danshen and Shanzha (SC121) based on network pharmacology and in vitro research validation with cell model. On one hand, according to the chemical structures and pharmacological activities of the compounds reported in Danshen and Shanzha, 5 compounds, i.e., salvianolic acid B, tanshinone ⅡA, tanshinol, epicatechin and procyanidin B2 were chosen and used for network pharmacology analysis. Then the TCMSP(http://lsp.nwsuaf.edu...
December 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932900/-68ga-pentixafor-pet-mri-for-the-detection-of-chemokine-receptor-4-expression-in-atherosclerotic-plaques
#9
Xiang Li, Daniel Heber, Tatjana Leike, Dietrich Beitzke, Xia Lu, Xiaoli Zhang, Yongxiang Wei, Markus Mitterhauser, Wolfgang Wadsak, Saskia Kropf, Hans J Wester, Christian Loewe, Marcus Hacker, Alexander R Haug
PURPOSE: The expression of chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) was found co-localized with macrophages on the atherosclerotic vessel wall and participated in the initial emigration of leukocytes. Gallium-68 [(68)Ga]Pentixafor has recently been introduced for the imaging of atherosclerosis by targeting CXCR4. We sought to evaluate human atherosclerotic lesions using [(68)Ga]Pentixafor PET/MRI. METHODS: Thirty-eight oncology patients underwent [(68)Ga]Pentixafor PET/MR imaging at baseline...
September 21, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931350/sex-differences-in-associations-of-cardio-ankle-vascular-index-with-left-ventricular-function-and-geometry
#10
Zi Ye, Patricia A Pellikka, Iftikhar J Kullo
The cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) is a measure of global arterial stiffness. We hypothesized that CAVI is associated with left ventricular (LV) function and geometry in individuals without structural heart disease. We measured CAVI in 600 participants (mean age 60.3±14.6 years, 54% men) without history of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease who were referred for transthoracic echocardiography. Linear regression analysis was used to assess the association of CAVI with LV function (peak mitral annular systolic s' and early diastolic velocity e') and structure (LV mass index (LVMI) and relative wall thickness (RWT))...
September 1, 2017: Vascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931265/diagnostic-and-interventional-optical-angioscopy-in-ex-vivo-carotid-arteries
#11
Luis E Savastano, Neeraj Chaudhary, Carlos Murga-Zamalloa, Michael Wang, Thomas Wang, B Gregory Thompson
BACKGROUND: Angioscopy - or endovascular endoscopy - is a catheter-based technique employing a flexible fiberoptic angioscope to directly visualize arterial lumen. Poor resolution and excessive stiffness of pre-existent angioscopes limited their use clinically. Recent advances resulted in novel fused optical fiber bundle angioscopes with improved flexibility and imaging resolution. Use of these devices in endovascular neurosurgery is still largely unexplored. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate image quality and feasibility of optical angioscopes for diagnostic and interventional neuro-angioscopy in carotid arteries of human cadavers...
February 1, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930598/enzymatically-modified-ldl-atherosclerosis-and-beyond-paving-the-way-to-acceptance
#12
Michael Torzewski
The eLDL (enzymatically modified LDL) hypothesis proposes that modification of LDL during atherogenesis occurs through the action of ubiquitous hydrolytic enzymes. eLDL is recognized by multiple macrophage receptors. Following cellular uptake, eLDL triggers atherosclerotic lesion initiation with reversion or progression depending on the balance between cholesterol insudation and depletion. The effects of eLDL on cellular constituents of the atherosclerotic lesion comprise both pro- and anti-inflammatory mechanisms...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930596/modified-low-density-lipoproteins-as-biomarkers-in-diabetes-and-metabolic-syndrome
#13
Andrea Rivas-Urbina, Sonia Benitez, Antonio Perez, Jose Luis Sanchez-Quesada
Cardiovascular disease of atherosclerotic origin is the main cause of death in diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. One of the mechanisms involved in such increased risk is the high incidence of lipoprotein modification in these pathologies. Increased glycosylation, oxidative stress or high non-esterified fatty acid levels in blood, among other factors, promote the modification and subsequent alteration of the properties of lipoproteins. Since the modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is the triggering factor in the development of atherosclerosis, considerable research has been focused on the quantification of modified LDLs in blood to be used as biomarkers of cardiovascular risk...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930591/lipoprotein-a-and-cardiovascular-disease-current-state-and-future-directions-for-an-enigmatic-lipoprotein
#14
Anum Saeed, Salim S Virani
Lipoprotein (a) (Lp (a)) is a complex polymorphic lipoprotein. Although structurally similar to low-density lipoprotein, Lp(a) has a glycoprotein, apolipoprotein(a) (apo(a)), attached to the apolipoprotein B-100 component. Several unique properties of Lp(a) can be attributed to the presence of apo(a). Several decades of research has improved our understanding of the structure, biochemistry, and pathophysiology of Lp(a) associated diseases. Genetic, epidemiological, and translational data indicate that elevated Lp(a) levels are likely in the causal pathway for atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases as well as calcification of the aortic valves...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930587/prenylcysteine-oxidase-1-a-pro-oxidant-enzyme-of-low-density-lipoproteins
#15
Luis V Herrera-Marcos, Jose M Lou-Bonafonte, Maria V Martinez-Gracia, Carmen Arnal, María A Navarro, Jesus Osada
Elevated levels of low density lipoproteins (LDLs) cause atherosclerotic disease, and proteomic analyses have found that these lipoproteins are endowed with prenylcysteine lyase. This systematic review summarizes current understanding of this enzyme, now known as prenylcysteine oxidase 1 (PCYOX1), which hydrolyzes the thioether bond of prenylcysteines in the final step in the degradation of prenylated proteins, releasing hydrogen peroxide, cysteine and the isoprenoid aldehyde. Despite the high variability of the PCYOX1 gene, no polymorphism has yet been associated with any disease...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930554/diet-microparticles-and-atherothrombosis
#16
Lina Badimon, Rosa Suades, Javier Crespo, Teresa Padro, Gemma Chiva-Blanch
Cardiovascular disease is the main cause of death worldwide, and is principally caused by atherosclerosis, with subsequent thrombus formation, eventually provoking an acute myocardial infarction or a stroke. The formation and progression of the atherosclerotic plaques responds to multiple factors including certain diets. Intensive research has elucidated the role of diet in cardiovascular disease and has led to public health policies focusing on educating the population on the role of nutrition in cardiovascular health...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930197/red-blood-cell-eicosapentaenoic-acid-inversely-relates-to-mri-assessed-carotid-plaque-lipid-core-burden-in-elders-at-high-cardiovascular-risk
#17
Núria Bargalló, Rosa Gilabert, Edwin-Saúl Romero-Mamani, Montserrat Cofán, Philip C Calder, Montserrat Fitó, Dolores Corella, Jordi Salas-Salvadó, Miguel Ruiz-Canela, Ramon Estruch, Emilio Ros, Aleix Sala-Vila
Supplemental marine omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) has an anti-atherosclerotic effect. Clinical research on EPA supplied by the regular diet and atherosclerosis is scarce. In the framework of the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) trial, we conducted a cross-sectional study in 161 older individuals at high vascular risk grouped into different stages of carotid atherosclerosis severity, including those without ultrasound-detected atheroma plaque (n = 38), with plaques <2.0 mm thick (n = 65), and with plaques ≥2...
September 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930079/epicardial-adipose-tissue-volume-and-cardiovascular-risk-indices-among-asymptomatic-women-with-and-without-hiv
#18
Suman Srinivasa, Michael T Lu, Kathleen V Fitch, Travis R Hallett, Timothy K O'Malley, Lauren A Stone, Amanda Martin, Alexandra J Coromilas, Tricia H Burdo, Virginia A Triant, Janet Lo, Sara E Looby, Tomas G Neilan, Markella V Zanni
BACKGROUND: Mechanisms underlying the heightened myocardial infarction risk among HIV-infected women (versus non-HIV-infected women) remain unclear. Our objectives were to assess epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) volume and its associations among asymptomatic women with and without HIV. METHODS: Fifty-five HIV-infected and 27 non-HIV-infected women without known cardiovascular disease who underwent cardiac CT and metabolic/immune phenotyping were included. EAT volume derived from CT was compared among women with and without HIV, and within-group EAT associations were assessed...
September 20, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929697/-effects-of-berberine-on-serum-inflammatory-factors-and-carotid-atherosclerotic-plaques-in-patients-with-acute-cerebral-ischemic-stroke
#19
Ying Li, Pei Wang, Mei-Jing Chai, Fan Yang, Hong-Shan Li, Jing Zhao, Huan Wang, Dan-Dan Lu
This study aims to analyze the effect of berberine on serum inflammatory factors and carotid atherosclerotic plaques in ppatients with acute cerebral ischemic stroke(AIS). In the study, 120 patients with AIS were randomly divided into berberine group(n=60) and general group (n=60). The 60 cases in the general group were provided with general therapy according to the latest guidelines of diagnosis and treatment of AIS. The berberine group received berberine 300 mg(tid) in addition to the therapy of the general group...
November 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929376/divergent-coronary-flow-responses-to-uridine-adenosine-tetraphosphate-in-atherosclerotic-apoe-knockout-mice
#20
Bunyen Teng, Hicham Labazi, Changyan Sun, Yan Yang, Xiaorong Zeng, S Jamal Mustafa, Zhichao Zhou
Uridine adenosine tetraphosphate (Up4A) exerts potent relaxation in porcine coronary arteries that is reduced following myocardial infarction, suggesting a crucial role for Up4A in the regulation of coronary flow (CF) in cardiovascular disorders. We evaluated the vasoactive effects of Up4A on CF in atherosclerosis using ApoE knockout (KO) mice ex vivo and in vivo. Functional studies were conducted in isolated mouse hearts using the Langendorff technique. Immunofluorescence was performed to assess purinergic P2X1 receptor (P2X1R) expression in isolated mouse coronary arteries...
September 20, 2017: Purinergic Signalling
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